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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Paving Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This test method describes the procedure for determining the theoretical maximum specific gravity (also known as Rice specific gravity) and density of uncompacted hot mix asphalt (HMA) at 77?F using the weighing in air method. A supplemental dry back procedure is provided for reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and for HMA where combined virgin aggregate water absorption is 2.0 % or more determined by California Test 206 and 207. The theoretical maximum specific gravities and densities of HMA are intrinsic properties whose values are influenced by the composition of the mixtures in terms of types and amounts of aggregates and asphalt binder materials. They are: 1. Used to calculate values for percent air voids in compacted HMA. 2. Used to establish target values for the compaction of HMA. 3. Essential when calculating the amount of binder absorbed by the internal porosity of the individual aggregate particles in HMA. B. REFERENCES

C. Apparatus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Evaluation of the filler effects on fatique cracking and permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The addition of hydrated lime to asphalt has shown to be beneficial with an improvement in the Theological properties of the binder, as well as resistance to permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue cracking of asphalt concrete mixtures. The addition of hydrated lime produces a filler effect where the result is a stiffening of the asphalt mixture, thus improving the resistance to permanent deformation. The fatigue characteristics of the asphalt mixtures did not worsen from this stiffening effect, but were either improved or similar. The Superpave Performance Grade was not significantly indicative of the filler effects induced by the hydrated lime. However, evaluation of the physical properties, G*/sin5 and G*sin5 were indicative of significant filler effects induced by the hydrated lime. Creep properties, stiffness and m-value showed no substantial change with the addition of lime. The use of 10 to 20% mass concentration of hydrated lime can effectively improve the rutting resistance of the unaged and aged binder with little practical effect on the low temperature and fatigue properties. The filler effects produced through the addition of hydrated lime to the asphalt yielded asphalt mixtures less susceptible to rutting. In most cases, the fatigue life of the asphalt mixtures improved as well. The reference modulus and creep compliance of the asphalt mixtures with lime had shown to have greater fatigue life. In most cases, Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) mixtures with lime showed greater resistance to rutting, as well as greater fatigue life. The filler effects from the hydrated lime, as well as the stone-on-stone contact and stiffening from the mastic (two characteristics of SMA mixtures) improved these properties. The addition of hydrated lime to asphalt improved the G*/sin5 and G*sin8 of the asphalt binders. The use of these asphalt binders in asphalt concrete mixtures increased the resistance to rutting and fatigue life. It is apparent that a correlation exists between the asphalt binder and mixture test results.

Izzo, Richard P

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined as the progressive loss of structural integrity of the mixture that is primarily caused by the presence of moisture in liquid or vapor state. Moisture damage is associated with the development of different physical, mechanical, and chemical processes occurring within the microstructure of the mixture at different intensities and rates. Although there have been important advancements in identifying and characterizing this phenomenon, there is still a lack of understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring at the microscopic level. This situation has motivated the research work reported in this dissertation. The main objective of this dissertation is to formulate and apply a numerical micromechanical model of moisture-induced damage in asphalt mixtures. The model focuses on coupling the effects of moisture diffusion—one of the three main modes of moisture transport within asphalt mixtures—with the mechanical performance of the microstructure. Specifically, the model aims to account for the effect of moisture diffusion on the degradation of the viscoelastic bulk matrix of the mixture (i.e., cohesive degradation) and on the gradual deterioration of the adhesive bonds between the aggregates and the asphalt matrix (i.e., adhesive degradation). The micromechanical model was applied to study the role of some physical and mechanical properties of the constitutive phases of the mixtures on the susceptibility of the mixture to moisture damage. The results from this analysis suggest that the diffusion coefficients of the asphalt matrix and aggregates, as well as the bond strength of the aggregate-matrix interface, have the most influence on the moisture susceptibility of the mixtures. The micromechanical model was further used to investigate the influence of the void phase of asphalt mixtures on the generation of moisture-related deterioration processes. Two different probabilistic-based approaches were used to accomplish this objective. In the first approach, a volumetric distribution of air voids sizes measured using X-Ray Computed Tomography in a dense-graded asphalt mixture was used to generate probable void structures in a microstructure of an asphalt mixture. In the second approach, a stochastic modeling technique based on random field theory was used to generate probable air voids distributions of the mixture. In this second approach, the influence of the air voids was accounted for by making the physical and mechanical properties of the asphalt matrix dependent on probable voids distributions. Although both approaches take into consideration the characteristics of the air void phase on the mechanical response of the mixtures subjected to moist environments, the former explicitly introduces the air phase within the microstructure while the latter indirectly includes its effects by modifying the material properties of the bulk matrix. The results from these simulations demonstrated that the amount, variability and location of air voids are decisive in determining the moisture-dependent performance of asphalt mixtures. The results from this dissertation provide new information on the kinetics of moisture damage mechanisms in asphalt mixtures. In particular, the results obtained from applying the micromechanical model permitted identification of the relative influence of the characteristics of the constitutive phases of a mixture on its moisture-related mechanical performance. This information can be used as part of design methodologies of asphalt mixtures, and/or as an input in life-cycle analysis models and maintenance programs of road infrastructure.

Caro Spinel, Silvia

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Consultant’s Handbook Office of the University Architect Engineering Utilities and Construction 32 1216 – Asphalt Paving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asphalt pavements on the main campus are to be surfaced with hot-mix asphalt concrete. Reference: The principle reference for materials and methods is the "Indiana Department of Transportation Standard Specifications, " latest edition (INDOT). Installation Methods: All installation and sub-grade preparation methods shall conform to the appropriate section of the INDOT Spec. Unsuitable sub-grade material shall be removed and replaced with compacted suitable material or covered with appropriate construction grade fabric prior to subbase installation. Tack coat will be used only when overlayment of existing asphalt concrete must be postponed longer than five months. Light Duty Pavement: Description: One and a quarter inch (1.25") of compacted top on top of two inches (2") of compacted binder on top of four inches (4") of compacted type #53 granular sub-base. Uses: Pedestrian walks with minimal vehicular traffic expected and no emergency vehicles planned. Medium Duty Pavement: Description: One and half inches (1.5") of compacted top surface on top of three inches (3") of compacted binder on top of eight inch (8") of compacted Type #53 granular sub-base. Uses: Pedestrian walks with moderate vehicular use expected or for use as planned emergency access. Parking areas with no mass transit vehicles using driving lanes. Service drives Roads without constant, heavy vehicular traffic.

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement performance has not been considered adequately in pavement design. Part of the reason is that the process of asphalt oxidation in pavement is not well understood. This work focused on understanding the asphalt oxidation kinetics and on developing pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation and hardening in pavement under environmental conditions. A number of asphalts were studied in laboratory condition. Based on kinetics data, a fast-rate ? constant-rate asphalt oxidation kinetics model was developed to describe the early nonlinear fast-rate aging period and the later constant-rate period of asphalt oxidation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics parameters for the fast-rate and constant-rate reactions were empirically correlated, leading to a simplified model. And the experimental effort and time to obtain these kinetics parameters were significantly reduced. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanism of asphalt oxidation, two antioxidants were studied on their effectiveness. Asphalt oxidation was not significantly affected. It was found that evaluation of antioxidant effectiveness based on viscosity only is not reliable. The asphalt oxidation kinetics model was incorporated into the pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation in pavement. The pavement oxidation model mimics the oxidation process of asphalt in real mixture at pavement temperatures. A new parameter, diffusion depth, defined the oxygen diffusion region in the mastic. A field calibration factor accounted for the factors not considered in the model such as the effect of small aggregate particles on oxygen diffusion. Carbonyl area and viscosity of binders recovered from field cores of three pavements in Texas were measured and were used for model calibration and validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed model estimates carbonyl growth over time in pavement, layer-by-layer, quite well. Finally, this work can be useful for incorporating asphalt oxidation into a pavement design method that can predict pavement performance with time and for making strategic decisions such as optimal time for maintenance treatments.

Jin, Xin

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The use of sulfer modified bottom ash (SMBA) as an aggregate in asphaltic mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Of the 20 million tons of bottom ash and boiler slag generated annually in the United States less than 40 percent is used. The eastern half of Texas is served by 18 coal burning electric power generating plants which produce approximately 3.8 million tons of bottom ash each year. This is also the section of the state in which the sources of quality aggregates are either few. dwindling or nonexistent. While a small fraction of the bottom ash is utilized, the rest is delegated to landfills or on-site disposal areas. Increasing attention is being given to development of new, high-volume uses for this safe and readily available by-product. One such use is as an aggregate in road construction. The use of bottom ash as an aggregate for both roadway surfaces and base courses has been limited due to its absorbency and friability. The former tends to increase asphalt binder demand while the latter adversely affects its ability to withstand the crushing effects of traffic loads. On the other hand, bottom ash is lighter in weight and generally much cheaper than conventional quality aggregates such as limestone, sand and gavel. This research was designed to up-firade the load-bearing characteristics of bottom ash and maximize its use 'in asphaltic concrete roadway mixtures through the use of sulfur. The process essentially coats the ash with liquid sulfur which upon cooling fills the voids on the surface of the particles while increasing their crush resistance. The results of this investigation indicate that asphaltic concrete mix designs in which bottom ash represents from 5 0 to I 00 percent of the aggregate fraction can be achieved.

Chimakurthy, Harshavardhan

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Relationship Between Surface Free Energy and Total Work of Fracture of Asphalt Binder and Asphalt Binder-Aggregate Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of asphalt mixtures depends on the properties of its constituent materials, mixture volumetrics, and external factors such as load and environment. An important material property that influences the performance of an asphalt mixture is the surface free energy of the asphalt binder and the aggregate. Surface free energy, which is a thermodynamic material property, is directly related to the adhesive bond energy between the asphalt binder and the aggregate as well as the cohesive bond energy of the asphalt binder. This thermodynamic material property has been successfully used to select asphalt binders and aggregates that have the necessary compatibility to form strong bonds and resist fracture. Surface free energy, being based on thermodynamics, assumes the asphalt binder is a brittle elastic material. In reality, the asphalt binder is not brittle and dissipates energy during loading and unloading. The total work of fracture is the culmination of all energy inputted into the sample to create two new surfaces of unit area and is dependent on the test geometry and testing conditions (e.g., temperature, loading rate, specimen size, etc.). The magnitude of the bond energy (either adhesive or cohesive) can be much smaller in magnitude when compared to the total work of fracture measured using mechanical tests (i.e., peel test, pull-off test, etc.). Despite the large difference in magnitude, there exists evidence in the literature supporting the use of the bond energy to characterize the resistance of composite systems to cohesive and/or adhesive failures. If the bond energy is to be recognized as a useful screening tool by the paving industry, the relationship between the bond energy and total work of fracture needs to be understood and verified. The effect of different types of modifications (addition of polymers, addition of anti-strip agents, and aging) on the surface free energy components of various asphalt binders was explored in order to understand how changes in the surface free energy components are related to the performance of the asphalt mixtures. After the asphalt binder-aggregate combination was explored, the next step was to study how the surface free energy of water was affected by contact with the asphalt binder-aggregate interface. Aggregates, which have a pH of greater than seven, will cause the pH of water that contacts them to increase. A change in the pH of the contacting water could indicate a change in its overall surface free energy, which might subsequently increase or decrease the water's moisture damage potential. With surface free energy fully explored, the total work of fracture was measured using pull-off tests for asphalt binder-aggregate combinations with known surface free energy components. In order to fully explore the relationship between bond energy and total work of fracture, temperature, loading rate, specimen geometry, and moisture content were varied in the experiments. The results of this work found that modifications made to the asphalt binder can have significant positive or negative effects on its surface free energy components and bond energy. Moreover, the results from the pull-off tests demonstrated that a relationship exists between bond energy (from surface free energy) and total work of fracture (from pull-off tests), and that surface free energy can be used to estimate the performance of asphalt binder-aggregate combinations.

Howson, Jonathan Embrey

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

SciTech Connect

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Pauul J. Tikalsky

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Study for Technology of Asphalt Pavement Aggregate Washed by Cycle Limewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technology of asphalt pavement aggregate washed by cycle limewater was put forward for the first time in this paper. Before and after the aggregate was washed by cycle limewater, aggregate mud content, aggregate asphalt adhesion and asphalt mixture water ... Keywords: energy conservation, emissions reduction, cycle limewater, wash, asphalt pavement aggregate

Jiang Tao; Sun Bin

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Research on the microstructure and property of an anion rubber modified asphalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The anion rubber modified asphalt (ARMA) mixture was first successfully developed with a unique process. In the development process, rubber and asphalt were mixed in the same proportion. Furthermore, the microstructure and modification mechanism of the ...

Wei Hong, Qingshan Li, Guoquan Guan, Youbo Di, Jing Sun, Tifeng Jiao, Guangzhong Xing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Opening criteria for accelerated paving techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast track paving or accelerated pavement design is the rapid replacement of portland cement concrete pavement, allowing for the reopening to traffic under specific time requirements. The purpose of this research is to develop opening criteria for accelerated paving and implementing these criteria into a set of guidelines for fast track paving. This report is broken into three specific sections; review of practice, an analysis of field and lab research, and finally design guidelines for the opening criteria for accelerated paving techniques. A review of practice was developed to update the reader on the current "state of the art". This review outlines contruction techniques, fast track mix design, pavement design, and joint design. The analysis of field and lab research provides a synopsis of the experimentation used to develop design guidelines for opening criteria. This section includes crack surveys, coring tests, FWD testing, maturity testing, penetration testing and consistency testing. The design guidelines for early opening criteria provides guidelines for use in intersection design. The guideline outlines requirements for design, design of concrete pavement materials, mixture design, construction considerations, and requirements for opening criteria. This document will update the reader on the subject of fast track paving and the methods used to research it. Finally, with a design guidelines the reader will be able to apply the methods of analysis described in the field and lab testing section to create better pavements more efficiently.

Johnson, Jason Leonard

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

What's the future for rubberized asphalt  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the debate over the use of rubberized asphalt for highway surfacing. The Department of Transportation claims that the process is too costly; that it presents potential air pollution, safety and health problems. They also claim that there is a lack of understanding between rubber and asphalt cement and of the recyclability of the product. The Legislative Commission on Solid Waste Management claims that the mixture performs as well or better than conventional asphalt at reduced thicknesses. In addition, there could be savings of local funds currently expended for regulation of tire dumps, fire-fighting and clean-up, vector control and scrap tire disposal costs ranging from $.50 to $2.00 per tire.

Not Available

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Hydraulic properties of asphalt concrete.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research has applied standard unsaturated flow models and laboratory methods common to soil analysis, to characterize the hydraulic properties of asphalt concrete. Wetting and… (more)

Pease, Ronald Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Paving materials for heat island mitigation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving materials for heat island mitigation Paving materials for heat island mitigation Title Paving materials for heat island mitigation Publication Type Report Year of Publication 1997 Authors Pomerantz, Melvin, Hashem Akbari, Allan Chen, Haider Taha, and Arthur H. Rosenfeld Keywords Cool Pavements, Heat Island Abstract This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

18

DOE Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative Clean Coal Plant in Florida DOE Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative Clean Coal Plant in...

19

mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hal-00843938, version 1- 22 Jul 2013 Gas clathrate hydrate dissociation pressures are reported for mixtures of carbon dioxide, water and thermodynamic promoters forming structure II hydrates. Hydrate (H)-aqueous liquid (Lw)-vapour (V) equilibrium pressures for the ternary system composed of water, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and carbon dioxide (CO2), with 5.0 mole percent THF in the initial aqueous phase, are presented in the temperature range from 283.3 K to 285.2 K. At 283.3 K, the three-phase equilibrium pressure is determined to be 0.61 MPa (absolute pressure). Four-phase hydrate (H)-aqueous liquid (Lw)-organic liquid (La)-vapour (V) equilibrium data are presented for the ternary system of water-cyclopentane-carbon dioxide at temperatures ranging from 285.2 K down to 275.5 K. New four-phase H-Lw-La-V equilibrium data for the quaternary system water-THFcyclopentane-carbon dioxide are presented in the temperature range from 275.1 K to 286.6 K. It is shown that upon adding THF to the pure aqueous phase to form a 4 mass percent solution, the equilibrium pressure of the formed hydrates may be lowered compared to the ternary system of

Peter Jørgensen Herslund; Kaj Thomsen; Jens Abildskov; Nicolas Von; Aurélie Galfré; Pedro Brântuas; Matthias Kwaterski; Michel Herri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Concrete & Asphalt Recycling into Reusable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNLNM Pollution Prevention Concrete & Asphalt Recycling into Reusable Products (SNLNM Pollution Prevention Program) March 18, 2010 Doug Vetter, PE, LEED-AP Sandia is a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A comparison of the fracture properties of conventional and polymer-modified two-layer asphalt concrete overlay systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of reflection cracking through the conventional asphalt concrete overlays has increased the need to find new materials which could resist cracking or fracture more effectively. It is for this reason that polymers (Styrelo are added to the neat asphalt to improve the fracture resisting properties of asphalt concrete. In this study three different asphalt concrete mixtures with and without polymer (Styrelf) were used to study their fracture toughness. With four different binders and different combinations of mixtures, 18 different overlay systems were tested for their fracture toughness. Each overlay was made up of two different layers with asphalt rich sand anti-fracture (SAF) mixture as the bottom layer. Fracture mechanics concepts were used to compare the fracture properties of polymer (Styrelo modified asphalt concrete with the corresponding conventional neat asphalt concrete. Rate of crack growth is correlated with the energy line J*-integral. Crack growth rates were determined from laboratory experiments conducted on TTI overlay tester. Analysis of the experimental results showed that crack growth rate and J*-integral are correlated. In this study it was observed that the relation between the fracture material constants log(A) and (n) is not linear. A new fracture material constant (S) relating to crack speed was developed. The relationship between log(A) and (n) was found to be linear when combined with constant (S). Results showed that this new material constant (S) could lead to a better characterization of fracture toughness. Crack speed when calculated using (S) has shown better correlation with the observed experimental fatigue life. It is speculated that this new material constant (S) could be related to healing of the asphalt concrete or the plasticity effects due to unloading of the sample in overlay test.

Reddy, Praveena Gutha

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Phosphogypsum slag aggregate-based asphaltic concrete mixes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphogypsum is a by-product from the production of phosphoric acid used in the fertilizer and chemical industries. Large production rates and problems associated with its stockpiling have led researchers to seek alternative uses for phosphogypsum, primarily as a construction material. One such use is the extraction of sulfur dioxide for the production of sulfuric acid, a process that also generates a by-product slag aggregate. This study investigated the feasibility of using this slag aggregate in asphaltic concrete binder course mixes. The physical properties of the slag aggregate, such as gradation, specific gravity, absorption, unit weight, and void content, were determined, as well as its durability and environmental characteristics. The Marshall mix design method was used to obtain the optimum asphalt content for this aggregate, while moisture susceptibility was examined using the boiling and modified Lottman tests. Indirect tensile, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests were performed on the mix to evaluate its performance potential. The results of the study indicate that phosphogypsum-based slag aggregate can be successfully employed in asphaltic concrete binder course mixtures.

Foxworthy, P.T. [Terracon Consultants, Inc., Lenexa, KS (United States); Nadimpalli, R.S.; Seals, R.K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Variability of hot mix asphalt produced with reclaimed asphalt pavement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavement recycling operations have been used in the United States from the early 1900s to date. These recycling operations have been used for a variety of reasons including solid waste disposal problems, reduction of initial cost, and conservation of natural resources (aggregate, binder and energy). Adequate techniques to assess the variability of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) are lacking. The objectives of this research are to determine the variabilities of RAP and Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), determine the influence of the RAP variability on the HMA variability, and compare the variability of virgin aggregates at the quarries and the aggregates that have been handled and transported to asphalt plant stockpiles. This thesis describes the compositional data analysis including the ternary diagrams for mixes and aggregates, a multivariate beta model, variability analysis using a multivariate variance assumption, and ternary quality control charts. It also describes the hypothesis tests using a k-variate student t distribution and an F-test. The following conclusions are obtained: i) RAP is better used in producing a mix with a relatively small top size 3/8" (Type S-III mix) or 1/2'' (Type S-I mix), and not with a sieve size larger than 1" (Type S-II mix); ii) RAP percent does not significantly influence the mix variability; it is desirable to use a large percentage of RAP in the Type S-I mix, i.e., more than 40% RAP; iii) On the average, the aggregate variability increases after transportation and stockpiling process; iv) On the average, the aggregate in the quarry has less variability than the same aggregate in the asphalt plant stockpile, therefore, aggregates in quarries are better controlled than aggregates in stockpiles; v) Variabilities of aggregates in quarries are slightly larger than the variability of RAP which is slightly larger than variabilities of Type S-II and S-III mixes. Type S-II and S-III mixes have the same variability and are slightly larger than the variability of the Type S-I mix; vi) The ternary diagram and the hypothesis test can be used to judge whether a contractor did a good job; vii) Ternary quality control chart shows the dynamic trend of a mix or an aggregate during the production period.

Yang, Guiqin

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Microwave methods and apparatus for paving and paving maintenance. Final report on Phase I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An MPH strip-patcher-recycler eliminates most of the conventional patching equipment, operators and the hot-mix plant, and should reduce costs dramatically. In practice the MPH machine simply drives along over the damaged strip heating it in-place with microwave; roto-mixing it while injecting hot engine exhaust and make up asphalt or conditioners; screening and tamping. A follow up roller completes the job. Traffic control is simpler and work can be performed in cold or damp weather, and more easily at night - if necessary. The design and operation of the MPH machine are described.

Jeppson, M.R.

1983-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

26

Characterization of asphalt additive produced from hydroretorted Alabama shale  

SciTech Connect

Shale oil, produced from beneficiated Alabama shale by pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting, was fractionated to produce shale oil asphalt additives (SOA). Three shale oil fractions boiling above 305{degrees}C were added to standard AC-20 asphalt to improve pavement properties. The physical properties and aging characteristics of AC-20 asphalt binder (cement) containing SOA are similar to those of unmodified AC-20 asphalt binder. Asphalt pavement briquettes made with AC-20 asphalt binder containing 5 to 10 percent SOA have superior resistance to freeze-thaw cracking and a greater retention of tensile strength when wet compared to pavement briquettes containing AC-20 binder alone.

Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

Annual Idaho Asphalt Conference October 27 28, 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

50th Annual Idaho Asphalt Conference October 27 ­ 28, 2010 Moscow, ID Taj Anderson Poe Asphalt@cityofnampa.us Fouad Bayomy University of Idaho Moscow, ID Shane Beck Asphalt Zipper Inc. 831 East 340 South Suite 100 American Fork, UT 84003 Phone: 8018473200 laurat@asphaltzipper.com Lee Bernardi Idaho

Kyte, Michael

28

Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Agency/Company /Organization Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning Website http://www.ecn.nl/en/ Program Start 2009 Program End 2010 Country Indonesia, Ghana South-Eastern Asia, Western Africa References ECN Policy Studies[1] Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies[2] Overview The projects has three main goals: to provide input for a general methodology for developing Low Carbon Development Strategies to contribute to knowledge, mutual understanding and experience on the concept of Low Carbon Development Strategies with the aim to inform the

29

A. SCOPE METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINING THEORETICAL MAXIMUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY OF HOT MIX ASPHALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This test method provides procedures for determining the theoretical maximum specific gravity (also known as Rice specific gravity) and density of uncompacted hot mix asphalt (HMA) at 77?F using the weighing in air method. A supplemental dry back procedure is provided for reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and for HMA where combined virgin aggregate water absorption is 2.0 % or more determined by California Test 206 and California Test 207. The theoretical maximum specific gravities and densities of HMA are intrinsic properties whose values are influenced by the composition of the mixtures in terms of types and amounts of aggregates and asphalt binder materials. They are: 1. Used to calculate values for percent air voids in compacted HMA. 2. Used to establish target values for the compaction of HMA. 3. Essential when calculating the amount of binder absorbed by the internal porosity of the individual aggregate particles in HMA. B. REFERENCES

C. Apparatus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Idaho Asphalt Conference Attendance List Andy Abrams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

51st Idaho Asphalt Conference ­ Attendance List Andy Abrams STRATA, Inc. 1428 S. Main St. Moscow, Idaho 83843 208-882-1006 ajabrams@stratageotech.com John Arambarri Idaho Transportation Department - District 3 999 West Main St Boise, Idaho 83702 Paul Archibald Idaho Transportation Department PO Box 4700

Kyte, Michael

31

Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the solar reflectance of asphalt roofing shingles that are covered with pigmented mineral roofing granules. The reflecting surface is rough, with a total area approximately twice the nominal area. We introduce a simple analytical model that relates the 'micro-reflectance' of a small surface region to the 'macro-reflectance' of the shingle. This model uses a mean field approximation to account for multiple scattering effects. The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are known. Simple linear averaging works well, with small corrections to linear averaging derived for highly reflective materials. Reflective base granules and reflective surface coatings aid achievement of high solar reflectance. Other factors that influence the solar reflectance are the size distribution of the granules, coverage of the asphalt substrate, and orientation of the granules as affected by rollers during fabrication.

Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Jacobs, Jeffry; Klink, Frank

2008-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

32

New Technology Paves Way for Highly Sensitive Photodetectors with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Technology Paves Way for Highly Sensitive Photodetectors with New Technology Paves Way for Highly Sensitive Photodetectors with Applications in High Energy Physics, Medicine, and National Security High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » October 2012 New Technology Paves Way for Highly Sensitive Photodetectors with Applications in High Energy Physics, Medicine, and National Security Argonne National Lab wins prestigious 2012 R&D 100 award for development of Large Area Microchannel Plate Detectors

33

Microwave methods for paving. Final report, Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to attempt to identify important highway pavement maintenance and rehabilitation needs and to propose microwave methods and equipment that could be profitably used for this work. As a starting point it is already perceived and accepted that the major emphasis in the US paving indu

Jeppson, M.E.

1984-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

34

Development of a Prediction Model for Skid Resistance of Asphalt Pavements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The skid resistance of asphalt pavement is a major characteristic that determines the driving safety on a road, especially under wet surface conditions. Skid resistance is primarily a function of the microtexture and macrotexture of a pavement surface. Microtexture is influenced by aggregate surface characteristics and is required to disrupt the continuity of surface water film and attain frictional resistance between the tire and the pavement surface. Macrotexture is affected mostly by mixture design or aggregate gradation and contributes to skid resistance by providing drainage paths of water that can be otherwise trapped between a tire and a pavement surface. The increase in macrotexture contributes to preventing hydroplaning and improving wet frictional resistance, particularly at high speeds. While much research has been conducted in the past to identify material factors that affect skid resistance, there is still a need to develop a model for predicting asphalt pavement skid resistance as a function of mixture characteristics and traffic level. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model based on extensive laboratory experiments and field measurements involving different mixture types and aggregate sources. The model incorporates functions that describe the resistance of aggregates to polishing and aggregate size distribution. The aggregate resistance to polishing was quantified by measuring aggregate texture using the Aggregate Imaging System (AIMS) before and after polishing in the Micro-Deval device. The analysis in this dissertation demonstrates how this model can be used to design mixtures and classify aggregates that provide desirable skid resistance levels.

Rezaei, Arash

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development  

SciTech Connect

An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.

Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

An investigation of the use of tire rubber in asphalt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of asphalt-rubber has been mandated without the needed experience, design procedures, and construction guidelines. The purpose of this study is to determine optimal blend parameters that will enable maximum performance of the asphalt-rubber binder. The selected variables chosen are curing time, curing temperature, rubber content (weight percent), rubber particle size, base asphalt type, and carbonyl area. Results confirmed that the addition of rubber increased the viscosity of the asphalt binder at high temperatures, lowered the creep stiffness of the binder at low temperatures, and improved the overall temperature susceptibility. Increasing the rubber content in the asphalt was shown to further improve pavement performance. In addition, the use of smaller particles of rubber was found to decrease the creep stiffness at low temperatures (60QC). It was also determined that the type of asphalt and the type of rubber play important roles of meeting the criteria of an improved asphaltrubber binder. For example, the Murphy asphalt reblended with Sun recycling agent (AC-5) showed the least improvement to the addition of rubber compared with the Fina AC-10, Exxon AC-10, and Exxon AC-5. With respect to rubber type, the Rouse rubber was determined to improve Theological properties of the asphalt-rubber binder more than the Tire-Gator rubber. The curing process was also shown to increase the breakdown of the rubber into the asphalt. This phenomenon can be attributed to the devulcanization of the rubber in the mixer apparatus where extreme shear rates and temperatures were used.

Koo, Heamo Lee

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Polymerized crumb rubber modified mixtures in Minnesota. Final report, 1991-1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research program were to: (1) Define asphalt-rubber interactions; (2) Conduct a preliminary assessment of both laboratory tests and the resulting mixture properties of crumb rubber modified bituminous (CRM) mixtures; (3) Evaluate both the fundamental properties and field performance of CRM mixtures.

Newcomb, D.E.; Stroup-Gardiner, M.; Kim, J.R.; Allen, B.; Wattenhoffer-Spry, J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving the Way to Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print Wednesday, 30 March 2011 00:00 As the nanoelectronics industry pushes towards feature sizes of 22 nm and smaller, conventional single-exposure refractive lithography systems used to print circuit patterns onto computer chips will no longer be feasible. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, utilizing reflective optics and 13-nm-wavelength light to print chips, is the leading candidate to meet the industry's future needs. Despite strong progress in EUV lithography over the past decade, significant challenges remain, including defect-free mask fabrication (see Science Highlight Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects), and the development of ultrahigh-resolution photoresist-a light-sensitive material used to form a patterned coating-that simultaneously supports low line-edge roughness (LER), high sensitivity, and sub-22-nm resolution. Using the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) at ALS Beamline 12.0.1.3, advanced EUV photoresist research can be performed while high-power stand-alone light sources are still being developed. High-quality 16-nm lines and spaces have been printed using the MET, representing the highest resolution ever achieved from a single-exposure projection optical lithography tool.

39

Event:ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving...

40

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Raleigh, North Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Raleigh, North Carolina's Paves the Way for Plug-In Vehicle Success on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HP-GPC characterization of asphalt and modified asphalts from gulf countries and their relation to performance based properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries include Ras Tanura and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Al-Ahmadi (Kuwait), and BAPCO (Bahrain). Riyadh and Ras Tanura refineries are located in the central and eastern Saudi Arabia respectively. Arabian light crude oil is used to produce 2000 to 3000 tons of asphalt per day using vacuum distillation, air blowing and grade blending techniques to produce 60/70 penetration grade asphalts in each of these two Saudi refineries. All of the asphalt cement used in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and parts of the United Arab Emirates is supplied by Riyadh and Ras Tanura refineries. Al-Ahmadi refinery supplies all of the asphalt cement needed for construction in the state of Kuwait. Ratwi-Burgan crude off mix is used to produce 750 to 1000 tons of asphalt per day using vacuum distillation and air blowing processes. This study was initiated to evaluate different locally available polymers in order to identify potential polymers to modify asphalts to satisfy the performance requirements in the Gulf countries environmental conditions.

Wahhab, H.I.A.; Ali, M.F.; Asi, I.M.; Dubabe, I.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print As the nanoelectronics industry pushes towards feature sizes of 22 nm and smaller, conventional single-exposure refractive lithography systems used to print circuit patterns onto computer chips will no longer be feasible. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, utilizing reflective optics and 13-nm-wavelength light to print chips, is the leading candidate to meet the industry's future needs. Despite strong progress in EUV lithography over the past decade, significant challenges remain, including defect-free mask fabrication (see Science Highlight Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects), and the development of ultrahigh-resolution photoresist-a light-sensitive material used to form a patterned coating-that simultaneously supports low line-edge roughness (LER), high sensitivity, and sub-22-nm resolution. Using the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) at ALS Beamline 12.0.1.3, advanced EUV photoresist research can be performed while high-power stand-alone light sources are still being developed. High-quality 16-nm lines and spaces have been printed using the MET, representing the highest resolution ever achieved from a single-exposure projection optical lithography tool.

43

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print As the nanoelectronics industry pushes towards feature sizes of 22 nm and smaller, conventional single-exposure refractive lithography systems used to print circuit patterns onto computer chips will no longer be feasible. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, utilizing reflective optics and 13-nm-wavelength light to print chips, is the leading candidate to meet the industry's future needs. Despite strong progress in EUV lithography over the past decade, significant challenges remain, including defect-free mask fabrication (see Science Highlight Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects), and the development of ultrahigh-resolution photoresist-a light-sensitive material used to form a patterned coating-that simultaneously supports low line-edge roughness (LER), high sensitivity, and sub-22-nm resolution. Using the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) at ALS Beamline 12.0.1.3, advanced EUV photoresist research can be performed while high-power stand-alone light sources are still being developed. High-quality 16-nm lines and spaces have been printed using the MET, representing the highest resolution ever achieved from a single-exposure projection optical lithography tool.

44

DOE Solar Decathlon: Team Boston: Paving a Greener Way  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Curio.House's interior kitchen and living room area at the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2009. Curio.House's interior kitchen and living room area at the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2009. Enlarge image Curio.House is designed to engage the homeowner in living comfortably and efficiently. The house is now a residence in a community that supports low-income and formerly homeless families. (Credit: Jim Tetro/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Who: Team Boston What: Curio.House Where: Community Green Victory Drive Sandwich, MA 02563 Map This House Public tours: Not available Solar Decathlon 2009 Team Boston: Paving a Greener Way With its energy-efficient and cost-cutting features, Team Boston's U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon entry, Curio.House, piqued the interest of Housing Assistance Corp. This charitable organization, which

45

Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

Jameson, Rex, PE

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

46

Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1: technical feasibility. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the technical progress made on the development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber.

Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid June 4, 2013 - 10:50am Q&A What do you...

48

ECN-Paving the way for low-carbon development strategies | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ECN-Paving the way for low-carbon development strategies ECN-Paving the way for low-carbon development strategies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: ECN-Paving the way for low-carbon development strategies Agency/Company /Organization: Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) Sector: Climate Focus Area: Economic Development Topics: Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Publications, Technical report Website: www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2011/e11059.pdf Cost: Free Language: English ECN-Paving the way for low-carbon development strategies Screenshot References: Paving the way for low-carbon development strategies[1] The aim of this report is to help move forward the discussion on low-carbon development strategies (LCDS) towards a useful climate policy instrument. It does so through a historical perspective on the use of an LCDS in a

49

Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Use of recycled chunk rubber asphalt concrete (CRAC) on low volume roads and use of recycled crumb rubber modifier in asphalt pavements. Final report, June 1993-June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this project was to formulate a Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC) mix for use on low volume roads. CRAC is a rubber modified asphalt concrete product produced by the `dry process` where rubber chunks of 1/2 inch size are used as aggregate in a cold mix with a type C fly ash. The second objective of this project was to develop guidelines concerning the use of rubber modified asphalt concrete hot mix to include: (1) Design methods for use of asphalt-rubber mix for new construction and overlay, (2) Mix design method for asphalt-rubber, and (3) Test method for determining the amount of rubber in an asphalt-rubber concrete for quality control purposes.

Hossain, M.; Funk, L.P.; Sadeq, M.A.; Marucci, G.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Idaho Asphalt Conference October 24, 25, 2012 Attendee List  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

52nd Idaho Asphalt Conference ­ October 24, 25, 2012 Attendee List Kimbol Allen Idaho Transportation Department 216 South Date Street Shoshone, ID 83352 208-886-7805 kimbol.allen@itd.idaho.gov John Arambarri Idaho Transportation Department P.O. Box 8028 Boise, ID 83707-2028 208-332-7161 john.arambarri@itd.idaho

Kyte, Michael

52

Literature Review: Asphalt Batching of MGP Tar-Containing Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites research effort, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is committed to developing and applying scientific and technological information to address the issues of remediation, treatment, and recycling of soils containing MGP tar and related organic compounds. This report deals with the issue of using MGP tar-containing soils in the manufacture of asphalt products.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

53

Indonesia-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Indonesia-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Indonesia-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Agency/Company /Organization Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning Website http://www.ecn.nl/en/ Program Start 2009 Program End 2010 Country Indonesia South-Eastern Asia References ECN Policy Studies[1] Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies[2] Overview The projects has three main goals: to provide input for a general methodology for developing Low Carbon Development Strategies to contribute to knowledge, mutual understanding and experience on the concept of Low Carbon Development Strategies with the aim to inform the

54

Event:ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: on 2012/10/29 "ECREEE in cooperation with the Global Forum for Sustainable Energy (GSFE), and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), are organizing a three-day High Level Forum on the theme: "Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". Hosted by the Government of Ghana, the forum will contribute to the UN Sustainable Energy For All Initiative and will follow-up on the key decisions of the Rio+20 Summit". Participants will

55

Ghana-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Ghana-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Ghana-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies Agency/Company /Organization Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning Website http://www.ecn.nl/en/ Program Start 2009 Program End 2010 Country Ghana Western Africa References ECN Policy Studies[1] Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies[2] Overview The projects has three main goals: to provide input for a general methodology for developing Low Carbon Development Strategies to contribute to knowledge, mutual understanding and experience on the concept of Low Carbon Development Strategies with the aim to inform the international climate negotiations

56

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wavelength (nm) In press at Solar Energy Materials & Solarcool asphalt shingles. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cellsof common colorants, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells

Levinson, Ronnen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel from a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products, removing at least some coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. The process provides a useful method of mass producing these products from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands. 1 fig.

Shang, Jer Yu.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

58

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Use of VFDs on Asphalt Plant Induced Draft Fans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of 10 asphalt plants in the Intermountain Region have identified average ID fan energy savings of 68% by controlling airflow using Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) on the fan motors in place of damper control (inlet or outlet). Average paybacks were 3-5 years before utility incentives. In the 10 plants evaluated, the ID fans accounted for as much as 30% of the total plant electrical consumption. In the majority of these plants the outlet dampers were typically 50%-60% closed. Fan motors ranged from 200 Hp to 500 Hp. With approximately 3,600 existing asphalt plants in operation across the United States, a large opportunity for retrofits exists. Working with manufacturers and owners, a new standard can be established for installing VFDs on all plants.

Anderson, G. R.; Case, P. L.; Lowery, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Flotation behavior of digested asphalt ridge tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The hot water process for Utah tar sands differs from that used for Canadian tar sands due to inherent differences in respective bitumen viscosities and the nature of bitumen-sand association. Although contact angle measurements of solvent extracted Asphalt Ridge bitumen indicated moderate hydrophobicity, air bubble attachment to the bitumen concentrate is not possible. This suggests that flotation separation is dependent on air bubble entrapment. Improved separation at higher flotation temperatures was due to the decrease in bitumen viscosity. 16 refs.

Smith, R.J.; Miller, J.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Small Businesses Pave the Way to $20 Million in Savings at Oak Ridge |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Businesses Pave the Way to $20 Million in Savings at Oak Small Businesses Pave the Way to $20 Million in Savings at Oak Ridge Small Businesses Pave the Way to $20 Million in Savings at Oak Ridge December 13, 2012 - 4:00pm Addthis John Hale III John Hale III Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Earlier this week, the Office of Environmental Management shared the news that a new enclosure at Oak Ridge that processes radioactive casks has saved nearly $20 million by putting the facility on a path to complete cleanup work two years ahead of schedule. Small businesses were critical to making that happen. The new enclosure, called the Cask Processing Enclosure, is operated by Wastren Advantage Inc., a certified 8(a) disadvantaged business. Wastren Advantage Inc. began over 20 years ago in Piketon, Ohio, and they now have

62

DOE Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative Clean  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative DOE Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative Clean Coal Plant in Florida DOE Signing Paves the Way for Funding, Construction of Innovative Clean Coal Plant in Florida April 3, 2007 - 12:17pm Addthis Advanced Technology System Deemed One of the Cleanest, Most Efficient in the World WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced the signing of a Record of Decision that clears the path for construction of a $569-million, 285-megawatt coal-fired power plant that will be one of the cleanest, most efficient plants of its kind in the world. The plant will be co-owned by Southern Power Company, the Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), and Kellogg, Brown and Root and will be located at OUC's existing Stanton Energy Center near Orlando, FL. DOE will

63

Paving the path for next-generation nuclear energy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paving the path for next-generation nuclear energy Paving the path for next-generation nuclear energy Paving the path for next-generation nuclear energy May 6, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Renewed energy and enhanced coordination are on the horizon for an international collaborative that is advancing new, safer nuclear energy systems. Renewed energy and enhanced coordination are on the horizon for an international collaborative that is advancing new, safer nuclear energy systems. Deputy Assistant Secretary Kelly Deputy Assistant Secretary Kelly Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Reactor Technologies Nuclear power reactors currently under construction worldwide boast modern safety and operational enhancements that were designed by the global nuclear energy industry and enhanced through research and development (R&D)

64

NREL: Continuum Magazine - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Issue 5 Print Version Share this resource Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Research focuses on boosting reliability, reducing costs, and designing infrastructure of the future. A photo of a white Toyota fuel cell hybrid vehicle driving on a road. The side of the vehicle includes a blue NREL logo and a decal that reads, "Powered by 100% Renewable Sources". Enlarge image Powered by a fuel cell system with light-weight, high-pressure hydrogen tanks, an electric motor, a nickel-metal-hydride battery, and a power-control unit, the Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle has zero tailpipe emissions. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL As nations around the world pursue sustainable transportation solutions,

65

Iron-based Material Paves Way for New Superconductors | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Iron-based Material Paves Way for New Superconductors Iron-based Material Paves Way for New Superconductors Iron-based Material Paves Way for New Superconductors February 12, 2013 - 6:26pm Addthis Brookhaven physicists Weidong Si (left) and Qiang Li look into the vacuum chamber where the new high-field iron-based superconductors are made through a process called pulsed-laser deposition. Brookhaven physicists Weidong Si (left) and Qiang Li look into the vacuum chamber where the new high-field iron-based superconductors are made through a process called pulsed-laser deposition. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How much better is this film? Under an intense 30-tesla magnetic field, the film carried a record-high 200,000 amperes per square centimeter.

66

Department of Energy Paves Way for Additional Clean Energy Projects and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paves Way for Additional Clean Energy Projects Paves Way for Additional Clean Energy Projects and Jobs Through Manufacturing Solicitation Department of Energy Paves Way for Additional Clean Energy Projects and Jobs Through Manufacturing Solicitation August 12, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. --- Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today a new loan guarantee solicitation for renewable energy manufacturing projects. The Commercial Technology Manufacturing Systems and Components solicitation is supported by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through Section 1705 of the Loan Guarantee Program. The solicitation will support the deployment of renewable energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help increase employment in the nation's green manufacturing sector, which is part of the Administration's long-term plan to create new

67

Operational effects of a paved shoulder in high speed curb sections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Right of Way for many suburban highways which require capacity expansion is restricted by adjoining commercial and residential development. This type of restriction sometimes necessitates the use of curb and gutter drainage facilities adjacent to high speed through traffic lanes, eliminating the need for parallel drainage ditches and thus reducing the right of way requirement for the project. These roadways are usually associated with high travel speeds and a high level of access. Currently, no design criteria exist for this type of situation. It was the purpose of this thesis to investigate operational effects of a paved shoulder in high speed curb and gutter sections, in order to establish design recommendations. The operational effects to be evaluated include conflict rates, lane distributions and free flow speeds. Sixteen sites were selected from various geographic locations in the state of Texas for study. These sites included locations both with and without paved shoulders. By observing traffic during the morning and evening peak periods, traffic volumes, conflict rates and lane distributions were determined. Data from sites without paved shoulders was then compared to data from sites with paved shoulders to determine whether the shoulder would have any effect on various measures of effectiveness. These measures included conflict rates, lane distributions and free flow speeds. The results of the thesis indicate a higher conflict rate in those sites without a paved shoulder. Conflict rates in these sites were also much more sensitive to increases in traffic volume than in those sites with a paved shoulder. The data also indicated, for the entire range of traffic volumes, a significantly higher proportion of vehicles in the right lane in those locations with a paved shoulder indicating that the shoulder might act as a buffer from obstructions. Finally, there was no significant difference in free flow speed from one type of cross section to the next. It was recommended that a paved shoulder be provided for average daily traffic volumes in excess of 5000 vehicles per day and that further study be conducted into design procedures as related to lane distributions.

Warren, Steven Paul

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The Laconia, New Hampshire bottom ash paving project: Volume 3, Physical Performance Testing Report  

SciTech Connect

Bottom ash is the principal waste stream from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system, and grate sifting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (@) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Laconia, New Hampshire Bottom, Ashi Paving Project. Volume 1: Environmental testing report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bottom ash is the principal waste stream fro m the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system and grate sffting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (WTE) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Heat Transfer Analysis of Asphalt Concrete Pavement Based on Snow Melting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On the basis of Wuhan district weather conditions of January 5, 2010, heat transfer mechanism of Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway Hubei section of asphalt concrete pavement based on snow melting is analyzed and the model of heat transmission is established. ... Keywords: asphalt concrete pavement, ground-source heat, pump, deicing and snow melting, heat flux

Yan-ping Tu; Jie Li; Chang-sheng Guan

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Evaluation of asphalt-rubber interlayers. (Revised). Final research report, September 1986-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the field performance results of three asphalt-rubber interlayer test roads in terms of the effectiveness of the interlayer at reducing the rate of reflection cracking. Several variables were included in the field experiments: concentration of rubber, binder application rate, type or source of rubber, and digestion (or mixing) time of asphalt and rubber. Control sections were made up of no interlayer and interlayer binders of polymer-modified asphalt and conventional asphalt cement. Results of the statistical analyses of the data indicated that, in general, asphalt-rubber interlayers are more effective at reducing reflection cracking than no interlayer at all. Asphalt-rubber also peerformed better than control sections composed of asphalt cement interlayers and polymer-modified interlayers except in one case where the interlyaer was composed of a double application of asphalt cement/aggregate. The data also indicated that higher binder application rates lead to imnproved cracking resistance; however, on many test sections, excessively high binder application rates caused flushing at the pavement surface.

Estakhri, C.K.; Pendleton, O.; Lytton, R.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

73

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

74

The Effects of Using Alkali-Silica Reaction Affected Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of using alkali-silica reaction (ASR) affected recycled concrete aggregate (ASR-RCA) in hot mix asphalt (HMA) were investigated in this study. Dilatometer and modified beam tests were performed to determine the possibility of new ASR occurring in reactive aggregates within the HMA or re-expansion of existing gel. The Lottman test and micro-calorimeter were used to determine the moisture susceptibility of HMA made with ASR-RCA. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the drying of an artificial gel and x-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to check for the potential presence of gel in the filler fraction of the ASR-RCAs. Micro-deval and freeze-thaw tests were evaluated for their potential to indicate the presence of excess micro-cracks or ASR gel. Expansion testing indicated that both ASR-RCAs were still reactive with 0.5 N NaOH solution saturated with calcium hydroxide (CH) at 60 degrees C. Dilatometer testing of HMA specimens in NaOH CH solution at 60 degrees C indicated a reaction between the asphalt binder and the solution, but little, if any, ASR. The lack of expansion in the modified beam test supports the binder-solution interaction. However, dilatometer testing in deicer solution at the same temperature indicated that some ASR may have occurred along with the primary binder-solution interaction. The volume change characteristics associated with the binder-solution interaction with and without ASR was supported by the change in pH and alkali concentration of the test solution. DSC/TGA testing indicated that the artificial gel dehydrated at approximately 100 degrees C. XRD analysis of the filler indicated that some gel may have accumulated in this fraction. Moisture damage testing indicated good resistance to moisture damage by HMA mixtures made with ASR-RCA especially compared to a virgin siliceous aggregate. Micro-deval and freeze-thaw tests can detect the presence of micro-cracks due to ASR in ASR-RCAs as higher mass loss than the virgin aggregate. The potential distress mechanisms that may occur when using ASR-RCA in an HMA pavement were identified. Results obtained using accelerated laboratory conditions were extrapolated based on anticipated field conditions. Guidelines for the mitigation of potential distresses in HMA made with ASR-RCA are presented.

Geiger, Brian James

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success August 22, 2013 As nations around the world pursue sustainable transportation solutions, the hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) presents a promising opportunity for consumers and automakers alike. Automakers have made steady progress reducing the cost and increasing the performance of fuel cell propulsion systems, and most major vehicle manufacturers are geared to launch FCEVs in the U.S. market between 2015 and 2020. Although fuel cell technologies are proven and effective, deployment challenges persist-particularly in terms of further reducing the cost and increasing the durability of fuel cells and getting sufficient infrastructure in place to support widespread consumer use. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are collaborating with industry

76

Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Touch and Step Voltage Measurements on Field Installed Ground Grid Overlaid with Gravel and Asphalt Beds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gravel and asphalt are commonly used as surfacing materials in and around substations. Both the electrical characteristics of the surfacing material and its moisture condition substantially affect the exposure (step, touch) voltage and the resulting current. This project evaluates the effects of various types of surfacing materials (three gravel types and asphalt) and conditions (dry and wet) on step and touch voltages in and around substations.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Lignite slime as activator in production of oxidized asphalts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of activation of the oxidation of straight-run resids to asphalts by the addition of lignite slimes obtained in the liquefaction of coals of the Kansk-Achinsk basin was studied on the basis of a hypothesis formulated with due regard for the principles of physicochemical mechanics of petroleum disperse systems. A reduction of the air bubble size in the oxidizing vessel should lead to an increase in the total surface of oxidation and hence to a shortening of the time required for oxidation of the feed. A straight-run vacuum resid from mixed West Siberian and Ukhta crudes was used. The resid was oxidized with and without the addition of slime.

Gureev, A.A.; Gorlov, E.G.; Leont'eva, O.B.; Zotova, O.V.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection cracking in HMA overlays. However, only limited research has been performed to evaluate and calibrate these models. In this dissertation, mechanistic-based models are calibrated to field data of over 400 overlay test sections to produce a design process for predicting reflection cracks. Three cracking mechanisms: bending, shearing traffic stresses, and thermal stress are taken into account to evaluate the rate of growth of the three increasing levels of distress severity: low, medium, and high. The cumulative damage done by all three cracking mechanisms is used to predict the number of days for the reflection crack to reach the surface of the overlay. The result of this calculation is calibrated to the observed field data (severity and extent) which has been fitted with an S-shaped curve. In the mechanistic computations, material properties and fracture-related stress intensity factors are generated using efficient Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms. In the bending and shearing traffic stress models, the traffic was represented by axle load spectra. In the thermal stress model, a recently developed temperature model was used to predict the temperature at the crack tips. This process was developed to analyze various overlay structures. HMA overlays over either asphalt pavement or jointed concrete pavement in all four major climatic zones are discussed in this dissertation. The results of this calculated mechanistic approach showed its ability to efficiently reproduce field observations of the growth, extent, and severity of reflection cracking. The most important contribution to crack growth was found to be thermal stress. The computer running time for a twenty-year prediction of a typical overlay was between one and four minutes.

Tsai, Fang-Ling

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

specialized pavers or simply changing the paving material from asphalt will visually enforce pedestrian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

University of North Carolina at Charlotte Design and Construction Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

specialized pavers or simply changing the paving material from asphalt will visually enforce pedestrian

Howitt, Ivan

82

Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid June 4, 2013 - 10:50am Q&A What do you want to know about the smart grid? We'll be answering your questions in a follow-up piece. Ask Us Addthis Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's GridLAB-D™ tool works to simulate all aspects of the energy grid from generation to end use allowing users to see the future of the grid like never before. | Photo courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's GridLAB-D(tm) tool works to simulate all aspects of the energy grid from generation to end use allowing users to

84

Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid Smart Grid Week: R&D Projects Paving the Way to the 21st Century Grid June 4, 2013 - 10:50am Q&A What do you want to know about the smart grid? We'll be answering your questions in a follow-up piece. Ask Us Addthis Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's GridLAB-D™ tool works to simulate all aspects of the energy grid from generation to end use allowing users to see the future of the grid like never before. | Photo courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's GridLAB-D(tm) tool works to simulate all aspects of the energy grid from generation to end use allowing users to

85

Microstructural Characterization of the Chemo-mechanical Behavior of Asphalt in Terms of Aging and Fatigue Performance Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely implements the framework of chemo-mechanics by investigating two types of chemical modification processes, natural (oxidative aging) and synthetic (chemical doping) as they relate not only to macro-scale properties of asphalt binder but also to the asphalt microstructure and nanorheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the extraction of nano-scale engineering properties, i.e. elastic modulus, relaxation modulus, and surface energy, as a method to predict performance related to the fatigue characteristics of asphalt binders by modeling intrinsic material flaws present amongst phase interfaces. It was revealed that oxidative aging induces substantial microstructural changes in asphalt, including variations in phase structure, phase properties, and phase distribution. It has also been shown that certain asphalt chemical parameters have a consistent and measureable effect on the asphalt microstructure that is observed with AFM. In fact, particular phases that emerged via chemical doping revealed a surprising correlation between oxidative aging and the saturates chemical parameter of asphalt in terms of how they explicitly impact durability and performance of asphalt. By implementing a crack initiation model – which requires measureable microstructural characteristics as an input parameter – it was found that microstructural flaws (depending on the extremity) can have a more profound impact on asphalt performance than the properties of the material located between the flaws. It was also discovered by comparing the findings to performance data in the Strategic Highway Research Program’s (SHRP’s) Materials Reference Library (MRL), that the crack initiation model predicts very similar performance as the SHRP’s distress resistance indicators. Overall, this body of work yields improved input values for asphalt prediction models and serves as the basis for ongoing studies in the areas of asphalt chemical mapping, modeling of nano-damage, and nano-modification using AFM.

Allen, Robert Grover

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Contributions to an Improved Oxygen and Thermal Transport Model and Development of Fatigue Analysis Software for Asphalt Pavements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fatigue cracking is one primary distress in asphalt pavements, dominant especially in later years of service. Prediction of mixture fatigue resistance is critical for various applications, e.g., pavement design and preventative maintenance. The goal of this work was to develop a tool for prediction of binder aging level and mixture fatigue life in pavement from unaged binder/mixture properties. To fulfill this goal, binder oxidation during the early fast-rate period must be understood. In addition, a better hourly air temperature model is required to provide accurate input for the pavement temperature prediction model. Furthermore, a user-friendly software needs to be developed to incorporate these findings. Experiments were conducted to study the carbonyl group formation in one unmodified binder (SEM 64-22) and one polymer-modified binder (SEM 70-22), aged at five elevated temperatures. Data of SEM 64-22, especially at low temperatures, showed support for a parallel-reaction model, one first order reaction and one zero order reaction. The model did not fit data of SEM 70-22. The polymer modification of SEM 70-22 might be responsible for this discrepancy. Nonetheless, more data are required to draw a conclusion. Binder oxidation rate is highly temperature dependent. Hourly air temperature data are required as input for the pavement temperature prediction model. Herein a new pattern-based air temperature model was developed to estimate hourly data from daily data. The pattern is obtained from time series analysis of measured data. The new model yields consistently better results than the conventional sinusoidal model. The pavement aging and fatigue analysis (PAFA) software developed herein synthesizes new findings from this work and constant-rate binder oxidation and hardening kinetics and calibrated mechanistic approach with surface energy (CMSE) fatigue analysis algorithm from literature. Input data include reaction kinetics parameters, mixture test results, and pavement temperature. Carbonyl area growth, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) function hardening, and mixture fatigue life decline are predicted as function of time. Results are plotted and saved in spreadsheets.

Jin, Xin

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavements are a major part of the infrastructure in the United States. Moisture damage of these pavements is a significant problem. To predict and prevent this kind of moisture damage a great deal of research has been performed on this issue in past. This study validates an analytical approach based on surface energy aimed at assessing moisture damage. Two types of bitumen and three aggregates are evaluated in the study. The two types of bitumen represent very different chemical extremes and the three aggregates (a limestone, siliceous gravel, and granite) represent a considerable range in mineralogy. Moisture damage was monitered as a change in dynamic modulus with load cycles. The analysis demonstrates the need to consider mixture compliance as well as bond energy in order to predict moisture damage. Mixtures with the two types of bitumen and each aggregate with and without hydrated lime were evaluated. The hydrated lime substantially improved the resistance of the mixture to moisture damage.

Shah, Brij D.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Properties of concrete paving blocks made with waste marble Osman Gencela,f,*, Cengiz Ozelb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Education 9, 201e227. Richardson, A., Coventry, K., Bacon, J., 2011. Freeze/thaw durability of concrete decreases with increasing marble content while freeze-thaw durability and abrasive wear resistance increase in the mixture. Table 4 Relative strength loss of blocks after freeze-thaw cycles (%). Code Strength loss (%) A0

North Texas, University of

89

Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

Solicitation no. W5J9LE-11-R-0089 US Army Corps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or activities: 1. Road construction including asphalt paving; h. One project can be used to satisfy multiple

US Army Corps of Engineers

91

Physical stability of asphalt emulsion admix seal radon barrier for uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is investigating the use of an asphalt emulsion admix seal to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. A key requirement of any cover system is its long-term stability; the cover must withstand failure over very long periods of time. An important determinant of overall cover system stability is the integrity of the 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) thick asphalt admix seal. Therefore, the physical stability of this seal was examined. The investigation considered the mechanical interaction between the tailings pile and cover. The potential effect of differential settlement of the tailings pile on the integrity of the seal system was also examined. Results indicate that the minimum span length the seal could withstand without failing is 0.34 m (1.1 ft). This assumes a differential settlement of 4.92 cm (1.94 in.) at the center resulting from the application of a 0.76-m (2.5-ft) cover. At spans greater than 0.60 m (1.97 ft), no tensile strain would develop.

Gates, T.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

STRs, CE, and Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. STRs, CE, and Mixtures Dr. John M. Butler National Institute of Standards and Technology john.butler@nist.gov Florida Statewide ...

2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

93

Mixtures of truncated basis functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the Mixture ... Keywords: Approximations, Hybrid Bayesian networks, Inference, Mixtures of truncated basis functions, Mixtures of truncated exponentials

Helge Langseth; Thomas D. Nielsen; Rafael Rum?´; Antonio Salmerón

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

SEPARATION OF FLUID MIXTURES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is presented for separating gaseous mixtures by selectively freezing a constituent of the mixture and subsequently separating the frozen gas. The gas mixture is passed through a cylinder fltted with a cooling jacket, causing one gas to freeze on the walls of the cylinder. A set of scraper blades are provided in the interior of the cyllnder, and as the blades oscillate, the frozen gas is scraped to the bottom of the cylinder. Means are provided for the frozen material to pass into a heating chamber where it is vaporized and the product gas collected.

Lipscomb, R.; Craig, A.; Labrow, S.; Dunn, J.F.

1958-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

95

Manifold constrained variational mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many data mining applications, the data manifold is of lower dimension than the dimension of the input space. In this paper, it is proposed to take advantage of this additional information in the frame of variational mixtures. The responsibilities ...

Cédric Archambeau; Michel Verleysen

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Modeling Hot Mix Asphalt Compaction Using a Thermodynamics Based Compressible Viscoelastic Model within the Framework of Multiple Natural Configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a composite material that exhibits a nonlinear response that is dependent on temperature, type of loading and strain level. The properties of HMA are highly influenced by the type and amount of the constituents used and also depend on its internal structure. In such a material the variable effects of the compaction process assume a central importance in determining material performance. It is generally accepted that the theoretical knowledge about material behavior during compaction is limited and it is therefore hard to predict and manage (the effect of) a compaction process. This work makes an attempt to address such a specific need by developing a continuum model that can be adapted for simulating the compaction of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using the notion of multiple natural configurations. A thermodynamic framework is employed to study the non-linear dissipative response associated with HMA by specifying the forms for the stored energy and the rate of dissipation function for the material; a viscoelastic compressible fluid model is developed using this framework to model the compaction of hot mix asphalt. It is further anticipated that the present work will aid in the development of better constitutive models capable of capturing the mechanics of processes like compaction both in the laboratory and in the field. The continuum model developed was implemented in the finite element method, which was employed to setup a simulation environment for hot mix asphalt compaction. The finite element method was used for simulating compaction in the laboratory and in various field compaction projects.

Koneru, Saradhi

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Device for separating a mixture  

SciTech Connect

A device is described for separating a mixture of, for example, oil and water consists of a number of elements treating the mixture in stages, said elements being arranged in overlying position in order to manufacture a compact device.

Koot, T.A.; Verpalen, W.A.

1981-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Microbes pave way for 'nanowires' -vnunet.com http://www.vnunet.com/vnunet/news/2139059/microbes-fire-nanowires 1 of 3 6/29/2005 5:24 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOWNLOADS FORUMS JOBS BLOGS #12;Microbes pave way for 'nanowires' - vnunet.com http intelligence They also have the ability to convert human and animal waste or renewable biomass into electricity

Lovley, Derek

99

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Non-parametric mixture models for clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixture models have been widely used for data clustering. However, commonly used mixture models are generally of a parametric form (e.g., mixture of Gaussian distributions or GMM), which significantly limits their capacity in fitting diverse multidimensional ...

Pavan Kumar Mallapragada; Rong Jin; Anil Jain

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Genotoxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex chemical mixtures are ubiquitous in the environment. Humans are frequently exposed to these mixtures; therefore, it is important to understand potential interactions of chemical mixtures. Mixture interactions may influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of the components of a complex mixture. The research conducted for this dissertation has coupled chemical fractionation with in vitro and in vivo bioassays to assess the potential carcinogenic risk of complex mixtures. A non-aqueous phase liquid from a wood treatment plant was separated into acid (AF), base (BF) and neutral fractions (NF). The NF was further enriched using column chromatography to produce a polychlorinated dinbenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction. The genotoxicity of these mixtures were assessed via analytical quantification, in vitro (Salmonella microsome and E. coli prophage induction) and in vivo (32P-postlabeling) bioassays. The NF was further tested to measure bulky DNA adducts and induction of tumor formation. The AF contained the highest level of pentachlorophenol and the highest concentration of total PAHs. Although the carcinogenic PAHs were highest in the PCDD fraction, the highest concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BAP), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene were detected in the PAH fraction. A positive genotoxic response in Salmonella was induced by the crude extract, the PAH and BF, whereas the AF and BF induced a positive response in the E. coli assay. In vivo, the PAH fraction induced the highest DNA adduct frequencies in the lung. The NF, reconstituted mixture (RM) (which includes equivalent concentrations of seven carcinogenic PAHs in the NF), BAP and the NF amended with BAP (NF+BAP) were all tested in an infant mouse model. At the highest dose, after a 24 hr exposure, NF+BAP had the highest total DNA adducts measured in liver which was three to seven times higher than with other treatments. Adduct levels were comparable to the control after 280 days. The highest incidence of tumors was observed in the liver. At the high dose, NF+BAP elicited the highest incidence of tumors. The results of this research confirm previous studies and indicate that the carcinogenic potential of PAH mixtures may be greater than predicted by chemical analysis.

Phillips, Tracie Denise

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electrochemical assessment and service-life prediction of mechanically stabilized earth walls backfilled with crushed concrete and recycled asphalt pavement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) wall is a vertical grade separation that uses earth reinforcement extending laterally from the wall to take advantage of earth pressure to reduce the required design strength of the wall. MSE wall systems are often prefabricated to reduce construction time, thus improving constructability when compared with conventionally cast-in-place reinforced wall systems. However, there is a lack of knowledge for predicting the service-life of MSE retaining wall systems when recycled backfill materials such as Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and Crushed Concrete (CC) are used instead of Conventional Fill Material (CFM). The specific knowledge missing is how these recycled materials, when used as backfill in MSE wall systems, affects the corrosion rate of the reinforcing strips. This work addresses this knowledge gap by providing recommendations for MSE wall systems backfilled with CC or RAP, and provides a guide to predict the service-life based on corrosion rate test data obtained from embedding steel and galvanized-steel earth reinforcing strips embedded in MSE wall systems backfilled with CC, RAP, and CFM. Experimental data from samples emulating MSE wall systems with steel and galvanized-steel reinforcing strips embedded in CC and RAP were compared to samples with strips embedded in CFM. The results of the testing provide data and methodologies that may, depending on the environmental exposure conditions, justify the use of RAP and CC for the construction of MSE walls. If these backfill materials are obtained from the construction site, this could provide a significant cost savings during construction.

Esfeller, Michael Watts, Jr.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Segregation in noninteracting binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process of stripe formation is analyzed numerically in a binary mixture. The system consists of particles of two sizes, without any direct mutual interactions. Overlapping of large particles, surrounded by a dense system of smaller particles induces indirect entropy driven interactions between large particles. Under an influence of an external driving force the system orders and stripes are formed. Mean width of stripes grows logarithmically with time, in contrast to a typical power law temporal increase observed for driven interacting lattice gas systems. We describe the mechanism responsible for this behavior and attribute the logarithmic growth to a random walk of large particles in a random potential due to the small ones.

Filip Krzyzewski; Magdalena Zaluska-Kotur

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

105

SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

Eugene A. Fritzler

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ultracentrifuge for separating fluid mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

1. A centrifuge for the separation of fluid mixtures having light and heavy fractions comprising a cylindrical rotor, disc type end-plugs closing the ends of the rotor, means for mounting said rotor for rotation about its cylindrical axis, a housing member enclosing the rotor, a vacuum chamber in said housing about the central portion of the rotor, a collection chamber at each end of the housing, the innermost side of which is substantially formed by the outer face of the end-plug, means for preventing flow of the fluid from the collection chambers to said vacuum chamber, at least one of said end-plugs having a plurality of holes therethrough communicating between the collection chamber adjacent thereto and the inside of the rotor to induce countercurrent flow of the fluid in the centrifuge, means for feeding fluid to be processed into the centrifuge, means communicating with the collection chambers to extract the light and heavy separated fractions of the fluid, and means for rotating the rotor.

Lowry, Ralph A. (Charlottesville, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Efficient designs for constrained mixture experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many practical experiments on mixtures (where the components sum to one) include additional lower or upper bounds on components, or on linear combinations of them. Usually theory cannot be used to obtain a good design, and algorithmic methods are necessary. ... Keywords: Algorithms, mixture experiments, optimal design

R. J. Martin; M. C. Bursnall; E. C. Stillman

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Concept formation using incremental Gaussian mixture models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new algorithm for incremental concept formation based on a Bayesian framework. The algorithm, called IGMM (for Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model), uses a probabilistic approach for modeling the environment, and so, it can rely ... Keywords: Bayesian methods, EM algorithm, clustering, concept formation, finite mixtures, incremental learning, unsupervised learning

Paulo Martins Engel; Milton Roberto Heinen

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Active curve axis Gaussian mixture models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) have been broadly applied for the fitting of probability density function. However, due to the intrinsic linearity of GMM, usually many components are needed to appropriately fit the data distribution, when there are curve ... Keywords: AcaG, AcaGMM, Active curve axis, EM, Finite mixture models, GMM, Unsupervised learning

Baibo Zhang; Changshui Zhang; Xing Yi

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM GAS MIXTURE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating uranium from a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and other gases is described that comprises bringing the mixture into contact with anhydrous calcium sulfate to preferentially absorb the uranium hexafluoride on the sulfate. The calcium sulfate is then leached with a selective solvent for the adsorbed uranium. (AEC)

Jury, S.H.

1964-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

111

Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

Dirichlet Process Mixtures of Generalized Linear Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose Dirichlet Process mixtures of Generalized Linear Models (DP-GLM), a new class of methods for nonparametric regression. Given a data set of input-response pairs, the DP-GLM produces a global model of the joint distribution through a mixture ...

Lauren A. Hannah; David M. Blei; Warren B. Powell

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70.degree. C. and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution.

Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Filardo, Giuseppe (Palermo, IT)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70 C and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. 1 fig.

Chum, H.L.; Filardo, G.

1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

115

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex chemical mixtures may be released into the environment from a variety of sources including hazardous waste sites. Components of chemical mixtures and their metabolites may be genotoxic leading to cancer and heritable gene mutations. Chemical analysis alone does not always provide the most accurate information from which to estimate the risk of adverse effects associated with exposure to mixtures. Current methods to estimate the human health risk for complex mixtures assume additive effects of the components. Although it is assumed that this approach is protective of human and ecological health, it is also recognized that chemical mixtures may induce a variety of interactions including potentiation, synergism, and antagonism. A combined testing protocol, using chemical analysis coupled with a battery of in vitro, in vivo, and in situ bioassays, provides the most accurate information from which to estimate risk. Such a combined testing protocol provides information to describe the major organic and inorganic constituents, as well as the pharmacokinetics and potential interactions of chemical mixtures. This research was conducted to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of complex chemical mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated aromatics (PCA) using microbial bioassays (Salmonella/microsome assay and the E. coli prophage induction assay), the 32P-postlabeling assay in mice, and in situ measurements of genotoxicity using flow cytometry. Samples of environmental media and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total and carcinogenic PAHs in soils and groundwater, the genotoxicity of extracts from environmental media did not display a corresponding reduction. Mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) extracted from sediments were found to inhibit the genotoxicity of PAH mixtures when administered dermally to rodents. This inhibition exhibited a dose-response relationship, with the adduct frequency reduced at increasing doses of sediment extract. Finally, PAH concentrations in environmental media and tissues were found to correlate with DNA damage in wildlife receptors. An integrated approach, combining in vitro and in vivo methods to characterize genotoxicity provides more accurate information from which to estimate uptake and risk associated with exposure to complex mixtures and should be considered in both the human and ecological risk assessment process.

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Development of statistical wet weather model to evaluate frictional properties at the pavement-tire interface on hot mix asphalt concrete  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Skid resistance on wet pavements is influenced by friction at the tire-pavement interface as well as overall hot mix asphalt (HMA) performance. It is important to control aggregate, asphalt, and mix properties to achieve desirable frictional properties on HMA during its service life. Aggregate consensus and source properties influence frictional properties at the surface as well as aggregate matrix properties that affect overall skid performance. Thus, it is important to identify and control these properties through an effective testing and monitoring program. Research studies have indicated that current testing protocol for pre-qualification of aggregates being used by DOT's is tenuous and needs definitive evaluation. The validity of some tests currently being used for pre-qualification of aggregates is being questioned due to poor field correlation. Thus, there is a need for upgrading current testing criteria and aggregate classification system in view of new techniques that can be used either as replacements and/or supplements to current tests. This study, a part of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) current research program to evaluate inadequacies of current tests to skid performance, focuses on tests evaluating aggregate shape and distribution parameters. In this study, a wet weather test selection criteria was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of current and new testing techniques to monitor aggregate shape, texture, and distribution characteristics. Extensive tests were conducted on forty aggregates selected from TxDOT Quality Material Catalogue covering various parts of U.S.A. Fine aggregates tests including the Uncompacted Void Content, the Compacted Aggregate Resistance, the Methylene Blue, and the Particle Size Analysis were performed to evaluate angularity, texture, and distribution characteristics within fine aggregates. Flat and elongated tests on coarse aggregates were also performed using both conventional and automated techniques to analyze shape and size distribution characteristics. A statistical analysis was performed to select tests that would enable monitoring of aggregate shape and distribution properties enhancing skid performance. The evaluation criteria were based upon a sensitivity and correlation analysis to evaluate consistency, reproducibility, and ability of tests to effectively discern aggregates with good and marginal performance.

Bedi, Harpreet

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Coal-water mixture fuel burner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

118

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

119

Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pulse-tube refrigerator shown in Figure 1 dissipates acoustic power by design because power must flowFrontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation S. Backhaus1 , D. Geller2 , B oscillating thermodynamics in a gas in a sealed system. Since then, many related engines and refrigerators

120

Gaussian mixture CPHD filter with gating technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filter provides more accurate estimates of target number than the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, and hence, also of the states of targets. This additional capability comes at the price ... Keywords: Finite sets statistics, Gating, Gaussian mixture, Probability hypothesis density, Target tracking

Hongjian Zhang; Zhongliang Jing; Shiqiang Hu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Laminar flame speeds of moist syngas mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This work experimentally investigates the effect of the presence of water vapor on the laminar flame speeds of moist syngas/air mixtures using the counterflow twin-flame configuration. The experimental results presented here are for fuel lean syngas mixtures with molar percentage of hydrogen in the hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture varying from 5% to 100%, for an unburned mixture temperature of 323 K, and under atmospheric pressure. At a given equivalence ratio, the effect of varying amount of water vapor addition on the measured laminar flame speed is demonstrated. The experimental laminar flame speeds are also compared with computed values using chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature. It is found that laminar flame speed varies non-monotonically with addition of water for the carbon monoxide rich mixtures. It first increases with increasing amount of water addition, reaches a maximum value, and then decreases. An integrated reaction path analysis is further conducted to understand the controlling mechanism responsible for the non-monotonic variation in laminar flame speed due to water addition. On the other hand, for higher values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio the laminar flame speed monotonically decreases with increasing water addition. It is shown that the competition between the chemical and thermal effects of water addition leads to the observed response. Furthermore, reaction rate sensitivity analysis as well as binary diffusion coefficient sensitivity analysis are conducted to identify the possible sources of discrepancy between the experimental and predicted values. The sensitivity results indicate that the reaction rate constant of H{sub 2}+OH = H{sub 2}O+H is worth revisiting and refinement of binary diffusion coefficient data of N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O pairs can be considered. (author)

Das, Apurba K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Mixture Mixture Excise Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hydrogen Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit A tax credit of $0.50 per gallon is available for the sale or use of

124

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Mixture Mixture Excise Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit A biodiesel blender that is registered with the Internal Revenue Service

125

Embedded Electronic Nose for VOC Mixture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper details the work done towards a low cost, small size, portable embedded electronic nose (e-nose) and its application for analysis of different VOC mixtures. The sensor array is composed of commercially available metal oxide semiconductor sensors by Figaro. The embedded E-nose consists of an ADuC831 and has an RS 232 interface for Desktop PC for higher level data collection and NN training. The ESP tool with database facility and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) is employed to interface the embedded hardware and to process the electronic nose signals before being classified. The use of embedded e-nose for the quantification of VOCs in mixtures is investigated.

Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune: 411007 (India)

2009-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

126

Soliton trains in Bose-Fermi mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically consider the formation of bright solitons in a mixture of Bose and Fermi degenerate gases. While we assume the forces between atoms in a pure Bose component to be effectively repulsive, their character can be changed from repulsive to attractive in the presence of fermions provided the Bose and Fermi gases attract each other strongly enough. In such a regime the Bose component becomes a gas of effectively attractive atoms. Hence, generating bright solitons in the bosonic gas is possible. Indeed, after a sudden increase of the strength of attraction between bosons and fermions (realized by using a Feshbach resonance technique or by firm radial squeezing of both samples) soliton trains appear in the Bose-Fermi mixture.

T. Karpiuk; M. Brewczyk; S. Ospelkaus-Schwarzer; K. Bongs; M. Gajda; K. Rzazewski

2004-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit

128

Estimation of fuzzy measures using covariance matrices in Gaussian mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel computational approach for estimating fuzzy measures directly from Gaussian mixtures model (GMM). The mixture components of GMM provide the membership functions for the input-output fuzzy sets. By treating consequent part ...

Nishchal K. Verma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

On fitting finite dirichlet mixture using ECM and MML  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian mixture models are being increasingly used in pattern recognition applications. However, for a set of data other distributions can give better results. In this paper, we consider Dirichlet mixtures which offer many advantages [1]. The use of ...

Nizar Bouguila; Djemel Ziou

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Coarsening of Two-Phase Mixtures: Experiments on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... process in solid-liquid mixtures with reduced interference from the sedimentation that ... Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic ...

131

Certification of SRM 2492: Bingham Paste Mixture for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. NIST Special Publication 260-174 Rev. 2012 Certification of SRM 2492: Bingham Paste Mixture for Rheological Measurements ...

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

132

A dimensionally reduced finite mixture model for multilevel data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, different mixture models have been proposed for multilevel data, generally requiring the local independence assumption. In this work, this assumption is relaxed by allowing each mixture component at the lower level of the hierarchical structure ... Keywords: Cluster analysis, Dimension reduction, EM-algorithm, Factor mixture model, Multilevel latent class analysis, primary, secondary

Daniela G. Calò; Cinzia Viroli

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Unconventional quantum phases of lattice bosonic mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss strongly interacting one-dimensional boson-boson mixtures and study their quantum phase diagrams as the interspecies repulsion is increased. In particular, we analyze the low-energy quantum emulsion metastable states occurring at large values of the interspecies interaction, which are expected to prevent the system from reaching its true ground state. A significant decrease in the visibility of the atomic clouds is predicted as well, and related to the trapping of the system in the spontaneously disordered quantum emulsion states.

Buonsante, P; Illuminati, F; Penna, V; Vezzani, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Industrial Utilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal-oil mixtures (COM) are receiving increasing interest as economical alternatives to residual fuel oil and natural gas used in heavy industrial and utility applications. Four basic approaches are currently employed in the manufacture of COM:. Economics and details of industrial conversion to COM are discussed. CoaLiquid, Inc. of Louisville, KY, which uses ultrasonic emulsification to stabilize the cm:, has been a leader in commercial demonstration in industrial equipment. Some of these demonstrations are discussed, along with implications for the future use of COM.

Dunn, J. E.; Hawkins, G. T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Unconventional quantum phases of lattice bosonic mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on one-dimensional lattices and, by adopting a qualitative mean-field approach, investigate their quantum phases as the interspecies repulsion is increased. In particular, we analyze the low-energy "quantum emulsion" metastable states occurring at large values of the interspecies interaction, which are expected to prevent the system from reaching its true ground state. We argue a significant decrease in the visibility of the time-of-flight images in the case of these spontaneously disordered states.

P. Buonsante; S. M. Giampaolo; F. Illuminati; V. Penna; A. Vezzani

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

136

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

137

Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Ward, Jr., Jack A. (Oakmont, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

NISTIR Thermophysical Properties of Mixtures of Natural Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... J. Chem. Eng. Data. 38: 353-355; 1993. Kohn, JD; Luks, KD Liquid-Liquid- Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG Mixtures. RR-49. ...

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

139

Excess volumes and excess viscosities of binary mixtures of 1 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess volumes V E, excess viscosities 1/E, and excess free energies of activation ... KEY WORDS: activation energy; binary mixtures; free energy; l-

140

A Molecular-Thermodynamic Lattice Model for Binary Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Molecular-Thermodynamic Lattice Model for Binary Mixtures*was much interest in the thermodynamic properties of binarythat end, we use the thermodynamic perturbation method,

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and are generated by many sources. Though the potential of PAH-rich mixtures to cause health effects has been known for almost a century, there are still unanswered questions about the levels of PAHs in the environment, the potential for human exposure to PAHs, the health effects associated with exposure, and how genetic susceptibility influences the extent of health effects in individuals. The first objective of this research was to quantify concentrations of PAHs in samples of settled house dust collected from homes in Azerbaijan, China, and Texas. The trends of PAH surface loadings and percentage of carcinogenic PAHs were China > Azerbaijan > Texas, indicating that the risk of health effects from exposure to PAHs in house dust is highest in the Chinese population and lowest in the Texas population. PAHs in China and Azerbaijan were derived mainly from combustion sources; Texas PAHs were derived from unburned fossil fuels such as petroleum. The second objective of this research was to investigate the effect of pregnane X receptor (PXR) on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). BaP treatment resulted in significantly lower DNA adduct levels in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells than in parental HepG2 cells. Total GST enzymatic activity and mRNA levels of several metabolizing enyzmes were significantly higher in cells overexpressing PXR. These results suggest that PXR protects cells against DNA damage by PAHs such as BaP, possibly through a coordinated regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The third objective of this research was to investigate biomarkers of exposure in house mice (Mus musculus) exposed to PAH mixtures in situ. Mice and soil were collected near homes in Sumgayit and Khizi, Azerbaijan. Mean liver adduct levels were significantly higher in Khizi than in Sumgayit. Mean lung and kidney adduct levels were similar in the two regions. The DNA lesions detected may be a combination of environmentally-induced DNA adducts and naturally-occurring I-compounds. PAHs were present at background levels in soils from both Khizi and Sumgayit. It appears that health risks posed to rodents by soil-borne PAHs are low in these two areas.

Naspinski, Christine S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Separation of gas mixtures by supported complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system was investigated that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of alcohols and the hydrogenation of ketones. Such a catalyst, if used in a membrane containing an alcohol solvent, might be of use in selective H/sub 2/ separation from gas mixtures. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and 2-octanol were studied using a RhCl/sub 3//SnCl/sub 2//LiCl catalyst system. These alcohols are dehydrogenated at rates that are initially rapid, but which gradually slow to a stop. The decrease in rate of H/sub 2/ evolution is a result of the establishment of an equilibrium between the alcohol and the liberated hydrogen and ketone. At 150/sup 0/C, cyclohexanol has the fastest rate of dehydrogenation. Several dehydrogenation/hydrogenation cycles have been carried out using this alcohol over a period of one week without serious catalyst deactivation or side reactions. Initial tests of the catalyst dissolved in cyclohexanol within two membranes were inconclusive. An anion exchange membrane was not suitably wetted by the catalyst solution and Celgard/sup TM/, which was wetted, could not be kept wet at 150/sup 0/C under flow conditions in the membrane cell. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Nelson, D.A.; Lilga, M.A.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Maximum likelihood estimation of Gaussian mixture models using stochastic search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian mixture models (GMM), commonly used in pattern recognition and machine learning, provide a flexible probabilistic model for the data. The conventional expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters ... Keywords: Covariance parametrization, Expectation-maximization, Gaussian mixture models, Identifiability, Maximum likelihood estimation, Particle swarm optimization, Stochastic search

Ça?lar Ar?; Selim Aksoy; Orhan Ar?kan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mixture graph based semi-supervised dimensionality reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graph structure is crucial to graph based dimensionality reduction. A mixture graph based semi-supervised dimensionality reduction (MGSSDR) method with pairwise constraints is proposed. MGSSDR first constructs multiple diverse graphs on different random ... Keywords: dimensionality reduction, mixture graph, noise, pairwise constraints

G. X. Yu; H. Peng; J. Wei; Q. L. Ma

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Adaptive quantization using piecewise companding and scaling for Gaussian mixture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantization is fundamental to analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and signal compression. In this paper, we propose an adaptive quantizer with piecewise companding and scaling for signals of Gaussian mixture model (GMM). Our adaptive quantizer operates ... Keywords: Analog-to-digital converter (ADC), Companding, Gaussian mixture model (GMM), High dynamic range (HDR) image, Lloyd-Max quantizer, Scalar quantization, Scaling, Tone mapping

Lei Yang; Dapeng Wu

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A Sparse Regression Mixture Model for Clustering Time-Series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study we present a new sparse polynomial regression mixture model for fitting time series. The contribution of this work is the introduction of a smoothing prior over component regression coefficients through a Bayesian framework. This is done ... Keywords: Clustering time-series, Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, Regression mixture model, sparse prior

K. Blekas; Nikolaos Galatsanos; A. Likas

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

Wagner, J.S.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved binary and tertiary gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below aout 0.5 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, David V. (Knoxville, TN); Carter, James G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

1980-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

151

Gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, David V. (Knoxville, TN); Carter, James G. (Knoxville, TN)

1982-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies mixtures. I. Non-reacting Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss the formulation of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes (FNS) equations for multi-species, non-reactive fluids. In particular, we establish a form suitable for numerical solution of the resulting stochastic partial differential equations. An accurate and efficient numerical scheme, based on our previous methods for single species and binary mixtures, is presented and tested at equilibrium as well as for a variety of non-equilibrium problems. These include the study of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture in the presence of a diffusion barrier, the triggering of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability by diffusion in a four-species mixture, as well as reverse diffusion in a ternary mixture. Good agreement with theory and experiment demonstrates that the formulation is robust and can serve as a useful tool in the study of thermal fluctuations for multi- species fluids. The extension to include chemical reactions will be treated in a sequel paper.

Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Donev, Aleksandar; Bell, John B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Unsupervised blind separation and debluring of mixtures of sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we consider the problem of separating source images from linear mixtures with unknown coefficients, in presence of noise and blur. In particular, we consider as a special case the problem of estimating the Cosmic Microwave Background from ...

Livio Fedeli; Ivan Gerace; Francesca Martinelli

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Monitoring moisture content in the production of check gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

xenon mixture. Xenon. Methane n-Butane. Neon. Propane. Carbon dioxide. Ethane. " 0.016. Not subject to norm. Not more than 0.02. Not subject to norm.

155

Quantum degenerate mixtures of strontium and rubidium atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the realization of quantum degenerate gas mixtures of the alkaline-earth element strontium with the alkali element rubidium. A key ingredient of our scheme is sympathetic cooling of Rb by Sr atoms that are continuously laser cooled on a narrow linewidth transition. This versatile technique allows us to produce ultracold gas mixtures with a phase-space density of up to 0.06 for both elements. By further evaporative cooling we create double Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb with either 88Sr or 84Sr, reaching more than 10^5 condensed atoms per element for the 84Sr-87Rb mixture. These quantum gas mixtures constitute an important step towards the production of a quantum gas of polar, open-shell RbSr molecules.

Pasquiou, Benjamin; Tzanova, Slava; Stellmer, Simon; Szczepkowski, Jacek; Parigger, Mark; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Bayesian Mixture of AR Models for Time Series Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a Bayesian framework for estimation of parameters of a mixture of autoregressive model, for time series clustering. The proposed approach is based on variational principles and provides a tractable approximation to the true posterior ...

Venkataramana Kini B; C. Chandra Sekhar

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Light scattering and phase behavior of Lysozyme-PEG mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of liquid-liquid phase transition temperatures (cloud points) of mixtures of a protein (lysozyme) and a polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) show that the addition of low molecular weight PEG stabilizes the mixture whereas high molecular weight PEG was destabilizing. We demonstrate that this behavior is inconsistent with an entropic depletion interaction between lysozyme and PEG and suggest that an energetic attraction between lysozyme and PEG is responsible. In order to independently characterize the lysozyme/PEG interactions, light scattering experiments on the same mixtures were performed to measure second and third virial coefficients. These measurements indicate that PEG induces repulsion between lysozyme molecules, contrary to the depletion prediction. Furthermore, it is shown that third virial terms must be included in the mixture's free energy in order to qualitatively capture our cloud point and light scattering data. The light scattering results were consistent with the cloud point measurements and indicate that attractions do exist between lysozyme and PEG.

J. Bloustine; T. Virmani; G. M. Thurston; S. Fraden

2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modeling of Molten Salt Mixtures: Thermodynamic Assessment of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Modeling of Molten Salt Mixtures: Thermodynamic Assessment of CeBr3 and MBr-CeBr3 Systems (M=Li, Na, K, Rb). Author(s), Yue Wu, ...

160

Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice.

Albus, Alexander [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam, (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia), Italy and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-84081 Baronissi (SA), (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia), Italy and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-84081 Baronissi (SA), (Italy); Eisert, Jens [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam, (Germany); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BW London, (United Kingdom)

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Robust mixture linear EIV regression models by t-distribution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A robust estimation procedure for mixture errors-in-variables linear regression models is proposed in the report by assuming the error terms follow a t-distribution. The estimation… (more)

Liu, Yantong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Mixtures of strongly interacting bosons in optical lattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce some surprising results of a recent experiment, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy {\\it quantum emulsions} recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices.

Buonsante, P; Illuminati, F; Penna, V; Vezzani, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Recovery of purified helium or hydrogen from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the removal of helium or hydrogen from gaseous mixtures also containing contaminants. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatomspheric pressure to preferentially absorb the contaminants in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed gas enriched in hydrogen or helium is withdrawn from the absorption zone as product. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in contaminants is withdrawn separately from the absorption zone. (10 claims)

Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

1974-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Detonation cell widths in hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper I report on the influence of steam and carbon dioxide on the detonability of hydrogen-air mixtures. Data were obtained on the detonation cell width in a heated detonation tube that is 0.43 m in diameter and 13.1 m long. The detonation cell widths were correlated using a characteristic length calculated from a chemical kinetic model. The addition of either diluent to a hydrogen-air mixture increased the cell width for all equivalence ratios. For equal diluent concentrations, however, carbon dioxide not only yielded larger increases in the cell width than steam, but its efficacy relative to steam was predicted to increase with increasing concentration. The range of detonable hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogen-air mixture initially at 1 atm pressure was found to be between 11.6 percent and 74.9 percent for mixtures at 20{degree}C and 9.4 percent and 76.9 percent for mixtures at 100{degree}C. The detonation limit was between 38.8 percent and 40.5 percent steam for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixture initially at 100{degree}C and 1 atm. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Stamps, D.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Best Practices Guide for High-Volume Fly Ash Concretes:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Concrete Mixtures [7]. This online, interactive tool provides guidelines ... cement type (alkali level), opening time requirements, and paving weather. ...

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effective electrostatic interactions in mixtures of charged colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theory of effective electrostatic interactions in polydisperse suspensions of charged macroions, generalizing to mixtures a theory previously developed for monodisperse suspensions. Combining linear response theory with a random phase approximation for microion correlations, we coarse-grain the microion degrees of freedom to derive general expressions for effective macroion-macroion pair potentials and a one-body volume energy. For model mixtures of charged hard-sphere colloids, we give explicit analytical expressions. The resulting effective pair potentials have the same general form as predicted by linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory, but consistently incorporate dependence on macroion density and excluded volume via the Debye screening constant. The volume energy, which depends on the average macroion density, contributes to the free energy and so can influence thermodynamic properties of deionized suspensions. To validate the theory, we compute radial distribution functions of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloidal macroions from molecular dynamics simulations of the coarse-grained model (with implicit microions), taking effective pair potentials as input. Our results agree closely with corresponding results from more computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the primitive model (with explicit microions). Simulations of a mixture with large size and charge asymmetries indicate that charged nanoparticles can enhance electrostatic screening of charged colloids. The theory presented here lays a foundation for future large-scale modeling of complex mixtures of charged colloids, nanoparticles, and polyelectrolytes.

Jun Kyung Chung; Alan R. Denton

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

167

Bayesian inference on mixture models and their applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mixture models are useful in describing a wide variety of random phenomena because of their flexibility in modeling. They have continued to receive increasing attention over the years from both a practical and theoretical point of view. In their applications, estimating the number of mixture components is often the main research objective or the first step toward it. Estimation of the number of mixture components heavily depends on the underlying distribution. As an extension of normal mixture models, we introduce a skew-normal mixture model and adapt the reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate the number of components with some applications to biological data. The reversible jump algorithm is also applied to the Cox proportional hazard model with frailty. We consider a regression model for the variance components in the proportional hazards frailty model. We propose a Bayesian model averaging procedure with a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo step which selects the model automatically. The resulting regression coefficient estimates ignore the model uncertainty from the frailty distribution. Finally, the proposed model and the estimation procedure are illustrated with simulated example and real data.

Chang, Ilsung

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Detailed chemical characterization of unresolved complex mixtures in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detailed chemical characterization of unresolved complex mixtures in Detailed chemical characterization of unresolved complex mixtures in atmospheric organics: Insights into emission sources, atmospheric processing, and secondary organic aerosol formation Title Detailed chemical characterization of unresolved complex mixtures in atmospheric organics: Insights into emission sources, atmospheric processing, and secondary organic aerosol formation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Chan, Arthur W. H., Gabriel Isaacman, Kevin R. Wilson, David R. Worton, Christopher R. Ruehl, Theodora Nah, Drew R. Gentner, Timothy R. Dallmann, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Robert A. Harley, Jessica B. Gilman, William C. Kuster, Joost A. de Gouw, John H. Offenberg, Tadeusz E. Kleindienst, Ying H. Lin, Caitlin L. Rubitschun, Jason D. Surratt, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, and Allen H. Goldstein

169

Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

2009-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

170

Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Ultrasonic Relaxation in Ethanol?Ethyl Halide Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrasonic studies in mixtures of ethanol and various ethyl halides show that maxima exist in the plots of the absorption coefficient versus concentration. These maxima are located at relatively small ethanol concentrations. The measurements made include a detailed investigation of the temperature and frequency dependence of the absorption in the ethanol?ethyl chloride system and somewhat less complete studies of the ethanol?ethyl bromide and ethanol?ethyl iodide systems. In each of the systems the measurements were made as a function of concentration. The results in the ethanol?ethyl chloride mixtures indicate the presence of a single relaxation process occurring in the range of measurement (15?165 MHz). The mechanism for this relaxation process is considered both in terms of a quasichemical association theory and in terms of a fluctuating concentration theory. The suggestion is made that the relaxational behavior may be connected with the existence azeotropic concentrations in these mixtures.

V. A. Solovyev; C. J. Montrose; M. H. Watkins; T. A. Litovitz

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

Wyman, C.E.

1991-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Inferential determination of various properties of a gas mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for inferentially determining various properties of a gas mixture, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. The method can be applied to natural gas mixtures, where the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for heating value calculations. The method may also be applied to inferentially determine density and molecular weight for gas mixtures other than natural gases.

Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

174

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

Wyman, C.E.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

175

Thermodynamic properties of ammonia-water mixtures for power cycles  

SciTech Connect

Power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluids have been shown to reach higher thermal efficiencies than the traditional steam turbine (Rankine) cycle with water as the working fluid. Different correlations for the thermodynamic properties of ammonia-water mixtures have been used in studies of ammonia-water mixture cycles described in the literature. Four of these correlations are compared in this paper. The differences in thermal efficiencies for a bottoming Kalina cycle when these four property correlations are used are in the range 0.5 to 3.3%. The properties for saturated liquid and vapor according to three of the correlations and available experimental data are also compared at high pressures and temperatures [up to 20 MPa and 337 C (610 K)]. The difference in saturation temperature for the different correlations is up to 20%, and the difference in saturation enthalpy is as high as 100% when the pressure is 20 MPa.

Thorin, E. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden). Dept. of Energy; Dejfors, C.; Svedberg, G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ultracold Heteronuclear Mixture of Ground and Excited State Atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the realization of an ultracold mixture of lithium atoms in the ground state and ytterbium atoms in the excited metastable 3P2 state. Such a mixture can support broad magnetic Feshbach resonances which may be utilized for the production of ultracold molecules with an electronic spin degree of freedom, as well as novel Efimov trimers. We investigate the interaction properties of the mixture in the presence of an external magnetic field and find an upper limit for the background interspecies two-body inelastic decay coefficient of K'2 substate. We calculate the dynamic polarizabilities of the Yb 3P2 magnetic substates for a range of wavelengths, and find good agreement with our measurements at 1064nm. Our calculations also allow the identification of magic frequencies where Yb ground and metastable states are identically trapped and the determination of the interspecies van der Waals coefficients.

Khramov, Alexander; Dowd, William; Roy, Richard; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Gupta, Subhadeep

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Multiphase carbon and its properties in complex mixtures  

SciTech Connect

We describe some key features of a carbon three-phase equation of state and a high-pressure high temperature mixture model in which it is used. Electronic terms in the carbon model have been investigated with INFERNO (atom in a cell model). The Lindeman criterion for melting is rederived for the anisotropic structure of the graphite lattice. The curvature of the graphite melting line is constrained by the evidence for the positive slope of the diamond melting line. The importance of carbon is apparent from various experiments on shock generated mixtures. The model allows us to estimate the energy of carbon clusters produced in a detonating mixture. A cluster model with specific surface structure is used to predict this energy. 41 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

van Thiel, M.; Ree, F.H.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND VISCOSITY OF GAS MIXTURES (thesis)  

SciTech Connect

Correlations based upon empirical modified equations derived from kinetic theory were developed for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of gas mixtures. The conductivity equation was compared to 226 binary mixture conductivities in temperatures from 0 to 774 deg C from the literature and this work. The average deviation is 2.1%. In correlating conductivity data of mixtures of polyatomic molecules, the energy transport is considered in two parts, i.e., one protion transferred by collision and the other by diffusion. The proposed viscosity equation reproduces 103 binary data points with an average deviation of 1.3%. These equations are more consistent with experiment than existing correlations in the literature. the relation of the conductivity or viscosity to composition and temperature are discussed in the light of the proposed equations. It has been demonstrated that, at a given composition, the ratio of the measured conductivity to that calculated on the molar average basis for mixtures of most simple molecules and the ratio of the measured viscosity to that calculated on the molar average basis for mixtures of most gases should be nearly constant over a temperature range of 200 to 300 deg C. The thermal conductivity of ten gases and selected binary and ternary mixtures of them were measured in a concentric silver cylinder cell in the temperature range of 100 to 540 deg C The gases are He, A, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/ H/sub 4/, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/, methyl ether , and methyl formats. (auth)

Cheung, H.

1958-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Phase equilibrium predictions for polar and hydrogen bonding mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Perturbed-Hard-Chain Theory (PHCT) has been generalized to treat pure compounds and mixtures with polar forces (dipoles and quadrupoles) as well as hydrogen bonding. The generalization to polar compounds is based on the perturbation expansion for anisotropic molecules by Gubbins and coworkers. The effects of hydrogen bonding are taken into account using an approach similar to that of Heidemann and Prausnitz. With these two generalizations, accurate mixture VLE and LLE predictions can be made, even for highly non-ideal systems, using pure component parameters alone. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Donohue, M.D.; Vimalchand, P.; Ikonomou, G.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Detonability of H/sub 2/-air-diluent mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the Heated Detonation Tube (HDT). Detonation cell width and velocity results are presented for H/sub 2/-air mixtures, undiluted and diluted with CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O for a range of H/sub 2/ concentration, initial temperature and pressure. The results show that the addition of either CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O significantly increases the detonation cell width and hence reduces the detonability of the mixture. The results also show that the detonation cell width is reduced (detonability is increased) for increased initial temperature and/or pressure.

Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Berman, M.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of {sup 41}K induces a significant loss of coherence in {sup 87}Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices.

Buonsante, P.; Penna, V. [C.N.I.S.M. and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Giampaolo, S. M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Napoli, Italy, and CNISM Unita di Salerno, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Napoli, Italy, and CNISM Unita di Salerno, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); Institute for Scientific Interchange, Viale Settimio Severo 65, 10133 Torino (Italy); Vezzani, A. [CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, V.le G.P. Usberti n.7/A, I-43100 Parma (Italy)

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mixtures of strongly interacting bosons in optical lattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of K induces a significant loss of coherence in Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices.

P. Buonsante; S. M. Giampaolo; F. Illuminati; V. Penna; A. Vezzani

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

184

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

185

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

SciTech Connect

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue of the combined physio-electric properties of the mixture components.

Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1 , Richard EMILION2 , Ted'Orléans), UMR CNRS 6628 Université d'Orléans, France. Abstract: Wind energy production is very sensitive to instantaneous wind speed fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of wind speed due to changes in the local

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

Hu, Liang

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

189

CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.

Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Ames, David E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Mixture representations for the reliability of consecutive-k systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we obtain representations for the reliability of consecutive type systems as a mixture of the reliability of order statistics whenever the systems consist of exchangeable components. The representations enable us to compute the reliability ... Keywords: Consecutive k-out-of- n system, Consecutive k-within-m-out-of-n system, Maximal signature, Minimal signature, Order statistics, System reliability, System signature

Serkan Ery?Lmaz

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Large margin mixture of AR models for time series classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the large margin autoregressive (LMAR) model for classification of time series patterns. The parameters of the generative AR models for different classes are estimated using the margin of the boundaries of AR models as the optimization ... Keywords: Generative and discriminative hybrid models, Large margin autoregressive model, Large margin mixture autoregressive model, Outlier detection, Rejection option, Time series classification

B. Venkataramana Kini; C. Chandra Sekhar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Quality Improvement of Recycled Plastic Products Using Mixture Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recycling plastic has several advantages such as reducing consumption of energy, non-renewable fossil fuels use, and global emissions of carbon dioxide. In this study, the manufacturer would like to improve product quality and decrease cost of the products ... Keywords: recycled plastics, plastic properties, quality, mixture experiment, response surface methodology

Charnnarong Saikaew; Panita Sripaya

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Variational Gaussian Mixture Models for Speech Emotion Recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper applicability of variational methods for estimation of parameters of models used for speech emotion recognition is discussed.When the amount of data available is not adequate for training complex models, variational Bayesian method helps ... Keywords: Variational Gaussian Mixture Models, Emotion Recognition

Harendra Kumar Mishra; C. Chandra Sekhar

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Triaxial behavior of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates an application of genetic programming (GP) for modeling of coarse rotund sand-mica mixtures. An empirical model equation is developed by means of GP technique. The experimental database used for GP modeling is based on a laboratory ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton Buzzard Sand, Mica, Modeling, Triaxial testing

Ali Firat Cabalar; Abdulkadir Cevik

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Viscosity of concentrated suspensions of sphere/rod mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the viscosity of concentrated suspensions of sphere/rod mixtures by adopting the Thomas relations for spheres and Milliken`s for randomly oriented rods with aspect ratio of 20. The relative viscosity of a mixed suspension may now be calculated for any combination of rods (of aspect ratio 20) and spheres.

Mor, R.; Gottlieb, M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Graham, A.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mondy, L.A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

New concepts for refrigerant leak detection and mixture measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone layer, the need to reduce the release of these refrigerants into the environment has become critical. A total ban of ozone-depleting CFCs is expected within a few years, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and fluorocarbons (FCs) and their mixtures are expected to be used during a transition period. Several HFC and FC refrigerants are currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently on the market were developed to detect CFCs and are not as sensitive to HFCs. Although incremental improvement can be made to these devices to detect HFCs, they often lead to increased false signals. Also, there is no simple device available to measure the composition of a refrigerant mixture. The authors present two new concepts to aid in the development of two portable instruments that can be used for HFC leak detection and for quantitative measurement of refrigerant mixture compositions. The development of simple, easy-to-use portable leak detectors and refrigerant mixture meters is essential to the wide use of alternative refrigerants in industry.

Chen, F.C.; Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classes of shape mixtures of independent and dependent multivariate skew-normal distributions are considered and some of their main properties are studied. If interpreted from a Bayesian point of view, the results obtained in this paper bring tractability ... Keywords: 62E15, 62H05, Bayes, Conjugacy, Regression model, Robustness, Shape parameter, Skew-normal distribution, Skewness

Reinaldo B. Arellano-Valle; Marc G. Genton; Rosangela H. Loschi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered to be the primary mechanism of PAH removal from the environment. Biodegradation kinetics of individual PAHs by pure and mixed cultures have been reported by several researchers. However, contaminated sites commonly have complex mixtures of PAHs whose individual biodegradability may be altered in mixtures. Biodegradation kinetics for fluorene, naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene and 1- methylfluorene were evaluated in sole substrate systems, binary and ternary systems using Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505. The Monod model was fitted to the data from the sole substrate experiments to yield biokinetic parameters, (qmax and Ks). The first order rate constants (qmax/Ks) for fluorene, naphthalene and 1,5- dimethylnaphthalene were comparable, although statistically different. However, affinity constants for the three compounds were not comparable. Binary and ternary experiments indicated that the presence of another PAH retards the biodegradation of the co-occurring PAH. Antagonistic interactions between substrates were evident in the form of competitive inhibition, demonstrated mathematically by the Monod multisubstrate model. This model appropriately predicted the biodegradation kinetics in mixtures using the sole substrate parameters, validating the hypothesis of common enzyme systems. Competitive inhibition became pronounced under conditions of: Ks1 > Ks1 and S1 >> S. Experiments with equitable concentrations of substrates demonstrated the effect of concentration on competitive inhibition. Ternary experiments with naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnapthalene and 1-methylfluorene revealed preferential degradation, where depletion of naphthalene and 1,5-dimethylnapthalene proceeded only after the complete removal of 1-methylfluorene. The substrate interactions observed in binary and ternary mixtures require a multisubstrate model to account for simultaneous degradation of substrates. However, developing models that account for sequential degradation may be useful in scenarios where PAHs may not be competitive substrates. These mixture results prove that substrate interactions must be considered in designing effective bioremediation strategies and that sole substrate performance is limited in predicting biodegradation kinetics of complex mixtures.

Desai, Anuradha M.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

SO(3) invariance and covariance in mixtures of simple bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We adapt to mixtures the procedure of invariance of external power under the action of SO(3) to deduce balance equations. The two classical axioms about the growths of momentum and moment of momentum are derived with the help of a rule on the structure of the total power. We discuss also the covariance of the balance equations of each constituent and the nature of the constituent stress.

Paolo Maria Mariano

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

200

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Mixtures of Bose Gases Confined in a Ring Potential  

SciTech Connect

The rotational properties of a mixture of two distinguishable Bose gases that are confined in a ring potential provide novel physical effects that we demonstrate in this study. Persistent currents are shown to be stable for a range of the population imbalance between the two components at low angular momentum. At higher values of the angular momentum, even small admixtures of a second species of atoms make the persistent currents highly fragile.

Smyrnakis, J.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Magiropoulos, M. [Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, GR-71004, Heraklion (Greece); Bargi, S.; Kaerkkaeinen, K.; Reimann, S. M. [Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

202

Predicting flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One requirement regarding the transportation of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste containers currently limits the total concentration of potentially flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and flammable gases in the headspace of the waste container. Typical VOCs observed in the drums include aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, cyclohexane, as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes). Flammable gases, such as hydrogen and methane, may be generated in the containers by radiation-induced decomposition (radiolysis) of water and hydrocarbon waste forms. An experimental program was initiated to identify an accurate means for predicting flammability for gas mixtures containing one or more of the following species: hydrogen, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, toluene, or 2-butanone. The lower flammability limits (LFL) of gas mixtures containing equimolar quantity for each species were determined in a 19-liter laboratory flammability chamber using a strong spark ignition source. The group factor contribution method was determined to be more accurate than the LeChatelier method for estimating the LFL for these gas mixtures.

Liekhus, K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Zlochower, I. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.; Djordjevic, S.; Loehr, C. [Benchmark Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Natural clay-shredded tire mixtures as landfill barrier materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A natural overconsolidated fissured clay, Keuper Marl, was mixed with shredded tire, 1--4 and 4--8 mm angular size particles, in weight percentages between 6 and 15%, and examined for use as a constituent in a landfill liner in terms of compaction, unconfined compressive strength, stress-strain behavior, permeability to water and paraffin, leachability, free swell behavior and swelling pressure. The results showed that the compacted dry density reduced solely due to the lighter weight of the tire and the unconfined compressive strength of the mixture was as low 40% of the strength of the clay alone. In stress-strain behavior the clay-tire mixtures produced a prolonged strain range at failure of roughly double that observed for the clay alone. The permeability to paraffin was reduced by more than 50 times compared to that of water. The leachability results showed different leached levels of copper and nickel from the NRA and TCLP leaching tests which will need to be assessed in relation to appropriate standards. Paraffin caused considerable swelling of the clay-tire mixtures compared to the clay alone and caused the development of swelling pressures of up to 600 kPa. Combinations of the various test results will need to be assessed in relation to the design requirement of the specific landfill liner being designed.

Al-Tabbaa, A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering; Aravinthan, T. [Babtie Group, Croydon (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Genotoxicity of complex mixtures: CHO cell mutagenicity assay  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mammalian cell assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of complex mixtures (synthetic fuels). The genotoxicity (mutagenic potency) of the mixtures increased as the temperature of their boiling range increased. Most of the genotoxicity in the 750/sup 0/F+ boiling-range materials was associated with the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions. Chemical analysis data indicate that the PAH fractions of high-boiling coal liquids contain a number of known chemical carcinogens, including five- and six-ring polyaromatics (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene) as well as four- and five-ring alkyl-substituted PAH (e.g., methylchrysene and dimethylbenzanthracenes); concentrations are a function of boiling point (bp). In vitro genotoxicity was also detected in fractions of nitrogen-containing polyaromatic compounds, as well as in those with aliphatics of hydroxy-containing PAH. Mutagenic activity of some fractions was detectable in the CHO assay in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system; in some instances, addition of exogenous enzymes and cofactors inhibited expression of the direct-acting mutagenic potential of the fraction. These data indicate that the organic matrix of the chemical fraction determines whether, and to what degree, various mutagens are expressed in the CHO assay. Therefore, the results of biological assays of these mixtures must be correlated with chemical analyses for proper interpretation of these data. 29 references, 16 figures, 4 tables.

Frazier, M.E.; Samuel, J.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Two Improved Mixture Weibull Models for the Analysis of Wind Speed Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors propose two improved mixture Weibull distribution models by adding one or two location parameters to the existing two-component mixture two-parameter Weibull distribution [MWbl(2, 2)] model. One improved model is the ...

Xu Qin; Jiang-she Zhang; Xiao-dong Yan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Rainfall-Rate Estimation Using Gaussian Mixture Parameter Estimator: Training and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study develops a Gaussian mixture rainfall-rate estimator (GMRE) for polarimetric radar-based rainfall-rate estimation, following a general framework based on the Gaussian mixture model and Bayes least squares estimation for weather radar–...

Zhengzheng Li; Yan Zhang; Scott E. Giangrande

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Optimal Thresholds for a Mixture of Lognormal Distributions as the Continuous Part of the Mixed Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper considers a mixture of two and three lognormal distributions as the continuous part of the mixed distribution, which consists of a positive, continuous, skewed distribution with discrete mass at the origin. A mixture of two lognormal ...

Koichi Kayano; Kunio Shimizu

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Investigation of plasma-dust structures in He-Ar gas mixture  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for a He-Ar mixture. It is shown that the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses ion heating in electric field under the conventional conditions of experiments and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths, and gas pressures.

Maiorov, S. A. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, Tole bi 96a, Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Stripes ordering in self-stratification experiments of binary and ternary granular mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The self-stratification of binary and ternary granular mixtures has been experimentally investigated. Ternary mixtures lead to a particular ordering of the strates which was not accounted for in former explanations. Bouncing grains are found to have an important effect on strate formation. A complementary mechanism for self-stratification of binary and ternary granular mixtures is proposed.

N. Lecocq; N. Vandewalle

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

210

Generalized Forchheimer Equation for Two-Phase Flow Based on Hybrid Mixture Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we derive a Forchheimer-type equation for two-phase flow through an isotropic porous medium using hybrid mixture theory. Hybrid mixture theory consists of classical mixture theory applied to a multiphase system with volume averaged equations. ...

Lynn S Bennethum; Tizian Giorgi

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Quantum phase transition in Bose-Fermi mixtures  

SciTech Connect

We study a quantum Bose-Fermi mixture near a broad Feshbach resonance at zero temperature. Within a quantum field theoretical model, a two-step Gaussian approximation allows us to capture the main features of the quantum phase diagram. We show that a repulsive boson-boson interaction is necessary for thermodynamic stability. The quantum phase diagram is mapped in chemical-potential and density space, and both first- and second-order quantum phase transitions are found. We discuss typical characteristics of the first-order transition, such as hysteresis or a droplet formation of the condensate, which may be searched for experimentally.

Ludwig, D.; Moroz, S.; Wetterich, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Floerchinger, S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fluidizing a mixture of particulate coal and char  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Pomona, CA)

1979-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

Optimized sympathetic cooling of atomic mixtures via fast adiabatic strategies  

SciTech Connect

We discuss fast frictionless cooling techniques in the framework of sympathetic cooling of cold atomic mixtures. It is argued that optimal cooling of an atomic species--in which the deepest quantum degeneracy regime is achieved--may be obtained by means of sympathetic cooling with another species whose trapping frequency is dynamically changed to maintain constancy of the Lewis-Riesenfeld adiabatic invariant. Advantages and limitations of this cooling strategy are discussed, with particular regard to the possibility of cooling Fermi gases to a deeper degenerate regime.

Choi, Stephen; Sundaram, Bala [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ''Galileo Galilei'', Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova I-35131 (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP), Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Experimental Characterization and Molecular Study of Natural Gas Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Gas (NG) plays an important role in the energy demand in the United States and throughout the world. Its characteristics as a clean, versatile and a sustainable source of energy makes it an important alternative within the spectra of energy resources. Addressing industrial and academic needs in the natural gas research area requires an integrated plan of research among experimentation, modeling and simulation. In this work, high accuracy PpT data have been measured with a high pressure single sinker magnetic suspension densimeter. An entire uncertainty analysis of this apparatus reveals that the uncertainty of the density data is less that 0.05% across the entire ranges of temperature (200 to 500) K and pressure (up to 200 MPa). These characteristics make the PpT data measured in this study unique in the world. Additionally, both a low pressure (up to 35 MPa) and a high pressure (up to 200 MPa) isochoric apparatus have been developed during the execution of this project. These apparatuses, in conjunction with a recently improved isochoric technique, allow determination of the phase envelope for NG mixtures with an uncertainty of 0.45% in temperature, 0.05% in pressure and 0.12% in density. Additionally, an innovative technique, based upon Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) and Gas Chromatography (GC), was proposed in this research to minimize the high uncertainty introduced by the composition analyses of NG mixtures. The collected set of P?T and saturation data are fundamental for thermodynamic formulations of these mixtures. A study at the molecular level has provided molecular data for a selected set of main constituents of natural gas. A 50-50% methane-ethane mixture was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The result of this study showed that simulation time higher than 2 ns was necessary to obtain reasonable deviations for the density determinations when compared to accurate standards. Finally, this work proposed a new mixing rule to incorporate isomeric effects into cubic equations of state.

Cristancho Blanco, Diego Edison

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1981-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

216

Detonation of hydrogen-air mixtures. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The detonation of a hydrogen-air cloud subsequent to an accidental release of hydrogen into ambient surroundings cannot be totally ruled out in view of the relative sensitivity of the hydrogen-air system. The present paper investigates the key parameters involved in hydrogen-air detonations and attempts to establish quantitative correlations between those that have important practical implications. Thus, for example, the characteristic length scale lambda describing the cellular structure of a detonation front is measured for a broad range of hydrogen-air mixtures and is quantitatively correlated with the key dynamic detonation properties such as detonability, transmission and initiation.

Lee, J.H.S.; Knystautas, R.; Benedick, W.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

218

Heterogeneous Mixtures as NLO Christiansen Filters for Optical Limiting  

SciTech Connect

Mixtures of two non-absorbing and index-matched materials with contrasting nonlinear optical response have been shown to optically limit above a critical fluence of pulsed nanosecond laser light. Under these conditions, index mismatch is induced between the disparate phases leading to strong Tyndall scattering. The effect has been demonstrated previously by the authors in both solid-liquid mixtures (hexadecane and calcium fluoride), and surfactant-stabilized liquid-liquid emulsions consisting of dichloroethane as the organic phase and a concentrated aqueous phase of sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN). Materials used in these studies exhibit low absorption coefficients over extended wavelength regions allowing for a broadband response of the limiter. Recently, limiting has been observed at 532 nm in a polymer composite consisting of barium fluoride and poly-(n-butyl acrylate). A modified open-aperture z-scan method was used to quantify optical limiter performance in this system. Modeling studies provide the basis for designing optical limiters based upon this light scattering mechanism and show the importance of size resonance and constituent optical properties on limiter performance.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ferris, Kim F.; Samuels, William D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; et. al.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Prediction of ignition of glass-metal mixture  

SciTech Connect

The integral fast reactor concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process will be demonstrated using the fuel cycle facility (FCF) located at ANL's Idaho facility. One of the processing steps is the casting of metal-fuel alloy slugs. Although alternate techniques are being developed, the current reference calls for casting the metal into quartz molds. During the slug demolding process, however, some of the fuel alloy remains attached to the quartz and becomes waste. Other finely divided particles of alloy from this operation also become mixed with the glass-fuel waste. This waste material is temporarily stored in cylindrical cans filled with argon gas to prevent oxidation and pyrophoric ignition. However, this mixture may come into contact with air as result of an accident and ignite. The ignition of the mixture depends significantly on the heat transfer characteristics of the waste can, which loses heat to the environment by natural convection and radiation. Heat is generated in the fuel by self-heating due both to its plutonium content and residual fission products and by heating due to oxidation. If the heat generation rate is higher than the heat loss rate, the system may experience a breakaway oxidation reaction, which is termed ignition.

Parlatan, Y. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Charak, I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Strongly coupled ionic mixtures and the H/He EOS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper summarizes recent work on the strongly coupled OCP and Binary Ionic Mixture equation of state and other thermodynamic quantities in white dwarf interior conditions for both fluid and solid phases with the assumption of a uniform background. Conditions for phase separation of different elements in fluid or solid phases is strongly dependent on deviations from the linear mixing rule which gives the equation of state as an additive function of the OCP equation of state. These deviations turn out to be small (a few parts in 10{sup 5}) and always positive including the case where the fraction of the higher Z component approaches 0. Also the equation of state of strongly coupled light elements (H and He particularly) obtained from simulations with a linear response description of the electrons is given for conditions appropriate to brown dwarf star interiors. Recent Livermore work on a band structure calculation of the enthalpy of H and He mixtures under jovian conditions is discussed. This work leads to a prediction of a high temperature (15,000 K) for miscibility of He in ionized H at 10 Mb.

DeWitt, H.E.

1993-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Montrose Operations Center Asphalt Overlay Project Montrose Operations Center Asphalt Overlay Project Montrose County, Colorado A. Brief Description of Proposal: Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to conduct routine maintenance activities by installing an asphalt slurry overlay on the parking lots and roadways at Western's Montrose Operations Center in Montrose, Colorado. The slurry seal involves the creation of a mixture of asphalt emulsion and fine crushed aggregate that is spread on the surface of a road. Existing asphalt surfaces would be cleaned to make it free of loose material, dirt, dust, and debris. A tack coat would be applied followed with a v.. inch asphalt slurry seal coat. The final step would be painting pavement markings. Areas to receive the asphalt overlay:

222

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Montrose Operations Center Asphalt Overlay Project Montrose Operations Center Asphalt Overlay Project Montrose County, Colorado A. Brief Description of Proposal: Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to conduct routine maintenance activities by installing an asphalt slurry overlay on the parking lots and roadways at Western's Montrose Operations Center in Montrose, Colorado. The slurry seal involves the creation of a mixture of asphalt emulsion and fine crushed aggregate that is spread on the surface of a road. Existing asphalt surfaces would be cleaned to make it free of loose material, dirt, dust, and debris. A tack coat would be applied followed with a \4 inch asphalt slurry seal coat. The final step would be painting pavement markings. Areas to receive the asphalt overlay:

223

NIST, Army Researchers Pave the Way for Anthrax Spore ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Army Dugway (Utah) Proving Ground have developed ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Enhanced Classifications of Engineered Paved Surfaces for Urban Systems Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a greater need than ever for the ability to accurately model urban system impacts resulting around the planet. Rapid urbanization is transforming landscapes from vegetation to an engineered infrastructure and thus altering land cover and ...

Jay Golden; W. C. Chuang; W. L. Stefanov

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

226

Lab's early submarine reactor program paved the way for modern...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nuclear power plants. Atomic submarine Nautilus EARLY TRIUMPH - Conceptual design of the power plant of the U.S.S. Nautilus, the world's first nuclear-powered ship, was performed...

227

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wallow, "The SEMATECH Berkeley MET pushing EUV development beyond 22-nm half pitch," Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361J (2010); P. Naulleau, C. Anderson, L. Baclea-an, P. Denham, S. George,...

228

Argonne research helps pave way for physics Nobel | Argonne National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Englert and Peter Higgs for their theory of an elementary particle now known as the Higgs boson, which scientists believe is responsible for giving mass to other elementary...

229

Paving the Way for the 'NEXT Big Thing'  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Illinois organizations are pursuing technologies ranging from highly selective membranes for ... Now that I've given you a ground-level view of NIST ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

NREL Paves the Way to Commercialization of Silicon Ink (Fact...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the internal electric fields that are needed to turn photons into electrons-and thus into electricity. The ink is applied with a standard screen printer, already commonly used in...

231

Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

Kostiuk, Larry W. (Edmonton, CA); Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point less than the gasification temperature is a better substitute to the single alkali metal salts because they have good catalyst distribution and dispersion in the carbon matrix. The free selling index of the coal was about 1.5 (1 to 2) in comparison to 2.5 (2 to 3) for the coal samples with ternary eutectic. The results for the raw coal were consistent with those from the Penn State Coal Bank. The XRD characterization showed unidentified peaks in the spectra of some of the samples and require further studies to draw any conclusions at the point.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mixture of Quantum States: Thermal and Interaction Inducing Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we show that the interaction energy plays an important role on the quantum decoherence: If we pay attention to the oscillation phase factor, $e^{-iE_{int}t/\\hbar},$ we see that the time average of the macro-system's density matrix becomes nearly diagonal, where the states giving extrema of interaction energy are privileged to describe the quantum decoherence. This approach is compatible with the von Neumann's old work, which has been recently studied with renewed interest: The thermal mixture of states can be reached by the time average of a density of matrix due to the oscillation phase factor, $e^{-i(E_i-E_j)t/\\hbar}.$ One of the direct results is the localization of macroscopic objects.

Urasaki, Kentaro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Mixture of Quantum States: Thermal and Interaction Inducing Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we show that the interaction energy plays an important role on the quantum decoherence: If we pay attention to the oscillation phase factor, $e^{-iE_{int}t/\\hbar},$ we see that the time average of the macro-system's density matrix becomes nearly diagonal, where the states giving extrema of interaction energy are privileged to describe the quantum decoherence. This approach is compatible with the von Neumann's old work, which has been recently studied with renewed interest: The thermal mixture of states can be reached by the time average of a density of matrix due to the oscillation phase factor, $e^{-i(E_i-E_j)t/\\hbar}.$ One of the direct results is the localization of macroscopic objects.

Kentaro Urasaki

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

235

Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF IMPLODING PLASMA RINGS IN DETONABLE GAS MIXTURES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Spectroscopic observations were made of the flow field behind a cylindrical hypersonic wave front resulting from an imploding electrical dischange into an initially low pressure quiescert gas. Sub-microsecond resolved spectra were obtained by use of a quartz prism monochromatorphotomultiplier detector system with photographic recording of an oscilloscope displayed output signal. Electrically produced plasma rings were established in detonabie as well as non-reactive gases. Strong indications were observed that exothermic reactions, as evidenced by H/sub 2/O emission, proceed in H/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/ reactant mixtures within less than one microsecond under certain initial low pressure conditions. A reaction threshold at 1 mm Hg pressure was found for the particular reaction vessel used. Timeintegrated spectrometer photos support the conclusions reached with the transient spectra analysis equipment. (auth)

Foreman, K.M.; Levy, M.E.

1962-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures relevant to geosynthetic-reinforced earthworks. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength and pull-out capacity with a woven geotextile and two geogrids. Soil-tire chip mixtures made with clean sand and sandy silt were tested. These properties were then used to assess the potential advantages of using soil-tire chip backfills for geosynthetic-reinforced retaining walls and embankments. The test results show that the geosynthetic pull-out force in tire chip and soil-tire chip backfills increases with displacement--i.e., no peak pull-out force is generally obtained, at least for displacements {le}100 mm. Pull-out interaction coefficients for the chip backfills are typically greater than 1, whereas for soil-tire chip backfills are typically greater than 1, whereas for soil-tire chip backfills they typically range between 0.2 and 0.7, even though the pull-out capacity for soil-tire chip backfills is generally similar to or greater than the pull-out capacity in a soil backfill. The higher strength, lower unit weight and good backfill-geosynthetic interaction obtained with soil-tire chip backfills can result in walls requiring less geosynthetic reinforcement than walls backfilled with soil. In addition, embankments can potentially be constructed with steeper slopes and a smaller volume of material when soil-tire chip fill is used, while providing greater resistance against lateral sliding and foundation settlement.

Tatlisoz, N. [International United Consultants, Inc., Istanbul (Turkey); Edil, T.B.; Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Porat, Iris [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Amonette, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Drake, Meghan M [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

Cabasso, Israel (131 Buckingham Ave., Syracuse, NY 13210); Korngold, Emmanuel (P.O. Box 1025, Beer-Sheva 84110, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures of Xenon with Alkanes: (Xenon + n-Butane) and (Xenon + Isobutane)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The total vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of (xenon + n-butane) has been measured at 182.34 and 195.49 K, and of (xenon + isobutane) at 195.49 K. The liquid molar volumes have also been measured at 182.34 K for both systems. The mixtures follow the behavior already found for other (xenon + alkane) mixtures, i.e., E negative deviations from Raoult’s law, negative excess molar Gibbs energies (Gm) and negative excess molar

Eduardo J. M. Filipe; Luís F. G. Martins; Jorge C. G. Calado; Clare Mccabe; George Jackson

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Product Supplied for Asphalt and Road Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Data may not add to ...

246

Asphalt, Concrete, and Turf Maintenance and Preservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These tools are: Pavement management programs. A pavement management system is the name given to one in a serviceable condition over a given period of time. One of the primary benefits of a pavement management system maintenance treatment at any time. The large variation in system size and pavement type across the state

Minnesota, University of

247

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

The generalized van der Waals theory of pure fluids and mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses functional group analysis and partition function analysis of pure fluids and mixtures using generalized van der waals theory. (LSP)

Sandler, S.I.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Production and delivery of a fluid mixture to an annular volume of a wellbore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The methods described herein generally relate to preparing and delivering a fluid mixture to a confined volume, specifically an annular volume located between two concentrically oriented casing strings within a hydrocarbon fluid producing well. The fluid mixtures disclosed herein are useful in controlling pressure in localized volumes. The fluid mixtures comprise at least one polymerizable monomer and at least one inhibitor. The processes and methods disclosed herein allow the fluid mixture to be stored, shipped and/or injected into localized volumes, for example, an annular volume defined by concentric well casing strings.

Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bland, Ronald Gene (Houston, TX); Foley, Ron Lee (Magnolia, TX); Bloys, James B. (Katy, TX); Gonzalez, Manuel E. (Kingwood, NM); Daniel, John M. (Germantown, TN); Robinson, Ian M. (Guisborough, GB); Carpenter, Robert B. (Tomball, TX)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

250

Influence of Steam on the Flammability Limits of Premixed Natural Gas/Oxygen/Steam Mixtures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of CO and H2, is an intermediate in a variety of industrial processes. Its production is energy and capital intensive.… (more)

Degges, Matthew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Detonation cell size measurements in H/sub 2/-air-H/sub 2/O mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conclusions of this study are: (1) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures at 20/sup 0/C and a total pressure of 101 kPa, detonations have been achieved between 13.5% and 70% H/sub 2/ mole fraction. This compositional range is wider than the detonability limits previously reported for smaller tubes. (2) The addition of CO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/-air mixtures greatly reduces the detonability of the mixture. (3) For a given initial temperature, air density and equivalence ratio, the addition of steam to a H/sub 2/-Air mixture greatly decreases the detonability of the mixture. (4) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, detonation of H/sub 2/-air mixtures with up to 30% steam have been recorded. (5) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures, the detonability increases with increasing initial temperature at constant density. Consequently, the diluent effect of the addition of steam to a fixed volume of an H/sub 2/-air mixture in reducing detonability is partially offset if there is a concomitant temperature increase. (6) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, a 13.0% H/sub 2/-air mixture has been detonated. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Shepherd, J.E.; Knystautas, R.; Lee, J.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Zeotropic mixtures of halocarbons as working fluids in binary geothermal power generation cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of Rankine cycle binary systems for geothermal power generation using a hydrothermal resource has been investigated. To date, in addition to many pure fluids, mixtures of Paraffin-type hydrocarbons and water-ammonia mixtures have been investigated. This paper gives the results of consideration of mixtures of halocarbons as working fluids in these power cycles. The performance of mixtures of Refrigerant-114 (R-114) and Refrigerant-22 (R-22) in combinations from pure R-114 to pure R-22 was calculated for such cycles. Various alternatives were considered: (1) minimum geofluid outlet temperature constraint/no constraint, (2) dry turbine expansion/expansion through vapor dome, and (3) use of turbine exhaust gas recuperator/no recuperator. Results of the study indicate that the halocarbon mixtures are at least as good as the hydrocarbon mixtures previously analyzed for a 360 F resource. The magnitude of the net geofluid effectiveness (net energy produced per unit mass geofluid flow) for the R-114/R-22 mixtures is the same as for the best hydrocarbon mixture previously analyzed. The percentage improvement in effectiveness in using mixtures over using the pure fluids as working fluids is comparable for both classes of working fluids.

Bliem, C.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Bayesian and non-Bayesian mixture paradigms for clustering multivariate data : time series synchrony tests.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the last few years, the use of the finite mixture model has increased in the study of heterogeneous populations including its use in time… (more)

Kim, Susan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Heat Pipe Performance Enhancement with Binary Mixture Fluids that Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research investigates the impact of Marangoni phenomena, with low mixture concentrations of alcohol and water, to enhance thermal transport capability of gravity-assisted heat pipes.… (more)

Armijo, Kenneth Miguel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Numerical Simulation of Flame-Vortex Interactions in Natural and Synthetic Gas Mixtures .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The interactions between laminar premixed flames and counter-rotating vortex pairs in natural and synthetic gas mixtures have been computationally investigated through the use of Direct… (more)

Weiler, Justin D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Experimental and numerical investigation of laminar flame speeds of H?/CO/CO?/N? mixtures .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal derived synthetic gas (syngas) fuel is a promising solution for today s increasing demand for clean and reliable power. Syngas fuels are primarily mixtures… (more)

Natarajan, Jayaprakash

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ernest Graves Abu Ghazala, 219  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASCOM City, 77 Asphalt Paving, viii, 79, 80 Assembly, vii, xi, 36­38, 50, 52, 54, 55, 121, 153, 213), 164, 166, 182, 183 Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Atomic Energy), 88 Atchafalaya River, 162, 20, 92 Atomic Bomb, 51 Atomic Energy, v, ix, xiii, 37, 58, 62, 65, 66, 72, 85, 86, 88­90, 93­96, 144

US Army Corps of Engineers

258

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Mechanisms in the size segregation of a binary granular mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A granular mixture of particles of two sizes that is shaken vertically will in most cases segregate. If the larger particles accumulate at the top of the sample, this is called the Brazil-nut effect (BNE); if they accumulate at the bottom, the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE). While this process is of great industrial importance in the handling of bulk solids, it is not well understood. In recent years ten different mechanisms have been suggested to explain when each type of segregation is observed. However, the dependence of the mechanisms on driving conditions and material parameters and hence their relative importance is largely unknown. In this paper we present experiments and simulations where both types of particles are made from the same material and shaken under low air pressure, which reduces the number of mechanisms to be considered to seven. We observe both BNE and RBNE by varying systematically the driving frequency and amplitude, diameter ratio, ratio of total volume of small to large particles, and overall sample volume. All our results can be explained by a combination of three mechanisms: a geometrical mechanism called void filling, transport of particles in sidewall-driven convection rolls, and thermal diffusion, a mechanism predicted by kinetic theory.

M. Schröter; S. Ulrich; J. Kreft; J. B. Swift; H. L. Swinney

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

262

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

BLISTERING AND EXPLOSIVE DESORPTION OF IRRADIATED AMMONIA-WATER MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

We present laboratory studies on the thermal evolution of a solid ammonia-water mixture after it has been irradiated at 20, 70, and 120 K. In samples irradiated at {<=}70 K, we observed fast outbursts that appear to indicate grain ejection and correlate well with the formation of micron-sized scattering centers. The occurrence of this phenomenon at the lower irradiation temperatures indicates that our results may be most relevant for understanding the release of gas and grains by comets and the surfaces of some of the colder icy satellites. We observe outgassing at temperatures below those where ice sublimates, which suggests that comets containing radiolyzed material may have outbursts farther from the Sun that those that are passive. In addition, the estimated size of the grains ejected from our sample is on the order of the size of E-ring particles, suggesting that our results give a plausible mechanism for how micron-sized grains could be formed from an icy surface. Finally, we propose that the presence of the {approx}4.5 {mu}m N{sub 2}O absorption band on an icy surface in outer space will serve to provide indirect evidence for radiation-processed ices that originally contained ammonia or nitrogen, which could be particularly useful since nitrogen is such a weak absorber in the infrared and ammonia is rapidly decomposed by radiolysis.

Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A., E-mail: mark.loeffler@nasa.gov, E-mail: raul@virginia.edu [Laboratory for Atomic and Surface Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 29904 (United States)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nonlinear separation of show-through image mixtures using a physical model trained with ICA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Often, when we scan a document, the image from the back page shows through, due to partial transparency of the paper, giving rise to a mixture of two images. We address the problem of separating these images through the use of a physical model of the ... Keywords: Image mixture, Independent component analysis (ICA), MISEP method, Minimal nonlinear distortion (MND), Nonlinear separation

Mariana S. C. Almeida; LuíS B. Almeida

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Wavelet-based separation of nonlinear show-through and bleed-through image mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work addresses the separation of the nonlinear real-life mixture of images that occurs when a page of a document is scanned or photographed and the back page shows through. This effect can be due to partial paper transparency (show-through) and/or ... Keywords: Bleed-through, Image enhancement, Image mixture, Nonlinear separation, Show-through

Mariana S. C. Almeida; Luís B. Almeida

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Mixture experiment methods in the development and optimization of microemulsion formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microemulsion formulations represent an interesting delivery vehicle for lipophilic drugs, allowing for improving their solubility and dissolution properties. This work developed effective microemulsion formulations using glyburide (a very poorly-water-soluble hypoglycaemic agent) as a model drug. First, the area of stable microemulsion (ME) formations was identified using a new approach based on mixture experiment methods. A 13-run mixture design was carried out in an experimental region defined by constraints on three components: aqueous, oil, and surfactant/cosurfactant. The transmittance percentage (at 550 nm) of ME formulations (indicative of their transparency and thus of their stability) was chosen as the response variable. The results obtained using the mixture experiment approach corresponded well with those obtained using the traditional approach based on pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. However, the mixture experiment approach required far less experimental effort than the traditional approach. A subsequent 13-run mixture experiment, in the region of stable MEs, was then performed to identify the optimal formulation (i.e., having the best glyburide dissolution properties). Percent drug dissolved and dissolution efficiency were selected as the responses to be maximized. The ME formulation optimized via the mixture experiment approach consisted of 78% surfactant/cosurfacant (a mixture of Tween 20 and Transcutol, 1:1 v/v), 5% oil (Labrafac Hydro) and 17% aqueous (water). The stable region of MEs was identified using mixture experiment methods for the first time.

Furlanetto, Sandra; Cirri, Marzia; Piepel, Gregory F.; Mennini, Natascia; Mura, Paola

2011-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

268

A Finite Mixture Logit Model to Segment and Predict Electronic Payments System Adoption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite much hype about electronic payments systems (EPSs), a 2004 survey establishes that close to 80% of between-business payments are still made using paper-based formats. We present a finite mixture logit model to predict likelihood of EPS adoption ... Keywords: clustering analysis, electronic payments systems, finite mixture model, hierarchical logit regression, logistic regression, market segmentation

Ravi Bapna; Paulo Goes; Kwok Kee Wei; Zhongju Zhang

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Efficient highly over-complete sparse coding using a mixture model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sparse coding of sensory data has recently attracted notable attention in research of learning useful features from the unlabeled data. Empirical studies show that mapping the data into a significantly higher-dimensional space with sparse coding can ... Keywords: PASCAL VOC challenge, highly over-complete dictionary training, image classification, mixture model, mixture sparse coding, sparse coding

Jianchao Yang; Kai Yu; Thomas Huang

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The robust estimation method for a finite mixture of Poisson mixed-effect models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When analyzing clustered count data derived from several latent subpopulations, the finite mixture of the Poisson mixed-effect model is an immediate strategy to model the underlying heterogeneity. Within the generalized linear mixed model framework, ... Keywords: Finite mixture, Minimum Hellinger distance, Non-parametric maximum likelihood, Robustness

Liming Xiang; Kelvin K. W. Yau; Andy H. Lee

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Decomposing parameters of mixture Gaussian model using genetic and maximum likelihood algorithms on dental images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present new approaches based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Expectation Maximization (EM) for determining parameters of the mixture Gaussian model. GAs are adaptive search techniques designed to search for near-optimal solutions ... Keywords: Expectation maximization, Genetic algorithms, Mixture Gaussian model, Simulated annealing

Nariman Majdi-Nasab; Mostafa Analoui; Edward J. Delp

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Experimental enthalpies for a mixture of 80 mole percent isobutane in isopentane. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven enthalpy isobars were measured for a nominal mixture of 80% isobutane/20% isopentane. These data were used to construct a phase envelope for use in the design of a turbine expander and the heat exchangers for a geothermal power plant. The dew point values for the phase envelope are difficult to establish for a mixture, particularly in the region near the critical.

Koppany, C.R.; Lenoir, J.M.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Analysis of the behavior of ternary hydrocarbon mixture as substitutes of the CFC-12  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbons are stratospheric ozone friendly and have good heat transfer properties. The use of hydrocarbons (HCs) or their blend as refrigerant is extending in these days. This paper deals with the search of the best ternary hydrocarbons mixture of ... Keywords: CFC-12, LB-12, cub, hydrocarbon, ozone, refrigerant, ternary mixture

Rafael Quintero Ricardo

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Bayesian mixtures of common factor analyzers: Model, variational inference, and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, a representative approach, named mixtures of common factor analyzers (MCFA), was proposed for clustering high-dimensional observed data. Existing model-parameter estimation methods for this approach is based on the maximum likelihood criterion ... Keywords: Bayesian mixtures of common factor analyzers, Clustering, Dimension reduction, Variational inference

Xin Wei, Chunguang Li

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A multivariate linear regression analysis using finite mixtures of t distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, finite mixture models have been used to model the distribution of the error terms in multivariate linear regression analysis. In particular, Gaussian mixture models have been employed. A novel approach that assumes that the error terms follow ... Keywords: EM algorithm, Maximum likelihood, Model identifiability, Non-normal error distribution, Unobserved heterogeneity

Giuliano Galimberti, Gabriele Soffritti

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A quick procedure for model selection in the case of mixture of normal densities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of robustness of the estimates based on the minimum integrated square error criterion can be exploited to set up a procedure in finding the number of the components of a mixture of Gaussian distributions. Each step of the procedure consists ... Keywords: Maximum likelihood, Minimum integrated square error, Monte Carlo significance test, Multivariate Gaussian mixtures, Simulation studies

A. Durio E. D. Isaia

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Generalized Forchheimer Equation for Two-Phase Flow Based on Hybrid Mixture Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we derive a Forchheimer-type equation for two-phase flow through an isotropic porous medium using hybrid mixture theory. Hybrid mixture theory consists of classical mixture theory applied to a multiphase system with volume averaged equations. It applies to media in which the characteristic length of each phase is "small" relative to the extent of the mixture. The derivation of a Forchheimer equation for single phase flow has been obtained elsewhere. These results are extended to include multiphase swelling materials which have non-negligible interfacial thermodynamic properties. Key words. Porous media, swelling porous media, high velocity flow, non-Darcy flow, two-phase flow, multi-phase flow, mixture theory, Forchheimer equation. 1 Introduction Darcy-type equations are used to describe the flow of a single-phase fluid through porous media in a number of situations. The classical Darcy equation, first derived experimentally in 1856, states that the flux is pro...

Lynn Schreyer Bennethum; Tizian Giorgi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of {plus_minus}14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures containing 0, 5, 10, and 30% kaolin (by dry weight) is measured for matric suctions, {psi}{sub m} < {approximately} 6.0 m. The measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub m}) values are compared with predicted unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub p}) values using the Brooks-Corey-Burdine and van Genuchten-Mualem relative hydraulic conductivity functions. In general, the accuracy of k{sub p} decreases with an increase in kaolin content or an increase in {psi}{sub m}. In addition, k{sub m} tends to be underpredicted for kaolin contents of 10 and 30% at relatively high suctions (1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m) and overpredicted for kaolin contents of 0 and 5% at relatively low suctions (0.1 m {le} {psi}{sub m} < 1.0 m). For a given kaolin content and {psi}{sub m}, k{sub p} based on the Brooks-Corey-Burdine function tends to be more accurate than k{sub m} based on the van Genuchten-Mualem function. Finally, for 1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m, k{sub p} based on analysis using the maximum volumetric water content ({theta}{sub m}) attained under steady-state flow conditions typically is more accurate than k{sub p} based on analysis using the saturated volumetric water content, {theta}{sub s}, where {theta}{sub m} {approximately} 84--90% of {theta}{sub s} in this study.

Chiu, T.F. [Genesis Group, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Shackelford, C.D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A rotary-airlock valve resists abrasive mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Hill and Griffith (H and G, Cincinnati, Ohio) is a leading supplier of custom-blended additives to founderies. Thousands of tons of clay and carbon blends such as bentonite, gilsonite and pulverized coal, pass through the company's rotary-airlock feeding system each month. H and G's original rotary valves had cylinders lined with chrome, and closed-end rotors with tips made from nickel-chromium alloys. These valves remained in service for a maximum of only three months each. During that time, the abrasive mixtures passing through the valves virtually eroded them, increasing tolerances and causing significant air leakage. The leaks caused the pneumatic line to plug up, reducing the velocity of the line below the minimum level needed to carry any material. To overcome the leakage, a second blower was added to the system. This unit supplied an additional 40 brake hp to the pneumatic-conveying line. With constant maintenance of the valve and the continuous operation of both blowers, H and G was able to extend the valve's life by nine months. After 20 years of trying valves with various configuration, H and G installed a Smoot Type 6 rotary-airlock valve in September of 1985. The new valve's internals were made from abrasion-resistant grades of NiHard and Stellite. This combination of alloys prolonged the active life of the valve by improving its abrasion resistance. During its first year, the Smoot valve did not break down, leak air or require use of the secondary blower. After its first year of service no wear was found on the valve's internal surfaces. Another mechanical analysis was performed in 1991, after five additional years of valve operation. The valve, which had now handled more than 250,000 tons of product, showed minimal wear. H and G's capital costs had been reduced from 25[cents]/ton to 3[cents]/ton by the new valve.

Not Available

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

283

IDENTIFICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL DATABASE FOR BINARY AND MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES WITH POTENTIAL FOR INCREASING OVERALL CYCLE EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an experimental investigation designed to identify binary and multicomponent mixture systems that may be for increasing the overall efficiency of a coal fired unit by extracting heat from flue gases. While ammonia-water mixtures have shown promise for increasing cycle efficiencies in a Kalina cycle, the costs and associated range of thermal conditions involved in a heat recovery system may prohibit its use in a relatively low temperature heat recovery system. This investigation considered commercially available non-azeotropic binary mixtures with a boiling range applicable to a flue gas initially at 477.6 K (400 F) and developed an experimental database of boiling heat transfer coefficients for those mixtures. In addition to their potential as working fluids for increasing cycle efficiency, cost, ease of handling, toxicity, and environmental concerns were considered in selection of the mixture systems to be examined experimentally. Based on this review, water-glycol systems were identified as good candidates. However, previous investigations of mixture boiling have focused on aqueous hydrocarbon mixtures, where water is the heaviest component. There have been few studies of water-glycol systems, and those that do exist have investigated boiling on plain surfaces only. In water-glycol systems, water is the light component, which makes these systems unique compared to those that have been previously examined. This report examines several water-glycol systems, and documents a database of experimental heat transfer coefficients for these systems. In addition, this investigation also examines the effect of an enhanced surface on pool boiling in water-glycol mixtures, by comparing boiling on a smooth surface to boiling on a Turbo IIIB. The experimental apparatus, test sections, and the experimental procedures are described. The mixture systems tested included water-propylene glycol, water-ethylene glycol, and water-diethylene glycol. All experimental data were obtained at atmospheric pressure with the test section oriented horizontally. The effect of subcooling in pool boiling of mixtures is another area that has received limited attention. Therefore, experimental data were obtained for the water-propylene glycol and water-ethylene glycol systems for subcoolings ranging from 0 to 30 C. The experimental data showed that boiling heat transfer coefficients were found to have significant degradation due to the mixture effect for each of the water-glycol systems examined. This result is consistent with previous studies which examined water-hydrocarbon mixtures with large boiling ranges. The Turbo BIII surface was found to significantly increase heat transfer in each mixture and pure component in comparison to that for the smooth surface.

Stephen M Bajorek; J. Schnelle

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

286

Cleaning up the Streets of Denver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R. [Parsons, 1700 Broadway, Suite 900, Denver, Colorado 80290 (United States); Sogue, A. [City and County of Denver, 201 West Colfax, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Ground-state properties of trapped Bose-Fermi mixtures: Role of exchange correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce density-functional theory for inhomogeneous Bose-Fermi mixtures, derive the associated Kohn-Sham equations, and determine the exchange-correlation energy in local-density approximation. We solve numerically the Kohn-Sham system, and determine the boson and fermion density distributions and the ground-state energy of a trapped, dilute mixture beyond mean-field approximation. The importance of the corrections due to exchange correlation is discussed by a comparison with current experiments; in particular, we investigate the effect of the repulsive potential-energy contribution due to exchange correlation on the stability of the mixture against collapse.

Albus, Alexander P.; Wilkens, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, D-14469 Potsdam, (Germany); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia), (Italy)

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Computing the phase diagram of binary mixtures: a patchy particle case study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the phase behaviour of 2D mixtures of bi-functional and three-functional patchy particles and 3D mixtures of bi-functional and tetra-functional patchy particles by means of Monte Carlo simulations and Wertheim theory. We start by computing the critical points of the pure systems and then we investigate how the critical parameters change upon lowering the temperature. We extend the Successive Umbrella Sampling method to mixtures to make it possible to extract information about the phase behaviour of the system at a fixed temperature for the whole range of densities and compositions of interest.

Lorenzo Rovigatti; Daniel de las Heras; José Maria Tavares; Margarida M. Telo da Gama; Francesco Sciortino

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Methods for Calculating the Heat Transport Coefficient of Solids and Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Conduction in an ElasticHeat Conduction in Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . .1 Introduction Heat conduction is a process involving

Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Ceramic-zeolite Composite Membranes and Use for Separation of Vapor-gas Mixtures  

Having both high selectivity and high permeability, the zeolite membranes have great potential for highly selective separation of vapor/gas and gas/gas mixtures and for catalytic membrane reactor applications. However, it is very difficult to prepare ...

293

Data Assimilation with Gaussian Mixture Models Using the Dynamically Orthogonal Field Equations. Part II: Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties and capabilities of the Gaussian Mixture Model–Dynamically Orthogonal filter (GMM-DO) are assessed and exemplified by applications to two dynamical systems: 1) the double well diffusion and 2) sudden expansion flows; both of which ...

Thomas Sondergaard; Pierre F. J. Lermusiaux

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Corrosion of stainless and carbon steels in molten mixtures of industrial nitrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrosion behavior of two stainless steels and carbon steel in mixtures of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} was evaluated to determine if impurities found in commodity grades of alkali nitrates aggravate corrosivity as applicable to an advanced solar thermal energy system. Corrosion tests were conducted for 7000 hours with Types 304 and 316 stainless steels at 570C and A36 carbon steel at 316C in seven mixtures of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} containing variations in impurity concentrations. Corrosion tests were also conducted in a ternary mixture of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses while oxidation products were examined by scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The nitrate mixtures were periodically analyzed for changes in impurity concentrations and for soluble corrosion products.

Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Prairie, M.R.; Chavez, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Mixture Distributions and the Hydroclimatology of Extreme Rainfall and Flooding in the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flooding in the eastern United States reflects a mixture of flood-generating mechanisms, with landfalling tropical cyclones and extratropical systems playing central roles. The authors examine the climatology of heavy rainfall and flood ...

James A. Smith; Gabriele Villarini; Mary Lynn Baeck

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.W. Shefer, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 28 (2003) 1131-1141. P.burning velocities of lean hydrogen-air flames at 1 atm andFORMULA FOR VERY LEAN HYDROGEN-AIR MIXTURES by Forman A.

Grcar, Joseph F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Deliberate ignition of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under conditions of rapidly condensing steam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments was conducted to determine hydrogen combustion behavior under conditions of rapidly condensing steam caused by water sprays. Experiments were conducted in the Surtsey facility under conditions that were nearly prototypical of those that would be expected in a severe accident in the CE System 80+ containment. Mixtures were initially nonflammable owing to dilution by steam. The mixtures were ignited by thermal glow plugs when they became flammable after sufficient steam was removed by condensation caused by water sprays. No detonations or accelerated flame propagation was observed in the Surtsey facility. The combustion mode observed for prototypical mixtures was characterized by multiple deflagrations with relatively small pressure rises. The thermal glow plugs were effective in burning hydrogen safely by igniting the gases as the mixtures became marginally flammable.

Blanchat, T.; Stamps, D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

MARUSICH, R.M.

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

299

Experimental and Computational Study of Catalytic Combustion of Methane-Air and Syngas-Air Mixtures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic combustion and conversion of methane (CH4) and Syngas (in our case, a gas mixture of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) is characterized by the… (more)

Pathak, Saurav

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens in the environment, little is known regarding their potential mutagenic interactions. Risk assessment of complex PAH mixtures utilizes toxic equivalency factors which assume additive interactions between individual PAHS. The mutagenic interactions of PAH mixtures were investigated using the Salmonellalmicrosome assay. Two groups of samples included PAH mixtures modeling a coal tar and an environmental crude coal tar extract and its fractions. The PAH mixtures were prepared in 2-, 3-, 4-ring and total reconstituted groups in the same percentages as a model coal tar. The environmental coal tar was extracted and separated into PAH fractions. Each sample was tested at 5 consecutive dose levels with and without metabolic activation in the Salmonella/microsome assay using tester strains TA98 and TAIOO. The reconstituted mixture elicited the maximum mutagenic response of 1,089 revertants at a dose of 1.8mg/mL. At the four lower dose levels (0.09mg/mL to 1.8mg/mL), the reconstituted induced a higher response than the 4-ring mixture. At the highest dose level (18mg/mL), the reconstituted showed a lower response that the 4-ring. These results suggest enhanced mutagenic responses at lower dose levels, with inhibition at higher doses. The mutagenicity of the PAH mixtures was evaluated in combinations as 2-:3-, 3-:4-, and 2-:4-ring mixtures. The 2-:4-ring, and 3-:4-ring combinations induced lower mutagenic responses than the 4-ring alone, suggesting inhibition by the 2-and 3-ring PAHS. Inhibition was also observed when benzo[a]pyrene was tested 935 net revertants, while the benzo[a]pyrene:reconstituted mixture induced 349 net revertants. The methylene chloride extract of a coal tar induced 385 net TA98 and 589 net TAIOO revertants with high metabolic activation (30%). Fractions from the coal tar extract and binary mixtures of individual chemicals with a reconstituted coal tar extract induced additive responses. These data indicate that mixtures of PAHs exhibit a variety of mutagenic interactions. The interactive responses appear controlled by concentration and metabolism of the PAHS. Research of this nature may aid in establishing a clearer understanding of risks and interactions which occur from exposure to PAHS.

Onufrock, Amy Mildred

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

302

Blind Separation of Underdetermined Convolutive Mixtures Using Their Time–Frequency Representation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers the blind separation of nonstationary sources in the underdetermined convolutive mixture case. We introduce, two methods based on the sparsity assumption of the sources in the time-frequency (TF) domain. The first one assumes that ... Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), convolutive mixture, sparse signal decomposition/representation, speech signals, subspace projection, time–frequency distribution (TFD), underdetermined/overcomplete representation, vector clustering

A. Aissa-El-Bey; K. Abed-Meraim; Y. Grenier

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development and experimental evaluation of a high temperature mechanism for blended n-heptane-isooctane-ethanol-air-mixtures and gasoline-ethanol-air-mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laminar burning velocity measurements using the closed vessel bomb method have been done for fuel-blend-air-mixtures at 373 K initial temperature and up to 20 bar initial pressure. The two experimentally investigated fuel blends consist, on the one hand, ... Keywords: ethanol-gasoline-blends, laminar burning velocity

S. Jerzembeck; C. Glawe; N. Peters

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Thermodynamic properties of adsorbed mixtures of benzene and cyclohexane on graphitized carbon and activated charcoal at 30/degree/c  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data at 30/degree/C are reported for the adsorption of mixtures of benzene and cyclohexane on two types of carbon surface: graphitized carbon and activated charcoal. The properties of the adsorbed solution approach those of bulk liquid at vapor saturation for graphitized carbon, but not for activated charcoal. The mixtures adsorbed on graphitized carbon are nonideal, and the deviations from ideality increase with surface coverage. For activated charcoal, the adsorbed mixtures are nearly ideal at all coverages. Mixture behavior for both adsorbents can be predicted without using experimental data for the adsorbed mixtures. 11 refs.

Myers, A.L.; Minka, C.; Ou, D.Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Induction of CYP 1A enzyme activity and genotoxicity from ternary mixtures of produced water relvant compounds, evaluated by in vitro methods.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Produced water is a complex mixture discharged to sea in high volumes containing compounds at low concentrations. Compounds in mixtures can modify each other?s expected… (more)

Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

High-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy in hydrogen-steam mixtures. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxidation rates of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes have been measured in hydrogen-steam mixtures at 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C. For a given isothermal oxidation temperature, the oxide layer thicknesses have been measured as a function of time, steam supply rate, and hydrogen overpressure. The oxidation rates in the mixtures were compared with similar data obtained in pure steam and helium-steam environments under otherwise identical conditions. The rates in pure steam and helium-steam mixtures were equivalent and comparable to the parabolic rates obtained under steam-saturated conditions and reported in the literature. However, when the helium was replaced with hydrogen of equivalent partial pressure, a significantly smaller oxidation rate was observed. For high steam-supply rates, the oxidation kinetics in a hydrogen-steam mixture were parabolic, but the rate was smaller than for pure steam or helium-steam mixtures. Under otherwise identical conditions, the ratio of the parabolic rate for hydrogen-steam to that for pure steam decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing steam-supply rate.

Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Device for measuring the fluid density of a two-phase mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for measuring the fluid density of a two-phase mixture flowing through a tubular member. A rotor assembly is rotatively supported within the tubular member so that it can also move axially within the tubular member. The rotor assembly is balanced against a pair of springs which exert an axial force in the opposite direction upon the rotor assembly. As a two-phase mixture flows through the tubular member it contacts the rotor assembly causing it to rotate about its axis. The rotor assembly is forced against and partially compresses the springs. Means are provided to measure the rotational speed of the rotor assembly and the linear displacement of the rotor assembly. From these measurements the fluid density of the two-phase mixture is calculated.

Cole, Jack H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A Low Temperature Distillation System for Separating Mixtures of Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature (24 K) distillation system for separating mixtures of hydrogen isotopes has been designed, fabricated, and delivered for use as the main component of the Hydrogen Isotope Separation System (HISS) at Mound. The HISS will handle feed mixtures of all six isotopic species of hydrogen (H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, T2) and will enrich the tritium while producing a stackable raffinate. Arther D. Little, Inc. (ADL) was the prime contractor for the distillation system. The design and fabrication techniques used for the HISS distillation system are similar to those used for previous stills which were also designed and built by ADL. The distillation system was tested with mixtures of protium and deuterium at the ADL shop. This system, as well as the feed, product, and raffinate handling systems are presently being installed at Mound where integrated testing is scheduled next calendar year.

Embury, Michael, C.; Watkins, Reed A.; Hinckley, Richard; Post, Jr., Arthur H.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

312

A mixture theory formulation for hydraulic or pneumatic transport of solid particles  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we discuss the importance of constitutive modeling of the stress tensors in certain engineering issues, related to the pressure drop and skin friction, encountered in solids transport. To study this problem, we first give a brief account of the formulation of a two-component mixture based on the theory proposed by Massoudi, Rajagopal and co-workers. The mixture consists of a linearly viscous fluid infused with solid particles. The solids particles are modeled as a granular media and it is assumed that the mixture is dense enough so that we can use the theory of interacting continua. The subsequent boundary value problem, flow between two flat plates, is then solved numerically and results for various dimensionless numbers are presented for velocities and volume fraction profiles. The engineering quantities of interests discussed are related to the pressure drop and skin friction at the walls.

Massoudi, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

Frazer, J.W.

1961-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Radiolysis of a solid-phase mixture of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and hexafluoropropylene (HFP) containing 10 to 50% TFE forms a homogeneous glassy solution when cooled to 77 K. The radiation-chemical yield of stabilized paramagnetic centers (SPC) is much lower in the glassy solution than it is in the crystalline TFE and HFP monomers. This appears to be related to devitrification of the glassy solution at the low temperatures (approx. =81 K). The buildup of SPC in the TFE-HFP mixture at 77 K during radiolysis depends on the mixture's TFE content and the SPC yield is a minimum when the TFE content is approx.25%. Polymerization occurs when the glassy solutions of TFE in HFP are subjected to radiolysis at 77 K.

Allayarov, S.R.; Kim, I.P.; Barkalov, I.M.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

Bates, R. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Battistin, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berry, S.; Bitadze, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bonneau, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bousson, N. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boyd, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Egorov, K. [Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Godlewski, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Katunin, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. PNPI, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S. [Rutherford Appelton Laboratory - Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Nagai, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Perez-Rodriguez, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rozanov, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Vacek, V.; Vitek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Tunneling dynamics and phase transition of a Bose-Fermi mixture in a double well  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coherent nonlinear tunneling dynamics of a boson-fermion mixture in a double-well potential is studied in this paper. Four types of phase are found for the mixture. The first one is two species localizing in different potential wells. The second one is two species coexisting in the same well. The third one is two species equally populated in two wells. The fourth one is one species equally populated in two wells while the other species is in one well. The phase transitions among these four states have been investigated. The interspecies and intraspecies interactions as well as bosonic and fermionic numbers can dramatically affect these phase transitions.

Qi Pengtang; Duan Wenshan [Department of Physics, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

New gas mixtures suitable for rare event detection using a Micromegas-TPC detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of the presented work was to develop further techniques based on a Micromegas-TPC, in order to reach a high gas gain with good energy resolution, and to search for gas mixtures suitable for rare event detection. This paper focuses on xenon, which is convenient for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in 136 Xe. Conversely, a small admixture of xenon to CF 4 can reduce attachment in the latter. This gas mixture would be suitable for dark matter searches and the study of solar and reactor neutrinos. Various configurations of the Micromegas plane were investigated and are described.

L. Ounalli; J-L. Vuilleumier; D. Schenker; J-M. Vuilleumier

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

318

Understanding the response behavior of potentiometric gas sensors for non-equilibrium gas mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many applications of gas sensors require concentration measurements of reactive gases in mixtures that are out of thermodynamic equilibrium. These applications include: hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuel gas sensors operating in ambient air for explosion hazard detection, carbon monoxide detection in ambient air for health protection, combustion efficiency sensors for stoichiometry control, and nitric oxide sensors for air pollution monitoring. Many potentiometric and amperometric electrochemical sensor technologies have been developed for these applications. A class of the potentiometric sensors developed for gas mixtures are the non-Nerstian sensors. This presentation defines a categorization and theoretical analysis of three distinct electrochemical processes that can produce a non-Nernstian sensor response.

Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Kirill Glavatskiy; Dick Bedeaux

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

320

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Glavatskiy, Kirill

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

R&D to Prepare and Characterize Robust Coal/Biomass Mixtures for Direct Co-Feeding into Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Prepare and Characterize Robust to Prepare and Characterize Robust Coal/Biomass Mixtures for Direct Co-Feeding into Gasification Background Domestically abundant coal is a significant primary energy source and, when mixed with optimum levels of biomass, has lower carbon footprint compared to conventional petroleum fuels. Coal and biomass mixtures are converted via gasification into synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of predominantly carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be subsequently converted to produce liquid fuels and

322

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of domain growth in the late stage of phase separation of a binary liquid mixture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The domain growth processes occurring during the gravity?dominated regime of the phase separation of a cyclohexane/aniline critical mixture

Franco Cau; Serge Lacelle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ethanol production of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from mixture of cotton gin waste and recycled paper sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 ORIGINAL PAPER Ethanol production of semi-simultaneousAbstract Ethanol production from the steam-exploded mixtureperiod during ethanol production of SSF from the mixture.

Shen, Jiacheng; Agblevor, Foster A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Computer Programs for Calculating the Isentropic Flow Properties for Mixtures of R-134a and Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three computer programs for calculating the isentropic flow properties of R-134a/air mixtures which were developed in support of the heavy gas conversion of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) from dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) to 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane ...

Kvaternik Raymond G.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

Psychiatric Consultation Record Retrieval Using Scenario-Based Representation and Multilevel Mixture Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Psychiatric consultation record retrieval attempts to help people to efficiently and effectively locate the consultation records relevant to their depressive problems. Consultation records can also make people aware that they are not alone, because many ... Keywords: Information retrieval (IR), multilevel mixture model (MMM), natural language processing, scenario-based representation, text mining

Liang-Chih Yu; Chung-Hsien Wu; Fong-Lin Jang

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Ideal detonation characteristics of biogas-hydrogen and -hydrogen peroxide mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports the ideal detonation characteristics of various mixtures of biogas-hydrogen and biogas-hydrogen peroxide with air. The results obtained by the chemical equilibrium calculations reveal the fundamental improvement of the biogas detonation ... Keywords: bio-energy, biogas detonation, biogas utilization, equilibrium thermochemistry, hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide

Khalid M. Saqr; Hassan I. Kassem; Mohsin M. Sies; Mazlan A. Wahid

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Multi-fiber Reconstruction from DW-MRI using a Continuous Mixture of Hyperspherical von  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-fiber Reconstruction from DW-MRI using a Continuous Mixture of Hyperspherical von Mises Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI), arguably one of the most important imaging inventions of the twentieth geometries such as fiber crossings ( [21, 17, 6]) and connectivity of different brain regions ([8]). DW

Kumar, Ritwik

329

Mapping oil spills on sea water using spectral mixture analysis of hyperspectral image data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mapping oil spills on sea water using spectral mixture analysis of hyperspectral image data Javier large spill oil events threatening coastal habitats and species. Some recent examples include the 2002 Prestige tanker oil spill in Galicia, Northern Spain, as well as repeated oil spill leaks evidenced

Plaza, Antonio J.

330

Type-2 Fuzzy Mixture of Gaussians Model: Application to Background Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background modeling is a key step of background subtraction methods used in the context of static camera. The goal is to obtain a clean background and then detect moving objects by comparing it with the current frame. Mixture of Gaussians Model [1] is ...

Fida Baf; Thierry Bouwmans; Bertrand Vachon

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fast intelligent watermarking of heterogeneous image streams through mixture modeling of PSO populations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In intelligent watermarking (IW), evolutionary computing (EC) is employed in order to automatically set the embedding parameters of digital watermarking systems for each image. However, the computational complexity of EC techniques makes IW unfeasible ... Keywords: Digital watermarking, Dynamic particle swarm optimization (DPSO), Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM), Intelligent watermarking, Memory-based optimization

Eduardo Vellasques, Robert Sabourin, Eric Granger

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Modelling damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents two Genetic Programming (GP) models for damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures based on experimental results. The experimental database used for GP modelling is based on a laboratory study of dynamic properties of saturated ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton buzzard sand, Mica, Resonant column testing

Abdulkadir Cevik; Ali Firat Cabalar

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen ...

Sprinkle Danny R.; Chaturvedi Sushil K.; Kheireddine Ali

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Mixture of micronized coal powder with gaseous fuels for use in internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fuel mixture for use in internal combustion engines is described. This fuel is an intimate mixture of micronized coal, having an average particle size of less than 100 microns, with a gaseous fuel selected from natural gas and coal-derived. The coal can be present from more than 0 percent to less than 100 percent, with generally the lower percentages being preferred. The addition of the coal to the gaseous fuel improves engine efficiency and power rating, and also decreases peak engine pressure allowing for higher compression ratios. An increase in the amount of the coal increases the oxides of sulfur while reducing the oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust. An increase in the amount of gas, on the other hand, increases the oxides of nitrogen but lowers oxides of sulfur. Accordingly, a preferred mixture will depend upon a particular application for the coal/gas fuel and thereby increases user fuel flexibility considerations. Modeling of the fuel mixture for use in a diesel engine is described. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Carpenter, L.K.

1990-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

336

Measurement of adiabatic burning velocity in natural gas-like mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Experimental measurements of the adiabatic burning velocities were carried out for natural gas-like mixtures burning in air over a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure. Effect of CO{sub 2} dilution up to 60%, N{sub 2} dilution up to 40% and 25% enrichment of ethane on burning velocity of methane-air flames were studied. Heat flux method with setup similar to that of [K.J. Bosschaart, L.P.H. de Goey, Detailed analysis of the heat flux method for measuring burning velocity, Combustion and Flame 132 (2003) 170-180] was used for measurement of burning velocities. Initially experiments were done for methane-air and ethane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and the results were in good agreement with published data in the literature. Computations were performed using PREMIX code with GRI 3.0 reaction mechanism for all the mixtures. Predicted flame structures were used to the explain the effect of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} dilution on burning velocity of methane-air flames. Peak burning velocity for CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-air mixtures occur near to {phi} = 1.0. (author)

Ratna Kishore, V.; Duhan, Nipun; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, Anjan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

A HYPOTHETICAL BURNING-VELOCITY FORMULA FOR VERY LEAN HYDROGEN-AIR MIXTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A HYPOTHETICAL BURNING-VELOCITY FORMULA FOR VERY LEAN HYDROGEN-AIR MIXTURES by Forman A. Williams experience strong diffusive-thermal types of cellular instabilities that tend to increase the laminar burning propagating, planar, hexagonal, close-packed array of flame balls, each burning as if it were an isolated

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

338

Gaussian mixture decomposition in the analysis of MALDI-TOF spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article presents a method of protein matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight (TOF) spectra analysis. The method performs peaks detection. Spectra are analysed with Gaussian mixture decomposition. The results obtained are used ... Keywords: EM algorithm, GMM decomposition, Maldi-Tof

Joanna Polanska; Malgorzata Plechawska; Monika Pietrowska; Lukasz Marczak

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Method of absorbing UF.sub.6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures employing as an absorbent a liquid composition at least one of the components of which is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2.

Lafferty, Robert H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smiley, Seymour H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Radimer, Kenneth J. (Little Falls, NJ)

1976-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

340

Relationships among nitric oxide, temperature and mixture fraction in hydrogen jet flames  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Simultaneous point measurements of NO, the major species, mixture fraction, temperature, and OH are obtained in nonpremixed turbulent hydrogen jet flames, using the combination of spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence. Results are presented for an undiluted hydrogen flame at Reynolds number 10,000 and for flames with 20% and 40% helium dilution. Radial dependence of conditional mean NO mole fraction (conditional on mixture fraction) is shown to be small at upstream locations and negligible at the downstream locations that contribute most to the overall NO emission. Near the flame base, where NO formation rates and concentrations are sensitive to local strain, fluctuations of the NO mole fraction conditional on mixture fraction are 40 to 50% of conditional mean. When average NO levels are calculated conditional on both mixture fraction and temperature, a significant temperature dependence is found. However, this double conditioning does not substantially reduce NO fluctuations relative to the mean values. These results combined with previously reported data on the present hydrogen flames provide a detailed basis for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models for thermal NO{sub x} formation in jet flames.

Barlow, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carter, C.D. [Systems Research Labs., Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Online learning of single-and multivalued functions with an infinite mixture of linear experts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a supervised learning algorithm for estimation of generic input-output relations in a real-time, online fashion. The proposed method is based on a generalized expectation-maximization approach to fit an infinite mixture of linear experts IMLE ...

Bruno Damas, José Santos-Victor

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

343

Removal of CO2 from gas mixture using hollow fiber membrane contactors fabricated from PVDF/triacetin/glycerol cast solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hollow fiber membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method and applied for CO2 absorption from gas mixture stream as gas-liquid membrane contactors. The percent removal of CO2 from gas mixture stream ... Keywords: PVDF, hollow fibers, thermally induced phase separation

N. Ghasem; M. Al-Marzouqi; R. Al-Marzouqi; A. Dowaidar; M. Vialatte

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Enhancing the Benefit of the Chemical Mixture Methodology: A Report on Methodology Testing and Potential Approaches for Improving Performance  

SciTech Connect

Extensive testing shows that the current version of the Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) is meeting its intended mission to provide conservative estimates of the health effects from exposure to airborne chemical mixtures. However, the current version of the CMM could benefit from several enhancements that are designed to improve its application of Health Code Numbers (HCNs) and employ weighting factors to reduce over conservatism.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Juan; He, Hua; Glantz, Clifford S.; Booth, Alexander E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Multi-Fiber Reconstruction from DW-MRI using a Continuous Mixture of von Mises-Fisher Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-Fiber Reconstruction from DW-MRI using a Continuous Mixture of von Mises-Fisher Distributions the Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance (DW-MR) signal at each lattice point using a novel continuous mixture real DW-MRI data from rat brain and optic chiasm. 1. Introduction Since the first publication

Kumar, Ritwik

346

Shock and post-shock temperatures in an icequartz mixture: implications for melting during planetary impact events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shock and post-shock temperatures in an ice­quartz mixture: implications for melting during November 2009 Edited by: T. Spohn Keywords: shock temperature impact cratering melting water ice equation mixtures where pressure and temperature equilibrate immediately behind the shock front; (2) intermediate

Stewart, Sarah T.

347

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

348

Effects of Soret diffusion on the laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Soret diffusion on the laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures, Beijing 100084, China Abstract The effects of Soret diffusion on premixed syngas/air flames at normal and stretched laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures. The laminar flame speed

Chen, Zheng

349

Effects of Soret diffusion on the laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Soret diffusion on the laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures syngas/air flames at normal and elevated temperatures and pressures are investigated numerically of syngas/air mixtures. The laminar flame speed and Markstein length are obtained by simulating

Chen, Zheng

350

Effects of Soret diffusion on the laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Soret diffusion on the laminar flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures, China Abstract The effects of Soret diffusion on premixed syngas/air flames at normal and elevated and stretched flame speed and Markstein length of syngas/air mixtures. The laminar flame speed and Markstein

Chen, Zheng

351

Mixture Interpretation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... JM Butler – Houston DNA Training Workshop ... Redman (Access database entry, shipping) •Dave Duewer ... FMBIO Mac data) •Kermit Channel & Mary ...

2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

MIXTURE INTERPRETATION:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... run protocol (ie different injections times) be analyzed separately • Different color channels behave differently – if possible, determine ATs for each ...

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Mixture Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... webpage/. LRmix (Hinda Haned): https://sites.google.com/site/ forensicdnastatistics/PCR-simulation/lrmix. Forensim (Hinda ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

354

Surface and Interfacial Properties of Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Mixtures Released to the Subsurface at the Hanford Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface and interfacial tensions that arise at the interface between different phases are key parameters affecting Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) movement and redistribution in the vadose zone after spill events. In this study, the impact of major additive components on surface and interfacial tensions for organic mixtures and wastewater was investigated. Organic mixture and wastewater compositions are based upon carbon tetrachloride (CT) mixtures released at the Hanford site, where CT was discharged simultaneously with dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl phosphate (DBP), and a machining lard oil (LO). A considerable amount of wastewater consisting primarily of nitrates and metal salts was also discharged. The tension values measured in this study revealed that the addition of these additive components caused a significant lowering of the interfacial tension with water or wastewater and the surface tension of the wastewater phase in equilibrium with the organic mixtures, compared to pure CT, but had minimal effect on the surface tension of the NAPL itself. These results lead to large differences in spreading coefficients for several mixtures, where the additives caused both a higher (more spreading) initial spreading coefficient and a lower (less spreading) equilibrium spreading coefficient. This indicates that if these mixtures migrate into uncontaminated areas, they will tend to spread quickly, but form a higher residual NAPL saturation after equilibrium, as compared to pure CT. Over time, CT likely volatilizes more rapidly than other components in the originally disposed mixtures and the lard oil and phosphates would become more concentrated in the remaining NAPL, resulting in a lower interfacial tension for the mixture. Spreading coefficients are expected to increase and perhaps change the equilibrated organic mixtures from nonspreading to spreading in water-wetting porous media. These results show that the behavior of organic chemical mixtures should be accounted for in numerical flow and transport models.

Nellis, Scott; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Oostrom, Martinus; Valocchi, Albert J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Soluble Models of Strongly Interacting Ultracold Gas Mixtures in Tight Waveguides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Fermi-Bose mapping method is used to determine the exact ground states of several models of mixtures of strongly interacting ultracold gases in tight waveguides, which are generalizations of the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas (1D Bose gas with point hard cores) and fermionic Tonks-Girardeau (FTG) gas (1D spin-aligned Fermi gas with infinitely strong zero-range attractions). We detail the case of a Bose-Fermi mixture with TG boson-boson (BB) and boson-fermion (BF) interactions. Exact results are given for density profiles in a harmonic trap, single-particle density matrices, momentum distibutions, and density-density correlations. Since the ground state is highly degenerate, we analyze the splitting of the ground manifold for large but finite BB and BF repulsions.

Girardeau, M. D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Minguzzi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Mileux Condenses, C.N.R.S., B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

356

Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement is the quintessential quantum mechanical phenomenon understood to lie at the heart of future quantum technologies and the subject of fundamental scientific investigations. Mixture, resulting from noise, is often an unwanted result of interaction with an environment, but is also of fundamental interest, and is proposed to play a role in some biological processes. Here we report an integrated waveguide device that can generate and completely characterize pure two-photon states with any amount of entanglement and arbitrary single-photon states with any amount of mixture. The device consists of a reconfigurable integrated quantum photonic circuit with eight voltage controlled phase shifters. We demonstrate that for thousands of randomly chosen configurations the device performs with high fidelity. We generate maximally and non-maximally entangled states, violate a Bell-type inequality with a continuum of partially entangled states, and demonstrate generation of arbitrary one-qubit mixed states.

P. J. Shadbolt; M. R. Verde; A. Peruzzo; A. Politi; A. Laing; M. Lobino; J. C. F. Matthews; M. Thompson; J. L. O'Brien

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

357

On The Design Of Environmentally Benign Refrigerant Mixtures: A Mathematical Programming Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based refrigerants (such as CFC12) have found widespread uses in home refrigerators and automotive air conditioners primarily due to their nontoxic, nonflammable nature and their high overall thermodynamic efficiency. However, CFC and hydrofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants with intermediate to high ozone depletion potentials (ODP's) will be banned during the next two decades. The outcome of replacing CFC's in the vapor recompression cycle and various other processes is vital to several industries. Feasible solutions appear to include mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) which have the potential for matching thermodynamic properties of current working fluids while meeting several criteria for ozone depletion potential, flammability, toxicity, materials compatibility and cost. In this paper, a proof of concept study is made to show that mathematical programming can effectively be used to identify a small set of alternative refrigerant mixtures which can then be...

Amit Duvedi; Luke E.K. Achenie; Copyright Luke Achenie

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

MIXTURES OF CO2-SF6 AS WORKING FLUIDS FOR GEOTHERMAL PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, mixtures of CO2 and SF6 were evaluated as working fluids for geothermal plants based on property measurements, molecular dynamics modeling, thermodynamic cycle analysis, and materials compatibility assessment. The CO2 - SF6 was evaluated for a reservoir temperature of 160 oC. Increasing the efficiency for these low reservoir sources will increase the options available for geothermal energy utilization in more sites across the country. The properties for the mixtures were obtained either from thermodynamic property measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. Optimum compositions of the CO2 - SF6 were identified for a well reservoir temperature and a given water-cooling condition. Concerning the global warming potential, it was estimated that the equivalent CO2 emissions per 1kWh for a Rankine cycle operating with 100% SF6 would be approximately of 7.6% than those for a coal-fired power plant.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Yin, Hebi [ORNL; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Numerical study of drying process and columnar fracture process in granules-water mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The formation of three-dimensional prismatic cracks in the drying process of starch-water mixtures is investigated numerically. We assume that the mixture is an elastic porous medium which possesses a stress field and a water content field. The evolution of both fields are represented by a spring network and a phenomenological model with the water potential, respectively. We find that the water content distribution has a propagating front which is not explained by a simple diffusion process. The prismatic structure of cracks driven by the water content field is observed. The depth dependence and the coarsening process of the columnar structure are also studied. The particle diameter dependence of the scale of the columns and the effect of the crack networks on the dynamics of the water content field are also discussed.

Akihiro Nishimoto; Tsuyoshi Mizuguchi; So Kitsunezaki

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Dehydration of acetic acid-water mixtures with near critical and supercritical fluid solvents  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium tie lines and phase densities are presented for acetic acid-water mixtures with near critical propane at 361K and 52 bar. Experimental measurements were obtained with a static technique; the equilibrium phases were directly sampled with high-pressure liquid sample injection valves at the temperature and pressure of interest. The data obtained in this work indicate that near critical propane can be used to facilitate the production of glacial acetic acid from dilute acetic acid-water solutions. Both these experimental data and the authors earlier results for acetic acid-water mixtures with supercritical carbon dioxide have been used to test an equation of state which has recently been developed by Grenzheuser and Gmehling for systems which contain associating fluids. Results indicate that the equation's pure component parameters need to be refitted to represent the critical region more accurately.

McCully, M.A.; Mullins, J.C.; Thies, M.C.; Hartley, I.J.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Catalytic igniters and their use to ignite lean hydrogen-air mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure describes a catalytic igniter which can ignite a hydrogen-air mixture as lean as 5.5% hydrogen with induction times ranging from 20 s to 400 s, under conditions which may be present during a loss-of-liquid-coolant accident at a light water nuclear reactor. It is comprised of (1) a perforate catalytically active substrate, such as a platinum coated ceramic honeycomb or wire mesh screen, through which heated gases produced by oxidation of the mixture can freely flow and (2) a plurality of thin platinum wires mounted in a thermally conductive manner on the substrate and positioned thereon so as to be able to receive heat from the substrate and the heated gases while also in contact with unoxidized gases.

McLean, W.J.; Thorne, L.R.; Volponi, J.V.

1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

364

DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ZIRCALOY-2 IN NITRIC-HYDROFLUORIC ACID MIXTURES AT REFLUX TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

BS>The initial rate constants were obtained for zirconium and Zircaloy-2 dissolution at reflux temperatures in nltric--hydrofluoric acid mlxtures. Variation of the nitric acid concentration in these solutions had very little effect on the initial dissolution rate, except for the change in the reflux temperature. The nitric acid concentration exhibited an appreciable effect on the average dissolution rate over longer periods of time. An empirical treatment of the rates over extended periods is presented. The maximum attainable rates for zirconium dissolution, adjusted to an initial lM hydrofluoric acid concentration, were determined at lower temperatures. Stability of resultant Zircaloy-2 dissolver solutions is reported for both nitric--hydrofluoric acid mixtures and nitric--oxalic--hydrofluoric acid mixtures. Possible reactions and some analyses of off-gases from these dissolutions are given. (auth)

Vander Wall, E.M.; Whitener, E.M.f Bauer, D.L.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Prediction of Transport Properties by Molecular Simulation: Methanol and Ethanol and their mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport properties of liquid methanol and ethanol are predicted by molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular models for the alcohols are rigid, non-polarizable and of united-atom type. They were developed in preceding work using experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data only. Self- and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients as well as the shear viscosity of methanol, ethanol and their binary mixture are determined using equilibrium molecular dynamics and the Green-Kubo formalism. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used for predicting the thermal conductivity of the two pure substances. The transport properties of the fluids are calculated over a wide temperature range at ambient pressure and compared with experimental and simulation data from the literature. Overall, a very good agreement with the experiment is found. For instance, the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are predicted with average deviations of less 8% for the pure alcohols and 12% for the mixture. The predicted thermal...

Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced through ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA). Previous studies showed that LSOA constituents are multifunctional compounds containing aldehyde and ketone groups. In this study, we used the selectivity of the Girard T (GT) reagent towards carbonyl compounds to examine the utility of reactive nano-DESI for the analysis of complex organic mixtures. In these experiments, 1-100 {micro}M GT solution was used as a working solvent for reactive nano-DESI analysis. Abundant products of a single addition of GT to LSOA constituents were observed at GT concentrations in excess of 10 {micro}M. We found that LSOA compounds with 18-20 carbon atoms (dimers) and 27-30 carbon atoms (trimers) react with GT through a simple addition reaction resulting in formation of the carbinolamine derivative. In contrast, reactions of GT with monomeric species result in formation of both the carbinolamine and the hydrazone derivatives. In addition, several monomers did not react with GT on the timescale of our experiment. These molecules were characterized by relatively high values of the double bond equivalent (DBE) and low oxygen content. Furthermore, because addition of a charged GT tag to a neutral molecule eliminates the discrimination against the low proton affinity compounds in the ionization process, reactive nano-DESI analysis enables quantification of individual compounds in the complex mixture. For example, we were able to estimate for the first time the amounts of dimers and trimers in the LSOA mixture. Specifically, we found that the most abundant LSOA dimer was detected at ca. 0.5 pg level and the total amount of dimers and trimers in the analyzed sample was just around 11 pg. Our results indicate that reactive nano-DESI is a valuable approach for examining the presence of specific functional groups and quantification of compounds possessing these groups in complex mixtures.

Laskin, Julia; Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

367

Computer simulation of effective viscosity of fluid-proppant mixture used in hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents results of numerical experiments performed to evaluate the effective viscosity of a fluid-proppant mixture, used in hydraulic fracturing. The results, obtained by two complimenting methods (the particle dynamics and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics), coincide to the accuracy of standard deviation. They provide an analytical equation for the dependence of effective viscosity on the proppant concentration, needed for numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracture propagation.

Kuzkin, Vitaly A; Linkov, Aleksandr M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas and a mixture of gas and liquid helium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle that changes from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium fluid comprised of a mixture of gas and boiling liquid so as to be near the same temperature but at different pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T.sub.1. By first circulating the fluid in a go leg from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a high pressure helium gas near the normal boiling temperature of helium; then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a mixture of reduced pressure gas and boiling liquid at its boiling temperature; then by circulating the mixture in a return leg that is separated from but in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg and in the same enclosure therewith; and finally returning the resulting low pressure gas to the refrigerator for compression into a high pressure gas at T.sub.2 is a closed cycle, where T.sub.1 >T.sub.2, the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature is nearly constant along its length from the refrigerator to the expander due to the boiling of the liquid in the mixture. A heat exchanger between the go and return lines removes the gas from the liquid in the return leg while cooling the go leg.

Dean, John W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may be used to selectively remove water from a fermentation broth thus concentrating calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Compared to competing technologies that extract undissociated acids from a volatile fatty acid fermentation broth, extracting water with tertiary amines allows for higher pH levels in the broth resulting in greater productivity. Specifically, triethylamine and N,N-diethyl-methylamine in a 1:2 volumetric mixture are superior to any other examined mixture or single amine for extracting water at 40[]C, the proposed fermentation temperature (Lee, 1993; Davison et al., 1966, 1967). Once the acid salts have been concentrated, a variety of techniques are available to convert the concentrated salts into other products such as ketones, alcohols, and acids. At low temperatures, the low-molecular-weight amine mixture has a high affinity for water. By raising the temperature 20 to 25[]C, the water separates from the amine allowing for convenient solvent regeneration of the amine. The distribution coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used to extract water from actual fermentation broth to determine whether possible surfactants in the broth interfere with the extraction. Prior to extraction, the fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 11.5 by adding a small amount of lime. The high pH precipitate protein which can be recycled to the fermentor or collected for animal feed. Through 15 extraction runs, no degradation of the amine was observed.

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Deliberate ignition of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures in condensing steam environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Large scale experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of thermal glow plug igniters to burn hydrogen in a condensing steam environment due to the presence of water sprays. The experiments were designed to determine if a detonation or accelerated flame could occur in a hydrogen-air-steam mixture which was initially nonflammable due to steam dilution but was rendered flammable by rapid steam condensation due to water sprays. Eleven Hydrogen Igniter Tests were conducted in the test vessel. The vessel was instrumented with pressure transducers, thermocouple rakes, gas grab sample bottles, hydrogen microsensors, and cameras. The vessel contained two prototypic engineered systems: (1) a deliberate hydrogen ignition system and (2) a water spray system. Experiments were conducted under conditions scaled to be nearly prototypic of those expected in Advanced Light Water Reactors (such as the Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80+), with prototypic spray drop diameter, spray mass flux, steam condensation rates, hydrogen injection flow rates, and using the actual proposed plant igniters. The lack of any significant pressure increase during the majority of the burn and condensation events signified that localized, benign hydrogen deflagration(s) occurred with no significant pressure load on the containment vessel. Igniter location did not appear to be a factor in the open geometry. Initially stratified tests with a stoichiometric mixture in the top showed that the water spray effectively mixes the initially stratified atmosphere prior to the deflagration event. All tests demonstrated that thermal glow plugs ignite hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under conditions with water sprays near the flammability limits previously determined for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under quiescent conditions. This report describes these experiments, gives experimental results, and provides interpretation of the results. 12 refs., 127 figs., 16 tabs.

Blanchat, T.K.; Stamps, D.W.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Excimer laser photochemistry of silane-ammonia mixtures at 193 nm  

SciTech Connect

The ArF excimer laser induced photochemistry of silane-ammonia mixtures has been studied with molecular beam sampling mass spectrometry. The observed products include disilane, trisilane, and all possible aminosilanes, SiH{sub x}(NH{sub 2}){sub 4-x}, x = 0-3. These products are formed under steady-state photolysis conditions and under single-laser-pulse conditions. A mechanism for the formation of these species is proposed and quantitatively evaluated.

Beach, D.B.; Jasinski, J.M. (Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (USA))

1990-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

374

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

PLATINUM HEXAFLUORIDE AND METHOD OF FLUORINATING PLUTONIUM CONTAINING MIXTURES THERE-WITH  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of platinum hexafluoride and its use as a fluorinating agent in a process for separating plutonium from fission products is presented. According to the invention, platinum is reacted with fluorine gas at from 900 to 1100 deg C to form platinum hexafluoride. The platinum hexafluoride is then contacted with the plutonium containing mixture at room temperature to form plutonium hexafluoride which is more volatile than the fission products fluorides and therefore can be isolated by distillation.

Malm, J.G.; Weinstock, B.; Claassen, H.H.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

On the balance equations for a dilute binary mixture in special relativity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we study the properties of a relativistic mixture of two non-reacting species in thermal local equilibrium. We use the full Boltzmann equation (BE) to find the general balance equations. Following conventional ideas in kinetic theory, we use the concept of chaotic velocity. This is a novel approach to the problem. The resulting equations will be the starting point of the calculation exhibiting the correct thermodynamic forces and the corresponding fluxes; these results will be published elsewhere.

Moratto, Valdemar [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Perciante, A. L. [Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Colin, L. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); El Colegio Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

378

Substate Tying With Combined Parameter Training and Reduction in Tied-Mixture HMM Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two approaches are proposed for the design of tied-mixture hidden Markov models (TMHMM). One approach improves parameter sharing via partial tying of TMHMM states. To facilitate tying at the substate level, the state emission probabilities are constructed in two stages or, equivalently, are viewed as a "mixture of mixtures of Gaussians." This paradigm allows, and is complemented with, an optimization technique to seek the best complexity-accuracy tradeoff solution, which jointly exploits Gaussian density sharing and substate tying. Another approach to enhance model training is combined training and reduction of model parameters. The procedure starts by training a system with a large universal codebook of Gaussian densities. It then iteratively reduces the size of both the codebook and the mixing coefficient matrix, followed by parameter re-training. The additional cost in design complexity is modest. Experimental results on the ISOLET database and its E-set subset show that substate tying reduces the classification error rate by over 15%, compared to standard Gaussian sharing and whole-state tying. TMHMM design with combined training and reduction of parameters reduces the classification error rate by over 20% compared to conventional TMHMM design. When the two proposed approaches were integrated, 25% error rate reduction over TMHMM with whole-state tying was achieved.

Liang Gu; Kenneth Rose; Senior Member

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Mixtures of SF6 CO2 as working fluids for geothermal power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, supercritical/transcritical thermodynamic cycles using mixtures of SF6 CO2 as working fluids were investigated for geothermal power plants. The system of equations that described the thermodynamic cycle was solved using a Newton-Raphson method. This approach allows a high computational efficiency even when thermophysical properties of the working fluid depend strongly on the temperature and pressure. The thermophysical properties of the mixtures were obtained from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) REFPROP software and constituent cubic equations. The local heat transfer coefficients in the heat exchangers were calculated based on the local properties of the working fluid, geothermal brine, and cooling water. The heat exchanger areas required were calculated. Numerical simulation results presented for different cycle configurations were used to assess the effects of the SF6 fraction in CO2, brine temperature, and recuperator size on the cycle thermal efficiency, and size of heat exchangers for the evaporator and condenser. Optimal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies were calculated to be approximately 13 and 15% mole content of SF6 in a CO2- SF6 mixture for a Brayton cycle and a Rankine cycle, respectively.

Yin, Hebi [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Quantum Annealing for Dirichlet Process Mixture Models with Applications to Network Clustering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We developed a new quantum annealing (QA) algorithm for Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) models based on the Chinese restaurant process (CRP). QA is a parallelized extension of simulated annealing (SA), i.e., it is a parallel stochastic optimization technique. Existing approaches [Kurihara et al. UAI2009, Sato et al. UAI2009] and cannot be applied to the CRP because their QA framework is formulated using a fixed number of mixture components. The proposed QA algorithm can handle an unfixed number of classes in mixture models. We applied QA to a DPM model for clustering vertices in a network where a CRP seating arrangement indicates a network partition. A multi core processor was used for running QA in experiments, the results of which show that QA is better than SA, Markov chain Monte Carlo inference, and beam search at finding a maximum a posteriori estimation of a seating arrangement in the CRP. Since our QA algorithm is as easy as to implement the SA algorithm, it is suitable for a wide range of applications.

Issei Sato; Shu Tanaka; Kenichi Kurihara; Seiji Miyashita; Hiroshi Nakagawa

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Langmuir Monolayers of Straight-Chain and Branched Hexadecanol and Eicosanol Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Langmuir monolayers of straight-chain and branched hexadecanol and eicosanol mixtures were previously studied using surface pressure-area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and interfacial rheology. In this paper, we investigate the structure of these fatty alcohol mixtures using these previous results together with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements, which provide a better understanding of the structure of the monolayer in terms of the phase segregation and location of branched chains. For eicosanol below 25 mN/m, the branched chains are incorporated into the monolayer, yet they are phase-separated from the straight chains. At higher surface pressures, the branched chains are expelled from the monolayer and presumably form micelles or some other aggregate in the subphase. In contrast, the hexadecanol branched chains are not present in the monolayer at any surface pressure. These behaviors are interpreted with the help of the X-ray measurements and density profiles, and are explained in terms of straight-chain flexibility. We will discuss the effect of the monolayer structure on the surface shear viscosity. These studies provide a deeper understanding of the structure and behavior of amphiphilic mixtures, and will ultimately aid in developing models for lipids, micelle formation, and other important biological functions.

Kurtz, R.E.; Toney, M.F.; Pople, J.A.; Lin, B.; Meron, M.; Majewski, J.; Lange, A.; Fuller, G.G. (Stanford); (BASF SE); (SSRL); (CARS); (LANL)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

Langmuir Monolayers of Straight-Chain And Branched Hexadecanol And Eicosanol Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Langmuir monolayers of straight-chain and branched hexadecanol and eicosanol mixtures were previously studied using surface pressure-area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and interfacial rheology. In this paper, we investigate the structure of these fatty alcohol mixtures using these previous results together with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements, which provide a better understanding of the structure of the monolayer in terms of the phase segregation and location of branched chains. For eicosanol below 25 mN/m, the branched chains are incorporated into the monolayer, yet they are phase-separated from the straight chains. At higher surface pressures, the branched chains are expelled from the monolayer and presumably form micelles or some other aggregate in the subphase. In contrast, the hexadecanol branched chains are not present in the monolayer at any surface pressure. These behaviors are interpreted with the help of the X-ray measurements and density profiles, and are explained in terms of straight-chain flexibility. We will discuss the effect of the monolayer structure on the surface shear viscosity. These studies provide a deeper understanding of the structure and behavior of amphiphilic mixtures, and will ultimately aid in developing models for lipids, micelle formation, and other important biological functions.

Kurtz, R.E.; Toney, M.F.; Pople, J.A.; Lin, B.; Meron, M.; Majewski, J.; Lange, A.; Fuller, G.G.

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

383

The cytoplasm of living cells: A functional mixture of thousands of components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inside every living cell is the cytoplasm: a fluid mixture of thousands of different macromolecules, predominantly proteins. This mixture is where most of the biochemistry occurs that enables living cells to function, and it is perhaps the most complex liquid on earth. Here we take an inventory of what is actually in this mixture. Recent genome-sequencing work has given us for the first time at least some information on all of these thousands of components. Having done so we consider two physical phenomena in the cytoplasm: diffusion and possible phase separation. Diffusion is slower in the highly crowded cytoplasm than in dilute solution. Reasonable estimates of this slowdown can be obtained and their consequences explored, for example, monomer-dimer equilibria are established approximately twenty times slower than in a dilute solution. Phase separation in all except exceptional cells appears not to be a problem, despite the high density and so strong protein-protein interactions present. We suggest that this may be partially a byproduct of the evolution of other properties, and partially a result of the huge number of components present.

Richard P. Sear

2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

Microsoft Word - eas3548 cx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applicable Applicable Determination for the East Campus Parking Structure at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (3548X) The Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) proposes to construct a parking structure in the East Campus region of ORNL. This will provide staff parking in the most heavily populated area of ORNL. Construction activities will include clearing the area of trees and vegetation, grading the site, and constructing an approximately 200 feet long by 120 feet wide and 3-story high concrete and steel-supported structure. In addition, the surface areas on the west and south sides of the proposed structure would be graded and asphalt-paved. Asphalt- paved roads would be constructed to allow access to the parking structure and surface parking.

385

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hot in place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair of cracks, joints between lanes and shoulders, wheel tracks, bridge decks, strip patching, and eventually in-place of full lanes of asphalt highways. The ability of microwave energy to heat pavements rapidly and fairly uniformly to depths of up to 6 inches make this new method uniquely suitable for repair and restoration of bridges, roads and highways, and also for the construction of new paved roads in places where hot-mix plants are not available.

Jeppson, M.R.; Smith, F.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot-engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair of cracks, joints between lanes and shoulders, wheel tracks, bridge decks, strip patching, and eventually in-place recycling of full lanes of asphalt highways. The ability of microwave energy to heat pavements rapidly and fairly uniformly to depths of up to 6 inches make this new method uniquely suitable for repair and restoration of bridges, roads and highways, and also for the construction of new paved roads in places where hot-mix plants are not available.

Jeppson, M.R.; Smith, F.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

A combined ultrasonic flow meter and binary vapour mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) evaporative coolant to a blend containing 10-25% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane). Such a change will reduce the evaporation temperature to assure thermal stability following radiation damage accumulated at full LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic instrument in which sound transit times are continuously measured in opposite directions in flowing gas at known temperature and pressure to deduce the C3F8/C2F6 flow rate and mixture composition. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. Several geometries for the instrument are in use or under evaluation. An instrument with a pinched axial geometry intended for analysis and measurement of moderate flow rates has demonstrated a mixture resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 molar mixtures with 20%C2F6, and a flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of <5.10-5 to leaks of C3F8 into part of the ATLAS tracker nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. An instrument with an angled sound path geometry has been developed for use at high fluorocarbon mass flow rates of around 1.2 kgs-1 - corresponding to full flow in a new 60kW thermosiphon recirculator under construction for the ATLAS silicon tracker. Extensive computational fluid dynamics studies were performed to determine the preferred geometry (ultrasonic transducer spacing and placement, together with the sound crossing angle with respect to the vapour flow direction). A prototype with 45deg crossing angle has demonstrated a flow resolution of 1.9% of full scale for linear flow velocities up to 15 ms-1. The instrument has many potential applications.

R. Bates; M. Battistin; S. Berry; J. Berthoud; A. Bitadze; P. Bonneau; J. Botelho-Direito; N. Bousson; G. Boyd; G. Bozza; E. Da Riva; C. Degeorge; B. DiGirolamo; M. Doubek; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; G. Hallewell; S. Katunin; D. Lombard; M. Mathieu; S. McMahon; K. Nagai; E. Perez-Rodriguez; C. Rossi; A. Rozanov; V. Vacek; M. Vitek; L. Zwalinski

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Experimental measurements and modeling prediction of flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flammability limit is a significant safety issue for industrial processes. A certain amount of flammability limit data for pure hydrocarbons are available in the literature, but for industrial applications, there are conditions including different combinations of fuels at standard and non-standard conditions, in which the flammability limit data are scarce and sometimes unavailable. This research is two-fold: (i) Performing experimental measurements to estimate the lower flammability limits and upper flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures, conducting experimental data numerical analysis to quantitatively characterize the flammability limits of these mixtures with parameters, such as component compositions, flammability properties of pure hydrocarbons, and thermo-kinetic values; (ii) Estimating flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures through CFT-V modeling prediction (calculated flame temperature at constant volume), which is based on a comprehensive consideration of energy conservation. For the experimental part, thermal detection was used in this experiment. The experimental results indicate that the experimental results fit Le Chatelier’s Law within experimental uncertainty at the lower flammability limit condition. At the upper flammability limit condition, Le Chatelier’s Law roughly fits the saturated hydrocarbon mixture data, while with mixtures that contain one or more unsaturated components, a modification of Le Chatelier’s is preferred to fit the experimental data. The easy and efficient way to modify Le Chatelier’s Law is to power the molar percentage concentrations of hydrocarbon components. For modeling prediction part, the CFT-V modeling is an extended modification of CAFT modeling at constant volume and is significantly related to the reaction vessel configuration. This modeling prediction is consistent with experimental observation and Le Chatelier’s Law at the concentrations of lower flammability limits. When the quenching effect is negligible, this model can be simplified by ignoring heat loss from the reaction vessel to the external surroundings. Specifically, when the total mole changes in chemical reactions can be neglected and the quenching effect is small, CFTV modeling can be simplified to CAFT modeling.

Zhao, Fuman

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Gasification of Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass with Enriched Air Mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass is one of the renewable and non-conventional energy sources and it includes municipal solid wastes and animal wastes in addition to agricultural residue. Concentrated animal feeding operations produce large quantities of cattle biomass which might result in land and water pollution if left untreated. Different methods are employed to extract the available energy from the cattle biomass (CB) which includes co-firing and gasification. There are two types of CB: Feedlot biomass (FB), animal waste from feedlots and dairy biomass (DB), animal waste from dairy farms. Experiments were performed in the part on gasification of both FB and DB. Earlier studies on gasification of DB with different steam-fuel ratios resulted in increased production of hydrogen. In the present study, dairy biomass was gasified in a medium with enriched oxygen percentage varying from 24% to 28%. The effect of enriched air mixture, equivalence ratio and steam-fuel ratio on the performance of gasifier was studied. Limited studies were done using a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen as the gasification medium and also a methodology was developed to determine the gasification efficiency based on mass and heat contents of gas. The results show that the peak temperature within the bed increases with increase in oxygen concentration in the gasification medium. Also carbon dioxide concentration in the mixture increases with corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide with increase in oxygen concentration of the incoming gasification medium. The peak temperature increased from 988°C to 1192°C as the oxygen concentration increased from 21% to 28% at ER=2.1. The upper limit on oxygen concentration is limited to 28% due to high peak temperature and resulting ash agglomeration. Higher heating value (HHV) of the gases decreases with increase in equivalence ratio. The gases produced using carbon dioxide and oxygen mixture had a higher HHV when compared to that of air and enriched air gasification. Typically the HHV of the gases increased from 2219 kJ/m³ to 3479 kJ/m³ when carbon dioxide and oxygen mixture is used for gasification instead of air at ER=4.2 in the absence of steam.

Thanapal, Siva Sankar

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Commissioning of a magnetic suspension densitometer for high-accuracy density measurements of natural gas mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-accuracy density measurement data are required to validate equations of state (EOS) for use in custody transfer of natural gas through pipelines. The AGA8-DC92 EOS, which is the current industry standard has already been validated against a databank of natural gas mixtures with compositions containing up to 0.2 mole percent of the heavier C6+ fraction and is expected to predict densities of natural gas mixtures containing higher mole percentages of the C6+ fraction with the same accuracy. With the advances in exploration, drilling and production, natural gas streams containing higher percentages of the C6+ fraction have become available from the deepwater and ultra-deepwater Gulf of Mexico in recent years. High-accuracy, density data for such natural gas mixtures are required to check if the AGA8-DC92 EOS covers the entire range of pressure, temperature and compositions encountered in custody transfer. A state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature, compact single-sinker magnetic suspension densitometer has been used to measure densities of two simulated natural gas mixtures named M91C1 and M94C1 after validating its operation by measuring densities of pure argon, nitrogen and methane in the range (270 to 340) K [(26.33 to152.33) oF, (-3.15 to 66.85) oC] and (3.447 to 34.474) MPa [(500 to 5,000) psia]. Measured densities of M91C1, not containing the C6+ fraction show larger than expected relative deviations from the AGA8-DC92 EOS predictions in regions 1 and 2 but agree well with predictions from the recently developed REFPROP EOS, implyingthat the AGA8-DC92 EOS may be unreliable in its present state even for natural gas mixtures not containing the C6+ fraction. Measured densities of M94C1 containing more than 0.2 mole percent of the C6+ fraction deviate from the AGA8-DC92 EOS predictions by more than the expected values in region 1 which is not surprising but the agreement with AGA8-DC92 EOS predictions in region 2 is misleading which becomes evident when the measured densities are compared to the REFPROP EOS predictions. The measured data can be used to recalibrate the parameters of the AGA8-DC92 EOS or to validate an entirely new EOS.

Patil, Prashant Vithal

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Use of recycled materials in highway construction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the types of recycled materials that are appropriate and feasible as alternative paving materials, such as glass and tires; and (2) the types of recycled materials, such as mixed-plastics and compost, that can be utilized in all types of transportation applications other than pavements. Seven key products are investigated: (1) tires, (2) glass, (3) asphalt concrete, (4) fly ash, (5) compost, (6) mixed plastics, and (7) aluminum sign stock. Performance and cost data for rubber-asphalt pavements is documented for both in-state and nationwide applications. The national experience with the use of waste glass as an additive to asphalt concrete and its use in unbound base materials is also highlighted. Programs for experimental use of recycled materials are outlined. Recommendations for staffing and program changes to deal with recycling issues are also discussed.

Swearingen, D.L.; Jackson, N.C.; Anderson, K.W.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Background picture courtesy of EnBW AG The special properties of zeotropic mixtures and the complex =low geometry created by the corrugated plates make the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

behavior of ammonia-water mixtures in corrugated plates heat exchangers NH3-H2O geothermal power plants running Kalina cycles based on ammonia-water mixtures of the Kalina cycle, the phase change behavior of ammonia-water mixtures must

Lausanne, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de

393

Simulation of Spatial Dependence in Daily Precipitation Using a Mixture of Generalized Chain-Dependent Processes at Multisites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, a single-site stochastic precipitation model called “the mixture of generalized chain-dependent processes conditioned on a climate variable” was developed. The model can effectively eliminate overdispersion—that is, underestimation in ...

Xiaogu Zheng; Craig S. Thompson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Jiao, C. Q. [ISSI Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Sound speed in liquid–gas mixtures: Water–air and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sound speed of a two-phase fluid, such as a magma-gas, water-air, or water-steam mixture, is dramatically different from the sound speed of either pure component. In numerous geologic situations the sound speed of such two-phase systems may be of interest: in the search for magma reservoirs, in seismic exploration of geothermal areas, in prediction of P wave velocity decreases prior to earthquakes, and in inversion of crustal and upper mantle seismic records. Probably most dramatically, fluid flow characteristics during eruptions of volcanoes and geysers are strongly dependent on the sound speed of erupting two-phase (or multiphase) fluids. In this paper the sound speeds of water, air, steam, water-air mixtures, and water-steam mixtures are calculated. It is demonstrated that sound speeds calculated from classical acoustic and fluid dynamics analyses agree with results obtained from finite amplitude 'vaporization wave ' theory. To the extent that air and steam are represented as perfect gases with an adiabatic exponent •, independent of temperature, their sound speeds vary in a simple manner directly with the square root of the absolute temperature. The sound speed of pure liquid water is a complex function of pressure and temperature and is given here to 8 kbar, 900øC. In pure water at all pressures the sound speed attains a maximum value near 100øC and decreases at higher temperatures; at high pressures the decrease is continuous, but at pressures below 1 kbar the sound speed reaches a minimum value in the

Susan Werner Kieffer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen storage reactions and their application to destabilized hydride mixtures Hydrogen Storage & Nanoscale Modeling Group Ford Motor Company Don Siegel dsiegel2@ford.com Phys. Rev. B 76, 134102 (2007) 1 Acknowledgements C. Wolverton V. Ozolins Computation Northwestern UCLA J. Yang A. Sudik Experiments Ford Ford 2 Computational Methodology * Atomistic computer simulations based on quantum mechanics (Density Functional Theory) * First-principles approach: - Only empirical input are crystal structure and fundamental physical constants - VASP code - PAW potentials - PW91 GGA - Temperature-dependent thermodynamic contributions evaluated within harmonic approximation * "Direct method" for construction of dynamical matrix

397

SOLAR MIXTURE OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING DETAILED CONFIGURATION AND LEVEL ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An opacity model (OPAS) combining detailed configuration and level accounting treatments has been developed to calculate radiative opacity of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The model is presented and used to compute spectral opacities of a solar mixture. Various density-temperature couples have been considered from the solar center up to the vicinity of the radiative/convective zone interface. For a given solar thermodynamic path, OPAS calculations are compared to Opacity Project (OP) and OPAL data. Rosseland mean opacity values are in very good agreement over all the considered solar thermodynamic path, while OPAS and OP spectral opacities of each element may vary considerably. Main sources of discrepancy are discussed.

Blancard, Christophe; Cosse, Philippe; Faussurier, Gerald [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

398

Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations.

Neidlinger, Hermann H. (Lakewood, CO); Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Orth, Richard A. (Denver, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyacrylic acid composite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyacrylic acid salts for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ehthanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanata solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structure showed selectivity in permeating water over a wide range of feed concentrations. 4 tabs.

Neidlinger, H.H.

1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations. 2 tabs.

Neidlinger, H.H.; Schissel, P.O.; Orth, R.A.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "asphalt paving mixture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations.

Neidlinger, H.H.; Schissel, P.O.; Orth, R.A.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

402

Method of producing a methane rich gas mixture from mine gas  

SciTech Connect

A pressure-swing adsorption system is used to enrich the methane content of mine gas obtained from bores around mine shafts or galleries from the customary 25 to 45% by volume to a product gas quality of 50% by volume. Using a carbon molecular sieve adsorbent, the adsorption is carried out at 5 to 8 bar and is followed by a uniflow expansion to an intermediate pressure and a counterflow expansion to a flushing pressure of 1.1 to 2 bar. Counterflow flushing is carried out with waste gas and the product gas is a mixture of the gases obtained by counterflow expansion and flushing.

Richter, E.; Giessler, K.; Knoblauch, K.; Korbacher, W.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Organic aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes {aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1,050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

Pekala, R.W.

1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

404

Black soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional trapped fermion-fermion mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Employing a time-dependent mean-field-hydrodynamic model we study the generation of black solitons in a degenerate fermion-fermion mixture in a cigar-shaped geometry using variational and numerical solutions. The black soliton is found to be the first stationary vibrational excitation of the system and is considered to be a nonlinear continuation of the vibrational excitation of the harmonic oscillator state. We illustrate the stationary nature of the black soliton, by studying different perturbations on it after its formation.

Sadhan K. Adhikari

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

405

Topological Mott insulators of ultracold atomic mixtures induced by interactions in one-dimensional optical superlattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present exactly solvable examples that topological Mott insulators can emerge from topologically trivial states due to strong interactions between atoms for atomic mixtures trapped in one-dimensional optical superlattice systems. The topological Mott insulating state is characterized by nonzero Chern number and appears in the strongly interacting limit as long as the total band filling factor is an integer, which is not sensitive to the filling of each component. The topological nature of the Mott phase can be revealed by observing the density profile of the trapped system. Our results can be also generalized to the multi-component atomic systems.

Zhihao Xu; Shu Chen

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

406

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Summer 2012 Testing and Analysis of the Chemical Mixture Methodology -- Part I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the key findings made by the Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) project team during the first stage of their summer 2012 testing and analysis of the CMM. The study focused on answering the following questions: o What is the percentage of the chemicals in the CMM Rev 27 database associated with each Health Code Number (HCN)? How does this result influence the relative importance of acute HCNs and chronic HCNs in the CMM data set? o What is the benefit of using the HCN-based approach? Which Modes of Action and Target Organ Effects tend to be important in determining the HCN-based Hazard Index (HI) for a chemical mixture? o What are some of the potential issues associated with the current HCN-based approach? What are the opportunities for improving the performance and/or technical defensibility of the HCN-based approach? How would those improvements increase the benefit of using the HCN-based approach? o What is the Target Organ System Effect approach and how can it be used to improve upon the current HCN-based approach? How does the benefits users would derive from using the Target Organ System Approach compare to the benefits available from the current HCN-based approach?

Glantz, Clifford S.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Coggin, Rebekah L.; Ponder, Lashaundra A.; Booth, Alexander E.; Petrocchi, Achille J.; Horn, Sarah M.; Yao, Juan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Automotive storage of hydrogen as a mixture of methanol and water. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The concept of steam-reforming methanol on-board an automobile was evaluated as a candidate method of storing fuel for the hydrogen engine. This method uses low-temperature, engine waste heat to evaporate a 1:1 molar water-methanol mixture at 373/sup 0/K (212/sup 0/F) and to provide endothermic reaction heat at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F) to convert this mixture to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. By using engine waste heat, a fuel combustion enrichment of 8% (LHV) or 18% (HHV) is obtained when the reactor effluents are compared with those from the tanked fuel. Defining system efficiency as the product of the generator chemical efficiency (108%) and the engine thermal efficiency (assumed to be 30%) yields a value of 32.4%. Conservative estimates indicate that an additional volume of 44 to 49 liters and an additional weight of 110 to 140 kg would be required, compared with a conventional 20 gal gasoline tank. A 500 hour endurance test of this system with a Girdler G-66B catalyst was conducted at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F), atmospheric pressure, and low space velocity--compared with automotive requirements--at wide-open-throttle conditions with laboratory-grade methanol; there was no loss of activity. However, when fuel-grade methanol containing small amounts of higher alcohols was substituted for the laboratory-grade methanol, significant catalyst deactivation occurred. (auth)

Kester, F.L.; Konopka, A.J.; Camara, E.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

Ashish Gupta

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Experimental and analytical study of condensation of ammonia-water mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The need for more energy efficient power generation and recent environmental issues of CFCs prompted the development of combined steam and Kalina cycle power systems, and advanced ammonia/water absorption heat pumps. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, a theoretical analysis was carried for the condensation of ammonia/water mixtures on a vertical tube. A set of equations was formulated and a calculation algorithm was developed to predict the local rate of heat and mass fluxes for binary ammonia-water systems. The predicted rate of condensation was compared with the experimental data obtained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for a mixture of 90% ammonia and 10% water. The role of diffusion in simultaneous heat and mass transfer associated with condensation was analyzed by comparing the results from three limiting cases, which include equilibrium conditions, and liquid-phase diffusion of finite and infinite values. The results showed that the vapor-phase diffusion is a controlling mechanism.

Panchal, C.B.; Kuru, W.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chen, F.C.; Domingo, N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); HuangFu, E.P.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Optimizing cellulase mixtures for maximum rate and extent of hydrolysis. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pure Thomomonospora fusca and Trichoderma reesei cellulases and their mixtures were studied to determine the optimal set of cellulases for biomass hydrolysis. The objective was to reduce the cost of cellulase in order to help lower the overall processing cost of the enzymatic conversion of biomass cellulose to sugars, which can then be fermented into fuels and other energy-intensive chemicals. No cellulase mixture was obtained that was much better than the best commercially available preparations. However, the study has greatly increased knowledge of T. fusca cellulases, synergism, and cellulose binding, and provide evidence that future work will produce cellulases with higher activity in degrading crystalline cellulose. T. fusca cellulases may have good industrial potential because: (1) they are compatible with industrial processes that operate at elevated temperatures; (2) they retain 90% of their activity under neutral or basic conditions, which provides a great deal of flexibility in reactor design and operation; and (3) tools are now available to change specific amino acid residues in their catalytic domains and to assess how these changes influence catalysis. 74 refs.

Walker, L.P.; Wilson, D.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

Supercooled-liquid and plastic-crystalline state in succinonitrile-glutaronitrile mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a thorough characterization of the glassy phases of mixtures of succinonitrile and glutaronitrile via dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. This system is revealed to be one of the rare examples where both glassy states of matter, a structurally disordered supercooled liquid and an orientationally disordered plastic crystal, can be prepared in the same material. Both disordered states can be easily supercooled, finally arriving at a structural-glass or a glassy-crystal state. Detailed investigations using broadband dielectric spectroscopy enable a comparison of the glassy dynamics in both phases. Just as previously demonstrated for supercooled-liquid and plastic-crystalline ethanol, our experiments reveal very similar relaxational behavior and glass temperatures of both disordered states. Thus the prominent role of orientational degrees of freedom in the glass transition, suggested on the basis of the findings for ethanol, is fully corroborated by the present work. Moreover, the fragilities of both phases are determined and compared for different mixtures. The findings can be well understood within an energy-landscape based explanation of fragility.

M. Götz; Th. Bauer; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

414

Measurements of fuel mixture fraction oscillations of a turbulent jet non-premixed flame  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes new type of combustion instability for which the 3-way coupling between mixing, flame heat release, and acoustics is modified by local buoyancy effects. Measurements of fuel mixture fraction are made for a non-premixed jet flame in a combustion chamber to assess the dynamics of mixing under imposed acoustic oscillations (22-55 Hz). Infrared laser absorption and phase resolved acetone-planar laser induced fluorescence are used to measure the fuel mixture fraction and then the degree of fuel/air mixing is calculated by determining the unmixedness. Results show acoustic excitation causes oscillations in the degree of fuel/air mixing at the driving frequency, which results in oscillatory flame behavior. This oscillatory flame behavior couples to the buoyancy and this in turn affects the mixing. Results also show that the mixing becomes less effective when the excitation frequency is increased or when the flame is present, compared to the non-reacting case. This work describes a key coupling mechanism that occurs when buoyancy is a significant factor in the flow field. (author)

Kanga, D.M. [LG Chem Research Park, Dajeon 305-380 (Korea); Fernandez, V.; Culick, F.E.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ratner, A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Effect of different crop species and mixtures and storage methods on ethanol production. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corn, grain sorghum, wheat and barley were tested for ethanol production as pure species and in mixtures. Some compensatory responses were discovered such as foam reduction in barley feedstocks. Cull potatoes were also tested for ethanol production in their pure state and in combination with grain sorghum. Potato producers could derive additional income if cull potatoes could be profitably used in the production of ethanol. A potato and grain mixture may alleviate the necessity of adding additional grinding equipment to process fleshy high moisture material. It is noteworthy to point out that the hammer mill employed at NMSU Agricultural Science Center at Clovis had no problems in processing potatoes in their pure form. Ensiling storage for high moisture corn and sweet sorghum was tested to determine the effect on ethanol production. High moisture corn proved to be an acceptable feedstock for ethanol production. Because of significant deterioration of the ensiled sweet sorghum samples, further investigation into appropriate techniques to simulate silage on a small-scale is needed. 6 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

Houck, W.S.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

The Effect of Circuiting Arrangement on the Thermal Performance of Refrigeration Mixtures in Tube-and-Fin Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

For the pure or azeotropic refrigerants typically used in present air conditioning and refrigeration applications, the refrigerant changes phase at a constant temperature. Thus, the refrigerant circuiting arrangement such as crossfiow, counterfiow, or cross-counterflow, has no effect on the thermal performance. For zeotropic refrigerant mixtures, however, the phase-change occurs over a temperature range, or "glide", and the refrigerant circuiting arrangement, or flow path through the heat exchanger, can affect the thermal performance of both the heat exchangers as well as the overall efficiency of the vapor compression cooling cycle. The effects of tsvo diflerent circuiting arrangements on the thermal performance of a zeotropic retligerant mixture and an almost azeotropic refrigerant mixture in a four-row cross-countertlow heat exchanger arrangement are reported here. The two condensers differ only in the manner of circuiting the refrigerant tubes, where one has refrigerant always flowing downward in the active heat transfer region ("identical order") and the other has refrigerant alternating flow direction in the active heat transfer region ("inverted order"). All other geometric parameters, such as bce are% fin louver geometry, refrigerant tube size and enhancement etc., are the same for both heat exchangers. One refrigerant mixture (R-41OA) un&rgoes a small temperature change ("low glide") during phase change, and the other retligerant mixture (a multi- component proprietary mixture) has a substantial temperature change ("high glide") of approximately 10"C during the phase change process. The overall thermal conductance, two-phase conductance, and pressure drop are presented. For the flow conditions of these tests, which are representative of resi&ntial cooling conditions, inverted order circuiting is more desirable than identical order. The potential thermal advantages of the i&ntical order arrangement for high-glide zeotropic refrigerant mixtures are negated by the increased parasitic refrigerant-side pressure drop utiortunately resulting from tkbrication requirements of the identical order circuiting.

Chen, D.T.; Conklin, J.C.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside a 7 mm straight smooth tube  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside a straight smooth tube with the outside diameter of 7.0 mm were investigated experimentally. The experimental conditions include the evaporation temperature of 5 C, the mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the heat flux from 7.56 to 15.12 kW m{sup -2}, the inlet vapor quality from 0.2 to 0.7, nominal oil concentration from 0% to 5%. The test results show that the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture increases with mass flux of refrigerant-oil mixture; the presence of oil enhances the heat transfer at the range of low and intermediate vapor qualities; there is a peak of local heat transfer coefficient at about 2-4% nominal oil concentration at higher vapor qualities, and the peak shifts to lower nominal oil concentration with the increasing of vapor qualities; higher nominal oil concentration gives more detrimental effect at high vapor qualities. The flow pattern map of R410A-oil mixture was developed based on refrigerant-oil mixture properties, and the observed flow patterns match well with the flow pattern map. New correlation to predict the local heat transfer of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside the straight smooth tube was developed based on flow patterns and local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture, and it agrees with 90% of the experiment data within the deviation of {+-}25%. (author)

Hu, Haitao; Ding, Guoliang; Wei, Wenjian; Wang, Zhence [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of flammability limits is essential in the prevention of fire and explosion. There are two limits of flammability, upper flammability limit (UFL) and lower flammability limit (LFL), which define the flammable region of a combustible gas/vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures of hydrogen and each hydrocarbon were determined experimentally at room temperature (20ºC) and initial pressures ranging from 1.0 atm to 0.1 atm. The experiments were conducted in a closed cylindrical stainless steel vessel with upward flame propagation. It was found that the flammable region of hydrogen initially widens when the pressure decreases from 1.0 atm to 0.3 atm, then narrows with the further decrease of pressure. In contrast, the flammable regions of the hydrocarbons narrow when the pressure decreases. For hydrogen and the hydrocarbons, pressure has a much greater impact on the UFLs than on the LFLs. For binary mixtures of hydrogen and the hydrocarbons, the flammable regions of all mixtures widen when the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture increases. When the pressure decreases, the flammable regions of all mixtures narrow. The applications of Le Chatelier’s rule and the Calculated Adiabatic Flame Temperature (CAFT) model to the flammability limits of the mixtures were verified. It was found that Le Chatelier’s rule could predict the flammability limits much better than the CAFT model. The adiabatic flame temperatures (AFTs), an important parameter in the risk assessment of fire and explosion, of hydrogen and the hydrocarbons were also calculated. The influence of sub-atmospheric pressures on the AFTs was investigated. A linear relationship between the AFT and the corresponding flammability limit is derived. Furthermore, the consequence of fire relating to hydrogen and the hydrocarbons is discussed based on the AFTs of the chemicals.

Le, Thuy Minh Hai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on San Juan Basin Coal  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of this project were to (a) measure the adsorption behavior of pure methane, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and their binary and ternary mixtures on wet Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia; (b) correlate the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data using the extended Langmuir model, the Langmuir model, the loading ratio correlation and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson equation of state; and (c) establish sorption-time estimates for the pure components. Specific accomplishments are summarized below regarding the complementary tasks involving experimental work and data correlation. Representative coal samples from BP Amoco Tiffany Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 were prepared, as requested. The equilibrium moisture content and particle size distribution of each coal sample were determined. Compositional coal analyses for both samples were performed by Huffman Laboratories, Inc. Pure gas adsorption for methane on wet Tiffany coal samples from Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 was measured separately at 130 F (327.6 K) and pressures to 2000 psia (13.7 MPa). The average expected uncertainty in these data is about 3% (9 SCF/ton). Our measurements indicate that the adsorption isotherms of the two coal samples exhibit similar Langmuir-type behavior. For the samples from the two wells, a maximum variation of about 5% in the amount adsorbed is observed at 2000 psia. Gas adsorption isotherms were measured for pure methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} on a wet, mixed Tiffany coal sample. The coal sample was an equal-mass mixture of coals from Well No.1 and Well No.10. The adsorption measurements were conducted at 130 F at pressures to 2000 psia. The adsorption isotherms have average expected experimental uncertainties of 3% (9 SCF/ton), 6% (8 SCF/ton), and 7% (62 SCF/ton) for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorption isotherms were measured for methane/nitrogen, methane/CO{sub 2} and nitrogen/CO{sub 2} binary mixtures on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia. These measurements were conducted for a single molar feed composition for each mixture. The expected uncertainties in the amount adsorbed for these binary mixtures vary with pressure and composition. In general, average uncertainties are about 5% (19 SCF/ton) for the total adsorption; however, the expected uncertainties in the amount of individual-component adsorption are significantly higher for the less-adsorbed gas at lower molar feed concentrations (e.g., nitrogen in the 20/80 nitrogen/CO{sub 2} system). Adsorption isotherms were measured for a single methane/nitrogen/CO{sub 2} ternary mixture on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia. The nominal molar feed composition was 10/40/50. The average expected uncertainty for the total adsorption and CO{sub 2} adsorption is about 5% (16 SCF/ton). However, the low adsorption of nitrogen and methane in this ternary yield average experimental uncertainties of 14% (9 SCF/ton) and 27% (9 SCF/ton), respectively. Limited binary and ternary gas-phase compressibility factor measurements at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia involving methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were conducted to facilitate reduction of our ternary adsorption data. These newly acquired data (and available data from the literature) were used to improve the Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) equation-of-state (EOS) compressibility factor predictions, which are used in material balance calculations for the adsorption measurements. In general, the optimized BWR EOS represents the experimental compressibility factor data within 0.5% AAD. The Langmuir/loading ratio correlation (LRC) and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson (ZGR) two-dimensional EOS were used to analyze the newly acquired adsorption data. Model parameters were obtained for the systems studied. The LRC and ZGR EOS were used to correlate the adsorption data for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} and their mixtures on wet Tiffany coal. The model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of squares of weighted errors in the calculated amounts of gas adsorbed. The results

K. A. M. Gasem; R. L. Robinson; S. R. Reeves

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Experimental analysis of a window air conditioner with a R-22 and R32/R125/R134a mixture  

SciTech Connect

Much experimental and theoretical analysis of potential R-22 replacements has been accomplished. However, published information about the experimental analysis of any off-the-shelf air conditioner with a potential R-22 replacement at realistic, operating conditions is still rare. This type of work could be useful because it provides baseline data for comparing the performance of R-22 and its potential replacement at drop-in conditions. In this study, an off-the-shelf window air conditioner was tested at Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)-rated indoor conditions and at different ambient temperatures, including the ARI-rated outdoor condition, with R-22 and with its potential replacement, a ternary mixture of R-32(30%)/R-125(10%)/R-134a(60%) (the ternary mixture). A test rig was built that provided for baseline operation and for the option of operating the system with a flooded evaporator by means of liquid over-feeding (LOF). The test results indicated the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was 7.7% less than that of R-22 at 95{degrees}F ambient for baseline operation. The cooling capacity for both refrigerants improved when a flooded evaporator, or LOF, was used. For LOF operation, the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was only 1.1% less than that of R-22. The ternary mixture had slightly higher compressor discharge pressure, a lower compressor discharge temperature, slightly lower compressor power consumption, and a higher compressor high/low pressure ratio.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); HuangFu, E.P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A Combine On-Line Acoustic Flowmeter and Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for The ATLAS Silicon Tracker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new acoustic instrument for the real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures with ~20%C2F6, and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of < 5.10-4 to leaks of C3F8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons, vapours for semi-conductor manufacture and anaesthesia.

A. Bitadze; R. Bates; M. Battistin; S. Berry; P. Bonneau; J. Botelho-Direito; B. DiGirolamo; J. Godlewski; E. Perez-Rodriguez; L. Zwalinski; N. Bousson; G. Hallewell; M. Mathieu; A. Rozanov; G. Boyd; M. Doubek; V. Vacek; M. Vitek; K. Egorov; S. Katunin; S. McMahon; K. Nagai

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

423

American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8. 12-1987: Criticality control of plutonium-uranium mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.12-1987 was approved for use on September 11, 1987. This paper provides information on the limits presented in the standard. As stated in its foreword, the standard, provides guidance for the prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing, and transporting of plutonium-uranium fuel mixtures outside reactors and is applicable to all operations involving mixtures of plutonium and natural uranium. It constitutes an extension of the American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors, ANSI/ANS-8.1-1983. The standard includes subcritical limits for both homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous lattices of plutonium and uranium. The uranium is assumed to be natural or depleted. Limits are provided for a variety of mixtures, including aqueous solutions, dry (H/(Pu+U)=0) mixed oxides at theoretical density, and damp (H/(Pu+U) {le} 0.45) mixed oxides at both theoretical and one-half theoretical density. The limits for homogeneous mixtures shown cover four different plutonium contents (3,8,15, and 30 wt% PuO{sub 2} in PuO{sub 2} + UO{sub 2}) and three different isotopic compositions ({sup 240}Pu > {sup 241}Pu; {sup 240}Pu {ge} 15 wt% and {sup 241}Pu {le} 6 wt%; and {sup 240}Pu {ge} 25 wt% and {sup 241}Pu {le} 15 wt%).

Libby, R.A.; Clayton, E.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Thermodynamic properties of isobutane-isopentane mixtures from -40 to +600/sup 0/F and up to 1000 psia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helmholtz function for pure isobutane from a recent correlation has been converted to a dimensionless form and a pressure-enthalpy chart based on this function has been generated by computer. A Helmholtz function for mixtures of isobutane and isopentane has been formed based upon the dimensionless isobutane Helmholtz function as the reference fluid by means of an extended corresponding-states principle. Scarce literature data for saturation properties of isopentane, and new data for its vapor pressure and for the critical line of the mixture were used. The accuracy of the surface was checked by comparing with literature enthalpy data and with new VLE data for the mixture. Tables of thermodynamic properties have been generated from this Helmholtz function for the 0.1 mole fraction isopentane-in-isobutane mixture in the single-phase region and on the dew- and bubble-point curves, together with properties of the coexisting phase. A pressure-enthalpy chart for this mixture has also been generated.

Gallagher, J.S.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.H.; Morrison, G.; Sengers, J.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The development and application of the chemical mixture methodology in analysis of potential health impacts from airborne release in emergencies  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) is used for emergency response and safety planning by the U.S. Department of Energy, its contractors, and other private and public sector organizations. The CMM estimates potential health impacts on individuals and their ability to take protective actions as a result of exposure to airborne chemical mixtures. They are based on the concentration of each chemical in the mixture at a designated receptor location, the protective action criteria (PAC) providing chemical-specific exposure limit values, and the health code numbers (HCNs) that identify the target organ groupings that may be impacted by exposure to each chemical in a mixture. The CMM has been significantly improved since its introduction more than 10 years ago. Major enhancements involve the expansion of the number of HCNs from 44 to 60 and inclusion of updated PAC values based on an improved development methodology and updates in the data used to derive the PAC values. Comparisons between the 1999 and 2009 versions of the CMM show potentially substantial changes in the assessment results for selected sets of chemical mixtures. In particular, the toxic mode hazard indices (HIs) and target organ HIs are based on more refined acute HCNs, thereby improving the quality of chemical consequence assessment, emergency planning, and emergency response decision making. Seven hypothetical chemical storage and processing scenarios are used to demonstrate how the CMM is applied in emergency planning and hazard assessment.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Petrocchi, Achille J.; Craig, Douglas K.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ciolek, John T.; Lu, Po-Yung; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Tuccinardi, Thomas E.; Bouslaugh, Philip R.

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine + triethylene glycol monomethyl ether from 25 C to 70 C and N-methyldiethanolamine + ethanol mixtures at 40 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies done on the absorption and desorption of acid gases (CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S) from natural gas, petroleum, and ammonia synthesis streams have shown that aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) can be used effectively for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S. This paper reports the measured values of the density and viscosity of binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGMME) at five temperatures in the range 25 C to 70 C over the whole concentration range. The authors also report the density and viscosity of the binary mixture MDEA + ethanol at 40 C. The results are compared with data for aqueous mixtures and other alkanolamines when these are available. The derived excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were correlated as a function of composition. The Grunberg-Nissan interaction energy constants are also reported.

Henni, A.; Maham, Y.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Mather, A.E.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt: Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paramount, and Valero refineries ? Graniterock Company andfrom three different refineries in California. Details ongrades (64-10 and 64-16). Refinery A: PG64-16, PG64-10 and

Jones, David; Fu, P.; Harvey, John T; Halles, F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Asphalt landscape after all : residual suburban surface as public infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thesis proposes a hybridized commercial retail strip inserted into a residual suburban condition as a manner of investigating the latent potential of suburban logic, both its constituent elements and its formal rules ...

O'Connor, Joseph Michael, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

U.S. Asphalt and Road Oil Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

430

Asphalt and Road Oil Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

431

Asphalt and Road Oil Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Stock Type: Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes: Show Data By: Product: Stock Type: Area: Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 View History; U ...

432

Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt: Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different crude oil sources and the refining techniquesas a differentiation of the oil source. Performance gradeto different crude oil sources, different refining

Jones, David; Fu, P.; Harvey, John T; Halles, F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Refinery Net Production of Asphalt and Road Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

La. Gulf Coast: 519: 530: 550: 558: 1,015: 683: 2005-2013: N. La., Ark: 1,171: 1,036: 994: 892: 921: 1,047: 2005-2013: New Mexico: 121: 153: 115: 184: ...

434

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

435

DETERMINATION OF TETRAVALENT URANIUM IN THORIUM OXIDE-URANIUM OXIDE MIXTURES. PARTS I, II, AND III  

SciTech Connect

For the determination of milligram quantities of uranium(N) in thorium oxide-uranium oxide mixtures which may also contain uranium(VI), it was necessary to devise a means of dissolving the sample so as to prevent any air oxidation of the uranium(IV) to uranium(VI). For this determination, the conventional potassium dichromate volumetric method was used except that the sample was dissolved under reflux in 7 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ which contained an excess of standard dichromate solution. Following the dissolution of the sample, this excess was determined by back titration with a standard solution of iron(II). Barium diphenylaminesulfonate was used as the indicator. Initial tests on the dissolution of samples of thorium oxide-uranium oxide in hot HC1O/sub 4/ and hot HCI are described. (auth)

Menis, O.

1959-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assessment of methods for analyzing gaseous mixtures of hydrogen isotopes and helium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mass spectrographic methods have served well in the past to analyze gaseous mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes. Alternate methods of analyses are reviewed which offer wider ranges and variety of isotopic determinations. This report describes possible improvements of the mass spectrographic determinations, gas chromatography, anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, microwave-induced optical emission spectroscopy, and methods of measuring tritium using radiation detection devices. Precision, accuracy, limitations, and costs are included for some of the methods mentioned. Costs range from $70,000 for the anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy equipment, which can determine hydrogen isotopes but not helium, to less than $10,000 for the gas chromatographic equipment, which can determine hydrogen isotopes and helium with precision and accuracy comparable to those of the mass spectrometer.

Attalla, A.; Bishop, C.T.; Bohl, D.R.; Buxton, T.L.; Sprague, R.E.; Warner, D.K.

1976-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

Higher-Order Mass Defect Analysis for Mass Spectra of Complex Organic Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH2, H2, O, CH2O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an iterative renormalization routine for defining higher order homologous series and multidimensional clustering of mass spectral features. This approach greatly simplifies visualization of complex mass spectra and increases the number of chemical formulae that can be confidently assigned for given mass accuracy. The potential for using higher-order mass defects for data reduction and visualization is shown. Higher-order mass defect analysis is described and demonstrated through third-order analysis of a de-isotoped high-resolution mass spectrum of crude oil containing nearly 13,000 peaks.

Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Interactions of proteins in aqueous ammonium-sulfate solutions:Mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a laboratory-scale rod-stabilized premixed turbulent V-flame. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number model with detailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential species diffusion. The algorithm is based on a second-order projection formulation and does not require an explicit sub grid model for turbulence or turbulence chemistry interaction. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to dynamically resolve the flame and turbulent structures. Here, we briefly discuss the numerical procedure and present detailed comparisons with experimental measurements showing that the computation is able to accurately capture the basic flame morphology and associated mean velocity field. Finally, we discuss key issues that arise in performing these types of simulations and the implications of these issues for using computation to form a bridge between turbulent flame experiments and basic combustion chemistry.

Anderson, Camille O.; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

2001-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.  

SciTech Connect

Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z