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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

A simple and efficient transient transformation for hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Discussion Transient transformation in hybrid aspen cuttings We first examined whether the syringe injection tech- nique, used in tobacco species, was useful for hybrid aspen leaves [14]. An infiltration medium [10 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM MES-KOH (pH 5.6)] in a... blunt-tipped plastic syringe was forced into an abaxial epidermis of full-expanded aspen leaves that grew in soil for one month. The medium was permeated around the syringe contact area but limited to the wider area due to a leaf vein network (Additional...

Takata, Naoki; Eriksson, Maria E

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

2

Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory  

SciTech Connect

Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

NSA-Old Aspen Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aspen forest TE-6 does biomass and allometry readings Aspen trees from the OA canopy tower in spring. This picture is looking at the ground through the aspen trees from the top...

4

Aspen Pipeline | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Aspen Pipeline Jump to: navigation, search Name Aspen Pipeline Place Houston, Texas Zip 77057...

5

The Quaking Aspen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quaking Aspen Quaking Aspen Nature Bulletin No. 325-A December 14, 1968 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE QUAKING ASPEN Trees have voices. The soft whispering rustle of a Quaking Aspen is much different from the sound of a cottonwood or any other tree. They have personalities too, and the leaves of each kind move in a distinctive manner. The Quaking Aspen is America' s liveliest tree . In the slightest breeze, its small round leaves tremble almost incessantly, like thousands of butterfly wings, fluttering and twinkling all over it. You will find out why if you watch the pixy dance of just one leaf: the stem, from one and one-half to three inches long, is flat, flabby, and turned at right angles with the blade of the leaf.

6

SSA Young Aspen Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site (SSA-YA) The pole-tower at the YA site Closer look at the pole-tower at the YA site Solar panels powering the site, mounted on a folding ladder The young aspen canopy...

7

Great Plains ASPEN model development: ASPEN sizing enhancements. Final topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In preparing cost estimates for the various sections of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant, the equipment sizing methods for the major equipment items were checked. The sizing results obtained from ASPEN were compared with the sizing results obtained by using the Halcon SD Group's (HSD) own sizing methods and in-house computer programs. Where there were significant differences between the ASPEN sizing results and our own results, the subroutine coding was checked to determine where the differences arose. Modifications were then made to the ASPEN routines where it was thought that HSD's methods would significantly enhance the quality of ASPEN. The following ASPEN sizing subroutines were modified: (1) STW01 - ASPEN tray tower sizing; (2) SVS11 - ASPEN vertical vessel sizing; (3) SVS01 - ASPEN horizontal vessel sizing; and (4) CPVVTH - ASPEN vertical vessel/tower shell thickness and weight determination. Modifications were made to sizing calculations contained in the following ASPEN COST subroutines: (1) CPC01 - ASPEN centrifugal pump costing; and (2) CPC02 - ASPEN centrifugal compressor costing. Modifications also were made to sizing calculations contained in the following ASPEN UOS subroutines: (1) UPC01 - ASPEN pump model; and (2) UPC02 - ASPEN compressor model. A new ASPEN COST subroutine that contains sizing calculations was developed, CPC04 - ASPEN reciprocating compressor costing. 4 references.

Schwint, K.J.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

SSA Old Aspen Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SSA-OA) SSA-OA) View an aerial photo-map of the SSA-OA site The two huts and boardwalk The scaffold flux tower The base of the scaffold flux tower One of the canopy access towers The SRC meteorology tower The truss tower and cables from the flux tower Cabled tethersonde above the SSA Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site The tethersonde about to be launched (tethered balloon and radiosonde) Picture of the SRC meteorological tower at the SSA-OA site taken from the flux tower. Improved road into the SSA-OA site within the Prince Albert National Park. Aerial of SSA-OA tower during the winter IFC. SSA-OA flux tower about 40 meters in height, approximately 20 meters above canopy. Photograph of investigator hut and boardwalk at the SSA-OA site. Andy Black and associate within the hut at the SSA-OA site showing the various recording and data display instruments from the tower.

9

Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colorado Name Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Incentive Type Building Energy Code Applicable Sector Commercial, Residential Eligible Technologies...

10

Aspen Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Aspen Solar Name Aspen Solar Address P.O. Box 2391 Place Aspen, Colorado Zip 80612 Sector Solar Product Design, installation & maintenance of active, passive, and photovoltaic energy systems Website http://www.aspensolar.com/ Coordinates 39.649755°, -106.617574° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.649755,"lon":-106.617574,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

11

Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Wind Program Information Colorado Program Type Building Energy Code The City of Aspen and Pitkin County have adopted the 2009...

12

Aspen Aerogels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aerogels Aerogels Jump to: navigation, search Name Aspen Aerogels Address 30 Forbes Road Place Northborough, Massachusetts Zip 01532 Sector Buildings Product Energy efficiency insulation for buildings Website http://www.aerogel.com/ Coordinates 42.347872°, -71.63034° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.347872,"lon":-71.63034,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

13

Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) October 3, 2011 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing finding that indoor unit model AEW244 and outdoor unit model NCPC-424-3010 of residential split system central air conditioning system do not comport with the energy conservation standards. DOE determined the product was noncompliant based on the company's own testing. Aspen must immediately notify each person (or company) to whom Aspen distributed the noncompliant products that the product does not meet Federal standards. In addition, Aspen must provide to DOE documents and records showing the number of units Aspen distributed and to whom. The manufacturer and/or private labeler of

14

Aspen: a domain specific language for performance modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new approach to analytical performance modeling using Aspen, a domain specific langauge. Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) fills an important gap in existing performance modeling techniques and is designed to enable ...

Kyle L. Spafford; Jeffrey S. Vetter

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

City of Aspen - Green Power Purchasing | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City of Aspen - Green Power Purchasing City of Aspen - Green Power Purchasing City of Aspen - Green Power Purchasing < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type Green Power Purchasing Provider City of Aspen In 2005, the City of Aspen set a goal to purchase 75% of the city government's energy from renewable sources by 2010. As of December 2006, Aspen had accomplished its goal to provide 75% non-carbon electricity. The city has a new goal of powering 100% of the city-owned buildings with renewable sources by 2020. 27% of the electricity used by the City of Aspen comes from wind turbines located in Kimball, Nebraska. An additional 45% of the City's electricity comes from hydroelectric plants, with an additional plant, the Castle Creek

16

Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0305) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0-SE-0305) 0-SE-0305) Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0305) May 28, 2010 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing finding that a variety of basic models of split-system air conditioning heat pumps do not comport with the energy conservation standards. DOE determined the product was noncompliant based on DOE testing. Aspen must immediately notify each person (or company) to whom Aspen distributed the noncompliant products that the product does not meet Federal standards. In addition, Aspen must provide to DOE documents and records showing the number of units Aspen distributed and to whom. The manufacturer and/or private labeler of the product may be subject to civil penalties. Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0305)

17

Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, ?New Data From the Energy Frontier.? There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week?s events included a public lecture (?The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson? given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf? geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was ?Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.? It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled ?What Makes Up Dark Matter.? There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf? to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Aspen Aerogels Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aerogels Inc Aerogels Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Aspen Aerogels Inc Place Northborough, Massachusetts Zip 15320 Product Aspen Aerogels Inc has developed and patented an aerogel for the production of flexible blanket insulation. Coordinates 42.310129°, -71.655451° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.310129,"lon":-71.655451,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

Aspen Solar Pioneer Program - PV Production Incentive (Colorado...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Aspen Solar Pioneer Program - PV Production Incentive (Colorado) This is the approved revision...

20

Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Solar Heating Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type Building Energy Code Provider Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) The City of Aspen and Pitkin County have adopted the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), with some amendments, as their official energy code effective March 9, 2010. The [http://www.aspenpitkin.com/Portals/0/docs/county/countycode/Building%20C...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

City of Aspen Climate Action Plan | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aspen Climate Action Plan Aspen Climate Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Aspen Climate Action Plan Agency/Company /Organization City of Aspen Sector Energy, Water, Land Focus Area Buildings, Commercial, Residential, Offsets and Certificates, Economic Development, Goods and Materials - Embodied Energy, Industry - Industrial Processes, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use, People and Policy, Transportation, Water Conservation, Renewable Energy, Biomass - Biofuels, Biomass, Geothermal, Water Power, Biomass - Landfill Gas, Solar, - Solar Hot Water, - Solar Pv, Wind Phase Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Create Early Successes Resource Type Case studies/examples Availability Free - Publicly Available Publication Date 5/1/2007

22

City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Maximum Rebate $225 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Up to $225 Provider City of Aspen Community Development The City of Aspen encourages interested residents and businesses to increase the energy efficiency of homes and offices through the Energy Assessment Program. Participating homes and offices must located within the city and have a BPI-certified energy assessment performed on the property

23

Great Plains ASPEN Model Development: ASPEN physical property evaluation. Final topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the steps taken to evaluate pure component properties in the ASPEN data bank for those compounds required to simulate the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant where the compounds are also available in the DIPPR (Design Institute for Physical Property Data) data bank. DIPPR is a cooperative effort of industry, institutes, and federal agencies interested in the compilation, measurement, and evaluation of physical property data for industrially important compounds. It has been found that the ASPEN data bank is reliable, for the most part, the main problem being lack of documentation. In the few instances where values either were found to be missing or to be unacceptable, recommended constants or equation parameters are presented in this report, along with associated literature citations. In the cases where temperature dependent data were subjected to regression analysis to obtain new equation parameters, the detailed methods employed are presented also. 32 references.

Millman, M.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Microsoft Word - AspenMEAReport.doc  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

NETL-2002/1182 NETL-2002/1182 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO 2 Recovery Process Final Report Prepared for: National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 Prepared by: Charles W. White, III EG&G Technical Services, Inc. 3604 Collins Ferry Road Suite 200 Morgantown, West Virginia 26505 September, 2002 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

25

Impacts of biomass harvesting on biomass, carbon, and nutrient stocks in populus tremuloides forests of Northern Minnesota, U.S.A.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. February 2012. Major: Natural resources science & Management. Advisors:Anthony W. D’Amato, John B. Bradford. 1 computer file (PDF); viii, 90… (more)

Klockow, Paul Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Molecular Responses to Climate and Resource Availability: Emerging Evidence from Systems Biology Research in Populus.  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of Populus as a model system for tree biology continues to be driven by a community of scientists dedicated to developing the resources needed to undertake genetic and functional genomic studies in this genus. As a result, understanding the molecular processes that underpin the growth and development of cottonwood, aspen, and hybrid poplar has steadily increased over the last several decades. Recently, our ability to examine the basic mechanisms whereby trees respond to a changing climate and resource limitations has benefitted greatly from the sequencing of the P. trichocarpa genome. This landmark event has laid a solid foundation upon which tree biologists can now explore the genome-wide effects of temperature, water and nutrient limitations on processes that govern the growth and development of some of the longest living and tallest growing organisms on Earth. Although the challenges likely to be encountered by scientists who work with trees are many, recent literature provides a number of examples whereby a systems approach, one that focuses on transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses is beginning to provide insights into the molecular-scale response of poplars to their climatic and edaphic environment.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Davis, John M [University of Florida

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

City of Aspen, Colorado (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aspen, Colorado (Utility Company) Aspen, Colorado (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Aspen Place Colorado Utility Id 918 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100 AMP Residential 100 AMP Large Commercial Commercial 100 AMP Small Commercial Commercial

29

Populus Responses to Edaphic and Climatic Cues: Emerging Evidence from Systems Biology Research  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of Populus as a model system for tree biology continues to be driven by a community of scientists dedicated to developing the resources needed to undertake genetic and functional genomic studies in this genus. As a result, understanding the molecular processes that underpin the growth and development of cottonwood, aspen, and hybrid poplar has steadily increased over the last several decades. Recently, our ability to examine the basic mechanisms whereby trees respond to a changing climate and resource limitations has benefited greatly from the sequencing of the P. trichocarpa genome. This landmark event has laid a solid foundation upon which biologists can now quantify, in breathtaking and unprecedented detail, the diversity of genes, proteins, and metabolites that govern the growth and development of some of the longest living and tallest growing organisms on Earth. Although the challenges likely to be encountered by scientists who work with trees are many, recent literature provides a few examples where a systems approach, one that focuses on integrating transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, is beginning to provide insights into the molecular-scale response of poplars to their climatic and edaphic environment. In this review, our objectives are to look at evidence from studies that examine the molecular response of poplar to edaphic and climatic cues and highlight instances where two or more omic-scale measurements confirm and hopefully expand our inferences about mechanisms contributing to observed patterns of response. Based on conclusions drawn from these studies, we propose that three requirements will be essential as systems biology in poplar moves to reveal unique insights. These include use of genetically-defined individuals (e.g., pedigrees or transgenics) in studies; incorporation of modeling as a complement to transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data; and inclusion of whole-tree and stand-level phenotypes to place molecular-scale insights into a real-world context.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Davis, John M [University of Florida

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Aspen Clean Fuels Ltd ACF Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ltd ACF Ltd Ltd ACF Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Aspen Clean Fuels Ltd (ACF Ltd) Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 7BA Product UK mother company of Aspen Invest AB. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

31

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E Bloomingburg (1)(3), J. M. Simonson (2), R C. Moore (2), I€ D. Cochran (3), and R. E. Mesmer (2) (1) Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (2) Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (3) Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 Presented at the 12th International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam Orlando, Florida September 14, 1994 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor o f the US. Government under contract No. DE-ACOS-84OR21400. Accordingly, the US. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty free license to

32

ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process  

SciTech Connect

ASPEN Plus simulations have been created for a CO{sub 2} capture process based on adsorption by monoethanolamine (MEA). Three separate simulations were developed, one each for the flue gas scrubbing, recovery, and purification sections of the process. Although intended to work together, each simulation can be used and executed independently. The simulations were designed as template simulations to be added as a component to other more complex simulations. Applications involving simple cycle or hybrid power production processes were targeted. The default block parameters were developed based on a feed stream of raw flue gas of approximately 14 volume percent CO{sub 2} with a 90% recovery of the CO{sub 2} as liquid. This report presents detailed descriptions of the process sections as well as technical documentation for the ASPEN simulations including the design basis, models employed, key assumptions, design parameters, convergence algorithms, and calculated outputs.

Charles W. White III

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

ASPEN physical property evaluation for Great Plains simulation. Great Plains ASPEN model development. [Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the steps taken to evaluate the pure component properties in the ASPEN data bank for those compounds required to simulate the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant where the compounds are also available in the DIPPR (Design Institute for Physical Property Data) data bank. DIPPR is a cooperative effort of industry, institutes and federal agencies interested in the compilation, measurement and evaluation of physical property data for industrially important compounds. It has been found that the ASPEN data bank is for the most part reliable, its main problem being lack of documentation. In the few instances where values were found to be either missing or to be unacceptable, recommended constants or equation parameters are presented in this report along with associated literature citations. In the cases where temperature dependent data were regressed to obtain new equation parameters, the detailed methods employed are also presented.

Millman, M.C.

1983-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

34

Genomics of secondary metabolism in Populus: Interactions with biotic and abiotic environments  

SciTech Connect

Populus trees face constant challenges from the environment during their life cycle. To ensure their survival and reproduction, Populus trees deploy various types of defenses, one of which is the production of a myriad of secondary metabolites. Compounds derived from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway are the most abundant class of secondary metabolites synthesized in Populus. Among other major classes of secondary metabolites in Populus are terpenoids and fatty acid-derivatives. Some of the secondary metabolites made by Populus trees have been functionally characterized. Some others have been associated with certain biological/ecological processes, such as defense against insects and microbial pathogens or acclimation or adaptation to abiotic stresses. Functions of many Populus secondary metabolites remain unclear. The advent of various novel genomic tools will enable us to explore in greater detail the complexity of secondary metabolism in Populus. Detailed data mining of the Populus genome sequence can unveil candidate genes of secondary metabolism. Metabolomic analysis will continue to identify new metabolites synthesized in Populus. Integrated genomics that combines various omics tools will prove to be the most powerful approach in revealing the molecular and biochemical basis underlying the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Populus. Characterization of the biological/ecological functions of secondary metabolites as well as their biosynthesis will provide knowledge and tools for genetically engineering the production of seconday metabolites that can lead to the generation of novel, improved Populus varieties.

Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Chang-Jun [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Analysis of a commercial absorption-refrigeration water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle using Aspen Plus simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Robur absorption-refrigeration-water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle is analyzed using Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator. The results are compared with experimental and some manufacturer data reported in the open literature. Among performance parameters analyzed ... Keywords: Aspen, COP, absorption, ammonia, refrigeration, simulation, water

N. A. Darwish; S. H. Al-Hashimi; A. S. Al-Mansoori

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Simple Dynamic Gasifier Model That Runs in Aspen Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of 'clean coal' technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased, and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The widely used process simulator Aspen Plus provides a library of models that can be used to develop an overall gasifier model that handles solids. So steady-state design and optimization studies of processes with gasifiers can be undertaken. This paper presents a simple approximate method for achieving the objective of having a gasifier model that can be exported into Aspen Dynamics. The basic idea is to use a high molecular weight hydrocarbon that is present in the Aspen library as a pseudofuel. This component should have the same 1:1 hydrogen-to-carbon ratio that is found in coal and biomass. For many plantwide dynamic studies, a rigorous high-fidelity dynamic model of the gasifier is not needed because its dynamics are very fast and the gasifier gas volume is a relatively small fraction of the total volume of the entire plant. The proposed approximate model captures the essential macroscale thermal, flow, composition, and pressure dynamics. This paper does not attempt to optimize the design or control of gasifiers but merely presents an idea of how to dynamically simulate coal gasification in an approximate way.

Robinson, P.J.; Luyben, W.L. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Increasing the productivity of short-rotation Populus plantations. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. Seven research papers are included which provide detailed methods, results, and interpretations on these topics.

DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W.; Radwan, M.A.; Zasada, J.C. [Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Mathematical modeling of monolignol biosynthesis in Populus xylem  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mathematical Mathematical modeling of monolignol biosynthesis in Populus xylem Yun Lee, Eberhard O. Voit ⇑ Integrative Biosystems Institute and The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 May 2010 Received in revised form 4 August 2010 Accepted 5 August 2010 Available online 9 September 2010 Keywords: Biochemical systems theory Flux balance analysis Monolignol biosynthesis Optimization Parameter estimation Populus a b s t r a c t Recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to sugar release is a central issue in the production of biofuel as an economically viable energy source. Among all contributing factors, variations in lignin content and its syringyl-guaiacyl monomer composition have been directly linked with the yield of fermentable

39

Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark}  

SciTech Connect

The presence of electrolytes in aqueous solutions has long been recognized as contributing to significant departures from thermodynamic ideality. The presence of ions in process streams can greatly add to the difficulty of predicting process behavior. The difficulties are increased as temperatures and pressures within a process are elevated. Because many chemical companies now model their processes with chemical process simulators it is important that such codes be able to accurately model electrolyte behavior under a variety of conditions. Here the authors examine the electrolyte modeling capability of ASPEN PLUS{trademark}, a widely used simulator. Specifically, efforts to model alkali metal halide and sulfate systems are presented. The authors show conditions for which the models within the code work adequately and how they might be improved for conditions where the simulator models fail.

Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Simonson, J.M.; Moore, R.C.; Mesmer, R.E.; Cochran, H.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

894 AP880212-0103 -1 ville is 60 miles east of Aspen , 40 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

894 AP880212-0103 -1 ville is 60 miles east of Aspen , 40 miles south o 894 AP880328-0088 -1 all overnight , while 6 inches was reported at Asp ...

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance information, and links to other FACTS and FACE information are provided at the ASPEN FACE website.

42

Great Plains ASPEN model development: executive summary. Final topical report for Phase 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Scientific Design Company contracted with the United States Department of Energy through its Morgantown Energy Technology Center to develop a steady-state simulation model of the Great Plains Coal Gasification plant. This plant produces substitute natural gas from North Dakota lignite. The model was to be developed using the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) simulation program. The project was divided into the following tasks: (1) Development of a simplified overall model of the process to be used for a sensitivity analysis to guide the development of more rigorous section models. (2) Review and evaluation of existing rigorous moving-bed gasifier models leading to a recommendation of one to be used to model the Great Plains gasifiers. Adaption and incorporation of this model into ASPEN. (3) Review of the accuracy and completeness of the physical properties data and models provided by ASPEN that are required to characterize the Great Plains plant. Rectification of inaccurate or incomplete data. (4) Development of rigorous ASPEN models for critical unit operations and sections of the plant. (5) Evaluation of the accuracy of the ASPEN Cost Estimation and Evaluation System and upgrading where feasible. Development of a preliminary cost estimate for the Great Plains plant. (6) Validation of the simulation models developed in the course of this project. Determination of model sensitivity to variations of technical and economic parameters. (7) Documentation of all work performed in the course of this project. Essentially all of these tasks were completed successfully. 34 figs.

Rinard, I.H.; Stern, S.S.; Millman, M.C.; Schwint, K.J.; Benjamin, B.W.; Kirman, J.J.; Dweck, J.S.; Mendelson, M.A.

1986-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Survival and growth of 31 Populus clones in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Populus species and hybrids have many practical applications, but clonal performance is relatively undocumented in the southeastern United States outside of the Mississippi River alluvial floodplain. In spring 2001, 31 Populus clones were planted on two sites in South Carolina, USA. The sandy, upland site received irrigation and fertilization throughout the growing season, while the bottomland site received granular fertilizer yearly and irrigation in the first two years only. Over three growing seasons, tree survival and growth differed significantly among clones at both sites. Hybrid clones I45/51, Eridano, and NM6 had very high survival at both sites, while pure eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides) clones consistently had the lowest survival. Nearly all mortality occurred during the first year. The P. deltoides clone WV416 grew well at both sites, P. deltoides clones S13C20 and Kentucky 8 grew well at the bottomland site, and hybrids 184-411 and 52-225 grew well at the upland site. Based on both survival and growth, clones 311-93, S7C15, 184-411, and WV416 may warrant additional testing in the upper coastal plain region of the southeastern US. Kentucky 8 and S13C20 had excellent growth rates, but initial survival was low. However, this was likely due to planting stock quality. We emphasize this is preliminary information, and that clones should be followed through an entire rotation before large-scale deployment.

Coyle, David R.; Coleman, Mark D.; Durant, Jaclin A.; Newman, Lee A.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Genome Analyses and Supplement Data from the International Populus Genome Consortium (IPGC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The sequencing of the first tree genome, that of Populus, was a project initiated by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE’s Office of Science. The International Populus Genome Consortium (IPGC) was formed to help develop and guide post-sequence activities. The IPGC website, hosted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, provides draft sequence data as it is made available from DOE Joint Genome Institute, genome analyses for Populus, lists of related publications and resources, and the science plan. The data are available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/ipgc/ssr_resource.htm.

International Populus Genome Consortium (IPGC)

45

Can clone size serve as a proxy for clone age?An exploration Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In long-lived clonal plants, the overall size of a clone is often used to estimate clone age. The size of a clone, however, might be largely determined by physical or biotic interactions, obscuring the relationship between clone size and age. Here, we use the accumulation of mutations at 14 microsatellite loci to estimate clone age in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) from southwestern Canada. We show that the observed patterns of genetic divergence are consistent with a model of increasing ramet population size, allowing us to use pairwise genetic divergence as an estimator of clone age. In the populations studied, clone size did not exhibit a significant relationship with microsatellite divergence, indicating that clone size is not a good proxy for clone age. In P. tremuloides, the per-locus per-year neutral somatic mutation rate across 14 microsatellite loci was estimated to lie between 6 × 10 –7 (lower bound) and 4 × 10 –5 (upper bound).

D. Ally; K. Ritland; S P. O Tto

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

NATIVE MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI WITH ASPEN ON SMELTER-IMPACTED SITES IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ridge of Butte (MT), behind the smelter stack at Anaconda (MT), near the (removed) smelter in Kellogg stack at Anaconda, MT (inactive copper smelter), at the (removed) lead smelter at Kellogg, ID, and along regenerating south of the Anaconda Superfund site. Aspen is able to colonize these areas due to mutualistic

Cripps, Cathy

47

Program on Technology Innovation: An Aspen Plus Model of Biomass Torrefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed an Aspen Plus model of biomass torrefaction to use as a tool for evaluating different torrefaction process conditions. This report describes the model in detail, as well as the results from the model simulation of five biomass fuels.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

48

Association Genetics of Populus trichocarpa or Resequencing in Populus: Towards Genome Wide Association Genetics (2011 JGI User Meeting)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Gerry Tuskan of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Resequencing in Populus: Towards Genome Wide Association Genetics" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

Tuskan, Gerry

2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

49

Genome-wide identification of lineage-specific genes in Arabidopsis, Oryza and Populus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protein sequences were compared among Arabidopsis, Oryza and Populus to identify differential gene (DG) sets that are in one but not the other two genomes. The DG sets were screened against a plant transcript database, the NR protein database and six newly-sequenced genomes (Carica, Glycine, Medicago, Sorghum, Vitis and Zea) to identify a set of species-specific genes (SS). Gene expression, protein motif and intron number were examined. 192, 641 and 109 SS genes were identified in Arabidopsis, Oryza and Populus, respectively. Some SS genes were preferentially expressed in flowers, roots, xylem and cambium or up-regulated by stress. Six conserved motifs in Arabidopsis and Oryza SS proteins were found in other distant lineages. The SS gene sets were enriched with intronless genes. The results reflect functional and/or anatomical differences between monocots and eudicots or between herbaceous and woody plants. The Populus-specific genes are candidates for carbon sequestration and biofuel research.

Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for cadmium tolerance in Populus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding genetic variation for the response of Populus to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is an important step in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of tolerance. In this study, a pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and Populus deltoides Bart. was characterized for growth and performance traits after Cd exposure. A total of 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) at logarithm of odds (LOD) ratio 2.5 were detected for total dry weight, its components and root volume. Major QTL for Cd responses were mapped to two different linkage groups and the relative allelic effects were in opposing directions on the two chromosomes, suggesting differential mechanisms at these two loci. The phenotypic variance explained by Cd QTL ranged from 5.9 to 11.6% and averaged 8.2% across all QTL. A whole-genome microarray study led to the identification of nine Cd-responsive genes from these QTL. Promising candidates for Cd tolerance include an NHL repeat membrane-spanning protein, a metal transporter and a putative transcription factor. Additional candidates in the QTL intervals include a putative homolog of a glutamate cysteine ligase, and a glutathione-S-transferase. Functional characterization of these candidate genes should enhance our understanding of Cd metabolism and transport and phytoremediation capabilities of Populus.

Induri, Brahma R [West Virginia University; Ellis, Danielle R [West Virginia University; Slavov, Goncho T. [West Virginia University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

Tuskan, G.A.

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

52

RepPop: A Database for Repetitive Elements in Populus Trichocarpa  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The populus was selected as the first tree with the genome to be sequenced, mainly due to its small genome size, the wide deployment worldwide (30+ species), and its short juvenile period. Its rich content of cellulose, which is one of the most important source for biofuel. A female clone of P. trichocarpa was chosen to be sequenced. The current assembly of Populus genome is release 1.0, whose small insert end-sequence coverage is 7.5X, and it was released in June 2004. It consists of 22,012 sequences (including the 19 chromosomes) and the total length is 485,510,911 bps. The data was downloaded from the offical site of the Populus trichocarpa genome sequencing project. The latest version of the genome can be found at the Poplar Genome Project at JGI Eukaryotic Genomics. Duplication regions introduce significant difficulties into the correct assemblying of sequence contigs. We identified all the repetitive elements in the populus genome. We further assign each of them as different classes of repetitive elements, including DNA transposons, RNA retrotransposons, Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITE), Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), and Segmental Duplications (SD), etc. We organized the annotations into this easily browsable, searchable, and blastable database, RepPop, for the whole community.[From website for RepPop at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~ffzhou/RepPop/

Zhou, Fengfeng; Xu, Ying

53

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and Candidate Genes for Cadmium Tolerance in Populus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of genetic variation in response of Populus to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is an important step in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tolerance. In this study, a pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides was characterized for Cd exposure. The pedigree showed significant variation for Cd tolerance thus enabling the identification of relatively tolerant and susceptible genotypes for intensive characterization. A total of 16 QTLs at logarithm of odds (LOD) ratio > 2.5, were found to be associated with total dry weight, its components, and root volume. Four major QTLs for total dry weight were mapped to different linkage groups in control (LG III) and Cd conditions (LG XVI) and had opposite allelic effects on Cd tolerance, suggesting that these genomic regions were differentially controlled. The phenotypic variation explained by Cd QTL for all traits under study varied from 5.9% to 11.6% and averaged 8.2% across all QTL. Leaf Cd contents also showed significant variation suggesting the phytoextraction potential of Populus genotypes, though heritability of this trait was low (0.22). A whole-genome microarray study was conducted by using two genotypes with extreme responses for Cd tolerance in the above study and differentially expressed genes were identified. Candidate genes including CAD2 (CADMIUM SENSITIVE 2), HMA5 (HEAVY METAL ATPase5), ATGTST1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-Transferase1), ATGPX6 (Glutathione peroxidase 6), and ATMRP 14 (Arabidopsis thaliana Multidrug Resistance associated Protein 14) were identified from QTL intervals and microarray study. Functional characterization of these candidate genes could enhance phytoremediation capabilities of Populus.

Induri, Brahma R [West Virginia University; Ellis, Danielle R [West Virginia University; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effects of clone, silvicultural, and miticide treatments on cottonwood leafcurl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) damage in plantation Populus  

SciTech Connect

Aculops lobuliferus (Keifer) is a little known pest of plantation Populus spp., which is capable of causing substantial damage. This is the first documented occurrence of A. lobuliferus in South Carolina. Previous anecdotal data indicated clonal variation in Populus susceptibility to A. lobuliferus damage. A damage rating scale was created to monitor mite damage in 2000-2001 in a short-rotation woody crop plantation; damage descriptions and seasonal phenology also were recorded. Foliar damage and terminal mortality were monitored on two Populus deltoides Bartr. clones, ST66 and S7C15, receiving one of three silvicultural treatments (irrigated, fertilized or both) or no treatment (control). In 2001, early season foliar damage ratings were significantly higher on clone S7C15; however, damage on clone ST66 was greater after miticide treatments later in the year. Terminal mortality did not differ between clones. Silvicultural treatments significantly affected foliar damage levels in both clones. Application of a commercially available miticide significantly reduced A. lobuliferus damage levels. This study demonstrates that A. lobuliferus damage levels can be influenced by Populus clone and silvicultural treatment. Foliar and terminal damage levels observed in this study indicate the potential for substantial economic impact of A. lobuliferus on plantation Populus. Although an effective control method may be to select and plant resistant Populus clones, chemical control remains a viable option.

Coyle, David, R.

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

55

Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Development of an ASPEN PLUS physical property database for biofuels components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Physical property data for many of the key components used in the simulation for the ethanol from lignocellulose process are not available in the standard ASPEN PLUS property databases. Indeed, many of the properties necessary to successfully simulate this process are not available anywhere. In addition, inputting the available properties into each simulation is awkward and tedious, and mistakes can be easily introduced when a long list of physical property equation parameters is entered. Therefore, one must evaluate the literature, estimate properties where necessary, and determine a set of consistent physical properties for all components of interest. The components must then be entered into an in-house NREL ASPEN PLUS database so they can be called on without being retyped into each specific simulation. The first phase of this work is complete. A complete set of properties for the currently identifiable important compounds in the ethanol process is attached. With this as the starting base the authors can continue to search for and evaluate new properties or have properties measured in the laboratory and update the central database.

Wooley, R.J.; Putsche, V.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Changes in lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lignocellulosic lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass Marcus Foston, Art J. Ragauskas* BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 23 March 2009 Received in revised form 17 July 2010 Accepted 23 July 2010 Available online xxx Keywords: Dilute acid pretreatment Cellulose Supramolecular structure Populus Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) is commonly employed prior to enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose to increase overall sugar and subsequent ethanol yields from downstream bioconversion processes. Typically optimization of pretreatment is evaluated by deter- mining hemicellulose removal, subsequent reactivity towards

58

Genome resequencing reveals multiscale geographic structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium in the forest tree Populus trichocarpa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population genomics of forest trees provides crucial information for breeding, conservation, and bioenergy feedstock development. As part of a large-scale association study, we resequenced 16 genomes of the model tree Populus trichocarpa to an average depth of 39 . Analyses of the resulting data revealed surprisingly extensive population genetic structure and decay of linkage disequilibrium over much larger physical distances than the expected based on previous, smaller-scale studies. Rates of recombination varied widely across the genome but were largely predictable based on DNA sequence and methylation patterns. Our results suggest that genomewide association studies and accurate prediction of phenotypes from DNA data are more feasible in Populus than previously assumed, thereby laying the foundation for a step change in our understanding of tree biology.

Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Martin, Joel R [ORNL; Schackwitz, Wendy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli [West Virginia University; Lipphardt, Mindie [West Virginia University; Pennacchio, Christa [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, Uffe [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gunter, Lee [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Strauss, Steven [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Great Plains ASPEN Model Development: binary interaction parameters and activity coefficient parameters. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulation of the various sections of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant involves modelling vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria that are highly nonideal. The Peng-Robinson equation of state, modified for water, was used in the simulation of most of the process sections. Interaction parameters established by regression of literature data, using ASPEN's DRS system, along with interaction parameter values found in the literature, became the database for the simulation. In two of the sections, the Oxygen Plant and the TEG drying of the product SNG, activity coefficient models were used because they gave a better prediction of the phase equilibrium. For the Rectisol unit, which removes hydrogen sulfide from the gas, parameters available from a DOE sponsored contract, Tristate, were used, after verification, for the ASPEN modified version of the RKS. The phases that were predicted using these parameters were checked against literature data and, in most cases, the liquid mole fractions of carbon dioxide predicted by the correlation were within 10% of those reported. A model that would predict phase equilibrium, based on the ionization of Lewis acids and bases and salts, would have been an ideal choice for simulation of the Stretford and Phosam flowsheets. However, only limited temperature dependent liquid activity coefficients data are available in the literature for the ionic species found in the Stretford and Phosam solutions, from which correlation parameters could be obtained by regression. Also, only the flash model can handle this type of calculation; therefore, it was used only to a limited extent in the simulation of the Stretford Unit Absorber. 118 references.

Stern, S.S.; Millman, M.C.; Kirman, J.J.; Nwogu, D.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Populus Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations Ilga Porth 1 *, Jaroslav Kla ´ ps ˇte ˇ 2 *, Oleksandr Skyba 1 , Ben S. K. Lai 1 , Armando Geraldes 3 , Wellington Muchero 4 , Gerald A. Tuskan 4 , Carl J. Douglas 3 , Yousry A. El-Kassaby 2 and Shawn D. Mansfield 1 1 Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; 2 Department of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; 3 Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; 4 BioSciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831, USA Authors for correspondence: Shawn D. Mansfield Tel: +1 604 822 0196 Email: shawn.mansfield@ubc.ca Yousry A. El-Kassaby Tel: +1 604 822 1821 Email: y.el-kassaby@ubc.ca

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Multiple factors affect pest and pathogen damage on 31 Populus clones in South Carolina.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Populus species and hybrids have many practical applications, but there is a paucity of data regarding selections that perform well in the southeastern US. We compared pest susceptibility of 31 Populus clones over 3 years in South Carolina, USA. Cuttings were planted in spring 2001 on two study sites. Clones planted in the bottomland site received granular fertilizer yearly and irrigation the first two years only, while those on the sandy, upland site received irrigation and fertilization throughout each growing season. Foliar damage by the cottonwood leaf beetle (Chrysomela scripta), cottonwood leafcurl mite (Tetra lobulifera), and poplar leaf rust (Melampsora medusae) was visually monitored several times each growing season. Damage ratings differed significantly among clones, and clonal rankings changed from year to year. Irrigation increased C. scripta and M. medusae damage, but had no effect on T. lobulifera damage. Certain clones received greater pest damage at a particular study site. Temporal damage patterns were evident among individual clones and on each site. At the upland site, OP367 and 7300502 were highly resistant to all three pests; I45/51 was highly resistant to C. scripta and M. medusae; NM6 and 15–29 were highly resistant to M. medusae; and 7302801 was highly resistant to T. lobulifera and M. medusae. At the bottomland site, NM6, Eridano, I45/51, and 7302801 were highly resistant to all three pests; clone 7300502 was highly resistant to M. medusae only. Based on this preliminary 3-year study of pest damage l

Coyle, David R.; Coleman, Mark D.; Durant, Jaclin A.; Newman, Lee A.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Differential detection of genetic loci underlying stem and root lignin content in Populus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For simultaneous applications directed towards improved pulp yields, enhanced bioethanol production and increased carbon sequestration, it would be desirable to reduce lignin in the harvested stem while increasing the lignin content in nonharvested roots. In this study, we established a comprehensive genetic map with a large number of progeny from a three-generation hybrid Populus intercross, and phenotyped the lignin content, S/G ratio and 28 cell wall subcomponents both in stems and roots for the mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that lignin content and syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectroscopy (pyMBMS) varied among mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that stem lignin content is significantly higher than that in root and the quantified traits can be classified into four distinct groups, with strong correlations observed among components within organs. Altogether, 179 coordinating QTLs were detected, and they were co-localized into 49 genetic loci, 27 of which appear to be pleiotropic. Many of the detected genetic loci were detected differentially in stem and root. This is the first report of separate genetic loci controlling cell wall phenotypes above and below ground. These results suggest that it may be possible to modify lignin content and composition via breed and/or engineer as a means of simultaneously improving Populus for cellulosic ethanol production and carbon sequestration.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Identification of candidate genes in Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network and comparative genomics  

SciTech Connect

Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidences supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional genomics in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Bisaria, Anjali [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Environmental Biology | Biosciences Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on Carbon demand Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on Carbon demand BIO Home Page About BIO News Releases Research Publications People Contact Us Organization Chart Site Index Inside BIO BIO Safety About Argonne Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on Carbon demand of the Extramatrical Mycorrhizal Fungal Network Contact: R. Michael Miller (rmmiller@anl.gov) We are evaluating the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the sequential growth and allocation of both ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) at the Aspen FACE site. The Aspen FACE approach consists of 30 m diameter rings of gas-dispensing pipes that allow us to fumigate intact forest canopies with atmospheric pollutants and study the interaction of plants, soils and atmosphere (http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html). We have used several different approaches to quantifying treatment effects on the mycorrhizal fungal network, especially how host responses influence root associated colonization and extramatrical hyphal (EMH) production and symbiotic benefit. Over the last six years we have been developing and improving upon methods to better quantify root associated mycorrhizal fungal biomass and EMH production and standing crop. Because both AMF and EMF play a significant role in the system of study we also have had to develop a means of separating the production of these different mycorrhizae, especially quantification of the EMH.

65

Genome-Scale Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wellington Muchero from Oak Ridge National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Discovery of Cell Wall Biosynthesis Genes in Populus" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

66

ASPEN simulation of the SNG production process in an indirect coal-liquefaction plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The synthetic natural gas (SNG) production process (methanation, CO-shift, and hydrogen removal) in an indirect coal-liquefaction plant was simulated using the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN). The simulation of the methanation unit agreed to within 12% of Fluor's design for converting carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. A parametric study examined the effect of four important operating parameters on product composition, process thermal efficiency, and outlet temperature from the second methanation reactor. The molar split of gas feed to the CO-shift unit before methanation was varied from 0.2 to 0.6; variations of molar recycle ratio (0.01 - 0.67), molar steam-to-feed ratio (0.04 - 0.19), and feed temperature (478 - 533 K, 400-500/sup 0/F) to the first methanation reactor were also studied. A 50%-lower split improved thermal efficiency by 6%, but the mole % hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the product SNG required to meet pipeline-quality standards and temperature constraints were not met. Increasing the steam-to-feed ratio from 0.04 to 0.19 improved product quality but decreased thermal efficiency by 8%. By decreasing the feed temperature from 533 to 477 K (500 to 400/sup 0/F), product specifications and temperature constraints were met with no effect on thermal efficiency. However, it may be impractical to operate the reactor at 477 K (400/sup 0/F) because the kinetics are too slow. Increasing the recycle ratio from 0.4 to 0.67 had no effect on thermal efficiency, and temperature constraints and product specifications were met. The SNG production process should be optimized at recycle ratios above 0.67.

Bistline, J E; Shafer, T B

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A 34K SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa: design, application to the study of natural populations and transferability to other Populus species  

SciTech Connect

Genetic mapping of quantitative traits requires genotypic data for large numbers of markers in many individuals. Despite the declining costs of genotyping by sequencing, for most studies, the use of large SNP genotyping arrays still offers the most cost-effective solution for large-scale targeted genotyping. Here we report on the design and performance of a SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood). This genotyping array was designed with SNPs pre-ascertained in 34 wild accessions covering most of the species range. Due to the rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium in P. trichocarpa we adopted a candidate gene approach to the array design that resulted in the selection of 34,131 SNPs, the majority of which are located in, or within 2 kb, of 3,543 candidate genes. A subset of the SNPs (539) was selected based on patterns of variation among the SNP discovery accessions. We show that more than 95% of the loci produce high quality genotypes and that the genotyping error rate for these is likely below 2%, indicating that high-quality data are generated with this array. We demonstrate that even among small numbers of samples (n=10) from local populations over 84% of loci are polymorphic. We also tested the applicability of the array to other species in the genus and found that due to ascertainment bias the number of polymorphic loci decreases rapidly with genetic distance, with the largest numbers detected in other species in section Tacamahaca (P. balsamifera and P. angustifolia). Finally, we provide evidence for the utility of the array for intraspecific studies of genetic differentiation and for species assignment and the detection of natural hybrids.

Geraldes, Armando [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Hannemann, Jan [University of Victoria, Canada; Grassa, Chris [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Farzaneh, Nima [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Porth, Ilga [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; McKown, Athena [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Skyba, Oleksandr [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Li, Eryang [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mike, Fujita [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Friedmann, Michael [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Wasteneys, Geoffrey [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Guy, Robert [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; El-Kassaby, Yousry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mansfield, Shawn [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Cronk, Quentin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ehlting, Juergen [University of Victoria, Canada; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Wymore, Ann [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Martin, Joel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schackwitz, Wendy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Christa [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Changes in composition and sugar release across the annual rings of Populus wood and implications on recalcitrance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

composition composition and sugar release across the annual rings of Populus wood and implications on recalcitrance Jaclyn D. DeMartini, Charles E. Wyman ⇑ Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, 1084 Columbia Avenue, Riverside, CA 92507, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9 July 2010 Received in revised form 30 August 2010 Accepted 31 August 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Pretreatment Enzymatic hydrolysis Biomass recalcitrance Age effects Populus wood a b s t r a c t Understanding structural characteristics that are responsible for biomass recalcitrance by identifying why it is more difficult for some plants, or portions of plants, to release their sugars would be extremely valuable in overcoming this barrier. With this in mind, this study investigated the recalcitrance of wood

69

Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Map and Analysis of Microsatellites in Genome of Populus: the First Sequenced Perennial Plant  

SciTech Connect

We mapped and analyzed the microsatellites throughout 284295605 base pairs of the unambiguously assembled sequence scaffolds along 19 chromosomes of the haploid poplar genome. Totally, we found 150985 SSRs with repeat unit lengths between 2 and 5 bp. The established microsatellite physical map demonstrated that SSRs were distributed relatively evenly across the genome of Populus. On average, These SSRs occurred every 1883 bp within the poplar genome and the SSR densities in intergenic regions, introns, exons and UTRs were 85.4%, 10.7%, 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively. We took di-, tri-, tetra-and pentamers as the four classes of repeat units and found that the density of each class of SSRs decreased with the repeat unit lengths except for the tetranucleotide repeats. It was noteworthy that the length diversification of microsatellite sequences was negatively correlated with their repeat unit length and the SSRs with shorter repeat units gained repeats faster than the SSRs with longer repeat units. We also found that the GC content of poplar sequence significantly correlated with densities of SSRs with uneven repeat unit lengths (tri- and penta-), but had no significant correlation with densities of SSRs with even repeat unit lengths (di- and tetra-). In poplar genome, there were evidences that the occurrence of different microsatellites was under selection and the GC content in SSR sequences was found to significantly relate to the functional importance of microsatellites.

Li, Shuxian [Nanjing Forestry University, China; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Bioinformatics-Based Identification of Candidate Genes from QTLs Associated with Cell Wall Traits in Populus  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies are an integral part of plant research and are used to characterize the genetic basis of phenotypic variation observed in structured populations and inform marker-assisted breeding efforts. These QTL intervals can span large physical regions on a chromosome comprising hundreds of genes, thereby hampering candidate gene identification. Genome history, evolution, and expression evidence can be used to narrow the genes in the interval to a smaller list that is manageable for detailed downstream functional genomics characterization. Our primary motivation for the present study was to address the need for a research methodology that identifies candidate genes within a broad QTL interval. Here we present a bioinformatics-based approach for subdividing candidate genes within QTL intervals into alternate groups of high probability candidates. Application of this approach in the context of studying cell wall traits, specifically lignin content and S/G ratios of stem and root in Populus plants, resulted in manageable sets of genes of both known and putative cell wall biosynthetic function. These results provide a roadmap for future experimental work leading to identification of new genes controlling cell wall recalcitrance and, ultimately, in the utility of plant biomass as an energy feedstock.

Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Genome anchored QTLs for biomass productivity in Hybrid Populus: Heterosis and detection across Contrasting Environments.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traits related to biomass production were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an interspecific F2 population derived from an outbred Populus trichocarpa P. deltoides parental cross. Three years of phenotypic data for stem growth traits (height and diameter) were collected from two parental, two F1 and 339 F2 trees in a clonal trial replicated both within and among two environmentally contrasting sites in the North American Pacific Northwest. A genetic linkage map comprised of 841 SSR, AFLP, and RAPD markers and phenotypic data from 310 progeny were used to identify genomic regions harboring QTL using the Multiple-QTL Model (MQM) package of the statistical program MapQTL 6. A total of twelve QTLs, nine putative and three suggestive, were identified with eight of these being identified at both sites in at least one experiment. Of these, three putative QTL BM-1, BM-2, BM-7, on LGs I, II, and XIV, respectively, were identified in all three years for both height and diameter. Two QTLs BM-2 and BM-7, on LG II and XIV, respectively, exhibited significant evidence of over-dominance in all three years for both traits. Conversely a QTL on BM-6 LG XIII exhibited out-breeding depression in two years for both height and diameter. The remaining nine QTLs showed difference levels of dominance and additive effects. Seven of the nine QTL were successfully anchored and QTL peak positions were estimated for each one on the P. trichocarpa genome assembly using flanking SSR markers with known physical positions positions. QTL BM-7 on LG XIV had been anchored on the genome assembly in a previous study, therefore eight QTLs identified in this study were assigned genome assembly positions. Physical distances encompassed by each QTL regions ranged from 1.3 to 8.8 Mb.

Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Sewell, Mitchell [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Comparative analysis of GT14/GT14-like family genes in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glycosyltransferase family14 (GT14) belongs to the glycosyltransferase (GT) superfamily that plays important roles in the biosynthesis of cell walls, the most abundant source of cellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. It has been hypothesized that DUF266 proteins are a new class of GTs related to GT14. In this study, we identified 62 GT14 and 106 DUF266 genes (named GT14-like herein) in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis. Our phylogenetic analysis separated GT14 and GT14-like genes into two distinct clades, which were further divided into eight and five groups, respectively. Similarities in protein domain, 3D structure and gene expression were uncovered between the two phylogenetic clades, supporting the hypothesis that GT14 and GT14-like genes belong to one family. Therefore, we proposed a new family name, GT14/GT14-like family that combines both subfamilies. Variation in gene expression and protein subcellular localization within the GT14-like subfamily were greater than those within the GT14 subfamily. One-half of the Arabidopsis and Populus GT14/GT14-like genes were found to be preferentially expressed in stem/xylem, indicating that they are likely involved in cell wall biosynthesis. This study provided new insights into the evolution and functional diversification of the GT14/GT14-like family genes.

Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

On the modeling of a single-stage, entrained-flow gasifier using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired gasifiers are the centerpiece of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The gasifier produces synthesis gas that is subsequently converted into electricity through combustion in a gas turbine. Several mathematical models have been developed to study the physical and chemical processes taking place inside the gasifier. Such models range from simple one-dimensional (1D) steady-state models to sophisticated dynamic 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that incorporate turbulence effects in the reactor. The practical operation of the gasifier is dynamic in nature but most 1D and some higher-dimensional models are often steady state. On the other hand, many higher order CFD-based models are dynamic in nature, but are too computationally expensive to be used directly in operability and controllability dynamic studies. They are also difficult to incorporate in the framework of process simulation software such as Aspen Plus Dynamics. Thus lower-dimensional dynamic models are still useful in these types of studies. In the current study, a 1D dynamic model for a single-stage, downward-firing, entrained-flow GE-type gasifier is developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM), which is a commercial equation-based simulator for creating, editing, and re-using models of process units. The gasifier model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances for the solid and gas phases. The physical and chemical reactions considered in the model are drying, devolatilization/pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. The dynamic gasifier model is being developed for use in a plant-wide dynamic model of an IGCC power plant. For dynamic simulation, the resulting highly nonlinear system of partial differential algebraic equations (PDAE) is solved in ACM using the well-known Method of Lines (MoL) approach. The MoL discretizes the space domain and leaves the time domain continuous, thereby converting the PDAE to a differential algebraic equation (DAE) system with respect to time. The DAE system is solved using a variable-step implicit Euler integrator. For steady-state simulations, the set of nonlinear algebraic equations are solved using a Newton-type method. In this presentation, preliminary results from the steady-state non-isothermal gasifier model will be reported. Comparisons of the results from the gasifier model to available pilot plant data, industrial gasifier data, and other published models will be made. Sensitivity studies will be presented for different types of coal and operating conditions.

Kasule, J.; Turton, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Zitney, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in an interspecific F1 poplar cross and differential expression of genes in ectomycorrhizas of the two parents: Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa  

SciTech Connect

A Populus deltoides Populus trichocarpa F1 pedigree was analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting ectomycorrhizal development and for microarray characterization of gene networks involved in this symbiosis. A 300 genotype progeny set was evaluated for its ability to form ectomycorrhiza with the basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor. The percentage of mycorrhizal root tips was determined on the root systems of all 300 progeny and their two parents. QTL analysis identified four significant QTLs, one on the P. deltoides and three on the P. trichocarpa genetic maps. These QTLs were aligned to the P. trichocarpa genome and each contained several megabases and encompass numerous genes. NimbleGen whole-genome microarray, using cDNA from RNA extracts of ectomycorrhizal root tips from the parental genotypes P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides, was used to narrow the candidate gene list. Among the 1,543 differentially expressed genes (p value 0.05; 5.0-fold change in transcript level) having different transcript levels in mycorrhiza of the two parents, 41 transcripts were located in the QTL intervals: 20 in Myc_d1, 14 in Myc_t1, and seven in Myc_t2, while no significant differences among transcripts were found in Myc_t3. Among these 41 transcripts, 25 were overrepresented in P. deltoides relative to P. trichocarpa; 16 were overrepresented in P. trichocarpa. The transcript showing the highest overrepresentation in P. trichocarpa mycorrhiza libraries compared to P. deltoides mycorrhiza codes for an ethylene-sensitive EREBP-4 protein which may repress defense mechanisms in P. trichocarpa while the highest overrepresented transcripts in P. deltoides code for proteins/genes typically associated with pathogen resistance.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Jorge, Veronique [INRA, Nancy, France; Vion, Patrice [INRA, Nancy, France; Marcais, Benoit [INRA, Nancy, France; Bastien, Catherine [INRA, Orleans, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Hubbell, Christopher A [ORNL; Samuel, Reichel [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL; Ding, Shi-You [ORNL; Zeng, Yining [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Sykes, Virginia R [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Putting the Pieces Together: High-performance LC-MS/MS Provides Network-, Pathway-, and Protein-level Perspectives in Populus  

SciTech Connect

High-performance mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics enabled the construction of a detailed proteome atlas for Populus, a woody perennial plant model organism. Optimization of experimental procedures and implementation of current state-of-the-art instrumentation afforded the most detailed look into the predicted proteome space of Populus, offering varying proteome perspectives: 1) network-wide, 2) pathway-specific, and 3) protein-level viewpoints. Together, enhanced protein retrieval through a detergent-based lysis approach and maximized peptide sampling via the dual-pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos), have resulted in the identification of 63,056 tryptic peptides. The technological advancements, specifically spectral- acquisition and sequencing speed, afforded the deepest look into the Populus proteome, with peptide abundances spanning 6 orders of magnitude and mapping to~25% of the predicted proteome space. In total, tryptic peptides mapped to 13,574 protein assignments across four organ-types: mature (fully expanded, leaf plastichronic index (LPI) 10-12) leaf, young (juvenile, LPI 4-6) leaf, root, and stem. To resolve protein ambiguity, identified proteins were grouped by sequence similarity ( 90%), thereby reducing the protein assignments into 7,538 protein groups. In addition, this large-scale data set features the first systems-wide survey of protein expression across different Populus organs. As a demonstration of the precision and comprehensiveness of the semi-quantitative analysis, we were able to contrast two stages of leaf development, mature versus young leaf. Statistical comparison through ANOVA analysis revealed 1,432 protein groups that exhibited statistically significant (p 0.01) differences in protein abundance. Experimental validation of the metabolic circuitry expected in mature leaf (characterized by photosynthesis and carbon fixation) compared to young leaf (characterized by rapid growth and moderate photosynthetic activities) strongly testifies to the credibility of the approach. Instead of quantitatively comparing a few proteins, a systems view of all the changes associated with a given cellular perturbation could be made.

Abraham, Paul E [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Adams, Rachel M [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Comparative physiology and transcriptional networks underlying the heat shock response in Populus trichocarpa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat shock response continues to be layered with additional complexity as interactions and crosstalk among heat shock proteins (HSPs), the reactive oxygen network and hormonal signalling are discovered. However, comparative analyses exploring variation in each of these processes among species remain relatively unexplored. In controlled environment experiments, photosynthetic response curves were conducted from 22 to 42 C and indicated that temperature optimum of light-saturated photosynthesis was greater for Glycine max relative to Arabidopsis thaliana or Populus trichocarpa. Transcript profiles were taken at defined states along the temperature response curves, and inferred pathway analysis revealed species-specific variation in the abiotic stress and the minor carbohydrate raffinose/galactinol pathways. A weighted gene co-expression network approach was used to group individual genes into network modules linking biochemical measures of the antioxidant system to leaf-level photosynthesis among P. trichocarpa, G. max and A. thaliana. Network-enabled results revealed an expansion in the G. max HSP17 protein family and divergence in the regulation of the antioxidant and heat shock modules relative to P. trichocarpa and A. thaliana. These results indicate that although the heat shock response is highly conserved, there is considerable species-specific variation in its regulation.

Weston, David [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Allen, Sara M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Energy sensitivity and variability analysis of Populus hybrid short-rotation plantations in northeastern United States. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Production of biomass by corn-like plantations has been demonstrated by a number of researchers. These forest analogs of agronomic cropping systems have the potential to yield substantially more biomass per unit area than traditional forests. Care is needed in choosing the appropriate sites, species, spacing, and harvesting strategies. Opportunities for increased yields have been suggested for fertilization and irrigation. Utilization of the biomass from these dense plantations for energy was the focus of this study. Although the amount of energy potential of the biomass is important, the energy output must be greater than the energy input for biomass to have a positive benefit to society. Further, in order to completely evaluate the net energy of the system it is necessary to examine the energy out-to-in ratios on the basis of usable energy (for example, usable heat, process steam and electricity), as well as all of the energies expended in producing, harvesting, transporting and processing the biomass. The objective of this study is to establish and analyze the energy inputs for selected management strategies in order to evaluate the sensitivity and variability of the energy inputs in the net energy analysis, and based on the net energy analysis to recommend a management strategy that minimizes energy inputs while maximizing biomass yield for short-rotation systems of Populus spp. in the northeastern United States.

Bowersox, T.W.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1979-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

80

Aspen Code Development Collaboration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wyoming has a wealth of primary energy resources in the forms of coal, natural gas, wind, uranium, and oil shale. Most of Wyoming?s coal and gas resources are exported from the state in unprocessed form rather than as refined higher value products. Wyoming?s leadership recognizes the opportunity to broaden the state?s economic base energy resources to make value-added products such as synthetic vehicle fuels and commodity chemicals. Producing these higher value products in an environmentally responsible manner can benefit from the use of clean energy technologies including Wyoming?s abundant wind energy and nuclear energy such as new generation small modular reactors including the high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

none,; Cherry, Robert S. [INL] INL; Richard, Boardman D. [INL] INL

2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain  

SciTech Connect

This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elite P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO2-unresponsive clone partitioned C into pathways associated with passive defense and cell wall thickening. These results indicate that there is significant variation in gene expression patterns between different tree genotypes. Consequently, future efforts to improve productivity or other advantageous traits for carbon sequestration should include an examination of genetic variability in CO2 responsiveness.

Karnosky, David F (deceased); Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J (for DF Karnosky)

2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

82

Catalyst and feedstock effects in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermochemical conversion of biomass feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels can be accomplished by three processes, namely gasification, high-pressure liquefaction, and pyrolysis. In this study, the pyrolysis option is selected which is followed by the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors to aromatic and olefinic hydrocarbons (PYROCAT process). The aromatics constitute a high-octane gasoline blend, while the olefins can be utilized as feedstocks for various chemicals. The PYROCAT process has been studied in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed catalytic reactor. Consecutive biomass samples were pyrolyzed rapidly in steam at 550{degree}C and atmospheric pressure, and then the pyrolysis vapors were passed over a zeolite catalyst. The catalytic upgrading products were monitored in real-time using molecular-beam mass-spectrometry (MBMS). The yields of major products were estimated from mass-spectral data. Several zeolite catalysts were screened in the upgrading process and promising catalysts with high yields were identified. Feedstocks studied included: the woody biomass species aspen (Populus tremuloides), basswood (Tilia americana), and willow (Salix alba); the three isolated components of wood lignin, xylan and cellulose; and the herbaceous species bagasse (Saccharum spp. hybrid), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), and Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata). 17 refs.

Rejai, B.; Agblevor, F.A.; Evans, R.J.; Wang, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metablome.  

SciTech Connect

Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides) roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

Larsen, P. E.; Sreedasyam, A.; Trivedi, G; Podila, G. K.; Cseke, L. J.; Collart, F. R. (Biosciences Division); (On Assignment, Scientific Staffing); (Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville)

2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

84

Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

None

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

85

Great Plains ASPEN model development: development of a model for the density of solutions of aqueous electrolytes. Final topical report. [Extension of Debye-Huckel limiting law  

SciTech Connect

A new physical property model for the calculation of the density of solutions of aqueous electrolytes has been developed for the ASPEN process simulator as part of the simulation of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant. The model developed recently by Jay S. Dweck, Consultant, Inc. is an extension of the Debye-Huckel limiting law. The Debye-Huckel limiting law allows the predictions of the density of dilute solutions of dissolved salts by providing a relationship for the molar volume of the salt as a function of ion strength. The relationship is linear in the square root of ionic strength, with the slope dependent only upon the charges of the ions which constitute the salt. When combined with data for the infinite dilution molar volume of the salts, solution density can be calculated. The new model preserves the linear relationship with the square root of ionic strength, but introduces ion dependent parameters for the determination of the slope. The solution density is calculated in terms of the molar volumes of the individual ions, instead of a mixture of pseudo salts. Preliminary tests of the model have shown it to be far more accurate than the original limiting law, and applicable to more concentrated solutions (greater than 10 molar).

Dweck, J.S.; Mendelson, M.A.; Blumenfeld, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Gender determination in populus  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

2011 Undergraduate Symposium Preliminary Program 3/10/11 Last Name First Name Team Member  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FOLIAR TANNIN PRODUCTION IN POPULUS TREMULOIDES Poster Session 1: 9:00 - 10:15 a.m. Argirion Ilona ROLE OF FISH IN SUPPORTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AFRICA'S LAKE TANGANYIKA. Poster Session 3: 1 Session 4: 2:45-4:15 p.m. Crossley Michael CONSEQUENCES OF LIGNIN MODIFICATION IN BIOFUEL POPLAR: PEST

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

88

Compositional characterization and imaging of "Wall-bound" acylesters of Populus trichocarpa Reveal Differential Accumulation of acyl Molecules in Normal and Reactive Woods  

SciTech Connect

Acylesterification is one of the common modifications of cell wall non-cellulosic polysaccharides and/or lignin primarily in monocot plants. We analyzed the cell-wall acylesters of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared (IR) imaging facility. The results revealed that the cell wall of dicotyledonous poplar, as the walls of many monocot grasses, contains a considerable amount of acylesters, primarily acetyl and p-hydroxycinnamoyl molecules. The 'wall-bound' acetate and phenolics display a distinct tissue specific-, bending stress responsible- and developmental-accumulation pattern. The 'wall-bound' p-coumarate predominantly accumulated in young leaves and decreased in mature leaves, whereas acetate and ferulate mostly amassed in the cell wall of stems. Along the development of stem, the level of the 'wall-bound' ferulate gradually increased, while the basal level of p-coumarate further decreased. Induction of tension wood decreased the accumulation of the 'wall-bound' phenolics while the level of acetate remained constant. Synchrotron IR-mediated chemical compositional imaging revealed a close spatial distribution of acylesters with cell wall polysaccharides in poplar stem. These results indicate that different 'wall-bound' acylesters play distinct roles in poplar cell wall structural construction and/or metabolism of cell wall matrix components.

Guo, J.; Park, S; Yu, X; Liu, C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Enhancing a Pathway-Genome Database (PGDB) to Capture Subcellular Localization of Metabolites and Enzymes: The Nucleotide-Sugar Biosynthetic Pathways of Populus trichocarpa  

SciTech Connect

Understanding how cellular metabolism works and is regulated requires that the underlying biochemical pathways be adequately represented and integrated with large metabolomic data sets to establish a robust network model. Genetically engineering energy crops to be less recalcitrant to saccharification requires detailed knowledge of plant polysaccharide structures and a thorough understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in forming and regulating cell-wall synthesis. Nucleotide-sugars are building blocks for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. The biosynthesis of nucleotide-sugars is catalyzed by a multitude of enzymes that reside in different subcellular organelles, and precise representation of these pathways requires accurate capture of this biological compartmentalization. The lack of simple localization cues in genomic sequence data and annotations however leads to missing compartmentalization information for eukaryotes in automatically generated databases, such as the Pathway-Genome Databases (PGDBs) of the SRI Pathway Tools software that drives much biochemical knowledge representation on the internet. In this report, we provide an informal mechanism using the existing Pathway Tools framework to integrate protein and metabolite sub-cellular localization data with the existing representation of the nucleotide-sugar metabolic pathways in a prototype PGDB for Populus trichocarpa. The enhanced pathway representations have been successfully used to map SNP abundance data to individual nucleotide-sugar biosynthetic genes in the PGDB. The manually curated pathway representations are more conducive to the construction of a computational platform that will allow the simulation of natural and engineered nucleotide-sugar precursor fluxes into specific recalcitrant polysaccharide(s).

Nag, A.; Karpinets, T. V.; Chang, C. H.; Bar-Peled, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Net assimilation and photosynthate allocation of Populus clones grown under short-rotation intensive culture: Physiological and genetic responses regulating yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to determine the differential responses of poplar clones from sections Tacamahaca and Aigeiros of the genus Populus to varying levels of applied water and nitrogen. Above- and below-ground phenology and morphology, photosynthate allocation, and physiological processes were examined. By manipulating the availability of soil resources, we have been able to separate inherent clonal differences from plastic responses, and to determine genotype-environment interactions. We also have been able to make some contrasts between trees grown from hardwood cuttings and coppice sprouts. Our overall hypothesis was that carbon allocation during growth is greatly influenced by interactions among moisture, nitrogen, and genotype, and that these interactions greatly influence yield in short-rotation plantations. As is true of any project, some of our original expectations were not realized, whereas other initially unforeseen results were obtained. The reduced funding from the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) during the last few years of the project slowed us down to some extent, so progress was not been as rapid as we might have hoped. The major problem associated with this funding shortfall was the inability to employ skilled and unskilled student labor. Nonetheless, we were able to accomplish most of our original goals. All of the principal investigators on this project feel that we have made progress in advancing the scientific underpinning of short-rotation woody biomass production.

Dickmann, D.I.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Nguyen, P.V. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Aspen, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2230 2230 Coordinates 39.1910983°, -106.8175387° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.1910983,"lon":-106.8175387,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

92

PlainsCottonwood QuakingAspen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;BristleconePine #12;Piñon Pine Pinus edulis Description Bark: Gray, smooth and thin when young; red on young trees; nearly 3 inches thick, red-orange and furrowed into large flat scaly plates on mature trees that form tufts near the end of branches. Fruit: Light red-brown cones; 3 to 4 inches long; egg

93

Nanometrology of delignified Populus using mode synthesizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2011 Nanotechnology 22 465702 (http:iopscience.iop.org0957-44842246465702) Download details: IP...

94

Shotgun proteome profile of Populus developing xylem  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of such proteins is further supportive of membrane enrich- ment in the pellet fraction. 3.3 Identification of known xylem- or cell wall development-associated...

95

NEW COLLECTION RECORDS AND HOST RANGE OF THE COTTONWOOD LEAFCURL MITE, TETRA LOBUUFERA (K!IFER) (ACARI: ERIOPHYIDAE), IN THE USA.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coyle, D.R., and J.W. Amrine, Jr. 2004. New collection records and host range of the cottonwood leafcurl mite, Tetra lobulifera (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae), in the USA. Internat. J. Acarol. 30(1):3-8. The cottonwood leafcurl mite, Aculops lobuliferus Keifer, 1961, is renamed as Tetra lobulifera (Keifer). This eriophyid mite is capable of inflicting substantial damage on plantation- and native-grown cottonwoods (Populus spp.). We report new State and County collection records from the eastern and northwestern U.S.A. as well as new host records, including Populus grandidentata Michx. (big-tooth aspen), for this pest. This updates the established geographic range of T. lobulzjera, and demonstrates its ability to utilize other host plants in the genus Populus for development.

Coyle, David, R.; Amrine, James, W.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Aspen Park, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

539155°, -105.2947148° 539155°, -105.2947148° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.539155,"lon":-105.2947148,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

97

Aspen Hill, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0795529°, -77.0730338° 0795529°, -77.0730338° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.0795529,"lon":-77.0730338,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

98

Seasonal Variations in Isoprene Emissions from a Boreal Aspen Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to understand the environmental and seasonal controls over isoprene emissions from a boreal forest ecosystem whose isoprene source came from trees of the same species and age. A further objective was to ...

J. D. Fuentes; D. Wang; L. Gu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program (Colorado) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Weather-stripping, Doors, DuctAir sealing, Lighting, Programmable Thermostats, Windows, Unspecified technologies Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy...

100

Transgenic Populus Trees for Forest Products, Bioenergy, and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1980). However, once an elite genotype is developed, genetic gains can be maintained by vegetative prop- agation (hardwood or greenwood cuttings andor tissue culture). Due to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Identification of candidate genes in Arabidopsis and Populus...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database, and additional genes were identified as...

102

QUESTION 894: How far is it from Denver to Aspen? DOCNO ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ANSWER: miniaturization of atomic structures QUESTION ... QUESTION 1198: When was Hiroshima bombed? ... dropped the atom bomb on Hiroshima ...

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

Additional Tests to Upgrade and Refine the Aspen Model for Leaching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

 Leaching of biomass to reduce or eliminate troublesome constituents—such as alkali metals, chlorine, sulfur, and phosphorus—presents the opportunity to solve many of the problems involved in the firing, co-firing, or gasification of low-cost, low-grade agricultural biomass and waste materials for energy and biofuel production. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is interested in fostering the development of this potentially game-changing technology.EPRI ...

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

Computer-aided industrial process design; the ASPEN Project. First annual report for the period.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Work during the first year of this contract concentrated on acquiring the project staff, development of a prototype simulator, the simulation of three coal conversion processes, a survey of software for acquisition, the ...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

1977-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Development of an ASPEN Plus Model of a Chemical-Looping Reformer Reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from biomass gasification is viewed as a promising option for production of transport fuels. A major problem associated is the removal… (more)

Lohse, Daniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Methylome reorganization during in vitro dedifferentiation and regeneration of Populus trichocarpa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the in vitro-regenerated oil palm Elaeis guineensis. AnnJL: Somaclonal variation in oil palm (Elaeis guineensischaracterisation of two oil palm markers showing somaclonal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Enhanced Raw Materials Forest Products Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Sterility in Forest Trees................................................................................................... 2

Hq Program Managers

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Published on Aspen Daily News Online (http://www.aspendailynews.com) Report finds oil shale could impact Colorado's water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Development (116.4) (30.6) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve (2.1) (2.1) Clean Coal Technology (18.0) (18

Neff, Jason

110

Process analysis and aspen plus simulation of nuclear-based hydrogen production with a copper-chlorine cycle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production driven by nuclear energy are promising alternatives to existing technologies for large-scale commercial production of hydrogen, without dependence on fossil… (more)

Chukwu, Cletus

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Simulating aerosol formation and effects in NOx absorption in oxy-fired boiler gas processing units using Aspen Plus.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-fired boilers are receiving increasing focus as a potential response to reduced boiler emissions limits and greenhouse gas legislation. Among the challenges in cleaning boiler… (more)

Schmidt, David Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Scaling Isoprene Fluxes from Leaves to Canopies: Test Cases over a Boreal Aspen and a Mixed Species Temperate Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate at which isoprene is emitted by a forest depends on an array of environmental variables, the forest’s biomass, and its species composition. At present it is unclear whether errors in canopy-scale and process-level isoprene emission ...

Dennis D. Baldocchi; Jose D. Fuentes; David R. Bowling; Andrew A. Turnipseed; Russell K. Monson

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Label-free in situ imaging of lignification in the cell wall of low lignin transgenic Populus trichocarpa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dixon and Reddy 2003; Fukushima 2001; Ralph et al. 2007).Atalla and Agarwal 1985, 1986; Fukushima 2001). Ana- lyticalBoerjan et al. 2003; Fukushima 2001; Ralph et al. 2007).

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

experimentally in an intact Populus ecosystem that increased [CO2] cannot only enhance biomass accumulation in a short-rotation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 from a liquid storage tank. The mesocosms are subjected to the light regimes of a temperate at the end of each growing season. Each mesocosm contained 43­47 trees. We calculated hourly ecosystem-day averages to fill data voids. Leaf photosynthesis and isoprene measurements Leaf-level gas

Doebeli, Michael

115

Evaluation of Water Stress Impact on the Parameter Values in Stomatal Conductance Models Using Tower Flux Measurement of a Boreal Aspen Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of water stress on plant stomatal conductance (g) has been widely studied but with little consensus as to the processes governing its responses. The photosynthesis-driven stomatal conductance models usually employ constant model ...

Shusen Wang

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Gas Mileage of 2009 Vehicles by Chrysler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 Highway 2009 Chrysler Aspen 2WD 8 cyl, 4.7 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2009 Chrysler Aspen 2WD Gas 14 City 15 Combined 19 Highway E85 9 City 10...

117

Gas Mileage of 2007 Vehicles by Chrysler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

19 Highway 2007 Chrysler Aspen 2WD 8 cyl, 4.7 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2007 Chrysler Aspen 2WD Gas 13 City 14 Combined 17 Highway E85 9 City 10...

118

Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated Populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Background: The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)production. Background The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)abbreviations used BESC: BioEnergy Science Center; HT: high-

Studer, Michael H; Brethauer, Simone; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated Populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 Submit your nextStuder et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011, 4:19 http://Studer et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011, 4:19 http://

Studer, Michael H; Brethauer, Simone; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Colorado Commercial Residential Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

GENERAL BULLETIN 2009-2011 1 GENERAL BULLETIN 2009-2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Flowsheeting program packages, like CHEMCAD, Aspen Plus, HYSYS, PRO/II, and ProSimPlus, are commonly used

Dormidontova, Elena E.

122

Bioinformatics-Based Identification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy feedstock. Keywords Populus . Whole-genome duplication . Quantitative trait loci . Wood chemistry . Syringyl lignin . Guaiacyl lignin . Biofuels Abbreviations QTL...

123

BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1602 1602 Aspen Manufacturing (Aspen) (Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps) ) ) ) ) ) ) NOTICE OF NONCOMPLIANCE DETERMINATION CERTIFICATION TEST DATA Manufacturers of certain covered products are required to certify compliance with the applicable Federal energy conservation standards through submission of a certification report to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department). 10 C.F.R. § 429.12. See 42 U.S.C. § 6296. The Department received several test reports, product ratings, and other information from Aspen Manufacturing (Aspen) in response to two requests for data issued to Aspen on March 22 and 31, 2011, and a subpoena issued to Aspen on June 1, 2011. DOE also received a response from a June 1, 2011 subpoena issued to the Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating Institute. DOE

124

Project 292  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO 2 treatment prior to sequestration. For power generation with gas turbine and steam turbine, preliminary ASPEN Plus simulation suggests that the UMC-Coal concept...

125

Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Martin Aspen. 2006. Demand Response Enabling TechnologiesDon. 2007. “Pricing for Demand Response from Residential andthe Level of Demand Response,” Power Point Presentation, 24

Herter, Karen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Process sensitivity of the hybrid sulphur thermochemical cycle / Gerhard Venter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A simple flowsheet of the hybrid sulphur cycle was devised and a steady state simulation thereof was built in Aspen. A sensitivity analysis was done… (more)

Venter, Gerhardus Petrus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ozone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Umkehr observations (Angell et al.) The Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) (McLaughlin et al.) Ozone EnrichmentAspen FACE Experiment - Rhinelander, Wisconsin...

128

Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation June 7, 2012 - 11:45am Addthis Aspen Aerogel's innovative insulation material works...

129

2002 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Bhakta Rath Honorary Dinner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 18, 2002 ... February 17–21 · 2002 TMS ANNUAL MEETING · Seattle, Washington ... Location: Sheraton Seattle Hotel & Towers Room: Aspen Room

130

BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

Not Available

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Focus Area 1 - Biomass Formation and Modification : BioEnergy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation and Modification BESC biomass formation and modification research involves working directly with two potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass and Populus) to develop...

132

Opening by Fall 2010 ($185m) Behavioral Sciences Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and water efficiency features in the building, Aspen Hall has a "real time" energy meter on the building so of the buildings use some form of on-site renewable energy. Great Hall in TILT Students study for construction- million diagnostic tests annually. #12; Academic Village ­ Aspen Hall In addition to lots of energy

133

Original article Strategies for the conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Strategies for the conservation of a pioneer tree species, Populus nigra L for the conservation of Populus nigra exist in most European countries, and it was elected as one of the pilot species of collaborative efforts within the EUFORGEN P. nigra Network are reviewed here. The conservation strategies need

Recanati, Catherine

134

Poplar Chap 1.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Populus: A Premier Pioneer System for Plant Genomics 1 Populus: A Premier Pioneer System for Plant Genomics 1 1 Populus: A Premier Pioneer System for Plant Genomics Stephen P. DiFazio, 1,a, * Gancho T. Slavov 1,b and Chandrashekhar P. Joshi 2 ABSTRACT The genus Populus has emerged as one of the premier systems for studying multiple aspects of tree biology, combining diverse ecological characteristics, a suite of hybridization complexes in natural systems, an extensive toolbox of genetic and genomic tools, and biological characteristics that facilitate experimental manipulation. Here we review some of the salient biological characteristics that have made this genus such a popular object of study. We begin with the taxonomic status of Populus, which is now a subject of ongoing debate, though it is becoming

135

Plant Genomics Vol 3.pmd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Populus Populus Genome Initiative Stephen DiFazio Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26508-6057 USA Email: spdifazio@mail.wvu.edu 8 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background on Populus Biology The genus Populus consists of about 29 species organized into six major sections that occur primarily in the Northern Hemisphere (Eckenwalder 1996). Species from the different sections of the genus have diverse ecological characteristics. Two of the most economically important sections (Aigeiros and Tacamahaca) contain species collectively known as cottonwoods. These occur mostly in riparian zones and are characterized by primarily ruderal life history, dominating early successional stages and thriving on flood-mediated disturbance (Braatne et al. 1996; Karrenberg et al. 2002). The other major section of the genus (section Populus,

136

Large interannual CO 2 and energy exchange variability in a freshwater marsh under consistent environmental conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the annual carbon sequestration by a boreal aspen forest,tions into wetland carbon sequestration as remediation forin order to assess its carbon sequestration potential. 5.2.

Rocha, Adrian V.; Goulden, Michael L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

CX-006441: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

441: Categorical Exclusion Determination 441: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006441: Categorical Exclusion Determination Colorado State Energy Program, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - City of Aspen, Geothermal Power Feasibility Study CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 Date: 08/03/2011 Location(s): Aspen, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The City of Aspen is proposing to use $50,000 in State Energy Program funding for a feasibility study, which includes the drilling of one test well (1 new temperature gradient borehole) and evaluate the geothermal power production potential beneath the City of Aspen, Colorado, and preparation of a final report. The goal of this work will be to guide the City in its future geothermal water rights appropriations and development

138

Energy Crop Chemical Fate and Nutrient Cycling Study  

SciTech Connect

This project has demonstrated that water yield and nutrient export from 8-9 year old hybrid poplar were similar to that of 22-to 34-year-old natural mixed aspen stands in northwestern Minnesota.

J.G. Isehrands

2004-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

139

Microsoft Word - ThisWeek04.22.13.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

transport to storage. Simulation with Aspen Plus shows that CTCS can increase the plant's peak power output by about 20 percent for 4-6 hours. Economic analyses show that CTCS will...

140

Model Description  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Case - Patel, Nitin M., et al, "'Across the Fence' Hydrogen Plant Starts up at California Refinery", Oil and Gas Journal, October 3, 1994, pp. 54 - 61. ASPEN ISSUES: Components All...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Biomass gasification integration in recuperative gas turbine cycles and recuperative fuel cell integrated gas turbine cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A multi-reactor, multi-temperature, waste-heat driven biomass thermochemical converter is proposed and simulated in the process simulation tool Aspen Plus?. The thermochemical converter is in… (more)

Lřver, Kristian Aase

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FE0013127 Aspen Aerogels FE ADA-ES, Inc. SCCCapture Division FY14-16 1012013 - 9302016 Isaac "Andy" Aurelio Highlands Ranch, CO Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel...

143

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 719 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 ASPEN...

144

Evaluation of a Two-Source Snow-Vegetation Energy Balance Model for Estimating Surface Energy Fluxes in a Rangeland Ecosystem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility of a snow-vegetation energy balance model for estimating surface energy fluxes is evaluated with field measurements at two sites in a rangeland ecosystem in southwestern Idaho during the winter of 2007: one site dominated by aspen ...

Cezar Kongoli; William P. Kustas; Martha C. Anderson; John M. Norman; Joseph G. Alfieri; Gerald N. Flerchinger; Danny Marks

145

References 170 RREEFFEERREENNCCEESS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.N., J.A. Wilson, and W.E. Jones, 1998b, Coal Gasifier Control : A Process Engineering Approach, MEC Benchmark Challenge on Gasifier Control, A One Day Seminar, 24 June 1998, Coventry University Aspen

Skogestad, Sigurd

146

DEPARTIlII!NT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETFIu...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DEPARTIlIINT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETFIu.llNATION RECIPIENT:Govemor's Energy Office PROJECf TITLE: COLORADO SEP ARRA - City of Aspen . Geothermal Power...

147

A techno-economic and environmental assessment of hydroprocessed renewable distillate fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a model to quantify the economic costs and environmental impacts of producing fuels from hydroprocessed renewable oils (HRO) process. Aspen Plus was used to model bio-refinery operations and supporting ...

Pearlson, Matthew Noah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Social Justice Feminism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long Island Care at Home v. Coke, 127 S. Ct. 2339, 2344 (Long Island Care at Home v. Coke, 127 S. Ct. 2339 (2007) (download/Aspen.pdf). 299. Coke, 267 F. Supp. 2d at 333. She

Kalsem, Kristin; Williams, Verna L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Analysis of 4,664 high-quality sequence-finished poplar full-length  

SciTech Connect

The genus Populus includes poplars, aspens and cottonwoods, which will be collectively referred to as poplars hereafter unless otherwise specified. Poplars are the dominant tree species in many forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere and are of substantial economic value in plantation forestry. Poplar has been established as a model system for genomics studies of growth, development, and adaptation of woody perennial plants including secondary xylem formation, dormancy, adaptation to local environments, and biotic interactions. As part of the poplar genome sequencing project and the development of genomic resources for poplar, we have generated a full-length (FL)-cDNA collection using the biotinylated CAP trapper method. We constructed four FLcDNA libraries using RNA from xylem, phloem and cambium, and green shoot tips and leaves from the P. trichocarpa Nisqually-1 genotype, as well as insect-attacked leaves of the P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides hybrid. Following careful selection of candidate cDNA clones, we used a combined strategy of paired end reads and primer walking to generate a set of 4,664 high-accuracy, sequence-verified FLcDNAs, which clustered into 3,990 putative unique genes. Mapping FLcDNAs to the poplar genome sequence combined with BLAST comparisons to previously predicted protein coding sequences in the poplar genome identified 39 FLcDNAs that likely localize to gaps in the current genome sequence assembly. Another 173 FLcDNAs mapped to the genome sequence but were not included among the previously predicted genes in the poplar genome. Comparative sequence analysis against Arabidopsis thaliana and other species in the non-redundant database of GenBank revealed that 11.5% of the poplar FLcDNAs display no significant sequence similarity to other plant proteins. By mapping the poplar FLcDNAs against transcriptome data previously obtained with a 15.5 K cDNA microarray, we identified 153 FLcDNA clones for genes that were differentially expressed in poplar leaves attacked by forest tent caterpillars. This study has generated a high-quality FLcDNA resource for poplar and the third largest FLcDNA collection published to date for any plant species. We successfully used the FLcDNA sequences to reassess gene prediction in the poplar genome sequence, perform comparative sequence annotation, and identify differentially expressed transcripts associated with defense against insects. The FLcDNA sequences will be essential to the ongoing curation and annotation of the poplar genome, in particular for targeting gaps in the current genome assembly and further improvement of gene predictions. The physical FLcDNA clones will serve as useful reagents for functional genomics research in areas such as analysis of gene functions in defense against insects and perennial growth. Sequences from this study have been deposited in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers EF144175 to EF148838.

Ralph, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Holt, Robert A. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Jones, Steven [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Marra, Marco [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Bohlmann, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

O R I G I N A L P A P E R Micropropagation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Micropropagation Micropropagation of Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1': the genotype deriving the Populus reference genome Byung-guk Kang Æ Lori Osburn Æ Dean Kopsell Æ Gerald A. Tuskan Æ Zong-Ming Cheng Received: 31 December 2008 / Accepted: 25 August 2009 / Published online: 10 September 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Populus serves as a model tree for biotech- nology and molecular biology research due to the avail- ability of the reference genome sequence of Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray) genotype 'Nisqually-1'. How- ever, 'Nisqually-1' has been shown to be very recalcitrant to micropropagation, regeneration and transformation. In this study, a highly efficient micropropagation protocol from greenhouse-grown shoot tips of 'Nisqually-1' was established. The optimal micropropagation protocol involves growing in vitro shoots in plant growth

151

1471-2164-10-14.fm  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 (page number not for citation purposes) BMC Genomics Open Access Database RepPop: a database for repetitive elements in Populus trichocarpa Fengfeng Zhou 1,2 and Ying Xu* 1,2 Address: 1 Computational Systems Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA and 2 BioEnergy Science Center, Tennessee, USA Email: Fengfeng Zhou - ffzhou@csbl.bmb.uga.edu; Ying Xu* - xyn@bmb.uga.edu * Corresponding author Abstract Background: Populus trichocarpa is the first tree genome to be completed, and its whole genome is currently being assembled. No functional annotation about the repetitive elements in the Populus trichocarpa genome is currently available. Results: We predicted 9,623 repetitive elements in the Populus trichocarpa genome, and assigned

152

Mechanisms of Plant-Fungi Symbiosis Characterized by DOE JGI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

birch, fir, and pine forests of North America and is a common symbiont of Populus, the poplar tree whose genome was determined by the JGI in 2006 The analysis of the...

153

Lieven Sterck, Stephane Rombauts, Sven Degroeve, Pierre Rouz, and Yves Van de Peer The annotation of the Poplar genome is one of many tasks that will be done by the IPGC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Poplar genome is one of many tasks that will be done by the IPGC (International Populus Genome Consortium) in order to provide the scientific community with the genome of a new plant model organism. The IPGC

Gent, Universiteit

154

pone.0054468 1..9  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anchored QTLs for Biomass Productivity in Hybrid Populus Grown under Contrasting Environments Wellington Muchero 1,2 *, Mitchell M. Sewell 1a , Priya Ranjan 1,2 , Lee E. Gunter...

155

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 24040 of 29,416 results. 31 - 24040 of 29,416 results. Download Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0305) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing finding that a variety of basic models of split-system air conditioning heat pumps do not comport with the energy conservation standards. http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/aspen-noncompliance-determination-2010-se-0305 Download Flash2008-60.pdf http://energy.gov/management/downloads/flash2008-60pdf Download Flash2010-09.pdf http://energy.gov/management/downloads/flash2010-09pdf Download Policy Flash 2011-48 http://energy.gov/management/downloads/policy-flash-2011-48 Download FLASH2011-17-OPAM http://energy.gov/management/downloads/flash2011-17-opam Download FLASH2011-16-OPAM http://energy.gov/management/downloads/flash2011-16-opam

156

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 - 24030 of 26,764 results. 21 - 24030 of 26,764 results. Download Plain Writing Implementation Plan http://energy.gov/downloads/plain-writing-implementation-plan Page Data from Deepwater Horizon http://energy.gov/about-us/open-government/data-deepwater-horizon Download SORN Template and Guidance Privacy Act System of Records Notice (PDF) http://energy.gov/cio/downloads/sorn-template-and-guidance Download Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing finding that indoor unit model AEW244 and outdoor unit model NCPC-424-3010 of residential split system central air conditioning system do not comport with the energy conservation standards. http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/aspen-noncompliance-determination-2011-se-1602

157

Mathematical modeling of MCFC cells/stacks and networks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, various (molten carbonate fuel cell) MCFC cell/stack and network arid system models available in the public domain are discussed. Parametric and phenomenological fuel cell mathematical models are being used to simulate individual MCFC cell/stack performance. With initial demonstration of full-area, full-height 250-kW to 2-MW MCFC power plants, the spatial configuration of the MCFC stacks into networks in the fuel cell power plant takes on new importance. MCFC network and power plant system flowsheet performance is being modeled using-the ASPEN system model. ASPEN is a tear and iterate flowsheet simulator in the public domain. ASPEN is suitable for MCFC network simulation since it has strong systems and property database capabilities. With emergence of larger MCFC power plant system demonstrations, system modeling of MCFC power plants is now essential. DOE routinely uses MCFC models in making performance comparisons and in decision-making.

Williams, M.C.; Wimer, J.; Sudhoff, F. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Archer, D. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

John Williams

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

159

Colorado/Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colorado/Incentives Colorado/Incentives < Colorado Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Financial Incentive Programs for Colorado 2 Rules, Regulations and Policies for Colorado Download All Financial Incentives and Policies for Colorado CSV (rows 1 - 162) Financial Incentive Programs for Colorado Download Financial Incentives for Colorado CSV (rows 1 - 116) Incentive Incentive Type Active Alternative Fuel Vehicle Rebate (Colorado) State Rebate Program No Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Refueling - Corporate Tax Credit (Colorado) Corporate Tax Credit No Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Refueling - Personal Tax Credit (Colorado) Personal Tax Credit No Aspen - Grid-Tied Micro Hydro Grant (Colorado) Local Grant Program No Aspen - Solar Power Pioneer Loan Program (Colorado) Local Loan Program No

160

Publications : BioEnergy Science Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications Publications Click on the Header name to sort. 564 Records as of 01/04/2014 Publication Date Author Title Journal/Book Volume/Issue Focus Area DOI 11/01/2011 Abraham Defining the Boundaries and Characterizing the Landscape of Functional Genome Expression in Vascular Tissues of Populus using Shotgun Proteomics View Document Journal of Proteome Research Abraham, P., Adams, R., Giannone, R.J., Kalluri, U., Ranjan, P., Erickson, B., Shah, M., Tuskan, G.A., Hettich, R.L. "Defining the Boundaries and Characterizing the Landscape of Functional Genome Expression in Vascular Tissues of Populus using Shotgun Proteomics." Journal of Proteome Research 11:449-460, 2012. Research Area: Characterization and Modeling 10.1021/pr200851y 10/16/2012 Abraham Putting the pieces together: high-performance LC-MS/MS provides network-pathway-, and protein-level perspectives in Populus

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

fulltext.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evolution Evolution and divergence in the coding and promoter regions of the Populus gene family encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases Xia Y e & Suhua Yuan & Hong Guo & Feng Chen & Gerald A. Tuskan & Zong-Ming Cheng Received: 8 December 2010 / Revised: 11 August 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 # Springer-V erlag 2011 Abstract Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are believed to modify the cell wall structure by cleaving a xyloglucan polymer and transferring the newly generated, potentially reducing, terminal to another xylo- glucan. We report here the detailed analysis of 37 Populus trichocarpa XTH genes/proteins in their divergence in both the coding and 5' promoter regions. Our results show that the Populus XTH genes have experienced whole-genome and local duplications and pre- and post-speciation diver- gence. Genome-wide and segmental

162

Property:OpenEI/CETSI/RelatedToolsDesc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RelatedToolsDesc RelatedToolsDesc Jump to: navigation, search Property Name OpenEI/CETSI/RelatedToolsDesc Property Type Text Description A brief description of the resource's relationship to tools. Pages using the property "OpenEI/CETSI/RelatedToolsDesc" Showing 22 pages using this property. A Animal Farm Powers Village + None given C City of Aspen Climate Action Plan + The Plan references Aspen's greenhouse gas emissions inventory, however the City did not use a publicly available tool to generate its inventory. The City also made a legally binding commitment to reduces its government operations by joining the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), however as of the end of 2010, the CCX has stopped this program. The Plan calls for the creation of a "low carbon footprint" guideline for city events which has resulted in the Green events checklist and event report cards available at: http://aspenpitkin.com/Living-in-the-Valley/Green-Initiatives/Aspen-ZGreen/Events/. The Canary Initiative has also developed an energy tracker for business and citizens to track their energy use (http://aspenpitkin.com/Living-in-the-Valley/Green-Initiatives/Aspen-ZGreen/) and a carbon calculator and offset program for offsetting emissions (www.canarytags.com)

163

A Conservation Blueprint for Neotropical Migratory Birds in Western Colorado  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Conservation Blueprint for Neotropical Migratory Birds in Western Colorado Michelle Fink, David opportunities for conservation of Neotropical migratory birds in coniferous and aspen forest habitats in Western, and SPOT, a conservation portfolio optimization software, to analyze information about bird distribution

164

Evacuated Panels Utilizing Clay-Polymer Aerogel Composites for Improved Housing Insulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evacuated Panels Utilizing Clay-Polymer Aerogel Composites for Improved Housing Insulation March 17 encompasses a newly developed clay-polymer aerogel composite material (developed and patented by Dr. David Aerogel ~22 > 2,500 Silica Aerogel Blanket 10 1,800 (Aspen Aerogel) Silica Aerogel / PP Evacuated Panel 50

Rollins, Andrew M.

165

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier.0 DOCUMENTATION OF THE PLANT PERFORMANCE SIMULATION MODEL IN ASPEN OF THE COAL-FUELED TEXACO-GASIFIER BASED IGCC to the Gasifier............................... 40 3.2.2 Gasification

Frey, H. Christopher

166

The following are appendices A, B1 and B2 of our paper, "Integrated Process Modeling and Product Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research a Biodiesel Process Model To access NIST TDE Data Engine in Aspen Plus version 2006.5 or V7.0 Step 1. Enter of a specific property, eq. Liquid Density #12;4 Appendix B Prediction Methods and NIST TDE Equations

Liu, Y. A.

167

A multi-platform, multi-language environment for process modelling, simulation and optimisation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Process simulators like ASPEN PLUS and HYSYS are coming with the option of integrating their functions with special purpose programs for simulation and/or optimisation. However, a comprehensive account of how to do such integration is unavailable ... Keywords: automation, extensibility, genetic algorithms, integration, multi-objective optimisation, process modelling, simulation, simulators, styrene plant

N. Bhutani; A. Tarafder; G. P. Rangaiah; Ajay K. Ray

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Solvent Reclaiming by Crystallization of Potassium Sulfate Qing Xu, B. S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cost and solve other problems in the existing reclaiming processes. The solubility of potassium sulfate balance was studied and energy and chemical costs were estimated under one case. The total cost is about at Austin for equipment using in his lab, Dr. Chau- Chyun Chen in Aspen Technology Inc. for his help

Rochelle, Gary T.

169

An R&D Guide and Multiyear Plan for Improving Energy Use in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology retrofit demonstrations 1. Reliable ways to upgrade lighting systems, controls and daylighting envelope/fenestration/HVAC choices. 10. Advanced sensors and controls applied to decentralized HVAC systems to the web-based survey included: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Aspen Systems, California

Diamond, Richard

170

Study on Zero CO2 Emission SOFC Hybrid Power System with Steam Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a traditional SOFC hybrid power system, a zero CO2 emission SOFC hybrid power system with steam injection is proposed in this paper and its performance is analyzed. Oxy-fuel combustion can burn the fuel gas from anode thoroughly, and increases ... Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, Aspen Plus, hybrid power system, zero CO2 emission, steam injection

Liqiang Duan; Xiaoyuan Zhang; Yongping Yang; Gang Xu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Simulation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass Catalytic Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, biomass catalytic gasification process for producing H2-rich gas was presented. The process consists of mainly two fluidized beds—a gasifier and a CaO regenerator. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model of ... Keywords: biomass gasification, hydrogen production, Aspen Plus

Shan Cheng; Qian Wang; Hengsong Ji

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project management plan was finalized during a project kick off meeting held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which was attended by all project participants. The project management plan was submitted to DOE and was revised based on comments from DOE (Task 1.0). A survey of the potential users of the integrated software was conducted. A web-based survey form was developed and was announced in the ProcessCity discussion forum and in AspenTech's e-mail digest Aspen e-Flash. Several Fluent clients were individually contacted. A user requirements document was written (Task 2.2). As a prototype of AspenPlus-Fluent integration, the flowsheet for allyl alcohol production via the isomerization of propylene oxide was developed. A stirred tank reactor in the flowsheet for converting the byproduct acetone into n-propyl propionate was modeled with Fluent, version 5.4. The convergence of the AspenPlus-Fluent integrated model was demonstrated, and a list of data exchanges required between AspenPlus and Fluent was developed (Task 2.6). As the first demonstration case, the RP and L power plant was selected. A planning meeting was held on February 13, 2001 in Cambridge, MA to discuss this demonstration case. It was decided that the steam-side of the power plant would be modeled with AspenPlus and the gas-side, with the ALSTOM Power in-house code INDVU. A flowsheet model of the power plant was developed (Task 3.1). Three positive responses were received for the invitation to join the project Advisory Board. It was decided to expand the membership on the Advisory Board to include other industrial users interested in integrating AspenPlus and Fluent. Additional invitations were sent out (Task 5.0). Integraph's role in the project was restructured based on discussions among the project participants. Fluent hired Dr. Maxwell Osawe to work on the project. Dr. Osawe brings to the project a unique combination of skills (expertise in CFD and object-oriented design and programming) required for the software integration task (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.`

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

2001-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ophiostoma dentifundum sp. nov. from oak in Europe, characterized using molecular phylogenetic data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 40, Baku AZ1073, Republic of Azerbaijan. Mycol. Res. 109 (10): 1127­1136 (October 2005). f GenBank accession no. ITS b-tubulin O. fusiforme CMW 9968c CBS 112912 Populus nigra Azerbaijan D. N. Aghayeva T AY280481 AY280461 CMW 8281 CBS 112909 Castanea sativa Azerbaijan D. N. Aghayeva NT AY280482 AY

175

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2012 7, 2012 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past People across the country are looking for ways to make homes and buildings more energy efficient and save money on their energy bill. The same goes for many local governments. June 7, 2012 Aspen Aerogel's innovative insulation material works well under very cold and very hot temperatures. Here, the insulation is held over a flame. | Courtesy of Aspen Aerogels. Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation The Energy Department is investing in an innovative insulation material that saves energy and money for industrial facilities while also helping to support 50 full-time clean energy jobs for Americans. June 7, 2012 Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics Sandia's glitter-sized photovoltaic cells are highly efficient and cost

176

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 13140 of 28,560 results. 31 - 13140 of 28,560 results. Download Mitsubishi Electric: Consent Decree (2011-CE-01/0202) In this consent degree, the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) agrees to pay $5,000 to DOE on behalf of Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics, USA, Inc. after AHRI failed to file the required reports certifying that Mitsubishi Electric's residential central air conditioners and heat pumps meet the applicable energy conservation standards. http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/mitsubishi-electric-consent-decree-2011-ce-010202 Download Conflict of Interest and Nondisclosure Acknowledgement http://energy.gov/management/downloads/conflict-interest-and-nondisclosure-acknowledgement-0 Download Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing

177

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2012 7, 2012 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past People across the country are looking for ways to make homes and buildings more energy efficient and save money on their energy bill. The same goes for many local governments. June 7, 2012 Aspen Aerogel's innovative insulation material works well under very cold and very hot temperatures. Here, the insulation is held over a flame. | Courtesy of Aspen Aerogels. Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation The Energy Department is investing in an innovative insulation material that saves energy and money for industrial facilities while also helping to support 50 full-time clean energy jobs for Americans. June 7, 2012 Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics Sandia's glitter-sized photovoltaic cells are highly efficient and cost

178

Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461 Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati - The Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a modification to a task order to Aspen Resources Limited, Inc. of Boulder, Colorado for support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. The modification increased the value of the task order to $1.6 million from $833,499. The task order modification has a one-year performance period and two one-year option periods. The Task Order was awarded under an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (ID/IQ) master Contract. Aspen Resources Limited, Inc. is a small-disadvantaged business under the Small Business Administration's

179

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Colorado | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 3, 2011 August 3, 2011 CX-006441: Categorical Exclusion Determination Colorado State Energy Program, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - City of Aspen, Geothermal Power Feasibility Study CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 Date: 08/03/2011 Location(s): Aspen, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office July 27, 2011 CX-006297: Categorical Exclusion Determination Colorado-City-Fort Collins CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B1.32, B2.5, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 07/27/2011 Location(s): Fort Collins, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy July 26, 2011 CX-006289: Categorical Exclusion Determination Willow Creek Substation -Transformer Replacement and Substation Modifications CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 07/26/2011 Location(s): Grand County, Colorado

180

Property:Incentive/ResCode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ResCode ResCode Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/ResCode Property Type Text Description Residential Code. Pages using the property "Incentive/ResCode" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program (Colorado) + 2009 IECC with local amendments. Special offset requirements for snowmelt systems, outdoor spas and pools, and houses larger than 4,999 square feet Aspen and Pitkin County - Efficient Building Program (Colorado) + Requirements vary depending on whether the building is residential, large residential, or publicly funded low-income housing B Building Energy Code (Alabama) + 2009 IRC with Alabama amendments Building Energy Code (Alaska) + The 2011 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (BEES) is a state-developed code based on the 2009 IECC with Alaska-specific amendments.

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181

Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Research Institutions in Massachusetts's 3rd congressional Research Institutions in Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district Massachusetts Technology Collaborative - Renewable Energy Trust Registered Energy Companies in Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district American Superconductor Corporation AMSC Aspen Aerogels Aspen Aerogels Inc Atmosclear Climate Club BiOctane Biomass Combustion Systems Inc Boston Power CTP Hydrogen CellTech Power Inc Conservation Services Group Evergreen Solar, Inc. Guardian Energy Management Solutions Hy9 Hy9 Corporation Mass Megawatts Wind Power Inc Massachusetts Electric Company Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust MRET Noresco LLC Northern Energy Services Inc Protonex Technology Corporation ThermoEnergy Corporation Trenergi Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Massachusetts%27s_3rd_congressional_district&oldid=193518

182

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 23820 of 28,905 results. 11 - 23820 of 28,905 results. Download SORN Template and Guidance Privacy Act System of Records Notice (PDF) http://energy.gov/cio/downloads/sorn-template-and-guidance Page Lobbying Various Federal statutes and regulations prohibit "lobbying" by federal employees, as well as federal contractors, cooperative agreement participants, and grantees. Although the definition of ... http://energy.gov/management/lobbying Article National Press Club Remarks as Prepared for Secretary Bodman http://energy.gov/articles/national-press-club Download Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing finding that indoor unit model AEW244 and outdoor unit model NCPC-424-3010 of residential split system central air conditioning system do not comport

183

Perspectives on Next Steps in Residential Energy Efficiency | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Practice In Practice Perspectives on Next Steps in Residential Energy Efficiency November 22, 2013 Figure 9. The Roxbury House in the Catskills. The log home was certified at the Emerald level in energy efficiency, under the National Association of Home Builders® (NAHB) Green Building Standard. Photo courtesy Carolyn Bates. A Conversation with Linda LaCroix, Aspen Construction Services "If you ask five people what sustainability means to them, you'll get five different answers, but if you ask what makes a building sustainable, you may just get the same answer - energy efficiency," began Linda L. LaCroix, Partner at Aspen Construction Services and Vermont State Representative to the National Association of Home Builders® (NAHB). "One way to understand sustainability is as a capacity to maintain

184

Conservation Standards Enforcement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

October 3, 2011 October 3, 2011 Aspen: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SE-1602) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Aspen Manufacturing finding that indoor unit model AEW244 and outdoor unit model NCPC-424-3010 of residential split system central air conditioning system do not comport with the energy conservation standards. September 28, 2011 Zoe Industries: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2912) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Zoe Industries, Inc. finding that Giessdorf 150043 model, a showerhead, does not comport with the water conservation standards. September 28, 2011 Hudson-Reed: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SW-2909) DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination, finding that Hudson-Reed's "HEAD16" showerhead does not meet the applicable water

185

MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system using coal gasification is an important approach for future energy options. This work focuses on understading the system operation and optimizing it in the presence of uncertain operating conditions using ASPEN Plus and CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation and multiobjective optimization capabilities developed by Vishwamitra Research Institute. The feasible operating surface for the IGCC system is generated and deterministic multiobjective optimization is performed. Since the feasible operating space is highly non-convex, heuristics based techniques that do not require gradient information are used to generate the Pareto surface. Accurate CFD models are simultaneously developed for the gasifier and chemical looping combustion system to characterize and quantify the process uncertainty in the ASPEN model.

Juan M. Salazar; Urmila M. Diwekar; Stephen E. Zitney

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

America’s dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States’ most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Country’s electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

187

Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Data Overlay  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the design of advanced power generation facilities, process simulation tools are being utilized to model plant behavior and quickly analyze results. While such tools enable investigation of crucial aspects of plant design, typical commercial process simulators still do not explore some plant design information, including high-fidelity data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena, economics data used for policy decisions, operational data after the plant is constructed, and as-built information for use in as-designed models. Software tools must be created that allow disparate sources of information to be integrated for facilitating accurate and effective plant design. At the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) has been developed as an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) and high-fidelity equipment simulation (e.g., FLUENT®). In this paper, the integration of the high-fidelity CFD data with overall process data in a virtual power simulation environment will be described. More specifically, we will highlight VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering (VE) software toolkit, and its support of Aspen Plus® Hierarchy blocks via the VE-AspenUnit.

McCorkel, Doug (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Bivins, Gerrick (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Jordan, Terry; Bryden, Mark (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Zitney, S.E.; Widmann, John (ANSYS, Lebanon, NH); Osawe, Maxwell

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Plant Biomass and Mechanisms of Recalcitrance Activity Lead: Debra Mohnen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass and Mechanisms of Recalcitrance Activity Biomass and Mechanisms of Recalcitrance Activity Lead: Debra Mohnen 1.2 Cell Wall Synthesis and Mechanisms of Recalcitrance Activity Lead: Al Darvill TASK 1. Nucleotide-sugar/polysaccharide domain - Bar-Peled TASK 2. Cellulose domain - Kalluri TASK 3. Xylan and other hermiceluloses domain - York TASK 4. Pectin domain - Mohnen TASK 5. APAP1 domain - Tan TASK 6. Lignin domain - Dixon TASK 7. Transcription factor domain - Dixon TASK 8. Cellular/subcellular localization domain - Hahn 1.2.1: Cell Wall Synthesis and Mechanisms of Recalcitrance Activity (Darvill) 1.1 TOP and Elite Populus and Switchgrass and System Analysis Lead: Tuskan / Dixon 1.1.2: TOP and Elite Line Analysis Platform and Protocols (Nelson) 1.1.1: Selection of the TOP Populus and Switchgrass Lines

189

acs_ef_ef-2009-01062p 1..11  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 r 2010 American Chemical Society pubs.acs.org/EF Energy Fuels 2010, 24, 1347-1357 : DOI:10.1021/ef901062p Published on Web 01/11/2010 Surface Characterization of Dilute Acid Pretreated Populus deltoides by ToF-SIMS Seokwon Jung, †,§ Marcus Foston, †,§ M. Cameron Sullards, †,§ and Art J. Ragauskas* ,†,‡,§ † BioEnergy Science Center, ‡ Institute of Paper Science and Technology, and § School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th zSt., Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA Received September 20, 2009. Revised Manuscript Received December 10, 2009 Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to analyze the molecular constituents on cross sections of juvenile poplar (Populus deltoids) stems before and after dilute acid pretreatment (DAP). Bulk analysis of milled and 50 μm thick cross sections of poplar

190

Salient Biological Features, Systematics,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Salient Salient Biological Features, Systematics, and Genetic Variation of Populus Gancho T. Slavov and Peter Zhelev Abstract The genus Populus includes morphologically diverse species of decid- uous, relatively short-lived, and fast-growing trees. Most species have wide ranges of distribution but tend to occur primarily in riparian or mountainous habitats. Trees from this genus are typically dioecious, flower before leaf emer- gence, and produce large amounts of wind-dispersed pollen or seeds. Seedlings are drought- and shade-intolerant, and their establishment depends on distur- bance and high soil moisture. Asexual reproduction is common and occurs via root sprouting and/or rooting of shoots. Fossil records suggest that the genus appeared in the late Paleocene or early Eocene (i.e., 50-60 million years BP). According to one commonly used classification, the genus is comprised

191

JGI - Why Sequence Poplar Leaf Rust?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poplar Leaf Rust? Poplar Leaf Rust? The Populus (poplar tree) genome has been publicly released by the JGI, and the genomes of its symbiotic fungal associates Laccaria bicolor and Glomus intraradices are near completion. As part of the development of a broader community-based Populus genomics resource, and as a means of conducting informative comparative genomics among fungi, JGI will be sequencing Melampsora larici-populina (poplar leaf rust fungus), which causes widespread economic losses in poplar plantations worldwide and is a close relative of other economically important rusts (Uredinales), including Puccinia and other cereal rusts. There is a pressing need to develop a thorough understanding of the Melampsora species that are poplar pathogens so that new control approaches

192

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

transformations transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment Shilin Cao,{ ae Yunqiao Pu,* be Michael Studer,{ ce Charles Wyman cde and Arthur J. Ragauskas* abe Received 4th September 2012, Accepted 4th September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ra22045h In this study, Populus trichocarpa was subjected to dilute acid pretreatment at varying pretreatment times. The three major components of lignocellulosic biomass, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, were isolated from the starting and dilute acid pretreated poplar. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were utilized to elucidate structural transformations of poplar during dilute acid pretreatment. The results demonstrated that the pretreatment dissolved hemicelluloses and disrupted structural features of lignin and polysaccharides. As revealed by NMR, the

193

I N F O R M A T I O N N O T E Conservation of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 I N F O R M A T I O N N O T E Conservation of Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) M A Y 2 0 0 4 FCIN to the development of natural flood defences. The Natura 2000 network of nature conservation sites across Europe There is considerable interest in the need to conserve the 7000 trees which are all that remain of the population

194

Current status and future directions for the U.S. Department of Energy`s short-rotation woody crop research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1978. The program`s goal is to provide leadership in the development, demonstration and implementation of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable biomass supply systems. Three model short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) species, i.e. Populus spp., Acer saccharinum and Salix spp., have been selected for further development based on their productivity, adaptability, and suitability as biomass feedstocks. Of these three, Populus is the primary candidate for SRWC in the United States. For Populus the prescribed management system involves the use of intensive site preparation of agricultural quality lands, improved clonal plant materials at ca. 1,000 trees/ac, mechanical and chemical weed control for the first 2 years, and rotation length of 6--8 years, followed by replanting. Currently, due to the wider spacings and larger tree sizes, traditional, start-stop, one-piece harvesting techniques are being applied to SRWC; this includes the use of feller-bunchers, skidding to a common landing, and on-site chipping. Under the above silvicultural system, harvesting and transportation expenditures account for 50 to 60% of the total production costs. The productivity goals for SRWC are 8--12 t/ac/yr, with the current average across all sites and clones at ca. 4 t/ac/yr. Productivity rates on large-scale plantings have been documented at 11 t/ac/yr. To increase the average productivity rates, silvicultural enrichments [e.g., spacing variances, fertilization once per rotation (ca. 70 lbs/ac N), and irrigation], genetic improvement, and molecular genetics techniques are being applied to all model species. This research is being managed under the concept of regional, integrated Crop Development Centers. There are presently 3 Populus crop development centers.

Tuskan, G.A.; Downing, M.E.; Wright, L.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

GENOME-ENABLED DISCOVERY OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION GENES IN POPLAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plants utilize carbon by partitioning the reduced carbon obtained through photosynthesis into different compartments and into different chemistries within a cell and subsequently allocating such carbon to sink tissues throughout the plant. Since the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin are known to influence sink strength in tissues such as roots (Skoog & Miller 1957, Nordstrom et al. 2004), we hypothesized that altering the expression of genes that regulate auxin-mediated (e.g., AUX/IAA or ARF transcription factors) or cytokinin-mediated (e.g., RR transcription factors) control of root growth and development would impact carbon allocation and partitioning belowground (Fig. 1 - Renewal Proposal). Specifically, the ARF, AUX/IAA and RR transcription factor gene families mediate the effects of the growth regulators auxin and cytokinin on cell expansion, cell division and differentiation into root primordia. Invertases (IVR), whose transcript abundance is enhanced by both auxin and cytokinin, are critical components of carbon movement and therefore of carbon allocation. Thus, we initiated comparative genomic studies to identify the AUX/IAA, ARF, RR and IVR gene families in the Populus genome that could impact carbon allocation and partitioning. Bioinformatics searches using Arabidopsis gene sequences as queries identified regions with high degrees of sequence similarities in the Populus genome. These Populus sequences formed the basis of our transgenic experiments. Transgenic modification of gene expression involving members of these gene families was hypothesized to have profound effects on carbon allocation and partitioning.

DAVIS J M

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Uncertainty analysis of an IGCC system with single-stage entrained-flow gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems using coal gasification is an attractive option for future energy plants. Consequenty, understanding the system operation and optimizing gasifier performance in the presence of uncertain operating conditions is essential to extract the maximum benefits from the system. This work focuses on conducting such a study using an IGCC process simulation and a high-fidelity gasifier simulation coupled with stochastic simulation and multi-objective optimization capabilities. Coal gasifiers are the necessary basis of IGCC systems, and hence effective modeling and uncertainty analysis of the gasification process constitutes an important element of overall IGCC process design and operation. In this work, an Aspen Plus{reg_sign} steady-state process model of an IGCC system with carbon capture enables us to conduct simulation studies so that the effect of gasification variability on the whole process can be understood. The IGCC plant design consists of an single-stage entrained-flow gasifier, a physical solvent-based acid gas removal process for carbon capture, two model-7FB combustion turbine generators, two heat recovery steam generators, and one steam turbine generator in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration. In the Aspen Plus process simulation, the gasifier is represented as a simplified lumped-parameter, restricted-equilibrium reactor model. In this work, we also make use of a distributed-parameter FLUENT{reg_sign} computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to characterize the uncertainty for the entrained-flow gasifier. The CFD-based gasifer model is much more comprehensive, predictive, and hence better suited to understand the effects of uncertainty. The possible uncertain parameters of the gasifier model are identified. This includes input coal composition as well as mass flow rates of coal, slurry water, and oxidant. Using a selected number of random (Monte Carlo) samples for the different parameters, the CFD model is simulated to observe the variations in the output variables (such as syngas composition, gas and ash flow rates etc.). The same samples are then used to conduct simulations using the Aspen Plus IGCC model. The simulation results for the high-fidelity CFD-based gasifier model and the Aspen Plus equilibrium reactor model for selected uncertain parameters are then used to perform the estimation. Defining the ratio of CFD based results to the Aspen Plus result as the uncertainty factor (UF), the work quantifies the extent of uncertainty and then uses uniform* distribution to characterize the uncertainty factor distribution. The characterization and quantification of uncertainty is then used to conduct stochastic simulation of the IGCC system in Aspen Plus. The CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation capability allows one to conduct a rigorous analysis and generate the feasible space for the operation of the IGCC system. The stochastic simulation results can later be used to conduct multi-objective optimization of the gasifier using a set of identified decision variables. The CAPE-OPEN compliant multi-objective capability in Aspen Plus can be used to conduct the analysis. Since the analysis is based on the uncertainty modeling studies of the gasifier, the optimization accounts for possible uncertainties in the operation of the system. The results for the optimized IGCC system and the gasifier, obtained from the stochastic simulation results, are expected to be more rigorous and hence closer to those obtained from CFD-based rigorous modeling.

Shastri, Y.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral meristem identity gene (APETALA1 or AP1), auxin response factor gene (ETTIN), the gene encoding transcriptional factor of WD40 family (TRANSPARENTTESTAGLABRA1 or TTG1), and the auxin efflux carrier (PIN-FORMED2 or PIN2) gene. More than 220 transgenic lines of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations were analyzed for RNAi suppression phenotypes (Filichkin et. al., manuscript submitted). A total of 108 constructs were supplied by ORNL, UF and OSU and used to generate over 1,881 PCR verified transgenic Populus and over 300 PCR verified transgenic Arabidopsis events. The Populus transgenics alone required Agrobacterium co-cultivations of 124.406 explants.

Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Roaring Fork Valley - Energy Efficient Appliance Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficient Appliance Program Efficient Appliance Program Roaring Fork Valley - Energy Efficient Appliance Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Smart Strip: $30 Programmable Thermostats: $50 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Local Rebate Program Rebate Amount Furnaces (AFUE 92% or higher): $300 Boilers (AFUE 92% or higher): $500 Dishwashers: $100 Clothes Washers: $75 Refrigerators: $100 Smart Strip: $15 Programmable thermostats: $15 Provider Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) The Aspen Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) promotes renewable energy, energy efficiency and green building techniques in western Colorado's Roaring Fork Valley. For customers who install energy

200

EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EERE Guide for Managing EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies Getting the Information You Need Prepared for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis Principal Author, Harley Barnes, Lockheed Martin Aspen Lead Contractor, Gretchen Jordan, Sandia National Laboratories February 2006 Acknowledgments This Guide for Managing General Program Evaluations (Guide) was completed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500. Sandia is operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. Gretchen Jordan, Sandia National Laboratories, was the lead contractor for the development of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber  

SciTech Connect

A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A software design review meeting was held May 2-3 in Lebanon, NH. The work on integrating a reformer model based on CFD with a fuel cell flow sheet was completed (Task 2.0). The CFD database design was completed and the database API's finalized. A file -based CFD database was implemented and tested (Task 2.8). The task COM-CORBA Bridge-I was completed. The bridge now has CO interfaces for transferring reaction kinetics information from Aspen Plus to Fluent (Task 2.11). The capability for transferring temperature-dependent physical properties from Aspen Plus to Fluent was implemented (Task 2.12). Work on ''Model Selection'' GUI was completed. This GUI allows the process analyst to select models from the CFD database. Work on ''Model Edit'' GUI was started (Task 2.13). A version of Aspen Plus with the capability for using CO parameters in ''design spec'' analysis has become available. With this version being available, work on adding CO wrapper to INDVU code has been started (Task 2.15). A preliminary design for the Solution Strategy class was developed (Task 2.16). The requirements for transferring pressure data between Aspen Plus and Fluent were defined. The ability to include two CFD models in a flow sheet was successfully tested. The capability to handle multiple inlets and outlets in a CO block was tested (Task 2.17). A preliminary version of the Configuration Wizard, which helps a user to make any Fluent model readable from a process simulator, was developed and tested (Task 2.18). Work on constructing a flow sheet model for Demo Case 2 was started. The work on documenting Demo Case 2 is nearing completion (Task 3.2). A Fluent heat exchanger model was installed and tested. Work on calibrating the heat exchanger model was started (Task 4.1). An advisory board meeting was held in conjunction with the Fluent Users Group Meeting on Monday, June 10, 2002. The meeting minutes and presentations for the advisory board meeting have been posted on the project website (Task 5.0). A paper entitled ''Integrated Process Simulation and CFD for Improved Process Engineering'' was presented at the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering-12, May 26-29, 2002, The Hague, The Netherlands (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Biomass to Hydrogen Production Detailed Design and Economics Utilizing the Battelle Columbus Laboratory Indirectly-Heated Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This analysis developed detailed process flow diagrams and an Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model, evaluated energy flows including a pinch analysis, obtained process equipment and operating costs, and performed an economic evaluation of two process designs based on the syngas clean up and conditioning work being performed at NREL. One design, the current design, attempts to define today's state of the technology. The other design, the goal design, is a target design that attempts to show the effect of meeting specific research goals.

Spath, P.; Aden, A.; Eggeman, T.; Ringer, M.; Wallace, B.; Jechura, J.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Gas generation and bubble formation model for crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange columns  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a transient model to describe the process of gas generation due to radiolysis and bubble formation in crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange (IX) columns using the Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) software package. The model calculates gas concentrations and onset of bubble formation for large CST IX columns. The calculations include cesium loading as a function of time, gas generation as a function of cesium loading, and bubble formation as a function of gas solubility. This report summarizes the model development and predictions.

Hang, T.

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

206

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A software design review meeting was held May 2-3 in Lebanon, NH. The work on integrating a reformer model based on CFD with a fuel cell flow sheet was completed (Task 2.0). The CFD database design was completed and the database API's finalized. A file -based CFD database was implemented and tested (Task 2.8). The task COM-CORBA Bridge-I was completed. The bridge now has CO interfaces for transferring reaction kinetics information from Aspen Plus to Fluent (Task 2.11). The capability for transferring temperature-dependent physical properties from Aspen Plus to Fluent was implemented (Task 2.12). Work on ''Model Selection'' GUI was completed. This GUI allows the process analyst to select models from the CFD database. Work on ''Model Edit'' GUI was started (Task 2.13). A version of Aspen Plus with the capability for using CO parameters in ''design spec'' analysis has become available. With this version being available, work on adding CO wrapper to INDVU code has been started (Task 2.15). A preliminary design for the Solution Strategy class was developed (Task 2.16). The requirements for transferring pressure data between Aspen Plus and Fluent were defined. The ability to include two CFD models in a flow sheet was successfully tested. The capability to handle multiple inlets and outlets in a CO block was tested (Task 2.17). A preliminary version of the Configuration Wizard, which helps a user to make any Fluent model readable from a process simulator, was developed and tested (Task 2.18). Work on constructing a flow sheet model for Demo Case 2 was started. The work on documenting Demo Case 2 is nearing completion (Task 3.2). A Fluent heat exchanger model was installed and tested. Work on calibrating the heat exchanger model was started (Task 4.1). An advisory board meeting was held in conjunction with the Fluent Users Group Meeting on Monday, June 10, 2002. The meeting minutes and presentations for the advisory board meeting have been posted on the project website (Task 5.0). A paper entitled ''Integrated Process Simulation and CFD for Improved Process Engineering'' was presented at the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering-12, May 26-29, 2002, The Hague, The Netherlands (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

GENOME ENABLED MODIFICATION OF POPLAR ROOT DEVELOPMENT FOR INCREASED CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DR5 as a reporter system to study auxin response in Populus Plant Cell Reports 32:453-463 Auxin responsive promoter DR5 reporter system is functional in Populus to monitor auxin response in tissues including leaves, roots, and stems. We described the behavior of the DR5::GUS reporter system in stably transformed Populus plants. We found several similarities with Arabidopsis, including sensitivity to native and synthetic auxins, rapid induction after treatment in a variety of tissues, and maximal responses in root tissues. There were also several important differences from Arabidopsis, including slower time to maximum response and lower induction amplitude. Young leaves and stem sections below the apex showed much higher DR5 activity than did older leaves and stems undergoing secondary growth. DR5 activity was highest in cortex, suggesting high levels of auxin concentration and/or sensitivity in this tissue. Our study shows that the DR5 reporter system is a sensitive and facile system for monitoring auxin responses and distribution at cellular resolution in poplar. The Populus AINTEGUMENTA LIKE 1 homeotic transcription factor PtAIL1 controls the formation of adventitious root primordia. Plant Physiol. 160: 1996-2006 Adventitious rooting is an essential but sometimes rate-limiting step in the clonal multiplication of elite tree germplasm, because the ability to form roots declines rapidly with age in mature adult plant tissues. In spite of the importance of adventitious rooting, the mechanism behind this developmental process remains poorly understood. We have described the transcriptional profiles that are associated with the developmental stages of adventitious root formation in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Transcriptome analyses indicate a highly specific temporal induction of the AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 (PtAIL1) transcription factor of the AP2 family during adventitious root formation. Transgenic poplar samples that overexpressed PtAIL1 were able to grow an increased number of adventitious roots, whereas RNA interference mediated the down-expression of PtAIL1 expression, which led to a delay in adventitious root formation. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 15 genes, including the transcription factors AGAMOUS-Like6 and MYB36, was overexpressed in the stem tissues that generated root primordia in PtAIL1-overexpressing plants, whereas their expression was reduced in the RNA interference lines. These results demonstrate that PtAIL1 is a positive regulator of poplar rooting that acts early in the development of adventitious roots. Genomes. 7: 91-101 Knowledge of the functional relationship between genes and organismal phenotypes in perennial plants is extremely limited. Using a population of 627 independent events, we assessed the feasibility of activation tagging as a forward genetics tool for Populus. Mutant identification after 2 years of field testing was nearly sevenfold (6.5%) higher than in greenhouse studies that employed Arabidopsis and identical transformation vectors. Approximately two thirds of all mutant phenotypes were not seen in vitro and in the greenhouse; they were discovered only after the second year of field assessment. The trees? large size (5-10 m in height), perennial growth, and interactions with the natural environment are factors that are thought to have contributed to the high rate of observable phenotypes in the field. The mutant phenotypes affected a variety of morphological and physiological traits, including leaf size and morphology, crown architecture, stature, vegetative dormancy, and tropic responses. Characterization of the insertion in more than 100 events with and without mutant phenotypes showed that tags predominantly (70%) inserted in a 13-Kbp region up- and downstream of the genes? coding regions with approximately even distribution among the 19 chromosomes. Transcriptional activation was observed in many proximal genes studied. Successful phenotype recapitulation was observed in 10 of 12 retransformed genes tested, indicating true tagging and a functiona

Busov, Victor

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

209

EM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Team's Holiday Spirit Shines | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Team's Holiday Spirit Shines EM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Team's Holiday Spirit Shines EM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Team's Holiday Spirit Shines December 23, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Aspen Cass, a relative of an EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) employee, holds donated coats with Farok Sharif (left), president and project manager of Nuclear Waste Partnership, the WIPP management and operating contractor, and Joe Franco, manager of CBFO. Aspen Cass, a relative of an EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) employee, holds donated coats with Farok Sharif (left), president and project manager of Nuclear Waste Partnership, the WIPP management and operating contractor, and Joe Franco, manager of CBFO. The clothing drive’s organizers — Margaret Gee (left), Yolanda Navarrete (center) and Dana Dorr — hold up some of the donated coats before providing them to Carlsbad area schools. Gee is with CBFO and Navarrete and Dorr are with Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP). NWP's Yolanda Salmon, another drive organizer, is not pictured.

210

Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste  

SciTech Connect

The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system pressure required changes in C3/C4 make-up gas usage. These changes led, in turn, to some instability in the fuel gas system that sometimes required purge to the safety flare system to stabilize. As the composition of the fuel gas supply changed, so did its heating value, which caused fluctuations in the control of various fuel gas consumers. The DMCplus application now controls fuel gas pressure tightly and also stabilizes the fuel gas heating value. The understanding of each fuel gas provider and user was essential to the success of this application, as was the design of the DMCplus application. SmartStepTM (Aspen Technology, Inc.) - automated testing software - was used to efficiently develop the DMCplus models; however, a number of models were developed prior to the plant test period using long-term plant history data.

Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

Ali T-Raissi

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

218

Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes  

SciTech Connect

Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature capability gap not currently met with Aspen Aerogels{trademark} flagship product, Pyrogel XT. Pyrogel XT, which was originally developed on a separate DOE contract (DE-FG36-06GO16056), was primarily optimized for use in industrial steam processing systems, where application temperatures typically do not exceed 400 C. At the time, further improvements in thermal performance above 400 C could not be reasonably achieved for Pyrogel XT without significantly affecting other key material properties using the current technology. Cumulative sales of Pyrogel HT into domestic power plants should reach $125MM through 2030, eventually reaching about 10% of the total insulation market share in that space. Global energy savings would be expected to scale similarly. Over the same period, these sales would reduce domestic energy consumption by more than 65 TBtu. Upon branching out into all industrial processes in the 400 C-650 C regime, Pyrogel HT would reach annual sales levels of $150MM, with two-thirds of that being exported.

Dr. Owen Evans

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

Towards the Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Virtual Power Plant Co-Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Process modeling and simulation tools are widely used for the design and operation of advanced power generation systems. These tools enable engineers to solve the critical process systems engineering problems that arise throughout the lifecycle of a power plant, such as designing a new process, troubleshooting a process unit or optimizing operations of the full process. To analyze the impact of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena on overall power plant performance, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The APECS system is an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and high-fidelity equipment simulations such as those based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), together with advanced analysis capabilities including case studies, sensitivity analysis, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and multi-objective optimization. In this paper we discuss the initial phases of the integration of the APECS system with the immersive and interactive virtual engineering software, VE-Suite, developed at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. VE-Suite uses the ActiveX (OLE Automation) controls in the Aspen Plus process simulator wrapped by the CASI library developed by Reaction Engineering International to run process/CFD co-simulations and query for results. This integration represents a necessary step in the development of virtual power plant co-simulations that will ultimately reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing advanced power generation systems.

Zitney, S.E.; McCorkle, D. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Yang, C. (Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT); Jordan, T.; Swensen, D. (Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT); Bryden, M. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Genetical metabolomics [metabolite profiling combined with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis] has been proposed as a new tool to identify loci that control metabolite abundances. This concept was evaluated in a case study with the model tree Populus. Using HPLC, the peak abundances were analyzed of 15 closely related flavonoids present in apical tissues of two full-sib poplar families, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 · P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 · P. trichocarpa cv. V24, and correlation and QTL analysis were used to detect flux control points in flavonoid biosynthesis. Four robust metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL), associated with rate-limiting steps in flavonoid biosynthesis, were mapped. Each mQTL was involved in the flux control to one or two flavonoids. Based on the identities of the affected metabolites and the flavonoid pathway structure, a tentative function was assigned to three of these mQTL, and the corresponding candidate genes were mapped. The data indicate that the combination of metabolite profiling with QTL analysis is a valuable tool to identify control points in a complex metabolic pathway of closely related compounds.

Kris Morreel; Geert Goeminne; Véronique Storme; Lieven Sterck; John Ralph; Peter Breyne; Michel Georges; Eric Messens; Wout Boerjan; Gent Belgium

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Short rotation wood crops program: Annual progress report for 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and consists of research projects at 29 institutions and corporations. The SRWCP is an integrated program of research and development devoted to a single objective: improving the productivity, cost efficiency, and fuel quality of wood energy crops as feedstocks for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. SRWCP directives have shifted from species-screening and productivity evaluations to large-scale viability trials of model species selected for their productivity potential and environmental compatibility. Populus was chosen the lead genera of five model species, and initial steps were taken toward organizing a Populus Research Consortium. Production yields from SRWCP research plots and coppice studies are discussed along with new efforts to model growth results and characteristics on a tree and stand basis. Structural and chemical properties of short-rotation intensive culture wood have been evaluated to determine the desirability of species traits and the potential for genetic improvements. Innovative wood energy crop handling techniques are presented as significant cost reduction measures. The conclusion is that new specialized wood energy crops can be feasible with the advances that appear technically possible over the next 10 years. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A software review meeting was held at Fluent Inc. in Lebanon, NH on January 31-February 1, 2002. The team reviewed the current status of the software and its compliance with the software requirements (Task 2). Work on a fuel cell based power-plant flow sheet that incorporates a reformer CFD model was started. This test case includes more features (multiple ports, temperature dependent properties) than the mixing tank test case developed earlier and will be used for the further testing of the software (Task 2). The software development plan was finalized (Task 2.7). The design and implementation of a CFD database was commenced. The CFD database would store various models that a process analyst can use in the flowsheet model (Task 2.8). The COM-CORBA Bridge was upgraded to use the recently published version 0.9.3 CAPE-OPEN specifications. Work on transferring reaction kinetics data from Aspen Plus to Fluent was started (Task 2.11). The requirements for extending CAPE-OPEN interfaces in Aspen Plus to transfer temperature dependent properties to Fluent was written and communicated to the Aspen Tech developer of CAPE-OPEN interfaces (Task 2.12). A prototype of low-order model based on the Multiple Regression technique was written. A low-order model is required to speed up the calculations with the integrated model (Task 2.19). The Berkshire Power (Agawam, MA) combined-cycle power plant was selected as the Demonstration Case 2 (Task 3.2). A CFD model of the furnace in Demonstration Case 1 was developed. The furnace model will be incorporated into the flowsheet model already developed for this case (Task 4.1). A new hire joined the Fluent development team for this project. The project management plan was revised based on the software development plan. A presentation on the project status was made at the Clearwater Conference, March 4-7, 2002. The final manuscript for ESCAPE-12 conference was submitted (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 7640 of 29,416 results. 31 - 7640 of 29,416 results. Download CX-000404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Aspen Environmental Group CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): San Francisco, California Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000404-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000376: Categorical Exclusion Determination Boise White Paper Mill Carbon Capture and Sequestration CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/12/2009 Location(s): Richland, Washington Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000376-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000377: Categorical Exclusion Determination Demonstration of Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Steam Methane

228

FE Categorical Exclusions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2009 3, 2009 CX-000390: Categorical Exclusion Determination Transportation Route Survey in California CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): Contra Costa County, CA Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000405: Categorical Exclusion Determination Carbon Dioxide Capture Using Novel Amine Technology and Sequestration by Injection into the Mount Simon Sandstone CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): Decatur, Illinois Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Aspen Environmental Group CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): San Francisco, California Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

229

CX-002405: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Categorical Exclusion Determination 5: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002405: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fluid Flow Optimization of Aerogel Blanket Manufacturing Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 05/24/2010 Location(s): Massachusetts Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Aspen Aerogels and Tufts University would use Department of Energy funding to investigate and model the fluid flow during the aerogel blanket manufacturing operation and would make recommendations as to how to optimize the production process by 1) increasing product throughput; and/or 2) consuming less energy during manufacturing; and/or 3) reducing the raw materials needed per unit manufactured. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-002405.pdf More Documents & Publications

230

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 14780 of 26,764 results. 71 - 14780 of 26,764 results. Article DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump... http://energy.gov/gc/articles/doe-requires-manufacturers-halt-sales-heat-pumps-and-air-conditioners-violating-minimum Article Aerosys Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty and Submit Test Data in Settlement with DOE WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy announced today that AeroSys, Inc. has agreed to pay a civil penalty of $25,000 and take a number of other actions designed to ensure its future compliance... http://energy.gov/gc/articles/aerosys-agrees-pay-civil-penalty-and-submit-test-data-settlement-doe

231

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 719 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 343 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 290 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P. (1997) 248 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. (1997) 106 Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer (2007)

232

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Power Generation And Distribution Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 200 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 103 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 76 Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G. (1982) 69 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 65 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P. (1997) 52 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee

233

Property:OpenEI/CETSI/Results | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Results Results Jump to: navigation, search Property Name OpenEI/CETSI/ResultsToDate Property Type Text Description A brief description or list of the results of the resource. Pages using the property "OpenEI/CETSI/Results" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Animal Farm Powers Village + Not given C City of Aspen Climate Action Plan + According to greenhouse gas inventory done with 2007 data, greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 68,380 tons CO2-e from baseline. Climate Action Planning: A Review of Best Practices, Key Elements, and Common Climate Strategies for Signatories to the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment + Varies according to school. Community Renewable Energy Deployment: City of Montpelier Project + All updates and the project timeline are given on this page of the city's website for this project specifically: http://www.montpelier-vt.org/page/323/.html

234

DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards June 3, 2010 - 2:17pm Addthis Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with federal energy conservation standards. The manufacturers also must notify all of their customers that have been sold noncompliant units. The Department determined that these models were noncompliant based on certification information submitted to DOE for these manufacturers.

235

Property:OpenEI/CETSI/Availability | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Availability Availability Jump to: navigation, search Property Name OpenEI/CETSI/Availability Property Type String Description The license or availability of the resource, Example: Free or Publicly Available Pages using the property "OpenEI/CETSI/Availability" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project Development + Free; publicly available + An Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances + Publicly available--Free + Animal Farm Powers Village + Publicly available; free + Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commercial Buildings across the United States + Publicly available--Free + C Chicago Climate Action Plan + Free + City of Aspen Climate Action Plan + Free - Publicly Available +

236

DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards June 3, 2010 - 2:17pm Addthis Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with federal energy conservation standards. The manufacturers also must notify all of their customers that have been sold noncompliant units. The Department determined that these models were noncompliant based on certification information submitted to DOE for these manufacturers.

237

NREL: Energy Sciences - Ashutosh Mittal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ashutosh Mittal Ashutosh Mittal Research Scientist Photo of Ashutosh Mittal Phone: (303) 384-6136 Email: ashutosh.mittal@nrel.gov At NREL Since: 2008 Ashutosh Mittal received his Ph.D. in Paper and Bioprocess Engineering from the Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering at the State University of New York, Empire State College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse. His dissertation work was focused on studying the kinetics of hemicellulose (sugars) extraction from hardwoods (sugar maple and aspen) during hot water extraction (autohydrolysis). To describe the concentrations of the residual xylan, xylooligomers, xylose, and degradation product (furfural) obtained in the autohydrolysis of wood chips, a mass-transfer model based on first-order kinetics with Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the rate coefficients was

238

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A1 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

13, 2009 13, 2009 CX-000404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Aspen Environmental Group CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): San Francisco, California Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000391: Categorical Exclusion Determination University of Texas - Austin CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000389: Categorical Exclusion Determination Shell Office Locations Houston CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): Houston, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000388: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sandia Technologies LLC CX(s) Applied: A1, A9

239

FACE Program, Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven FACE Publications Brookhaven FACE Publications Homepage This listing includes publications by authors during their affiliation with the Brookhaven National Laboratory FACE Team. Only peer reviewed published articles are listed. 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007| 2008 | 2009 2009 Lewin KF, Nagy J, Nettles WR, Cooley DM, Rogers A (2009) Comparison of gas use efficiency and treatment uniformity in a forest ecosystem exposed to elevated [CO2] using pure and pre-diluted Free Air CO2 Enrichment technology. Global Change Biology. 15, 388-395. Cseke LJ, Tsai C-J, Rogers A, Nelson MP, White HL, Karnosky DF, Podila GK (2009) Transcriptomic comparison in the leaves of two aspen genotypes having similar carbon assimilation rates but different allocation patterns under elevated CO2. New Phytologist. 182, 891-911.

240

Gas permeation carbon capture --- Process modeling and optimization  

SciTech Connect

A multi-staged gas permeation carbon capture process model was developed in Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM) and optimized in the context of the retrofit of a 550 MW subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The gas permeation stages in the process are described by a custom multi-component, hollowfiber membrane model. Gas transport across the asymmetric membrane was modeled according to the solution-diffusion model for the selective skin layer and the assumption of negligible flux resistance by the porous support. Counter-current, one-dimensional plug flow was assumed with permeate pressure drop in the fiber lumen side due to capillary constrained flow. A modular optimization framework was used to minimize the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by optimizing a set of key process variables. The framework allows the external control of multiple simulation modules from different software packages from a common interface.

Morinelly, Juan; Miller, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Property:EIA/861/ActivityBuyingDistribution | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ActivityBuyingDistribution ActivityBuyingDistribution Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Boolean. Description: Activity Buying Distribution Entity buys distribution service (Y or N) [1] References ↑ EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA/861/ActivityBuyingDistribution" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Adams-Columbia Electric Coop + true + Aguila Irrigation District + true + Appalachian Power Co + true + B Buckeye Water C&D District + true + C Calpine Power America LLC + true + Cargill Power Markets LLC + true + Carrollton Board of Public Wks + true + City & County of San Francisco (Utility Company) + true + City of Aspen, Colorado (Utility Company) + true +

242

IGCC: Current Status and Future Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Developing Technologies on the Impact of Developing Technologies on the Economics and Performance of Future IGCC Power Plants John Plunkett, Noblis David Gray, Noblis Charles White, Noblis Julianne Klara, NETL Copyright © 2008 Noblis, Inc. 2 Acknowledgement This work is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 3 Study Objective Starting with present-day baseline, evaluate improved IGCC performance and cost resulting from DOE-funded R&D over the next 18 years. Examine both with and without CO 2 capture. Study results will help to prioritize technology development based on relative impact. Results will also help to assess the impact of future potential CO 2 emissions restrictions. 4 Methodology * Use Aspen Plus simulator to provide model "transparency"

243

Property:Incentive/AggrCapLimit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AggrCapLimit AggrCapLimit Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/AggrCapLimit Property Type Text Description Aggregate Capacity Limit. Pages using the property "Incentive/AggrCapLimit" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A APS - Net Metering (Arizona) + 15 MW American Samoa - Net Metering (American Samoa) + 5% of utility's peak demand Ames Electric Department - Net Metering (Iowa) + Carried month to month at retail rate, granted to utility after 12 months Ashland Electric - Net Metering (Oregon) + No limit specified Aspen Electric - Net Metering (Colorado) + Credited to customer's next bill Austin Energy - Net Metering (Texas) + No limit specified (program will be re-evaluated after 1% of load is met) Avista Utilities - Net Metering (Idaho) + 0.1% of utility's peak demand in 1996 (in Idaho)

244

AZ CO2 Storage Pilot  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Storage Pilot Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Initiative Review Meeting Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania October 7, 2008 John Henry Beyer, Ph.D. WESTCARB Program Manager, Geophysicist 510-486-7954, jhbeyer@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Earth Sciences Division, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 2 WESTCARB region has major CO2 point sources 3 WESTCARB region has many deep saline formations - candidates for CO2 storage WESTCARB also created GIS layers for oil/gas fields and deep coal basins Source: DOE Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada 4 - Aspen Environmental - Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. Arizona Utilities CO2 Storage Pilot Contracting and Funding Flow Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National

245

DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards June 3, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with federal energy conservation standards. The manufacturers also must notify all of their customers that have been sold noncompliant units. The Department determined that these models were noncompliant based on certification information submitted to DOE for these manufacturers.

246

DOE Awards Contracts to Seven Small Businesses | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contracts to Seven Small Businesses Contracts to Seven Small Businesses DOE Awards Contracts to Seven Small Businesses June 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor bill.taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati-The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced contract awards to seven small-disadvantaged businesses. Each contract will have a maximum value of approximately $4 million. The contracts will have terms of a one-year base period, with three one-year option periods. The small-businesses receiving the contracts are: Trinity Engineering Associates; Cincinnati, Ohio Terranear PMC; Irving, Texas Aspen Resources Limited; Boulder, Colorado DLE Technical Services; Palm City, Florida Boston Government Services; Lenoir City, Tennessee JG Management Systems; Grand Junction, Colorado

247

Student Housing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Housing Housing Student Housing Point your career towards LANL: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. If you are interested in posting a housing opportunity, email the pertinent information to Student Housing. Housing listings will be posted for two months. If you wish for the listing to remain on the website longer, please contact the Student Program Office by email. 01/09/2014 Available 1/10/2014 - Los Alamos, NM 35th Street Duplex - 3 Bedroom/1 bath; Very clean and very nice; All storm windows, furnace and water boiler were replaced in FY 2012; Kitchen and bathroom equipment was all replaced in FY2012 as well; Large fenced back yard with a storage shed; Within walking distance of Aspen Elementary

248

U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave, SW  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of: of: Aspen Manufacturing Case Number 2010-SE-0305 NOTICE OF NONCOMPLIANCE DETERMINATION CERTIFICATION Manufacturers of certain covered products are required to certify compliance with the applicable energy conservation standards through submission of a compliance statement and a certification report. 10 CFR § 430.62. See 42 U.S.C. 6296. The compliance statement is a legal statement by the manufacturer that the information provided in its certification reports is true, accurate and complete, that the basic models certified meet the applicable energy conservation standard, that the energy efficiency information report is the result of testing performed in conformance with the applicable test requirements in 10 CFR part 430, subpart B; and that the manufacturer is

249

Most Viewed Documents - Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Most Viewed Documents - Chemistry Most Viewed Documents - Chemistry Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Zabetakis, M.G. (1964) Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous electrolyte solutions at high temperatures and high pressures Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A. (1995) Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark} Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Simonson, J.M.; Moore, R.C.; et al. (1995) Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions Maimoni, A. (1980) Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F. () Ultrasonic Sensor and Method of use Condreva, Kenneth J. (1999)

250

Most Viewed Documents - Power Generation and Distribution | OSTI, US Dept  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Most Viewed Documents - Power Generation and Distribution Most Viewed Documents - Power Generation and Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; et al. (1994) ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993 Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J. (1994) Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; et al. (1997) Multilevel converters -- A new breed of power converters Lai, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.]; Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United

251

CRSP Customers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Colorado River Storage Project Management Center's Customer list Colorado River Storage Project Management Center's Customer list Use the filters above the customer list to refine your search. Click the "Clear" to reset the list. Western's full list of customers is available on the Western's Customer Web page. Customer Name Customer Type State Region Project Acoma Pueblo Native American Tribes NM CRSP SLIP Aggregated Energy Services Cooperatives AZ CRSP SLIP AK-Chin Indian Community Native American Tribes AZ CRSP SLIP Alamo Navajo Chapter Native American Tribes NM CRSP SLIP Albuquerque Operation-DOE Federal Agencies NM CRSP SLIP Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Cooperatives AZ CRSP/DSW SLIP/PD Aspen, City of Municipalities CO CRSP SLIP Aztec, City of Municipalities NM CRSP SLIP

252

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture - Capture - Membranes (2) Energy Analysis of CO 2 Separation Process with Hollow Fiber Membrane Using ASPEN Simulation Method Hyung-Taek Kim and Hyun-Min Shim Dept. of Energy Studies Ajou University, Suwon Korea Contents Background Purpose of the Study Simulation & Analysis Method Schematic of Process Results of Simulation Conclusion Future Work Background * Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) - Major source of greenhouse gas from Power Plant & Industrial Process - CO 2 Emission : Korea ranked 10 th in the world - Kyoto Protocol : Expected to add carbon tax, emission trade * For sustainable development, Korea must prepare for the duty for reduction of CO 2 emission. * Methods of CO 2 separation : Absorption, Adsorption, Membrane - Absorption : Low conc. CO 2 recovery process & large scale

253

Microsoft Word - techtranstoriesWheader  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Transfer Program Technology Transfer Program ENERGY Energy Production: The award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS), developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is software that allows engineers to optimize advanced power generation systems. APECS is in use by numerous purchasers, including Aspen Technology which has linked APECS with modeling and other software to optimize a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit. ALSTOM Power has used APECS to develop co-simulations of a conventional coal-fired, steam plan and an advanced natural gas-fired, combined cycle plant. APECS is a winner of a 2008 R&D 100 Award. The Motion to Energy Power Generation System, developed at the Idaho National Laboratory with its licensee, M2E Power, Inc., coverts the power of

254

BOREAS Photo Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photo Gallery Photo Gallery These pages have been created to allow users access to a photo library of the BOREAS research sites. Click the BOREAS web page to access data from the project. Also the BOREAS historical web site provides important background information on the BOREAS project The BOREAS Study Region Northern Study Area Southern Study Area The Northern Study Area (NSA) Location of the NSA within Canada. (click the picture for a link to the NSA website) Map of the BOREAS Northern Study Area Satellite Images of the NSA Satellite image of the NSA (Landsat TM July 25, 1990) Land Cover Classifcation image of the NSA (August 20, 1988) Route 280 The NSA landscape and Highway 391 (looking east), taken from the NSA-UBS tower Typical vehicle Beaver Pond Site Fen Site Old Aspen Site

255

NPP Boreal Forest: Superior National Forest, U.S.A.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superior National Forest, U.S.A., 1983-1984 Superior National Forest, U.S.A., 1983-1984 Data Citation Cite this data set as follows: Hall, F. G. 1997. NPP Boreal Forest: Superior National Forest, U.S.A., 1983-1984. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Description Productivity of a boreal forest was determined at 31 spruce and 30 aspen forest stands in the Superior National Forest (SNF) near Ely, Minnesota, U.S.A., in 1983 and 1984 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the ability of remote sensing to provide estimates of biophysical properties of ecosystems, such as leaf area index (LAI), biomass and net primary productivity (NPP). These ground-based estimates of above-ground biomass

256

Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money September 21, 2009 - 3:04pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Tomorrow is the official first day of fall, and while I always mourn the end of summer, one of the best things about fall is leaf peeping! Last year, we took my father-in-law's red '57 T-bird convertible on a lovely drive through the mountains to see the bright yellow aspens. Something about a car like that draws lots of attention-honks, waves, questions. We basically made friends everywhere we went. As much fun as that was, it wasn't exactly the most fuel-efficient or environmentally friendly excursion. I know we can do better this year; beautiful leaves are less than an hour's

257

fulltext.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transgenic Transgenic hybrid aspen overexpressing the Atwbc19 gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter confers resistance to four aminoglycoside antibiotics Byung-guk Kang * Xia Ye * Lori D. Osburn * C. N. Stewart Jr. * Zong-Ming Cheng Received: 9 September 2009 / Revised: 16 February 2010 / Accepted: 23 March 2010 / Published online: 11 April 2010 Ă“ Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract Antibiotic-resistance genes of bacterial origin are invaluable markers for plant genetic engineering. However, these genes are feared to pose possible risk to human health by horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to bacteria, potentially resulting in antibiotic-resis- tant pathogenic bacteria; this is a considerable regulatory concern in some countries. The Atwbc19 gene, encoding an Arabidopsis thaliana ATP-binding cassette transporter, has been reported to confer resistance to kanamycin

258

Category:CETSI Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CETSI Resources CETSI Resources Jump to: navigation, search This page contains a list of all case studies and other resources defined as CETSI Resources. Pages in category "CETSI Resources" The following 43 pages are in this category, out of 43 total. A A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project Development An Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances Animal Farm Powers Village Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commercial Buildings across the United States C Chicago Climate Action Plan City of Aspen Climate Action Plan Climate Action Planning: A Review of Best Practices, Key Elements, and Common Climate Strategies for Signatories to the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment

259

EM News Flashes | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

News Flashes News Flashes EM News Flashes RSS December 23, 2013 Aspen Cass, a relative of an EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) employee, holds donated coats with Farok Sharif (left), president and project manager of Nuclear Waste Partnership, the WIPP management and operating contractor, and Joe Franco, manager of CBFO. EM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Team's Holiday Spirit Shines CARLSBAD, N.M. - Children in the Carlsbad area are warmer this holiday season thanks to the generosity of EM's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) team of employees. December 11, 2013 Jim Kopotic and his daughter Lauren pause for a photo after a race that raised money for cancer research and treatment. 'Can Do' Attitude Brings EM Family Together OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - It's 7:51 a.m. on a Tuesday morning. A white,

260

Property:OpenEI/CETSI/PublicationDate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OpenEI/CETSI/PublicationDate OpenEI/CETSI/PublicationDate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name OpenEI/CETSI/PublicationDate Property Type Date Description The date the resource was first published. Pages using the property "OpenEI/CETSI/PublicationDate" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project Development + 1 November 2010 + An Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances + 1 December 2008 + Animal Farm Powers Village + 18 April 2011 + Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commercial Buildings across the United States + 5 January 2008 + C City of Aspen Climate Action Plan + 1 May 2007 + Climate Action Planning: A Review of Best Practices, Key Elements, and Common Climate Strategies for Signatories to the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment + 5 October 2010 +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Analysis of power generation processes using petcoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum coke or petcoke, a refinery byproduct, has generally been considered as an unusable byproduct because of its high sulfur content. However energy industries now view petcoke as a potential feedstock for power generation because it has higher carbon content than other hydrocarbons like coal, biomass and sewage residue. This gives petcoke a great edge over other feedstocks to generate power. Models for the two most common processes for power generation, namely combustion and gasification, were developed using Aspen Plus steady state chemical process simulator. Overall plant layouts for both processes were developed by calculating the heat and mass balance of the unit operations. After conducting wide sensitivity analysis, results indicate that one ton of petcoke feedstock can generate up to 4 MW of net available power. Both processes have rates of return greater than 30%, although gasification offers a slightly more attractive opportunity than combustion.

Jayakumar, Ramkumar

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic modeling and reduced-order model computation capability for APECS system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

APECS (Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator) is an integrated software suite that combines the power of process simulation with high-fidelity, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for improved design, analysis, and optimization of process engineering systems. The APECS system uses commercial process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and CFD (e.g., FLUENT) software integrated with the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces. This breakthrough capability allows engineers to better understand and optimize the fluid mechanics that drive overall power plant performance and efficiency. The focus of this paper is the CAPE-OPEN complaint stochastic modeling and reduced order model computational capability around the APECS system. The usefulness of capabilities is illustrated with coal fired, gasification based, FutureGen power plant simulation. These capabilities are used to generate efficient reduced order models and optimizing model complexities.

Diwekar, Urmila (Vishwamitra Research Institute, Clarendon Hills, IL); Shastri, Yogendra (Vishwamitra Research Institute Clarendon Hills, IL); Subrmanyan, Karthik (Vishwamitra Research Institute, Clarendon Hills, IL); Zitney, S.E.

2007-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Technoeconomic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biomass Indirect Gasification Process to Make Ethanol via Mixed Alcohols Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technoeconomic analysis of a 2000 tonne/day lignocellulosic biomass conversion process to make mixed alcohols via gasification and catalytic synthesis was completed. The process, modeled using ASPEN Plus process modeling software for mass and energy calculations, included all major process steps to convert biomass into liquid fuels, including gasification, gas cleanup and conditioning, synthesis conversion to mixed alcohols, and product separation. The gas cleanup area features a catalytic fluidized-bed steam reformer to convert tars and hydrocarbons into syngas. Conversions for both the reformer and the synthesis catalysts were based on research targets expected to be achieved by 2012 through ongoing research. The mass and energy calculations were used to estimate capital and operating costs that were used in a discounted cash flow rate of return analysis for the process to calculate a minimum ethanol selling price of $0.267/L ($1.01/gal) ethanol (U.S.$2005).

Phillips, S. D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Configuration and performance of the indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas, indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) is introduced as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20--200 megawatt (MW) size range. The novel indirect-fired carbonate fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFCFC) power plant system configures the ambient pressure carbonate fuel cell with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations from ASPEN simulations present material and energy balances with expected power output. The results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed carbonate fuel cell steam bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Development of a gravel bed combustor for a solid fueled gas turbine for the period February 1, 1989 to June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Further work on a novel pressurized, downdraft combustor using aspen woodchips is reported for the period 2/89 to 6/91. The 42 cm i.d combustor was connected to a modified Allison 250-C20B gas turbine engine and operated for 250 hours. The performance of the combustor-turbine system is discussed. Deposits of ash on the turbine nozzles and rotors are identified and discussed. A dynamic simulation model for the combustor-turbine system is presented and used to investigate the control of the system. The highest net power output was 61 kW or 20% of full power; the highest turbine speed was 75% of the maximum speed; the highest mass flow was 50% of the full power flow. The stability of the combustor must be improved before higher output and longer runs can be achieved.

Ragland, K.W.; Aerts, D.J.; Palmer, C.A.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

Thorsness, C.B.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this presentation, development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture will be discussed. The IGCC reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power using Illinois No.6 coal as the feed. The plant includes an entrained, downflow, General Electric Energy (GEE) gasifier with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC), a two-stage water gas shift (WGS) conversion process, and two advanced 'F' class combustion turbines partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit (ASU). A subcritical steam cycle is considered for heat recovery steam generation. Syngas is selectively cleaned by a SELEXOL acid gas removal (AGR) process. Sulfur is recovered using a two-train Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. A multistage intercooled compressor is used for compressing CO2 to the pressure required for sequestration. Using Illinois No.6 coal, the reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power. The plant-wide steady-state and dynamic IGCC simulations have been generated using the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} and Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign} process simulators, respectively. The model is generated based on the Case 2 IGCC configuration detailed in the study available in the NETL website1. The GEE gasifier is represented with a restricted equilibrium reactor model where the temperature approach to equilibrium for individual reactions can be modified based on the experimental data. In this radiant-only configuration, the syngas from the Radiant Syngas Cooler (RSC) is quenched in a scrubber. The blackwater from the scrubber bottom is further cleaned in the blackwater treatment plant. The cleaned water is returned back to the scrubber and also used for slurry preparation. The acid gas from the sour water stripper (SWS) is sent to the Claus plant. The syngas from the scrubber passes through a sour shift process. The WGS reactors are modeled as adiabatic plug flow reactors with rigorous kinetics based on the mid-life activity of the shift-catalyst. The SELEXOL unit consists of the H2S and CO2 absorbers that are designed to meet the stringent environmental limits and requirements of other associated units. The model also considers the stripper for recovering H2S that is sent as a feed to a split-flow Claus unit. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The cleaned syngas is sent to the GE 7FB gas turbine. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady-state simulation is solved in sequential-modular mode in Aspen Plus{reg_sign} and consists of more than 300 unit operations, 33 design specs, and 16 calculator blocks. The equation-oriented dynamic simulation consists of more than 100,000 equations solved using a multi-step Gear's integrator in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The challenges faced in solving the dynamic model and key transient results from this dynamic model will also be discussed.

Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Refining and end use study of coal liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design and ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation model was developed for a Battelle biomass-based gasification, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefaction and combined-cycle power plant. This model was developed in a similar manner to those coal liquefaction models that were developed under DOE contract DE-AC22-91PC90027. As such, this process flowsheet simulation model was designed to be a research guidance tool and not a detailed process design tool. However, it does contain some process design features, such as sizing the F-T synthesis reactors. This model was designed only to predict the effects of various process and operating changes on the overall plant heat and material balances, utilities, capital and operating costs.

Choi, G.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

Gorensek, M

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

278

Achieving the Security, Environmental, and Economic Potential of Bioenergy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A group of business, government, environmental and academic leaders convened in a dialogue by the Aspen Institute proposed a series of actions to promote the widespread commercialization of both corn and cellulosic ethanol to improve energy security, the environment, and the economy. Co-chaired by Booz Allen Hamilton Vice President and former CIA Director R. James Woolsey and former Congressman Tom Ewing (R. IL), they developed a series of recommendations involving improved crop yields, processing of biomass into ethanol, manufacture of more cars that can burn either ethanol or gasoline, and the provision of ethanol pumps at more filling stations. Their report, "A High Growth Strategy for Ethanol, includes a discussion of the potential of ethanol, the group's recommendations, and a series of discussion papers commissioned for the dialogue.

John A. Riggs

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

279

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Using Process/CFD Co-Simulation for the Design and Analysis of Advanced Energy Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this presentation we describe the major features and capabilities of NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) and highlight its application to advanced energy systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based electricity and hydrogen plant in the DOE’s $1 billion, 10-year FutureGen demonstration project. APECS is an integrated software suite which allows the process and energy industries to optimize overall plant performance with respect to complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena by combining process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) with high-fidelity equipment simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models (e.g., FLUENT®).

Zitney, S.E.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The training of a new project team member was completed (Task 2.1). The Software Requirements Document was written (Task 2.3). It was determined that the CAPE-OPEN interfaces are sufficient for the communication between Fluent and V21 Controller (Task 2.4). The AspenPlus-Fluent prototype on allyl/triacetone alcohol production was further developed to assist the GUI and software design tasks. The prototype was also used to analyze the sensitivity of a process simulation result with respect to a parameter in a CFD model embedded in the process simulation. Thus the integration of process simulation and CFD provides additional process insights and enables the engineer to optimize overall process performance (e.g., product purity and yield) with respect to important CFD design and operation parameters (e.g., CSTR shaft speed). A top-level design of the V21 Controller was developed and discussed. A draft version of the Software Design Document was written (Task 2.5/2.6). A preliminary software development plan was outlined. At first the V21 Controller will be developed and tested in two parts--a part that communicates with Fluent and a part that communicates with Aspen Plus. Then the two parts will be combined and tested with the allyl/triacetone alcohol flow sheet simulation. Much progress was made in writing the code for the two parts (Task 2.7). A requirement for pre-configured models was identified and added to the software requirements document (Task 2.9). Alstom Power's INDVU code was ported to the PC platform and calibrated. Aspen Plus model of the RP&L unit was improved to reflect the latest information received on the unit. Thus the preparation for linking INDVU code with the Aspen Plus model of RP&L unit is complete (Task 2.14). A report describing Demo Case 1 was written and submitted to DOE for review and approval (Task 3.1). The first Advisory Board meeting was held at the Fluent Users Group Meeting on June 6th. At the Advisory Board meeting, the project was reviewed, a demonstration was made, and verbal feedback was received. Meeting minutes have been issued (Task 5.0). Global-CAPE-OPEN organization was contacted for obtaining draft specifications in CORBA that are needed for writing the interfaces between V21 Controller and Fluent. Efforts are underway to establish collaboration with Norsk Hydro, who is leading a Global CAPE-OPEN project on linking CFD and process simulation models. Because of the similarity between that project and the present project, the two project teams can learn much from each other (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Application of polymer membrane technology in coal combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency and the environmental consequences of typical coal upgrading processes, such as combustion, depend to a large extent on the degree of gas separation, recovery, and recycle. Among the available methods used in chemical industry for a variety of gas separation tasks, the technology of polymer membranes offers several advantages such as low size, simplicity of operation and maintenance, compatibility, and use with a diversity of fuel sources. To examine the impact of membrane separation on coal upgrading processes, the Aspen Plus simulation software was used, in combination with developed membrane mathematical models. Energy analysis in coal combustion processes, where the main scope is CO{sub 2} removal, showed that very promising results can be attained. It is estimated that 95% of the emitted CO{sub 2} can be captured with a moderately low energy penalty (10%). This penalty can be further decreased if higher selectivity and/or permeability polymers can be developed.

Kaldis, S.P.; Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Approach and development strategy for an agent-based model of economic confidence.  

SciTech Connect

We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.

Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

Diana K. Grauer

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dwindling resources of fossil fuels coupled with the steady increase in energy consumption have spurred research interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternatives for fossil fuels. It can be made from various renewable sources, including recycled oil, and can be utilized in lieu of petroleum-based diesel. To foster market competitiveness for biodiesel, it is necessary to develop cost-effective and technically sound processing schemes, to identify related key design criteria, and optimize performance. The overall goal of this work was to design and optimize biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester “FAME”) production from vegetable oil. To achieve this goal, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a base-case flow sheet was developed for the process. The performance of this flow sheet along with the key design and operating criteria were identified by conducting computer-aided simulation using ASPEN Plus. Various scenarios were simulated to provide sufficient understanding and insights. Also, different thermodynamic databases were used for different sections of the process to account for the various characteristics of the streams throughout the process. Next, mass and energy integration studies were performed to reduce the consumption of material and energy utilities, improve environmental impact, and enhance profitability. Finally, capital cost estimation was carried out using the ICARUS Process Evaluator computer-aided tools linked to the results of the ASPEN simulation. The operating cost of the process was estimated using the key information on process operation such as raw materials, utilities, and labor. A profitability analysis was carried out by examining the ROI (Return of Investment) and PP (Payback Period). It was determined that the single most important economic factor is the cost of soybean oil, which accounted for more than 90% of the total annualized cost. Consequently, a sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of soybean oil cost on profitability. It was determined that both ROI and PP quickly deteriorate as the cost of soybean oil increases.

Myint, Lay L.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A software design review meeting was conducted (Task 2.0). A CFD Viewer was developed, to allow the process analyst to view CFD results from the process simulator (Task 2.14). Work on developing a CO wrapper for the INDVU code was continued (Task 2.15). The model-edit GUI was modified to allow the user to specify a solution strategy. Enhancements were made to the solution strategy implementation (Task 2.16). Testing of the integrated software was continued and several bug fixes and enhancements were made: ability to expose CFD parameters to the process analyst and support for velocity and pressure inlet boundary conditions (Task 2.21). Work on preparing the release version progressed: Version 0.3 of V21 Controller was released, a global configuration dialog was implemented, and a code review process was initiated (Task 2.24). The calibration of the tube bank CFD model for the RP&L case was completed. While integrating the tube bank CFD model into the flow sheet model, several development requirements were identified and communicated to the developers. The requirements of porting V21 Controller and Configuration Wizard to FLUENT 6.1, turning off the transfer of temperature dependent properties, exposing CFD parameters in Aspen Plus and supporting velocity boundary conditions have been implemented (Task 4.1). An initial grid for the HRSG component has been prepared (Task 4.2). A web-based advisory board meeting was conducted on December 18, 2003 (Task 5.0). Project personnel attended and gave presentations at the Aspen World Conference, October 28-30, 2002; AIChE Annual Meeting, November 8, 2002; and the Vision 21 Simulation meeting at Iowa State University, November 19-20, 2002 (Task 7.0).

Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Technical progress report number 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of the computer models for slurry carbonization have begun and were based upon the collected data (mass balances, yield, temperatures, and pressures) from the previous pilot plant campaigns. All computer models are being developed with Aspen`s SpeedUp{trademark} software. The primary flow sheet with major alternatives has been developed and the majority of equipment descriptions and models, cost algorithms, and baseline parameters have been input to SpeedUp. The remaining modeling parameters will be input in the next reporting period and the initial flow sheet skeleton and model will be completed. The computer models will focus on optimizing capital and operating costs, and evaluating alternative waste water recycling technologies. The weaknesses of the previous pilot plant data and the data required for design of the commercial demonstration facility were identified. The identified weaknesses of the existing data included mass balance precision and accuracy, reactor residence time control (i.e. reactor level control), reactor temperature variations, and air entrainment in the feed RDF slurry. To improve mass balance precision and accuracy, an alternative carbonization gas flow meter will be designed and installed on the pilot plant. EnerTech`s carbonization gas flow meter design has been submitted to the EERC for final approval. In addition, an appropriate number of feed RDF samples will be characterized for moisture content just prior to the next pilot plant run to estimate incoming moisture variation. A pumping test also will be performed with the feed RDF slurry to determine the amount of air entrainment with the feed slurry.

Klosky, M.

1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

289

EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

Electrochemistry applied to biomass. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical conversion of biomass-derived compounds, obtained through thermochemical pretreatments, into valuable organic chemicals, petrochemical substitutes, and energy-intensive chemicals is investigated. A hardwood-derived lignin obtained from ethanol extraction of the explosively depressurized aspen has been investigated. We have partially characterized this lignin material, and have also submitted it to electrolyses under controlled potential. The electrolytic conditions employed so far affect mainly the carbonyl groups of the ethanol-extracted steam-exploded aspen lignin. We have some evidence of demethoxylation and changed phenolic content after electrolysis. During product isolation, fractionation of the lignin occurs. The material with decreased methoxyl content may be suitable to replace phenol in phenol-formaldehyde-type resins. We are continuing these electrochemical and chemical investigations. Gel-permeation chromatography is being used to separate and characterize the several lignin fractions. In addition, we are carrying out electrolyses under more powerful reducing conditions which may lead to the cleavage of the main bonds in the lignin molecule (the ..beta..-0-4 ether linkages) producing monomeric and dimeric phenolic compounds. The electrochemistry and photoelectrochemistry of levulinic (4-oxo-pentanoic) acid, the major product of controlled degradation of cellulose by acids, have been investigated. This acid can be viewed as a major product of biomass thermochemical pretreatment or as a by-product of acid hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Since this acid can be present in waste streams of biomass processing, we investigated the photoelectrochemical reactions of this acid on slurries composed of semiconductor/metal particles. The semiconductor investigated was undoped n-TiO/sub 2/, as anatase, anatase-rutile mixture, or rutile.

Chum, H. L. [ed.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increasing stringency on sulfur content in petrodiesel, there is a growing tendency of broader usage of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) with sulfur content of 15 ppm. Refineries around the world should develop cost-effective and sustainable strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is investigated. Blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is a potentially attractive option because it is naturally low in sulfur, enhances the lubricity of petrodiesel, and is a sustainable energy resource. In order to investigate alternatives for producing ULSD, several research tasks were undertaken in this work. Firstly, base-case designs of petrodiesel and biodiesel production processes were developed using computer-aided tools ASPEN Plus. The simulations were adjusted until the technical criteria and specifications of petrodiesel and biodiesel production were met. Next, process integration techniques were employed to optimize the synthesized processes. Heat integration for petrodiesel and biodiesel was carried out using algebraic, graphical and optimization methods to maximize the integrated heat exchange and minimize the heating and cooling utilities. Additionally, mass integration was applied to conserve material resources. Cost estimation was carried out for both processes. The capital investments were obtained from ASPEN ICARUS Process Evaluator, while operating costs were calculated based on the updated chemical market prices. The total operating costs before and after process integration were calculated and compared. Next, blending optimization was performed for three blending options with the optimum blend for each option identified. Economic comparison (total annualized cost, breakeven analysis, return on investment, and payback period) of the three options indicated that the blending of ULSD with chemical additives was the most profitable. However, the subsequent life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and safety comparisons demonstrated that the blending of ULSD with biodiesel was superior.

Wang, Ting

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Microsoft Word - 34832779-file00.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

25146.111 25146.111 Access the most recent version at doi: published online October 5, 2011 Genome Res. Eli Rodgers-Melnick, Shrinivasrao P. Mane, Palitha Dharmawardhana, et al. Populus tandem duplication events in Contrasting patterns of evolution following whole genome versus Material Supplemental http://genome.cshlp.org/content/suppl/2011/10/06/gr.125146.111.DC2.html http://genome.cshlp.org/content/suppl/2011/10/06/gr.125146.111.DC1.html P

293

Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass L. Tetard a,b , A. Passian a,b,n , R.H. Farahi a , U.C. Kalluri c , B.H. Davison c , T. Thundat a,b a Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Atomic force microscopy Spectroscopy Plant cells Biomass Nanomechanics a b s t r a c t Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass

294

c1ee02112e 1..8  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

monoclonal monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels production† Jaclyn D. DeMartini, abe Sivakumar Pattathil, ce Utku Avci, ce Kaitlyn Szekalski, c Koushik Mazumder, ce Michael G. Hahn cde and Charles E. Wyman * abe Received 10th July 2011, Accepted 17th August 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1ee02112e To better understand how hydrothermal pretreatment reduces plant cell wall recalcitrance, we applied a high throughput approach (''glycome profiling'') using a comprehensive suite of plant glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies to monitor structural/extractability changes in Populus biomass. The results of glycome profiling studies were verified by immunolabeling using selected antibodies from the same toolkit. The array of monoclonal antibodies employed in these studies is large enough to monitor changes occurring in most plant cell wall polysaccharides.

295

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annotation Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon Ludmila Tyler 1,2 , Jennifer N Bragg 1† , Jiajie Wu 1,3† , Xiaohan Yang 4 , Gerald A Tuskan 4 , John P Vogel 1* Abstract Background: Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast- growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally

296

Direct analysis of cellulose in poplar stem by matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

analysis analysis of cellulose in poplar stem by matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry Seokwon Jung 1,3 , Yanfeng Chen 3 , M. Cameron Sullards 1,3 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 * 1 BioEnergy Science Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10 th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA 2 Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10 th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA 3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA Received 10 July 2010; Revised 9 August 2010; Accepted 23 August 2010 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) was applied to the analysis of the spatial distribution of cellulose on a cross-section of juvenile poplar (Populus deltoids) stems. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to optimize matrix (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic

297

JGI - CSP Sequencing Plans for 2014  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Program Science Program Sequencing Plans for 2014 Proposer Affiliation Project Description Banfield, Jillian UC Berkeley, LBNL Community metagenomic and transcriptomic analyses of microbial carbon turnover in grassland soil profiles under two rainfall regimes Bonito, Gregory Duke University Comparative genomics of early diverging terrestrial fungi and their bacterial endosymbionts Brem, Rachel UC Berkeley Pioneering fungal mutagenesis using Tn-seq Brutnell, Thomas Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Doubling the number of Panicoideae genome sequences Canovas, David University of Seville, Spain Global genomic consequences of the deletion of the Aspergilli non-homologous end joining DNA repair mechanism employed as a genetic tool worldwide Chen, Jay Oak Ridge National Laboratory RNA-seq-Enabled Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) in Populus

298

BESC Submits 32 Gene Disclosures for Patents | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News Careers Work with ORNL About ORNL Visiting ORNL Events and Conferences Highlights Success Stories Contact Us Index Home | ORNL | Highlights SHARE BESC submits 32 gene disclosures for future patents July 01, 2012 Plant geneticist Wellington Muchero examines phenotypic traits of Populus transgenic lines grown in a greenhouse. The Bioenergy Science Center (BESC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is preparing invention disclosures for 32 different genes that can help improve the yield of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. These genes or their variants function to overcome recalcitrance-difficulty in breaking down cellulosic biomass to release sugars. Several members of ORNL's Biosciences Division are submitting disclosures: 16 genes by Wellington Muchero, 10 genes by Udaya Kalluri, and

299

acs_ef_ef-2010-00882t 1..9  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

r r XXXX American Chemical Society pubs.acs.org/EF Energy Fuels XXXX, XXX, 000-000 : DOI:10.1021/ef100882t Changes in the Structure of the Cellulose Fiber Wall during Dilute Acid Pretreatment in Populus Studied by 1 H and 2 H NMR Marcus Foston and Arthur J. Ragauskas* BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 Received October 28, 2009. Revised Manuscript Received August 30, 2010 Dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) is a frequently employed technique in biofuel production to increase overall sugar and subsequent ethanol yields from downstream fermentation. This is done prior to enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose to increase accessible surface area as well as to remove or redistribute hemicellulose and lignin, which have an inhibitory effect

300

Farming For Fuel Lesson Plan Intro : BioEnergy Science Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lesson Plan: Farming for Fuel Lesson Plan: Farming for Fuel The lesson plan was developed as a collaboration between the Outreach and Education staff at the Creative Discovery Museum, (a children's science museum) in Chattanooga, TN, and BESC (BioEnergy Science Center) scientists and educators. Lesson plans, focused at the 5th grade level, are posted along with the materials used in the demonstrations of the lessons as well as where they may be purchased. We encourage anyone interested in promoting education in elementary and middle schools about biofuels and specifically biofuels developed from cellulosic material such as switch grass and populus to investigate them. We would be happy to provide any help in the use of these plans for education. The lessons have been taught in schools throughout

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Zoomable map of poplar proteins | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

'Zoomable' map of poplar proteins offers new view of bioenergy crop 'Zoomable' map of poplar proteins offers new view of bioenergy crop January 29, 2013 An extensive molecular map of poplar tree proteins from Oak Ridge National Laboratory offers new insight into the plant's biological processes. Knowing how poplar trees alter their proteins to change and adapt to environmental surroundings could help bioenergy researchers develop plants better suited to biofuel production. The study is featured on the cover of January's Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. Researchers seeking to improve production of ethanol from woody crops have a new resource in the form of an extensive molecular map of poplar tree proteins, published by a team from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DOE ORNL). Populus, a fast-growing perennial tree, holds potential as a bioenergy crop

302

pnas201009252 1..6  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lignin Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release Michael H. Studer a,b,1 , Jaclyn D. DeMartini a,b , Mark F. Davis b,c , Robert W. Sykes b,c , Brian Davison b,d , Martin Keller b,d , Gerald A. Tuskan b,e , and Charles E. Wyman a,b,2 a University of California, Bourns College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Riverside, CA 92507; b BESC BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6422; c National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401- 3305; d Energy and Environmental Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6422; and e Plant Systems Biology Group, BioSciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6422 Edited* by Ronald R. Sederoff, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, and approved March 3, 2011 (received for review

303

acs_PR_pr-2011-00851y 1..12  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pr200851y pr200851y | J. Proteome Res. XXXX, XXX, 000-000 ARTICLE pubs.acs.org/jpr Defining the Boundaries and Characterizing the Landscape of Functional Genome Expression in Vascular Tissues of Populus using Shotgun Proteomics Paul Abraham, †,‡,§ Rachel Adams, †,‡,§ Richard J. Giannone, ‡ Udaya Kalluri, || Priya Ranjan, || Brian Erickson, ‡ Manesh Shah, ‡ Gerald A. Tuskan, || and Robert L. Hettich* ,‡ ) Biosciences Division and ‡ Chemical Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States § Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37830, United States b S Supporting Information ' INTRODUCTION The advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing has revolutio- nized the assembly of high-quality genomes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes such as plants and humans. 1 The

304

Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns Nan Zhao a , Ju Guan a , Farhad Forouhar b , Timothy J. Tschaplinski c , Zong-Ming Cheng a , Liang Tong b , Feng Chen a, * a Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 252 Ellington Plant Science Bldg., 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA b Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 3 June 2008 Received in revised form 27 October 2008 Available online 10 January 2009 Keywords: Black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Methyl esterase SABP2 Methyl salicylate Salicylic acid Gene family Molecular modeling a b s t r a c t Two genes encoding proteins

305

Structure of Isoprene Synthase Illuminates the Chemical Mechanism of Teragram Atmospheric Carbon Emission  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray crystal structure of recombinant PcISPS (isoprene synthase from gray poplar hybrid Populus x canescens) has been determined at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, and the structure of its complex with three Mg{sup 2+} and the unreactive substrate analogue dimethylallyl-S-thiolodiphosphate has been determined at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. Analysis of these structures suggests that the generation of isoprene from substrate dimethylallyl diphosphate occurs via a syn-periplanar elimination mechanism in which the diphosphate-leaving group serves as a general base. This chemical mechanism is responsible for the annual atmospheric emission of 100 Tg of isoprene by terrestrial plant life. Importantly, the PcISPS structure promises to guide future protein engineering studies, potentially leading to hydrocarbon fuels and products that do not rely on traditional petrochemical sources.

Koksal, M.; Zimmer, I; Schnitzler, J; Christianson, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Rate of Contamination Removal of Two Phyto-remediation Sites at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes applications of phyto-remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility that enriched uranium from the early 1950's until 2000. Phyto-remediation has been implemented to assist in the removal of TCE (trichloroethylene) in the groundwater at two locations at the PORTS facility: the X-740 area and the X-749/X-120 area. Phyto-remediation technology is based on the ability of certain plants species (in this case hybrid poplar trees) and their associated rhizo-spheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain chemical contaminants located in the soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, and possibly even the atmosphere. Phyto-remediation technology is a promising clean-up solution for a wide variety of pollutants and sites. Mature trees, such as the hybrid poplar, can consume up to 3,000 gallons of groundwater per acre per day. Organic compounds are captured in the trees' root systems. These organic compounds are degraded by ultraviolet light as they are transpired along with the water vapor through the leaves of the trees. The phyto-remediation system at the X-740 area encompasses 766 one-year old hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x nigra, Populus nigra x maximowiczii, and Populus deltoides x nigra) that were planted 10 feet apart in rows 10 feet to 20 feet apart, over an area of 2.6 acres. The system was installed to manage the VOC contaminant plume. At the X749/X-120 area, a phyto-remediation system of 2,640 hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) was planted in seven areas/zones to manage the VOC contaminant plume. The objectives of these systems are to remove contamination from the groundwater and to prevent further migration of contaminants. The goal of these remediation procedures is to achieve completely mature and functional phyto-remediation systems within two years of the initial planting of the hybrid poplar trees at each planting location. There is a direct relationship between plant transpiration, soil moisture, and groundwater flow in a phyto-remediation system. The existing monitoring program was expanded in 2004 in order to evaluate the interactions among these processes. The purpose of this monitoring program was to determine the rate of contaminant removal and to more accurately predict the amount of time needed to remediate the contaminated groundwater. Initial planting occurred in 1999 at the X-740 area, with additional replanting in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, coring of selected trees and chemical analyses illustrated the presence of TCE; however, little impact was observed in groundwater levels, analytical monitoring, and periodic tree diameter monitoring at the X-740 area. To provide better understanding of how these phyto-remediation systems work, a portable weather station was installed at the X-740 area to provide data for estimating transpiration and two different systems for measuring sap flow and sap velocity were outfitted to numerous trees. After evaluating and refining the groundwater flow and contaminant transport models, the data gathered by these two inventive methods can be used to establish a rate of contaminant removal and to better predict the time required in order to meet remediation goals for the phyto-remediation systems located at the PORTS site. (authors)

Lewis, A.C.; Baird, D.R. [CDM Federal Services, P.O. Box 789, Piketon, OH 45661 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Genomic insights into salt adaptation in a desert poplar  

SciTech Connect

Despite the high economic and ecological importance of forests, our knowledge of the genomic evolution of trees under salt stress remains very limited. Here we report the genome sequence of the desert poplar, Populus euphratica, which exhibits high tolerance to sa lt stress. Its genome is very similar and collinear to that of the closely related mesophytic congener, P trichocarpa. However, we find that several gene families likely to be involved in tolerance to salt stress contain significantly more gene copies within the P euphratica lineage. Furthermore, genes showing evidence of positive selection are significantly enriched in functional categories related to salt stress. Some of these genes, and others within the same categories, are significantly upregulated under salt stress relative to their expression in another salt-sensitive poplar. Our results provide an important background for understanding tree adaptation to salt stress and facilitating the genetic improvement of cultivated poplars for saline soils.

Ma, Tao [Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences] [Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Junyi [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Zhou, Gongke [Key laboratory of Biofuels and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Instit] [Key laboratory of Biofuels and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Instit; Yue, Zhen [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Hu, Quanjun [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Chen, Yan [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Liu, Bingbing [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Qiu, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Wang, Zhuo [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Zhang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Wang, Kun [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Jaing, Dechun [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Gou, Caiyun [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Yu, Lili [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Zhan, Dongliang [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Zhou, Ran [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Luo, Wenchun [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Ma, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Yang, Yongzhi [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Pan, Shengkai [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Fang, Dongming [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Luo, Yadan [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Wang, Xia [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Wang, Gaini [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Wang, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Wang, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Lu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Chen, Zhe [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Liu, Jinchao [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Lu, Yao [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Yin, Ye [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Yang, Huanming [BGI-Shenzhen, China] [BGI-Shenzhen, China; Abbott, Richard [School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St andrews, Fife KY16 9TH, UK] [School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St andrews, Fife KY16 9TH, UK; Wu, Yuxia [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Wan, Dongshi [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University; Li, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University] [State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Inoculation of hybrid poplar with the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 increases biomass but does not impact leaf level physiology  

SciTech Connect

Endophytic bacteria have been shown to provide several advantages to their host, including enhanced growth. Inoculating biofuel species with endophytic bacteria is therefore an attractive option to increase the productivity of biofuel feedstocks. Here, we investigated the effect of inoculating hard wood cuttings of Populus deltoides Bartr. x Populus. nigra L. clone OP367 with Enterobacter sp. 638. After 17 weeks, plants inoculated with Enterobacter sp. 638 had 55% greater total biomass than un-inoculated control plants. Study of gas exchange and fluorescence in developing and mature leaves over a diurnal cycle and over a 5 week measurement campaign revealed no effects of inoculation on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency or the maximum and operating efficiency of photosystem II. However, plants inoculated with Enterobacter sp. 638 had a canopy that was 39% larger than control plants indicating that the enhanced growth was fueled by increased leaf area, not by improved physiology. Leaf nitrogen content was determined at two stages over the 5 week measurement period. No effect of Enterobacter sp. 638 on leaf nitrogen content was found indicating that the larger plants were acquiring sufficient nitrogen. Enterobacter sp. 638 lacks the genes for N{sub 2} fixation, therefore the increased availability of nitrogen likely resulted from enhanced nitrogen acquisition by the 84% larger root system. These data show that Enterobacter sp. 638 has the potential to dramatically increase productivity in poplar. If fully realized in the production environment, these results indicate that an increase in the environmental and economic viability of poplar as a biofuel feedstock is possible when inoculated with endophytic bacteria like Enterobacter sp. 638.

Rogers, A.; McDonald, K.; Muehlbauer, M. F.; Hoffman, A.; Koenig, K.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Van Der Lelie, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

311

Dynamic simulation and load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load-following control of future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. To study control performance during load following, a plant-wide dynamic simulation of a coal-fed IGCC plant with CO{sub 2} capture has been developed. The slurry-fed gasifier is a single-stage, downward-fired, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow type with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC). The syngas from the outlet of the RSC goes to a scrubber followed by a two-stage sour shift process with inter-stage cooling. The acid gas removal (AGR) process is a dual-stage physical solvent-based process for selective removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage and CO{sub 2} in the second stage. Sulfur is recovered using a Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. The recovered CO{sub 2} is compressed by a split-shaft multistage compressor and sent for sequestration after being treated in an absorber with triethylene glycol for dehydration. The clean syngas is sent to two advanced “F”-class gas turbines (GTs) partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit. A subcritical steam cycle is used for heat recovery steam generation. A treatment unit for the sour water strips off the acid gases for utilization in the Claus unit. The steady-state model developed in Aspen Plus® is converted to an Aspen Plus Dynamics® simulation and integrated with MATLAB® for control studies. The results from the plant-wide dynamic model are compared qualitatively with the data from a commercial plant having different configuration, operating condition, and feed quality than what has been considered in this work. For load-following control, the GT-lead with gasifier-follow control strategy is considered. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for the syngas pressure control. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate while load-following, a linear model predictive controller (LMPC) is implemented in MATLAB®. A combined process and disturbance model is identified by considering a number of model forms and choosing the final model based on an information-theoretic criterion. The performance of the LMPC is found to be superior to the conventional PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

Bhattacharyya, D,; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope is to develop an integrated suite of software tools that can be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software does not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which is needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE is to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that will link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remains to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software will be based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge is to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{trademark} CFD code (provided by Fluent Inc). ALSTOM Power has a task responsibility to select and run a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the linkage concept. This report summarizes and documents the unit selected to represent Case 2, a 250 MW, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. An analogous document for Demonstration Case 1 was previously submitted on April 30, 2001. Sufficient information is available from the plant to adequately benchmark the model. Hence, the proposed unit is deemed to be well suited as a demonstration case. However, as the combined cycle plant selected for this study contains recent technology, sensitivity to the commercial implications of this study prevents the release of the plant name and limits the quantity of operating/design information that can be presented. These limitations will not prevent the goal of this task, demonstration of the feasibility of software integration for ''virtual simulation'', from being accomplished.

Galen Richards, Ph.D.; David Sloan, Ph.D.; Woodrow Fiveland, Ph.D.

2002-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To accelerate the development of advanced power plants, DOE's Vision 21 program identified the need for an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize new plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet this objective of virtual-plant simulation. Sophisticated models of many individual equipment items are available; however, a seamless coupling capability that would integrate the advanced equipment (component) models to the process (system) simulation software remained to be developed. The inability to use models in an integrated manner causes knowledge loss (e.g., knowledge captured in detailed equipment models is usually not available in process simulation) and modeling inconsistencies (e.g., physical properties and reaction kinetics data in different models are not the same). A team consisting of Fluent Inc., ALSTOM Power Inc., Aspen Technology Inc., Intergraph Corporation, and West Virginia University, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), addressed this challenge in a project performed over the period from October 2000 through December 2004. In this project the integration of the cycle analysis software was based on widely used commercial software: Aspen Plus{reg_sign} for process simulation and FLUENT{reg_sign} for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of equipment items. The integration software was designed to also include custom (in-house, proprietary, legacy) equipment models that often encapsulate the experience from the many years of designing and operating the equipment. The team adopted CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces, the de facto international standard for communication among process models, for exchanging information between software. The software developed in this project is the first demonstration of the use of CO interfaces to link CFD and custom equipment models with process simulators. New interface requirements identified during this project were communicated to the CO standard developers. The new software capability was designed to make the construction of integrated models fast and integrated simulations robust and user-friendly. Configuration wizards were developed to make CFD and custom models CO-compliant. An Integration Controller and CFD Model Database were developed to facilitate the exchange of information between equipment and process models. A reduced order model (ROM) framework and a solution strategy capability were incorporated in the Integration Controller to enable a flexible trade-off between simulation speed and complexity. A CFD viewer was developed so that process engineers can view CFD results from the process simulator interface.

Madhava Syamlal; Maxwell Osawe; Stephen Zitney; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Frank Joop; Philip Simon; K. Joseph Cleetus

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Impact of elevated CO2 and O3 on insect-mediated ecosystem processes in a northern deciduous forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are altering the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Herbivorous insects are the major consumers in temperate deciduous forests, with the capacity to dramatically alter tree growth (via outbreaks), forest community composition and ecosystem dynamics (e.g., nutrient cycling). Until recently, however, experimental quantification of the impacts of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on canopy herbivore communities and rates of defoliation and nutrient flux has not been addressed. This research, conducted at the Aspen FACE (Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) facility in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A., evaluated the independent and interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on (1) the abundance and diversity of forest canopy insect communities, and (2) rates of insect herbivory and transfer of material (leaf greenfall and insect frass) from the canopy to the forest floor. Results of studies of individual insects revealed that elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} influence the performance of individual species of damaging insect pests, but the magnitude of impact is influenced by both insect species and their host tree species. Censuses of canopy insects showed that some species were positively affected, some negatively affected, and some not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. Moreover, overall species diversity was generally not strongly affected by CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. In summary, the effects of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on forest insects is highly variable among species and over time, and thus difficult to generalize across broad taxonomic groups. Estimates of foliar damage revealed that CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} have pronounced effects on canopy damage by insect herbivores. Averaged over three years, foliar biomass lost to insect feeding increased 86% in high CO{sub 2} environments and decreased 12% in high O{sub 3} environments. The increases/decreases were greater for aspen than for birch, indicating that the selective pressure of insects will shift across tree species in forests of the future. Herbivore-mediated material (green leaf tissue, insect frass) transfer from the canopy to the forest floor increased 37% in elevated CO{sub 2} and decreased 21% in elevated O{sub 3}. Nitrogen transfers paralleled those results: 39% increase in elevated CO{sub 2} and 19% decrease in elevated O{sub 3}.

Lindroth, Richard L.

2011-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

Field test results of the physical solvent N-Formyl morpholine for gas treating applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing gas processing technology that will reduce gas processing costs for current production and allow subquality gas to be economically produced that would have been otherwise, not produced. The experimental program has primarily focused on the evaluation of N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM) as a physical solvent for the cost-effective upgrading of subquality natural gas to pipeline quality. The selection of NFM for this program was based on previous work conducted by IGT in the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide from coal gasifier effluents. That work showed that the use of NFM resulted in a significant cost advantage over 107 other solvents for that application. The project approach for the development of NFM process has been divided into following main categories: obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium, physical properties and additional published literature data; obtain mass-transfer coefficients using 2 inch absorber/stripper apparatus and calculate equation of state parameters and binary interaction parameters using VLE data; develop a gas processing model using Aspen Plus simulation program and evaluate economic advantages of the NFM process compared to commercial physical solvent; and design a pilot plant skid mounted field test unit and conduct field test experiments.

Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

School Trips & Projects in Spring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Projects in Spring & Projects in Spring Nature Bulletin No. 484 March 9, 1957 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Daniel Ryan, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist SCHOOL TRIPS & PROJECTS IN SPRINg Spring is the morning of the year when nature reawakens. The days become noticeably longer and warmer. We feel an urge to get out-of- doors and see green growing plants, early wildflowers, and swelling buds on trees and shrubs; see and hear birds returning from their winter homes; hear the mating songs of frogs and toads. The nearest forest preserve, park, meadow or hedgerow -- even a city street or weedy vacant lot -- will have a wealth of plant and animal life. March is a chancy month for field trips but spring can be perking in a classroom before many signs of it appear outdoors. One twig of a forsythia bush, placed in a bottle of water, will soon display its yellow flowers; willow and aspen twigs will develop fat fuzzy catkins; the end of branches from cottonwood, soft maple and elm trees will reveal how some of their winter buds produce flowers and others burst into leaves. The long reddish catkins on a male cottonwood are showy but the small flowers of a maple or an elm are no less beautiful, although seldom noticed on the trees.

318

Data:05e5a815-44cc-436f-be5f-9d65ec003cc3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5-44cc-436f-be5f-9d65ec003cc3 5-44cc-436f-be5f-9d65ec003cc3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Duke Energy Ohio Inc Effective date: 2013/05/06 End date if known: Rate name: Rate OL - Outdoor Lighting Service - MV 175 Watts - Aspen Decorative Sector: Lighting Description: Applicable for outdoor lighting services on private property with Company owned fixtures in the Company's entire service area where secondary distribution lines are adjacent to the premises to be served. Not applicable for lighting public roadways which are dedicated, or anticipated to be dedicated, except to meet the occasional singular need of a customer who has obtained written approval from the proper governmental authority.

319

AVESTAR® - Meet Our People  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

People People Stephen E. Zitney Stephen E. Zitney Director, AVESTAR® Center U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Dr. Zitney serves as Director for the AVESTAR® Center and also directs Process & Dynamic Systems Research under NETL's Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA). He has over 20 years experience in process systems engineering R&D, with a strong emphasis in the areas of steady-state and dynamic process simulation and optimization; real-time operator training systems (OTS) and 3D virtual immersive training systems (ITS); process/equipment co-simulation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD); and advanced numerical methods and high-performance computing. Before joining NETL in 2004, Dr. Zitney held senior consulting and R&D management positions at Fluent, a leading provider of CFD software, Aspen Technology, a major supplier of process simulation software, and Cray Research, a leading provider of supercomputing tools to the process industries. He received M.S./Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering and Engineering & Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University.

320

Fermilab Map Legend  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

skip down to "find locations by coordinates" skip down to "find locations by coordinates" find locations alphabetically using the grid A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W A Anderson Barn - D-6 Aspen East - D-6 B B0 - D-4 Booster Ring - E-2 Buffalo Farm - D-4 C C4 Pump House - F-4 C48 - F-4 Carpenter Shop - C-3 CDF Experimental Area - D-4 Central Heium Luquefier - D-3 Central Utility Building - E-2 Construction Operations - C-4 Counting Room - C-4 Cross Gallery - E-2 Cryogenics Building - C4 Curia - D-7 D D0 Experimental Area - F-4 Detector Building - C-4 Dorm 1 - D-6 Dorm 2 - D-6 Dorm 3 - D-6 Dorm 4 - D-6 Dorm 7 - D-6 E EAOC - C-4 East Gate E-7 F Feynmann Computing Center - D-3 Fire Station - C-3 G Gym - D-6 H High Intensity Lab - C-4 I IB1 - D-4 IB2 - D-4 IB3 - D-4 IB4 - D-4 Ind. Compressor Bldg. - D-3 Industrial Center Building - D-4

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

SSA Mixed Canopy Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Canopy Site (SSA-Mix) Mixed Canopy Site (SSA-Mix) The TE canopy tower The mixed trees Terrestrial Ecology canopy access tower at the SSA mixed coniferous/deciduous site. A picture taken looking down from the TE canopy access tower at the SSA mixed auxiliary site, showing the aspen and spruce canopies. Back to the BOREAS Photo Page Index Other Sites: NSA Photos ||NSA-BP Photos | NSA-Fen Photos | NSA-OA Photos | NSA-OBS Photos | NSA-OJP Photos | NSA-UBS Photos | NSA-YJP Photos | NSA-Ops Photos SSA Photos || SSA-Airport Photos | SSA-Fen Photos | SSA-Mix Photos | SSA-OA Photos | SSA-OBS Photos | SSA-OJP Photos | SSA-YA Photos | SSA-YJP Photos | SSA-Ops Photos | ORNL DAAC Home || ORNL Home || NASA || Privacy, Security, Notices || Data Citation || Rate Us || Help | User Services - Tel: +1 (865) 241-3952 or E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov

322

Property:OpenEI/CETSI/Metrics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metrics Metrics Jump to: navigation, search Property Name OpenEI/CETSI/Metrics Property Type Text Description Environmental aspects and performance metrics associated with the resource. Pages using the property "OpenEI/CETSI/Metrics" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A An Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances + The objective of these communities is to facilitate and regulate the development of Wind Energy Conversion Systems. Animal Farm Powers Village + The plant will produce 350 kilowatts per hour, "enough to supply 175 homes with electricity). C City of Aspen Climate Action Plan + The Climate Action Plan calls for greenhouse gas reductions of 30 percent by 2020 and 80 percent by 2050 from its 2004 baseline. Performance metrics are quantified by tons of CO2-e reduced. Based on a 2007 update to the baseline emissions inventory, the community achieved emissions reductions of 68,380 tons. The energy and environmental achievements as of the Plan's adoption in 2007 are outlined as updates within the Plan. To date, there has been no progress report on the Climate Action Plan per se, however the City's environmental achievements are described in the biennial Sustainability Report available at: http://www.aspenpitkin.com/Portals/0/docs/City/GreenInitiatives/enviro_sustainability_report_2008.pdf

323

About CRSP Management Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CRSP Act Power Projects Contact CRSP Customers Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates CRSP Act Power Projects Contact CRSP Customers Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates About Colorado River Storage Project Management Center CRSP Management Center Office The Ak-Chin Indian Community in Arizona, the city of Aspen, Colo., and Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico are a few of the vital customers of the Colorado River Storage Project's Management Center. We assist customers in saving their valuable electrical resources by actively promoting energy management and conservation programs and helping them determine their future energy needs. When customers want new products and services tailored to their individual needs, we explore their ideas. We are also committed to protecting the delicate balance of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Agencies that manage this river's resources must weigh its many roles: irrigation, recreation, hydropower and native and non-native endangered species habitat protection. Balancing these resources with the needs of water and electrical energy customers is a chief concern.

324

Seed Dispersal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Seed Dispersal Seed Dispersal Nature Bulletin No. 35 October 6, 1945 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Clayton F, Smith, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation SEED DISPERSAL Plants have various ways of spreading their seeds. Some have "fly-away" seeds. Included are the dandelion, thistle, tumbleweed, cattail, clematis, and many trees. The cottonwood, sycamore, aspen, linden, ailanthus, maple, box elder, birch and the pines are all trees having seeds with wings or with "down", that are carried by winds. Certain aquatic plants have seeds that sink to bury themselves in.the mud beneath the water. Others have seeds that float and are distributed by the winds and currents that carry them away. Many plants "shoot" their seeds, the seed pods popping open with sufficient force to throw the seeds many feet away, Notable in this group are knotgrass, lady slippers, violets, vetches, jewel weed, witch- hazel, and Heavea, the Para rubber tree, The witch-hazel may shoot its seeds 30 or 40 feet.

325

Project Award Spreadsheets 2010 12 21 1232.xlsx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City HQ State City HQ State Congressional District(s) Population Recovery Act Funding* Asheville ** NC NC-011 500,000 $209,940 Aspen CO CO-003 5,902 $59,193 Aurora CO CO-007 319,057 $151,800 Baltimore MD MD-002 636,919 $200,000 Baton Rouge LA LA-6 223,689 $200,000 Boston MA MA-009 609,023 $300,000 Casper WY WY-001 54,047 $130,000 Chicago IL IL-005 2,853,114 $300,000 Chula Vista CA CA-051 219,318 $200,000 City and County of Denver CO CO-001 598,707 $210,040 Columbia MO MO-009 100,733 $200,000 Davenport IA IA-001 100,827 $200,000 Delray Beach FL FL-022 64,092 $130,000 Durango CO CO-003 16,416 $58,500 Flint MI MI-005 112,900 $199,814 Fort Wayne IN IN-003 251,591 $195,700 Hailey ID ID-002 7,883 $83,202 Hamilton OH OH-008 62,477 $130,000 Heber** UT UT-002 13,988 $100,000 Hoffman Estates IL IL-008 53,641 $98,556 Lake Worth FL FL-022 35,513

326

Configuration and performance of fuel cell-combined cycle options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel-cell-bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural-gas/solid-oxide fuel-cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) are introduced as novel power-plant systems for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20-200 mega-watt (MW) size range. The novel NG-IFCFC power-plant system configures the ambient pressure molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger: The topping solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) combined cycle is not new. The purpose of combining a gas turbine with a fuel cell was to inject pressurized air into a high-pressure fuel cell and to reduce the size, and thereby, to reduce the cost of the fuel cell. Today, the SOFC remains pressurized, but excess chemical energy is combusted and the thermal energy is utilized by the Carnot cycle heat engine to complete the system. ASPEN performance results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC or NG-SOFCCC are better than conventional fuel cell or gas turbine steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. Fuel cell and gas turbine systems should not be viewed as competitors, but as an opportunity to expand to markets where neither gas turbines nor fuel cells alone would be commercially viable. Non-attainment areas are the most likely markets.

Rath, L.K.; Le, P.H.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Market disruption, cascading effects, and economic recovery:a life-cycle hypothesis model.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper builds upon previous work [Sprigg and Ehlen, 2004] by introducing a bond market into a model of production and employment. The previous paper described an economy in which households choose whether to enter the labor and product markets based on wages and prices. Firms experiment with prices and employment levels to maximize their profits. We developed agent-based simulations using Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate that multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment, but also suffer from market noise stemming from consumer churn. In this paper we introduce a bond market as a mechanism for household savings. We simulate an economy of continuous overlapping generations in which each household grows older in the course of the simulation and continually revises its target level of savings according to a life-cycle hypothesis. Households can seek employment, earn income, purchase goods, and contribute to savings until they reach the mandatory retirement age; upon retirement households must draw from savings in order to purchase goods. This paper demonstrates the simultaneous convergence of product, labor, and savings markets to their calculated equilibria, and simulates how a disruption to a productive sector will create cascading effects in all markets. Subsequent work will use similar models to simulate how disruptions, such as terrorist attacks, would interplay with consumer confidence to affect financial markets and the broader economy.

Sprigg, James A.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Physical Properties Models for Simulation of Processes to Treat INEEL Tank Farm Waste: Thermodynamic Equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

331

Physical Properties Models for Simulation of Processes to Treat INEEL Tank Farm Waste: Thermodynamic Equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. 38 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Yunhua Zhu; H. Christopher Frey [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Dynamic modeling to minimize energy use for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants by aqueous monoethanolamine  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic rate-based model was developed for stripping in CO{sub 2} capture from coal-fired power plants with 30 wt% monoethanolamine (MEA). The model, created in a flow sheet of Aspen Custom Modeler, was based on the film theory for liquid and vapor phases. It takes into account the impact of equilibrium reactions on the mass transfer, thermodynamic nonidealities, and the hydraulics of the structured packing. With this model, steady state analyses were. carried out for the stripper to understand the effect of the leah loading and the height of the packing on total equivalent work and find optimum operating conditions that minimize power plant lost work. Two dynamic strategies with control configurations are proposed to run the stripper in a flexible operation during the period of electricity peak load and prices. Open loop responses demonstrated some differences in dynamic behavior and steady state values for proposed dynamic strategies. One of the approaches increased the CO{sub 2} removal by 1% at the reduced steam rate and provided faster response of the stripper to a step change in the reboiler heat rate.

Ziaii, S.; Rochelle, G.T.; Edgar, T.F. [University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to 70%.

Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Development of an entrained flow gasifier model for process optimization study  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification is a versatile process to convert a solid fuel in syngas, which can be further converted and separated in hydrogen, which is a valuable and environmentally acceptable energy carrier. Different technologies (fixed beds, fluidized beds, entrained flow reactors) are used, operating under different conditions of temperature, pressure, and residence time. Process studies should be performed for defining the best plant configurations and operating conditions. Although 'gasification models' can be found in the literature simulating equilibrium reactors, a more detailed approach is required for process analysis and optimization procedures. In this work, a gasifier model is developed by using AspenPlus as a tool to be implemented in a comprehensive process model for the production of hydrogen via coal gasification. It is developed as a multizonal model by interconnecting each step of gasification (preheating, devolatilization, combustion, gasification, quench) according to the reactor configuration, that is in entrained flow reactor. The model removes the hypothesis of equilibrium by introducing the kinetics of all steps and solves the heat balance by relating the gasification temperature to the operating conditions. The model allows to predict the syngas composition as well as quantity the heat recovery (for calculating the plant efficiency), 'byproducts', and residual char. Finally, in view of future works, the development of a 'gasifier model' instead of a 'gasification model' will allow different reactor configurations to be compared.

Biagini, E.; Bardi, A.; Pannocchia, G.; Tognotti, L. [Consorzio Pisa Ric, Pisa (Italy). Div Energia Ambiente

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

Gorensek, M.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Control Loop Tuning and Surge Response for Hanford WTP Melter Offgas Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes control loop tuning in models of the high level waste (HLW) melter offgas system, the low activity waste (LAW) melter offgas system and the HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation system and an assessment of the response to steam surges in both melter offgas systems. The three offgas systems were modeled using the Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) software. The ACM models have been recently updated. Flowsheets of the system models used in this study are provided in Appendix D. To facilitate testing, these flowsheets represent somewhat simplified versions of the full models. For example, the HLW and LAW vessel ventilation systems have been represented as fixed air sources that provide a constant gas flow and specified air surges. Similarly, the six tanks and individual pulse-jet air sources in the HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation system are represented as a constant air source for control loop tuning purposes. The second LAW melter system has also been represented as a constant flow air source and several other simplifications such as removing HLW and LAW control interlocks, submerged bed scrubber bypass lines, and pressure relief valves have been made.

SMITH, FG III

2004-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

345

1 2Using Auxiliary Gas Power for CCS Energy Needs in Retrofitted Coal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Post-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. Much of the literature proposes using power from the existing coal plant and thermal integration of its supercritical steam cycle with the stripper reboiler to supply the energy needed for solvent regeneration and CO2 compression. This study finds that using an auxiliary natural gas turbine plant to meet the energetic demands of carbon capture and compression may make retrofits more attractive compared to using thermal integration in some circumstances. Natural gas auxiliary plants increase the power output of the base plant and reduce technological risk associated with CCS, but require favorable natural gas prices and regional electricity demand for excess electricity to make using an auxiliary plant more desirable. Three different auxiliary plant technologies were compared to integration for 90 % capture from an existing, 500 MW supercritical coal plant. CO2 capture and compression is simulated using Aspen Plus and a monoethylamine (MEA) absorption process. Thermoflow software is used to simulate three gas plant technologies. The three technologies assessed are the

Sarah Bashadi; Howard Herzog; Dava J. Newman; Sarah Bashadi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

1 DISTILLERS BY-PRODUCTS AND CORN STOVER AS FUELS FOR ETHANOL PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Dry-grind ethanol plants have the potential to reduce their operating costs and improve their net energy balances by using biomass as the source of process heat and electricity. We utilized ASPEN PLUS software to model various technology bundles of equipment, fuels and operating activities that are capable of supplying energy and satisfying emissions requirements for dry-grind ethanol plants of 50 and 100 million gallons per year capacity using corn stover, distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS), or a mixture of corn stover and “syrup ” (the solubles portion of DDGS). In addition to their own requirements, plants producing 50 and 100 million gallons of ethanol are capable of supplying 5-7 or 10-14 MegaWatts of electricity to the grid, respectively. Economic analysis showed favorable rates of return for biomass alternatives compared to conventional plants using natural gas and purchased electricity over a range of conditions. The mixture of corn stover and syrup provided the highest rates of return in general. Factors favoring biomass included a higher premium for low carbon footprint ethanol, higher natural gas prices, lower DDGS prices, lower ethanol

Douglas G. Tiffany; R. Vance Morey; Matt De Kam; Douglas G. Tiffany; R. Vance Morey; Matt De Kam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.  

SciTech Connect

Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.  

SciTech Connect

The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

"Flexible aerogel as a superior thermal insulation for high temperature superconductor cable applications"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

White, Shannon O. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Tomich, A. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Control system design for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture in IGCC power plants while loading-following  

SciTech Connect

Load-following requirements for future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with precombustion CO{sub 2} capture are expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. In this work, loadfollowing studies are performed using a comprehensive dynamic model of an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture developed in Aspen Engineering Suite (AES). Considering multiple single-loop controllers for power demand load following, the preferred IGCC control strategy from the perspective of a power producer is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. The syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant time delay mainly because of the large piping and equipment volumes between the gasifier and the GT inlet. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for IGCC syngas pressure control. The desired CO{sub 2} capture rate must be maintained while the IGCC plant follows the load. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate, the control performance of PID control is compared with linear model predictive control (LMPC). The results show that the LMPC outperforms PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.

Gorensek, M; William Summers, W

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Optimization of reactive distillation processes with simulated annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simulated annealing-based algorithm (MSIMPSA) suitable for the optimization of mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems was applied to the synthesis of a non-equilibrium reactive distillation column. A simulation model based on an extension of conventional distillation is proposed for the simulation step of the optimization problem. In the case of ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, the simulation results are similar to those obtained by Ciric and Gu (1994, AIChE Journal, 40(9), 1479) using the GAMS environment and to those obtained with the AspenPlus modular simulator. The optimization results are also similar to those previously reported and similar to those using an adaptive random search algorithm (MSGA). The optimizations were also performed with non-ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, considering either distributed feed and reaction trays or single feed and reaction tray. The results show that the optimized objective function values are very similar, and mostly independent of the number of trays and of the reaction distribution. It is shown that the proposed simulation/optimization equation-oriented environments are capable of providing optimized solutions which are close to the global optimum, and reveal its adequacy for the optimization of reactive distillation

M. F. Cardoso; R. L. Salcedo; S. Feyo De Azevedo; D. Barbosa

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

treephys.tps081.full.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Tree Physiology 00, 1-8 doi:10.1093/treephys/tps081 5HYLVLWLQJ WKH VHTXHQFLQJ RI WKH ÀUVW WUHH JHQRPH Populus trichocarpa Stan D. Wullschleger 1,4 , D. J. Weston 2 , S. P. DiFazio 3 and G. A. Tuskan 2 1 Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6301, USA; 2 Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6422, USA; 3 Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6057, USA; 4 Corresponding author (wullschlegsd@ornl.gov) Received March 5, 2012; accepted August 1, 2012; handling Editor Danielle Way 7HQ \HDUV DJR LW ZDV DQQRXQFHG WKDW WKH -RLQW *HQRPH ,QVWLWXWH ZLWK IXQGV SURYLGHG E\ WKH 'HSDUWPHQW RI (QHUJ\ 2IÀFH RI

356

Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fate of carbon below ground is likely to be a major factor determining the success of carbon sequestration strategies involving plants. Despite their importance, molecular processes controlling belowground C allocation and partitioning are poorly understood. This project is leveraging the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence to discover genes important to C sequestration in plants and soils. The focus is on the identification of genes that provide key control points for the flow and chemical transformations of carbon in roots, concentrating on genes that control the synthesis of chemical forms of carbon that result in slower turnover rates of soil organic matter (i.e., increased recalcitrance). We propose to enhance carbon allocation and partitioning to roots by 1) modifying the auxin signaling pathway, and the invertase family, which controls sucrose metabolism, and by 2) increasing root proliferation through transgenesis with genes known to control fine root proliferation (e.g., ANT), 3) increasing the production of recalcitrant C metabolites by identifying genes controlling secondary C metabolism by a major mQTL-based gene discovery effort, and 4) increasing aboveground productivity by enhancing drought tolerance to achieve maximum C sequestration. This broad, integrated approach is aimed at ultimately enhancing root biomass as well as root detritus longevity, providing the best prospects for significant enhancement of belowground C sequestration.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Basu, Manojit M [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Campbell, Alina S [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [ORNL; Davis, John M [University of Florida; Hinchee, Maud [ORNL; Pinnacchio, Christa [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Meilan, R [Purdue University; Busov, V. [Michigan Technological University; Strauss, S [Oregon State University

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated CO2 increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used 13C to assess carbon isotope discrimination ( 13C ci/ca) and changes in WUEi, while direct CO2 effects on stomatal conductance were explored using 18O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO2 increased 13C-derived WUEi on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting WUEi responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modeling elevated CO2 and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

Battipaglia, Giovanna [Second University of Naples; Saurer, Matthias [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Cherubini, Paulo [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Califapietra, Carlo [University of Tuscia; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ecology (2009) 18, 357-373 Ecology (2009) 18, 357-373 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04016.x © 2008 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Blackwell Publishing Ltd Extensive pollen flow in two ecologically contrasting populations of Populus trichocarpa G . T. S L AV O V ,*† S . L E O N A R D I ,‡ J . B U R C Z Y K ,§ W. T. A D A M S ,¶ S . H . S T R A U S S ¶ and S . P. D I FA Z I O * *Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6057, USA, †Department of Dendrology, University of Forestry, Sofia 1756, Bulgaria, ‡Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Università di Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy, §Department of Genetics, Bydgoszcz University, Bydgoszcz, 85064, Poland, ¶Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5752, USA

359

Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth  

SciTech Connect

Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

Hsu, Chuan-Yu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Adams, Joshua P. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Hyejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); No, Kyoungok [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ma, Caiping [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Strauss, Steven [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Drnevich, Jenny [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wickett, Norman [Pennsylvania State University; Vandervelde, Lindsay [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ellis, Jeffrey D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rice, Brandon [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Brunner, Amy M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Page, Grier P. [RTI International; Carlson, John E. [Pennsylvania State University; DePamphilis, Claude [Pennsylvania State University; Luthe, Dawn S. [Pennsylvania State University; Yuceer, Cetin [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Is there a need for site productivity functions for short-rotation woody crop plantings?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For over a decade, researchers have used small-scale research plots to assist development and selection of high yielding, pest-resistant clones of fast-growing hardwoods such as hybrid poplar (Populus spp.). Substantial advances have been made in the techniques and criteria for screening species and selecting clones. Data from these research plots indicate that the ultimate performance of selected clones is dependent upon variable factors in the environment. Until now, researchers could only determine the suitability of a given site for such clones, not the actual yield potential of the site. Recently in the north central US, several clones were planted on larger-than-research-scale plots on private land recontracted under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The historical database could not provide a framework which would allow producers to predict the yield potential of a particular clone on a specific site. Through a systematic combination of clonal trials on experimental research-scale plots and operational plantings on 50 to 100 acre agricultural-scale field plots, it may be possible to develop yield functions or site quality equations which would predict biomass yields at rotation for selected clones. Such estimates will (1) reduce the probability of planting failure, (2) allow maximum expression of the genetic potential of selected superior clones, and thus (3) facilitate accurate economic planning for both the producer and conversion facility manager.

Downing, M.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Biofuels Feedstock Development Program

1995-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

362

Real-Time and Post-Reaction Microscopic Structural Analysis of Biomass Undergoing Pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural complexity of unprocessed plant tissues used for thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and energy impedes heat and mass transfer and may increase the occurrence of tar-forming secondary chemical reactions. At industrial scales, gas and liquid products trapped within large biomass particles may reduce net fuel yields and increase tars, impacting industrial operations and increasing overall costs. Real-time microscopic analysis of poplar (Populus sp.) wood samples undergoing anoxic, pyrolytic heat treatment has revealed a pattern of tissue and macropore expansion and collapse. Post-reaction structural analyses of biomass char (biochar) by light and transmission electron microscopy have provided direct structural evidence of pyrolysis product mass-transfer issues, including trapped pyrolysis products and cell wall compression, and have demonstrated the impact of heat-transfer problems on biomass particles. Finally, microscopic imaging has revealed that pyrolyzed/gasified biochars recovered from a fluidized bed reactor retain a similar pre-reaction basic plant tissue structure as the samples used in this study, suggesting that the phenomena observed here are representative of those that occur in larger scale reactors.

Haas, T. J.; Nimlos, M. R.; Donohoe, B. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the Ă?Â?Ă?Â?rst time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Genetic improvement and evaluation of black cottonwood for short- rotation biomass production. Final report, 1987--1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in 1978 to serve three objectives: (1) develop genetically improved poplar cultivars offering increased productivity under short-rotation culture; (2) identify the major components of productivity in poplar and determine ways in which they can be manipulated, genetically and culturally; and (3) engage in technology transfer to regional industry and agencies so as to make poplar culture in the Pacific Northwest economically feasible. The project is aimed at capturing natural variation in the native black cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa T & G, and enhancing it through selective breeding. Major emphasis has been placed on hybridization of black cottonwood with P deltoides and P maximowiczii, more recently with p nigra. First-generation (F{sub 1}) hybrids have consistently outperformed black cottonwood by a factor of 1.5.-2. The high yields of woody biomass obtained from these clonally propagated hybrids, in rotations of 4-7 years, have fostered the establishment of large-scale plantations by the pulp and paper industry in the region. Physiological studies have helped to elucidate hybrid superiority and several of the underlying mechanisms.

Stettler, R.F.; Hinckley, T.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Forest Resources; Heilman, P.E. [Washington State Univ., Puyallup, WA (United States). Research and Extension Center; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Strong RNAi-inhibition of 4CL expression alters lignification, saccharification potential and productivity of field-grown poplar  

SciTech Connect

RNAi-associated down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been proposed as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls, and thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplars (Populus) we employed RNAi gene suppression of 4CL to generate 14 transgenic events and compared them to a non-transgenic control. After a two-year field trial we characterized the consequences of 4CL down-regulation on wood biochemistry and tree productivity. Lignin reductions correlated well with 4CL RNA expression, with a sharp decrease in lignin observed for RNA expression levels below ~50%. Lignin reductions greater than ~10% of the control value were associated with reduced productivity, decreased wood S/G (syringyl/guaiacyl) lignin monomer ratios, and increased incorporation of H-monomers (p-hydroxyphenyl) into cell walls. Strongly affected transgenic events were also characterized by patches of brown, discolored wood with about twice the extractive (complex polyphenolic) content of controls. There was no support for the hypothesis that reduced lignin would increase saccharification potential. The data presented suggest that a threshold of lignin reduction exists, beyond which there are large changes in wood chemistry and plant metabolism that affect productivity and potential ethanol yield.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Strauss, S [Oregon State University

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

FY-09 Summary Report to the Office of Petroleum Reserves on the Western Energy Corridor Initiative Activities and Accomplishments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To meet its programmatic obligations under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Office of Naval Petroleum and Shale Oil Reserves (NPSOR) has initiated the Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI). The WECI will implement the Unconventional Strategic Fuels Task Force recommendations for accelerating and promoting the development of domestic unconventional fuels to help meet the nations’ energy needs. The mission of the WECI is to bolster America’s future fuel security by facilitating socially and environmentally responsible development of unconventional fuels resources in the Western Energy Corridor, using sound engineering principles and science-based methods to define and assess benefits, impacts, uncertainties, and mitigation options and to resolve impediments. The Task Force proposed a three-year program in its commercialization plan. The work described herein represents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of the DOE’s WECI. This effort represents an interim phase of work, designed to initiate only select portions of the initiative, limited by available funding resources within NPOSR. Specifically, the work presented here addresses what was accomplished in FY-09 with the remaining carryover (~$420K) from NPOSR FY-08 funds. It was the intent of the NPOSR program to seek additional funding for full implementation of the full scope of work; however, the original tasks were reduced in scope, terminated, or eliminated (as noted below). An effort is ongoing to obtain funding to continue the tasks initiated under this project. This study will focus on the integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon-neutral and environmentally acceptable manner. Emphasis will be placed on analyses of the interrelationships of various energy-resource development plans and the infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal, and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development scenarios. The interactions at build-out during the design, permitting, and construction of individual and multiple energy developments are not fully considered at the local, state, regional, or national levels. The net impacts to the Western Energy Corridor cannot be understood and the design optimized under the current approach. A regional development plan is needed to model cumulative impacts, determine the carrying capacity of the basin, and provide valuable technically based information to both skeptics and advocates. The INL scope of work for FY-09 involved six tasks: 1. Evaluation of the ASPEN Code as a dynamic systems model for application and use under the WECI and communications with Alberta Oil Sands Research Institutions as an “analog” resource development in the Western Energy Corridor 2. Application of the Aspen Plus computer model to several oil shale processes to consider energy balances and inputs and outputs (e.g. water consumption, CO2 production, etc.) 3. Development of a regulatory roadmap for oil shale developments 4. Defining of the physiographic extent of the natural resource reserves that comprise the Western Energy Corridor 5. A review of the Unconventional Fuels Task Force Report to Congress for ideas, concepts and recommendations that crosscutting plans 6. Program development with stakeholders, including industry, academics, state and federal agencies, and non government organizations. This task also includes project management, strategic development and reporting.

Thomas R. Wood

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO{sub 2} underground represents negative CO{sub 2} emissions if the biomass is grown sustainably (i.e., if one ton of new biomass growth replaces each ton consumed), and this offsets positive CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the coal used in these systems. Different coal:biomass input ratios will produce different net lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems, which is the reason that attention in our analysis was given to the impact of the biomass input fraction. In the case of systems that produce only products with no carbon content, namely electricity, ammonia and hydrogen, only coal was considered as a feedstock because it is possible in theory to essentially fully decarbonize such products by capturing all of the coal-derived CO{sub 2} during the production process.

Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

2012-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fresh water resources in many of the world's oil producing regions, such as western Texas, are scarce, while produced water from oil wells is plentiful, though unfit for most applications due to high salinity and other contamination. Disposing of this water is a great expense to oil producers. This research seeks to advance a technology developed to treat produced water by reverse osmosis and other means to render it suitable for agricultural or industrial use, while simultaneously reducing disposal costs. Pilot testing of the process thus far has demonstrated the technology's capability to produce good-quality water, but process optimization and control were yet to be fully addressed and are focuses of this work. Also, the use of renewable resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy consumption of various process design alternatives, and to test control strategies. By preserving the mechanical energy of the concentrate stream of the reverse osmosis membrane, process energy requirements can be reduced several fold from that of the current configuration. Process control schemes utilizing basic feedback control methods with proportional-integral (PI) controllers are proposed, with the feasibility of the strategy for the most complex process design verified by successful dynamic simulation. A macro-driven spreadsheet was created to allow for quick and easy cost comparisons of renewable energy sources in a variety of locations. Using this tool, wind and solar costs were compared for cities in regions throughout Texas. The renewable energy resource showing the greatest potential was wind power, with the analysis showing that in windy regions such as the Texas Panhandle, wind-generated power costs are approximately equal to those generated with diesel fuel.

Mareth, Brett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, July--September 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is Bechtel`s twelfth quarterly technical progress report and covers the period of July through September, 1994. All major tasks associated with the contract study have essentially been completed. Effort is under way in preparing various topical reports for publication. The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases win be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; establish the baseline design and alternatives; evaluate baseline and alternative economics; develop engineering design criteria; develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 5 have essentially been completed. Effort is under way in preparing topical reports for publication. During the current reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 4, 6 and 7. This report covers work done during this period and consists of four sections: Introduction and Summary; Task 4 - Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) Model and Conversion to ASPEN PLUS; Task 6 - Document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and Project Management and Staffing Report.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development of moving bed simulation model for carbon capture from fossil energy systems.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capture and separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been identified as a high-priority topic to cope with global climate change. Fossil fuels currently supply the most of the world's energy needs, and their utilization is the major source of the anthropogenic CO2 emission [1]. Particularly, the existing coal-fired power plants annually emit about 2 billion tons of CO2 which is equivalent to two-thirds of the total emissions from U.S. power sector [2]. Therefore, it is critical to develop the cost-effective technologies to mitigate this problem. There are three options for capture for capturing CO2 from fossil energy system: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Among them, post-combustion capture has the greatest near-term potential for reducing CO2 emission, because it can be applied to the existing coal-fired power plant with relative ease through a retrofit. The current commercially available solvent-based processes have advantages of fast kinetics and strong reactions, however only at a significant cost and efficiency penalty. Recently, various solid sorbents are being explored for one of promising CO2 capture technology, which are expected to reduce energy requirement and water usage with the approaches of fluidized or moving bed. However, solids are inherently more difficult to work with than liquids and no large scale system has yet been commercialized. In this study, we developed the rigorous 1-D PDE model for moving beds in Aspen Custom Modeler; the entire system consists of adsorbers, regenerators, and auxiliary equipment. The simulation result will be expected to compare with those of other post-combustion processes. We will deal with not only advantages of lower capital costs and power requirements but also problems associated with pressure drop and heat transfer.

Kim, H.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1 shows that the systems efficiency, coal (HHV) to power, is 35%. Table 2 summarizes the auxiliary power consumption within the plant. Thermoflex was used to simulate the power block and Aspen Plus the balance of plant. The overall block flow diagram is presented in Figure A1.3-1 and the key unit process flow diagrams are shown in subsequent figures. Stream data are given in Table A1.3-1. Equipment function specifications are provided in Tables A1.3-2 through 17. The overall plant scheme consists of a cryogenic air separation unit supplying 95% purity O{sub 2} to GE type high pressure (HP) total quench gasifiers. The raw gas after scrubbing is treated in a sour shift unit to react the CO with H{sub 2}O to form H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The gas is further treated to remove Hg in a sulfided activated carbon bed. The syngas is desulfurized and decarbonized in a Selexol acid gas removal unit and the decarbonized syngas after humidification and preheat is fired in GE 7H type steam cooled gas turbines. Intermediate pressure (IP) N{sub 2} from the ASU is also supplied to the combustors of the gas turbines as additional diluent for NOx control. A portion of the air required by the ASU is extracted from the gas turbines. The plant consists of the following major process units: (1) Air Separation Unit (ASU); (2) Gasification Unit; (3) CO Shift/Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) Unit; (4) Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGR) Unit; (5) Fuel Gas Humidification Unit; (6) Carbon Dioxide Compression/Dehydration Unit; (7) Claus Sulfur Recovery/Tail Gas Treating Unit (SRU/TGTU); and (8) Power Block.

A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; H. Liao; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Exploration of the meteorological characteristics leading to the rapid cessation of cloud-to-ground lightning in winter cyclones along the East Coast of the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intense winter East Coast cyclones are capable of producing large amounts of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. Few studies have thoroughly investigated winter lightning in the eastern United States. A phenomena common to most of these storms is a rapid cessation of CG lightning over land, north of North Carolina. The primary focus of this study was investigating the possible causes of this rapid cessation. A secondary objective was to explore the characteristics of the CG lightning produced by these storms. Seven intense East Coast cyclones from 1990 to 1996 were analyzed. Soundings, lower atmospheric temperature structure and accumulated precipitation were used to examine possible causes for this rapid cessation. Soundings also provided the vertical wind shear and temperatures used for linear regression analysis of the percentage of positive CG flashes. Further exploration of CG lightning characteristics included peak currents and flash densities. The major cause of the CG lightning cessation appears to be related to stability and not a suppression of charging due to cold lower atmospheric temperatures. The warm sector of all but one storm passed out into the Atlantic Ocean before making it north of North Carolina. This eliminated most of the surface instability for convection. Meanwhile, most soundings from Virginia on northward showed that conditions aloft were too stable to support elevated convection. Colder lower atmospheric temperatures were just representative of stable conditions that would not support convection. Unfortunately, heavy precipitation was not a good indicator of the CG lightning activity during these seven storms. Contrary to previous studies of winter thunderstorms, vertical wind shear of the horizontal wind was not a good predictor of the percentage of positive CG flashes. A combination of temperature and vertical wind shear data yielded better results. Finally, maximum peak current values showed a preference for the main CG lightning region south of Virginia. This study shed light on some of the aspens of winter CG lightning during intense East Coast cyclones. However, many more studies are needed within this field.

Demetriades, Nicholas William Snow

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Predicting the performance of system for the co-production of Fischer-Tropsch synthetic liquid and power from coal  

SciTech Connect

A co-production system based on Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor and gas turbine was simulated and analyzed. Syngas from entrained bed coal gasification was used as feedstock of the low-temperature slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reactor. Raw synthetic liquid produced was fractioned and upgraded to diesel, gasoline, and liquid petrol gas (LPG). Tail gas composed of unconverted syngas and FT light components was fed to the gas turbine. Supplemental fuel (NG, or refinery mine gas) might be necessary, which was dependent on gas turbine capacity expander through flow capacity, etc. FT yield information was important to the simulation of this co-production system. A correlation model based on Mobil's two step pilot plant was applied. User models that can predict product yields and cooperate with other units were embedded into Aspen plus simulation. Performance prediction of syngas fired gas turbine was the other key of this system. The increase in mass flow through the turbine affects the match between compressor and turbine operating conditions. The calculation was carried out by GS software developed by Politecnico Di Milano and Princeton University. Various cases were investigated to match the FT synthesis island, power island, and gasification island in co-production systems. Effects of CO{sub 2} removal/LPG recovery, co-firing, and CH{sub 4} content variation were studied. Simulation results indicated that more than 50% of input energy was converted to electricity and FT products. Total yield of gasoline, diesel, and LPG was 136-155 g/N m{sup 3} (CO+H{sub 2}). At coal feed of 21.9 kg/s, net electricity exported to the grid was higher than 100 MW. Total production of diesel and gasoline (and LPG) was 118,000 t (134,000 t)/year. Under the economic analysis conditions assumed in this paper the co-production system was economically feasible.

Wang, X.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, S.; Guo, Z. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Engineering Thermophysics

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana [University of Padova, Milan (Italy). Italy and Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Hydrogen and electricity from coal with carbon dioxide separation using chemical looping reactors  

SciTech Connect

Concern about global climate change has led to research on low CO{sub 2} emission in the process of the energy conversion of fossil fuel. One of the solutions is the conversion of fossil fuel into carbon-free energy carriers, hydrogen, and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper, the main purpose is to investigate the thermodynamics performance of converting coal to a hydrogen and electricity system with chemical-looping reactors and to explore the influences of operating parameters on the system performance. Using FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as an oxygen carrier, we propose a carbon-free coproduction system of hydrogen and electricity with chemical-looping reactors. The performance of the new system is simulated using ASPEN PLUS software tool. The influences of the chemical-looping reactor's temperature, steam conversion rate, and O{sub 2}/coal quality ratio on the system performance, and the exergy performance are discussed. The results show that a high-purity of H{sub 2} (99.9%) is reached and that CO{sub 2} can be separated. The system efficiency is 57.85% assuming steam reactor at 815 C and the steam conversion rate 37%. The system efficiency is affected by the steam conversion rate, rising from 53.17 to 58.33% with the increase of the steam conversion rate from 28 to 41%. The exergy efficiency is 54.25% and the losses are mainly in the process of gasification and HRSG. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Xiang Wenguo; Chen Yingying [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energyâ??s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process â?? High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

Howard Meyer

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assessment of PFBC and gasification repowering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the first implications of full competition in the utility industry is the reluctance to risk capital intensive investments in new plant construction. As the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program readies a suite of technologies for commercial application, and as deregulation unfolds, the electric utility industry begins to look at the potential for repowering existing sites. This approach to power plant investment involves applications of repowering technologies, upratings, and refurbishing older stations. The decision to repower is influenced by factors that include market demand, power station characteristics, and technology choices. This paper describes the results of a comparative technical and economic evaluation of several clean coal technologies in a repowering application. The objectives of the study were to compare thermal and economic performance of a suite of clean coal technologies in a repowering application under a consistent set of guidelines. Approach The approach taken in this comparative evaluation of Advanced Technologies in a repowering application was to define a reference pulverized coal (PC) fired power station, and then apply each candidate technology in succession. Each case was modeled in a modified version of the ASPEN/SP flow sheet simulation program, along with a suitable combustion turbine, where applicable, and the host plant steam cycle. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used for most of the cases evaluated, except for one case involving a natural gas fired combustion turbine, another case where the technology variable is the use of a Process Derived Fuel ( ENCOAL Corp. PDF) in place of coal, and a third case where coal is the primary fuel, but some natural gas is used for topping combustion.

Bonk, D.L.; Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.R.; Goldstein, H.N.; White, J.S. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aspen populus tremuloides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

HyPEP FY-07 Report: Initial Calculations of Component Sizes, Quasi-Static, and Dynamics Analyses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of two reference integrated systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory for the production of hydrogen. In this concept a VHTR outlet temperature of 900 °C provides thermal energy and high efficiency electricity for the electrolysis of steam in the HTSE process. In the second reference system the Sulfur Iodine (SI) process is coupled to the VHTR to produce hydrogen thermochemically. This report describes component sizing studies and control system strategies for achieving plant production and operability goals for these two reference systems. The optimal size and design condition for the intermediate heat exchanger, one of the most important components for integration of the VHTR and HTSE plants, was estimated using an analytic model. A partial load schedule and control system was designed for the integrated plant using a quasi-static simulation. Reactor stability for temperature perturbations in the hydrogen plant was investigated using both a simple analytic method and a dynamic simulation. Potential efficiency improvements over the VHTR/HTSE plant were investigated for an alternative design that directly couples a High Temperature Steam Rankin Cycle (HTRC) to the HTSE process. This work was done using the HYSYS code and results for the HTRC/HTSE system were compared to the VHTR/HTSE system. Integration of the VHTR with SI process plants was begun. Using the ASPEN plus code the efficiency was estimated. Finally, this report describes planning for the validation and verification of the HYPEP code.

Chang Oh

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Sensitivity of the IceCube neutrino detector to dark matter annihilating in dwarf galaxies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we compare the relative sensitivities of gamma-ray and neutrino observations to the dark matter annihilation cross section in leptophilic models such as have been designed to explain PAMELA data. We investigate whether the high energy neutrino telescope IceCube will be competitive with current and upcoming searches by gamma-ray telescopes, such as the Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes (H.E.S.S., VERITAS, and MAGIC), or the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, in detecting or constraining dark matter particles annihilating in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We find that after 10 years of observation of the most promising nearby dwarfs, IceCube will have sensitivity comparable to the current sensitivity of gamma-ray telescopes only for very heavy (m{sub X} > or approx. 7 TeV) or relatively light (m{sub X} < or approx. 200 GeV) dark matter particles which annihilate primarily to {mu}{sup +{mu}-}. If dark matter particles annihilate primarily to {tau}{sup +{tau}-}, IceCube will have superior sensitivity only for dark matter particle masses below the 200 GeV threshold of current Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes. If dark matter annihilations proceed directly to neutrino-antineutrino pairs a substantial fraction of the time, IceCube will be competitive with gamma-ray telescopes for a much wider range of dark matter masses. K. F. would like to thank the Aspen Center for Physics and the Texas Cosmology Center, and P. S. would like to thank MCTP.

Sandick, Pearl [Theory Group and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Spolyar, Douglas [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Buckley, Matthew [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Freese, Katherine [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60638 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Systems Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

Graham, R.L.

1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

Alptekin, Gokhan

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

385

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The global use of natural gas is growing quickly. This is primarily attributed to its favorable characteristics and to the environmental advantages it enjoys over other fossil fuels such as oil and coal. One of the key challenges in supplying natural gas is the form (phase) at which it should be delivered. Natural gas may be supplied to the consumers as a compressed gas through pipelines. Another common form is to be compressed, refrigerated and supplied as a liquid known as liquefied natural gas (LNG). When there is a considerable distance involved in transporting natural gas, LNG is becoming the preferred method of supply because of technical, economic, and political reasons. Thus, LNG is expected to play a major role in meeting the global energy demands. This work addresses the simulation and optimization of an LNG plant. First, the process flowsheet is constructed based on a common process configuration. Then, the key units are simulated using ASPEN Plus to determine the characteristics of the various pieces of equipment and streams in the plant. Next, process integration techniques are used to optimize the process. Particular emphasis is given to energy objectives through three activities. First, the synthesis and retrofitting of a heat-exchange network are considered to reduce heating and cooling utilities. Second, the turbo-expander system is analyzed to reduce the refrigeration consumption in the process. Third, the process cogeneration is introduced to optimize the combined heat and power of the plant. These activities are carried out using a combination of graphical, computeraided, and mathematical programming techniques. A case study on typical LNG facilities is solved to examine the benefits of simulation and integration of the process. The technical, economic, and environmental impact of the process modifications are also discussed.

Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

GENETIC MODIFICATION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID SIGNALING TO PROMOTE CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN TREE ROOTS AND STEMS  

SciTech Connect

Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula ? Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations. We modified gibberellin (GA) metabolism and signaling in transgenic poplars using dominant transgenes and studied their effects for 3 years under field conditions. The transgenes that we employed either reduced the bioactive GAs, or attenuated their signaling. The majority of transgenic trees had significant and in many cases dramatic changes in height, crown architecture, foliage morphology, flowering onset, floral structure, and vegetative phenology. Most transgenes elicited various levels of height reduction consistent with the roles of GA in elongation growth. Several other growth traits were proportionally reduced, including branch length, internode distance, and leaf length. In contrast to elongation growth, stem diameter growth was much less affected, suggesting that semi-dwarf trees in dense stands might provide high levels of biomass production and carbon sequestration. The severity of phenotypic effects was strongly correlated with transgene expression among independent transgenic events, but often in a non-linear manner, the form of which varied widely among constructs. The majority of semi-dwarfed, transgenic plants showed delayed bud flush and early bud set, and expression of a native GAI transgene accelerated first time flowering in the field. All of the phenotypic changes observed in multiple years were stable over the 3 years of field study. Our results suggest that transgenic modification of GA action may be useful for producing semi-dwarf trees with modified growth and morphology for horticulture and other uses. We studied the poplar C(19) gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) gene subfamily. We show that a set of paralogous gene pairs differentially regulate shoot and root development. ? PtGA2ox4 and its paralogous gene PtGA2ox5 are primarily expressed in aerial organs, and overexpression of PtGA2ox5 produced a strong dwarfing phenotype characteristic of GA deficiency. Suppression of PtGA2ox4 and PtGA2ox5 led to increased biomass growth, but had no effect on root development. By contrast, the PtGA2ox2 and PtGA2ox7 paralogous pair was predominantly expressed in roots, and when these two genes were RNAi-suppressed it led to a decrease of root biomass. ? The morphological changes in the transgenic plants were underpinned by tissue-specific increases in bioactive GAs that corresponded to the predominant native expression of the targeted paralogous gene pair. Although RNAi suppression of both paralogous pairs led to changes in wood developmen

Busov, Victor

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

388

Tree Pests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tree Pests Tree Pests Name: Eric Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I have found an odd species of borer infesting the trees in my area. It does not confine itself to any single species, but seems to move from tree to tree, somewhat like a plague. They originated in a stand of Chinese elm (ulmus parvifolia) and then moved to our bur oaks (quercus macrocarpa) and our native version of white ash (fraxinus americana). As these trees are few and far between, the borers have recently moved to the cottonwoods (populus deltoides) which line the creeks. The borers cut a half inch wide hole, usually straight into the trunk. They kick out mounds of sawdust every so often, and attempts to plug thier holes are removed, always during the evening. I recently was forced to destroy some of the elms as they had been completely ransacked by these borers, a cut into the trunks revealed five bore holes within two inches of each other, with 4 more spaced farther away. I did manage to track down one of the borers in the log. It was about 2 inches long, with reddish pink coloring and black "spines" all along it. It had a sickly white underside to it also. I was wondering if you could possibly say what type of borer this is, I suspect some kind of carpenterworm, but the local government offices have been no help. I would like to at least slow these things down in time to save the Ashes and Oaks, some of which are over three-hundred years old, which is virtually unknown in my area. (northwest Kansas) Thanks for your help!

389

Apoplast proteome reveals that extracellular matrix contributes to multi-stress response in poplar  

SciTech Connect

Riverine ecosystems, highly sensitive to climate change and human activities, are characterized by rapid environmental change to fluctuating water levels and siltation, causing stress on their biological components. We have little understanding of mechanisms by which riverine plant species have developed adaptive strategies to cope with stress in dynamic environments while maintaining growth and development. We report that poplar (Populus spp.) has evolved a systems level 'stress proteome' in the leaf-stem-root apoplast continuum to counter biotic and abiotic factors. To obtain apoplast proteins from P. deltoides, we developed pressure-chamber and water-displacement methods for leaves and stems, respectively. Analyses of 303 proteins and corresponding transcripts coupled with controlled experiments and bioinformatics demonstrate that poplar depends on constitutive and inducible factors to deal with water, pathogen, and oxidative stress. However, each apoplast possessed a unique set of proteins, indicating that response to stress is partly compartmentalized. Apoplast proteins that are involved in glycolysis, fermentation, and catabolism of sucrose and starch appear to enable poplar to grow normally under water stress. Pathogenesis-related proteins mediating water and pathogen stress in apoplast were particularly abundant and effective in suppressing growth of the most prevalent poplar pathogen Melampsora. Unexpectedly, we found diverse peroxidases that appear to be involved in stress-induced cell wall modification in apoplast, particularly during the growing season. Poplar developed a robust antioxidative system to buffer oxidation in stem apoplast. These findings suggest that multistress response in the apoplast constitutes an important adaptive trait for poplar to inhabit dynamic environments and is also a potential mechanism in other riverine plant species.

Pechanova, Olga [Mississippi State University (MSU); Hsu, Chuan-Yu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Adams, Joshua P. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pechan, Tibor [Mississippi State University (MSU); Vandervelde, Lindsay [Mississippi State University (MSU); Drnevich, Jenny [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Adeli, Ardeshir [USDA-ARS, Mississippi State; Suttle, Jeffrey [USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND; Lawrence, Amanda [Mississippi State University (MSU); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Seguin, Armand [Canadian Forest Service, Sainte-Foy, Quebec; Yuceer, Cetin [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management.  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus deltoides Bartr. and Platanus occidentalis L.) and broad (Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Pinus taeda L.) site requirements while grown with a range of nutrient and water resources. We constructed N budgets by measuring N concentration ([N]) and N content (N{sub C}) of above- and belowground perennial and ephemeral tissues, determined N uptake (N{sub UP}), and calculated N use efficiency (NUE). Forest stands regulated [N] within species-specific operating ranges without clear temporal or treatment patterns, thus demonstrating equilibrium between tissue [N] and biomass accumulation. Forest stand N{sub C} and N{sub UP} increased with stand development and paralleled treatment patterns of biomass accumulation, suggesting productivity is tightly linked to N{sub UP}. Inclusion of above- and belowground ephemeral tissue turnover in N{sub UP} calculations demonstrated that maximum N demand for narrow-sites adapted species exceeded 200 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} while demand for broad-site adapted species was below this level. NUE was species dependent but not consistently influenced by N availability, suggesting relationships between NUE and resource availability were species dependent. Based on early stand development, species with broad site adaptability are favored for woody cropping systems because they maintain high above- and belowground productivity with minimal fertilization requirements due to higher NUE than narrow site adapted species.

Aubrey, Doug, P.; Coyle, David, R. Coleman, Mark, D.

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

391

Simulated biomass and soil carbon of loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations across a thermal gradient in southeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization were simulated for a 25-year loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and for three consecutive 7-year short-rotation cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stands. Simulations were conducted for 17 locations in the southeastern United States with mean annual temperatures ranging from 13.1 to 19.4 C. The LINKAGES stand growth model, modified to include the "RothC" soil C and soil N model, simulated tree growth and soil C status. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased cumulative cottonwood aboveground biomass in the three rotations from a site average of 106 to 272 Mg/ha in 21 years, whereas the equivalent site averages for loblolly pine were unchanged at 176 and 184 Mg/ha in 25 years. Location results, compared on the annual sum of daily mean air temperatures above 5.5 C (growing-degree-days), showed contrasts. Loblolly pine biomass increased whereas cottonwood decreased with increasing growing-degree-days, particularly in cottonwood stands receiving N fertilization. The increment of biomass due to N addition per unit of control biomass (relative response) declined in both plantations with increase in growing-degree-days. Average soil C in loblolly pine stands increased from 24.3 to 40.4 Mg/ha in 25 years and in cottonwood soil C decreased from 14.7 to 13.7 Mg/ha after three 7-year rotations. Soil C did not decrease with increasing growing-degree-days in either plantation type suggesting that global warming may not initially affect soil C. Nitrogen fertilizer increased soil C slightly in cottonwood plantations and had no significant effect on the soil C of loblolly stands.

Luxmoore, Robert J [ORNL; Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Short Rotation Crops in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

Wright, L.L.

1998-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

393

Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights gained from Brachypodium will inform translational research studies, with applications for the improvement of cereal crops and bioenergy grasses.

Tyler, Ludmila [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center; Bragg, Jennifer [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center; Wu, Jiajie [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on Aspen Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the third annual technical progress report for the UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2002 and ending September 30, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, bench-scale experimental testing, process modeling, pilot-scale system design and assembly, and program management.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program has determined the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrated experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2004 and ending June 30, 2004. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale testing, kinetic modeling, program management and technology transfer.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; K. Mondal; L. Stonawski; Krzysztof Piotrowski; T. Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fourteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting January 1, 2004 and ending March 31, 2004. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale shakedown and performance testing, program management and technology transfer.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL under Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2003 and ending December 31, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale assembly, pilot-scale demonstration and program management and technology transfer.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO{sub 2} underground represents negative CO{sub 2} emissions if the biomass is grown sustainably (i.e., if one ton of new biomass growth replaces each ton consumed), and this offsets positive CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the coal used in these systems. Different coal:biomass input ratios will produce different net lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems, which is the reason that attention in our analysis was given to the impact of the biomass input fraction. In the case of systems that produce only products with no carbon content, namely electricity, ammonia and hydrogen, only coal was considered as a feedstock because it is possible in theory to essentially fully decarbonize such products by capturing all of the coal-derived CO{sub 2} during the production process.

Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

2012-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incorporating consideration for safety issues while designing solvent processes has become crucial in light of the chemical process incidents involving solvents that have taken place in recent years. The implementation of inherently safer design concepts is considered beneficial to avoid hazards during early stages of design. The application of existing process design and modeling techniques that aid the concepts of ‘substitution’, ‘intensification’ and ‘attenuation’ has been shown in this work. For ‘substitution’, computer aided molecular design (CAMD) technique has been applied to select inherently safer solvents for a solvent operation. For ‘intensification’ and ‘attenuation’, consequence models and regulatory guidance from EPA RMP have been integrated into process simulation. Combining existing techniques provides a design team with a higher level of information to make decisions based on process safety. CAMD is a methodology used for designing compounds with desired target properties. An important aspect of this methodology concerns the prediction of properties given the structure of the molecule. This work also investigates the applicability of Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) and topological indices to CAMD. The evaluation was based on models developed to predict flash point properties of different classes of solvents. Multiple linear regression and neural network analysis were used to develop QSPR models, but there are certain limitations associated with using QSPR in CAMD which have been discussed and need further work. Practical application of molecular design and process design techniques have been demonstrated in a case study on liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid-water mixture. Suitable inherently safer solvents were identified using ICAS-ProCAMD, and consequence models were integrated into Aspen Plus simulator using a calculator sheet. Upon integrating flammable and toxic hazard modeling, solvents such as 5-nonanone, 2-nonanone and 5-methyl-2-hexanone provide inherently safer options, while conventionally-used solvent, ethyl acetate, provides higher degree of separation capability. A conclusive decision regarding feasible solvents and operating conditions would depend on design requirements, regulatory guidance, and safety criteria specified for the process. Inherent safety has always been an important consideration to be implemented during early design steps, and this research presents a methodology to incorporate the principles and obtain inherently safer alternatives.

Patel, Suhani Jitendra

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Stochastic simulation of pulverized coal (PC) processes  

SciTech Connect

An increasing population and electricity demand in the U.S. require capacity expansion of power systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has invested considerable efforts on research and development to improve the design and simulation of these power plants. Incorporation of novel process synthesis techniques and realistic simulation methodologies yield optimal flowsheet configurations and accurate estimation of their performance parameters. To provide a better estimation of such performance indicators, simulation models should predict the process behavior based on not only deterministic values of well-known input parameters but also uncertain variables associated with simulation assumptions. In this work, the stochastic simulation of a load-following pulverized coal (PC) power plant takes into account the variation of three input variables, namely, atmospheric air temperature, atmospheric air humidity, and generation load. These uncertain variables are characterized with probability density functions (pdfs) obtained from available atmospheric and electrical energy generation data. The stochastic simulation is carried out by obtaining a sample of values from the pdfs that generates a set of scenarios under which the model is run. An efficient sampling technique [Hammersley sequence sampling (HSS)] guarantees a set of scenarios uniformly distributed throughout the uncertain variable range. Then, each model run generates results on performance parameters as cycle efficiency, carbon emissions, sulfur emissions, and water consumption that are statistically analyzed after all runs are completed. Among these parameters, water consumption is of importance because an increasing demand has been observed mostly in arid regions of the country and, therefore, constrains the operability of the processes. This water consumption is significantly affected by atmospheric uncertainties. The original deterministic process model simulation was designed in Aspen Plus, and a CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation capability is employed to run the uncertainty analysis. Initially, the influences of atmospheric conditions and load change on the performance parameters are analyzed separately to understand their individual influences on the process, and then their simultaneous variation is analyzed to generate more realistic estimations of the process performance.

Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen Systems and McDermott Technology (MTI), Inc for desulfurization of syngas produced by reforming of hydrocarbon liquid feedstocks for fuel cell applications. The RVS-1 sorbent was selected by MTI over other candidate sorbents for demonstration testing in their 500-kW ship service fuel cell program. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the ppbv range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

404

Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer. Because of this, overweight and oversized vehicles were normally only given a Level III (driver) inspection; thus, little is known about the safety of these vehicles. The out-of-service (OOS) rate of all the inspected vehicles (driver and vehicle inspections) was 18.6%, while the OOS rate for vehicle inspections (Level I and II) was 52.4%. Future work will focus on performing Level I inspections on five-axle combination tractor-trailers and the types of violations that overweight vehicles may have. This research will be conducted in Tennessee and possibly in other states as well.

Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental targets and quality of the feed to other sections, wherever applicable, without violating the operating constraints, and without sacrificing the efficiency. However, it was found that the emission of acid gases may far exceed the environmental targets and the overshoot of some of the key variables may be unacceptable under transient operation while following the load. A number of operational strategies and control configurations is explored for achieving these stringent requirements. The transient response of the plant is also studied by perturbing a number of key inputs.

Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact on the United States chemical industry and present many opportunities for new capital investments and industry growth. As in conventional natural gas, shale gas contains primarily methane, but some formations contain significant amounts of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons and inorganic gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide. These differences present several technical challenges to incorporating shale gas with current infrastructure designed to be used with natural gas. However, each shale presents opportunities to develop novel chemical processes that optimize its composition in order to more efficiently and profitably produce valuable chemical products. This paper is aimed at process synthesis, analysis, and integration of different processing pathways for the production of methanol from shale gas. The composition of the shale gas feedstock is assumed to come from the Barnett Shale Play located near Fort Worth, Texas, which is currently the most active shale gas play in the US. Process simulation and published data were used to construct a base-case scenario in Aspen Plus. The impact of different processing pathways was analyzed. Key performance indicators were assessed. These include overall process targets for mass and energy, economic performance, and environmental impact. Finally, the impact of several factors (e.g., feedstock composition, design and operating variables) is studied through a sensitivity analysis. The results show a profitable process above a methanol selling price of approximately $1.50/gal. The sensitivity analysis shows that the ROI depends much more heavily on the selling price of methanol than on the operating costs. Energy integration leads to a savings of $30.1 million per year, or an increase in ROI of 2% points. This also helps offset some of the cost required for the oxygen necessary for syngas generation through partial oxidation. For a sample shale gas composition with high levels of impurities, preprocessing costs require a price differential of $0.73/MMBtu from natural gas. The process is also environmentally desirable because shale gas does not lead to higher GHG emissions than conventional natural gas. More water is required for hydraulic fracturing, but some of these concerns can be abated through conservation techniques and regulation.

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging  

SciTech Connect

CO2 storage in a 30-minute period in a tall forest canopy often makes significant contributions to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the early morning and at night. When CO2 storage is properly measured and taken into account, underestimations of NEE on calm nights can be greatly reduced. Using CO2 data from a 12-level profile, we demonstrate that the lower canopy layer (below the thermal inversion) is a disproportional contributor to the total CO2 storage. This is because time derivative of CO2 density ( c/ t) generally shows increasing magnitude of mean and standard deviation with decreasing heights at night and from sunrise to 1000 hr in both growing and dormant seasons. Effects of resolution and configuration in a profiling system on the accuracy of CO2 storage estimation are evaluated by comparing subset profiles to the 12-level benchmark profile. It is demonstrated that the effectiveness of a profiling system in estimating CO2 storage is not only determined by its number of sampling levels but, more importantly, by its vertical configuration. To optimize a profile, one needs to balance the influence of two factors, c/ t and layer thickness, among all vertical sections within a forest. As a key contributor to the total CO2 storage, the lower canopy (with relatively large means and standard deviations of c/ t) requires a higher resolution in a profile system than the layers above. However, if the upper canopy is over-sparsely sampled relative to the lower canopy, the performance of a profile system might be degraded since, in such a situation, the influence of layer thickness dominates over that of c/ t. We also find that, because of different level of complexity in canopy structure, more sampling levels are necessary at our site in order to achieve the same level of accuracy as at a boreal aspen site. These results suggest that, in order to achieve an adequate accuracy in CO2 storage measurements, the number of sampling levels in a profile and its design should be subject to the site properties, e.g., canopy architecture and the resulted thermodynamic and flow structures. If CO2 density from a single profile is averaged in time and then used in assessing CO2 storage to make this measurement more spatially representative, biases associated with this averaging procedure become inevitable. Generally, larger window sizes used in averaging CO2 density generate poorer estimates of CO2 storage. If absolute errors are concerned, it appears that the more significant the CO2 storage is during a period (nighttime and early morning hours versus late morning and afternoon, peak growing season versus early growing season), the larger effects the averaging procedure has.

Yang, Bai [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative