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1

Self-consistent impurity calculations in the atomic-spheres approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a method for calculating self-consistently the electronic structure around an impurity atom, or an impurity cluster, in a crystalline host. Our method is a Green-function matrix technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbital method in the atomic-spheres approximation. The calculation of the host Green function is extremely efficient and involves diagonalization of a small Hamiltonian matrix for the band structure and subsequent Hilbert transforms. The method is tested for the calculation of one-electron spectra and total energies on systems for which (essentially) exact solutions are known: the Hulthén potential, a free H atom, a H atom in jellium, and a Li atom in jellium. The accuracy is better and the computational speed significantly higher than that obtained with the standard Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green-function technique.

O. Gunnarsson; O. Jepsen; O. K. Andersen

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Magnetic impurities in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used a quantum Monte Carlo method to study the magnetic impurity adatoms on graphene. We found that by tuning the chemical potential we could switch the values of the impurity local magnet moment between relatively large and small values. Our computations of the impurity spectral density found its behavior to differ significantly from that of an impurity in a normal metal and our computations of the charge-charge and spin-spin correlations between the impurity and the conduction-band electrons found them to be strongly suppressed. In general, our results are consistent with those from poor man’s scaling and numerical renormalization group methods.

F. M. Hu; Tianxing Ma; Hai-Qing Lin; J. E. Gubernatis

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

3

Self-pumping impurity control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for removing impurities from the plasma in a fusion reactor without an external vacuum pumping system. It is also an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for removing the helium ash from a fusion reactor. It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus which removes helium ash and minimizes tritium recycling and inventory.

Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

4

Utilization of Coal Ash As Recycling Material Options in View Point of Geoenvironment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disposed coal ash is result from the residual of coal refinery processes and become environmentalimportant issues. Coal ash consists of bottom ash and fly ash. The number of coal ash production is abundant, and c...

Ahmad Rifa’I; Noriyuki Yasufuku; Kiyoshi Omine…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

8

Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coulomb impurity in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the problem of screening of an electrically charged impurity in a clean graphene sheet. When electron-electron interactions are neglected, the screening charge has a sign opposite to that of the impurity, and is localized near the impurity. Interactions between electrons smear out the induced charge density to give a large-distance tail that follows approximately, but not exactly, an r^{-2} behavior and with a sign which is the same as that of the impurity.

Rudro R. Biswas; Subir Sachdev; Dam T. Son

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

Disposal of boiler ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As more boilers are converted from oil to solid fuels such as coal, the quantity of ash requiring disposal will increase dramatically. The factors associated with the development of land disposal systems for ash landfills are presented, including ash characterization, site selection procedures, design parameters, and costs.

Atwell, J.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Ash aerosol formation from oxy-coal combustion and its relation to ash deposit chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash aerosol and ash deposit formation during oxy-coal combustion were explored through experiments in a self-sustained 100 kW rated down-fired oxy-fuel combustor. Inlet oxidant conditions consisted of 50% inlet oxygen with CO2 (hereafter denoted as OXY50 conditions). A Berner low pressure impactor (BLPI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were used to obtain size segregated ash aerosol samples and to determine the particle size distributions (PSD). A novel surface temperature controlled ash deposition probe system that allowed inside and outside deposits to be separated was used to collect the ash deposits. The ash aerosol \\{PSDs\\} given by the BLPI and those produced by SMPS/APS were consistent with each other. Data suggested that oxy-coal combustion under these conditions did not change the formation mechanisms controlling the bulk ash aerosol composition, but it did increase the formation of ultra-fine particles initially formed through metal vaporization, due to increased vaporization of silicon at the higher combustion temperature. The smaller particles contained within the deposits had higher Si and lower Na and S concentrations under OXY50 conditions than for air combustion. Moreover, the ash aerosol composition for particle sizes less than 2.4 ?m was related to the composition of the inside deposits. A higher Na in the ash aerosol resulted in higher Na in inside deposits with comparable absolute Na concentrations in both those aerosol particles and those inside deposits particles. The contribution of S and Si to the inside deposits showed that S in the vaporization modes together with Si in the ultrafine vaporization mode, contributed significantly to the composition of the inside deposits. These results provided direct evidence that prediction of the chemistry of the initial deposit layer (but not of the bulk deposits) required knowledge of the size segregated chemistry of the ash aerosol.

Zhonghua Zhan; Andrew Fry; Yanwei Zhang; Jost O.L. Wendt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Prediction of Chinese Coal Ash Fusion Temperatures in Ar and H2 Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of coal ashes on a weight percent basis shows that they consist mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and MgO, so that the properties of coal ashes at high temperature might be modeled by a five system SiO2?Al2O3?Fe2O3?CaO?MgO synthetic ash. ... The peaks from lab. ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evapn. of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash. ...

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

16

Consistency Decision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The consistency formula for set theory can be stated in terms of the free-variables theory of primitive recursive maps. Free-variable p. r. predicates are decidable by set theory, main result here, built on recursive evaluation of p. r. map codes and soundness of that evaluation in set theoretical frame: internal p. r. map code equality is evaluated into set theoretical equality. So the free-variable consistency predicate of set theory is decided by set theory, {\\omega}-consistency assumed. By G\\"odel's second incompleteness theorem on undecidability of set theory's consistency formula by set theory under assumption of this {\\omega}- consistency, classical set theory turns out to be {\\omega}-inconsistent.

Michael Pfender

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

17

Fireside slagging, fouling, and high-temperature corrosion of heat-transfer surface due to impurities in steam-raising fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of steam raising as a source of heat or means of generating electricity using combustible fuels began with the turn of the century. From the very beginning, impurities in the fuels were responsible for added maintenance, a reduction in rate of heat transfer and corrosion due to fireside deposits of sintered or molten ash. The nature and severity of deposit formation, i.e. slagging and fouling, changed as the fuels and their impurities changed, the steam raising process evolved and the steam generators increased in size and efficiency. With the introduction of computer science, the empirical art of ash deposition from impurities in combustion gases is rapidly being transformed into the science of mineral transformation and ash deposition. This manuscript presents in chronological order an overview of the art of ash deposition while firing coal, the mechanistic approach to the problem, the recent introduction of sophisticated analytical procedures, and modeling of mineral transformations, and ash deposition underway. Adaptation of fuels such as ash oil, petroleum coke, municipal waste, wood and biomass to the steam raising process are presented individually in the order in which they were introduced. Empirical indices presently used to characterize the slagging or fouling potentials of impurities in fuels are present. Fundamental data are provided where necessary to illustrate mechanisms for ash deposition. An extensive list of key references is offered for those wishing to investigate details of any particular aspect of fireside slagging, fouling or corrosion.

Richard W. Bryers

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Anion exchange method for the sequential determination of uranium, thorium and lead-210 in coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radiochemical procedure is presented for the sequential determination of uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, and210Pb in coal and coal ash. This procedure consists of dry ashing the...210Pb is measured by beta ...

V. R. Casella; C. T. Bishop; A. A. Glosby…

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The Fusibility of Blended Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) of coal ash are found at temperatures below the predicted liquidus temperature and, for ashes from blended coals, are generally nonlinear with respect to the blend proportion. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; H. Emanuel; S. K. Gupta; R. P. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Electronic structure of Z+1 impurities in metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure of substitutional Z+1 impurities in simple and transition metals. Self-consistent calculations for Mg in Na and Tc in Mo have been performed using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s-function formalism, and have been analyzed in terms of a simplified impurity model. At the impurity site a strong redistribution of states for both the occupied and unoccupied levels, in particular for the s and p states in the case of the simple metals and for the d states in the case of the transition metals, is observed. We show that the local electronic structure at the impurity site can be interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the unperturbed host and two sets of parameters representing the attractive potential and a change in the orbital hybridization.

W. Speier; J. F. van Acker; R. Zeller

1990-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

The electrical resistance due to nonmagnetic impurities in ferromagnetic metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the electrical resistance due to nonmagnetic impurities in ferromagnetic metals. The impurity resistance depends on the magnetization of the host metal since (1) the densities of states of ±spin electrons at the Fermi surface change with the magnetization of a metal and (2) the screened impurity potential is different for the ±spin electrons and depends on the magnetization of the metal. The effect of the spin dependent screening on the electrical resistance in ferromagnetic metals was not fully considered previously. We choose a single band model for the metallic electrons and obtain an expression for the resistance which includes both of the above mechanisms (1) and (2) simultaneously and self?consistently. We calculate the changes in resistivity due to nonmagnetic impurities in a ferromagnetic metal as a function of magnetization.

D. J. Kim; Brian B. Schwartz

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Utilization FLY ASH INFORMATION FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, quarries, and pits (34%), 6% for temporary stockpile, and 7% landfilled. Fly Ash In Europe, the utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

25

Ash Research from Palm Coast, Florida to Banff, Canada: Entry of Biomass in Modern Power Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Six laboratories participated, and each performed five analyses, on three bituminous coal samples, focusing on their content of calcite, kaolinite, pyrite, and quartz. ... CCSEM of these ashes revealed that the fly ashes and deposits contained high quantities of salts, especially KCl, and varying quantities of K- and Ca-silicates, whereas the bottom ashes consisted of a mixture of quartz, K-, Ca-, and Al-silicates. ... Wang and Baxter(134) presented a work that systematically investigated the performance of biomass fly ash concrete, including mixtures of biomass fly ash and calcium hydroxide, with respect to strength, kinetics, and durability. ...

Flemming J. Frandsen

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

26

Impurity screening in carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanotube geometry determines electronic structure and thus impurity screening. A metallic carbon nanotube could effectively screen a charged impurity, while a semiconducting carbon nanotube could not. The ability to screen a long-range Coulomb field is mainly determined by whether there are free carriers in the subbands nearest the Fermi level. The detailed screening properties are sensitive to the impurity position, and the tubular structure (such as radius and chiral angle). Strong, short-wavelength Friedel oscillations at long distances are found to exist only in metallic armchair nanotubes. They are relatively obvious for a smaller armchair nanotube, and could survive at room temperature.

M. F. Lin and D. S. Chuu

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Impurity resonances in carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytical expressions are derived for the self-energies of electrons in carbon nanotubes while interacting with impurity atoms. Results are reported for armchair and zigzag tubes. It is shown that the impurity causes a bound electron donor or acceptor state beneath every semiconductor band edge. If the tubes are metallic, these bound states become resonance states. The analytical formulas give resonance shapes in good agreement with former numerical calculations.

G. D. Mahan

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

28

Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Impurity gettering in silicon using cavities formed by helium implantation and annealing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Impurity gettering in silicon wafers is achieved by a new process consisting of helium ion implantation followed by annealing. This treatment creates cavities whose internal surfaces are highly chemically reactive due to the presence of numerous silicon dangling bonds. For two representative transition-metal impurities, copper and nickel, the binding energies at cavities were demonstrated to be larger than the binding energies in precipitates of metal silicide, which constitutes the basis of most current impurity gettering. As a result the residual concentration of such impurities after cavity gettering is smaller by several orders of magnitude than after precipitation gettering. Additionally, cavity gettering is effective regardless of the starting impurity concentration in the wafer, whereas precipitation gettering ceases when the impurity concentration reaches a characteristic solubility determined by the equilibrium phase diagram of the silicon-metal system. The strong cavity gettering was shown to induce dissolution of metal-silicide particles from the opposite side of a wafer. 4 figs.

Myers, S.M. Jr.; Bishop, D.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

Mobile magnetic impurities in a Fermi superfluid: a route to designer molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A magnetic impurity in a fermionic superfluid hosts bound quasiparticle states known as Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states. We argue here that, if the impurity is mobile (i.e., has a finite mass), the impurity and its bound YSR quasiparticle move together as a midgap molecule, which has an unusual "Mexican-hat" dispersion that is tunable via the fermion density. We map out the impurity dispersion, which consists of an "atomic" branch (in which the impurity is dressed by quasiparticle pairs) and a "molecular" branch (in which the impurity binds a quasiparticle). We discuss the experimental realization and detection of midgap Shiba molecules, focusing on lithium-cesium mixtures, and comment on the prospects they offer for realizing exotic many-body states.

Sarang Gopalakrishnan; Colin V. Parker; Eugene Demler

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

31

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash bottom ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of bottom ash, 3 million tons of boiler slag, and 28 million tons of clean-coal ash materials) were produced... CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By...

33

Comparing properties of coal ash and alternative-fuel ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of investigating ash produced in burning alternative kinds of fuel are discussed. Its impact on the environment is evaluated, and possibilities of recovering it are studied.

E. P. Dick; G. A. Ryabov; A. N. Tugov; A. N. Soboleva

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

Self, S.A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Endohedral Impurities in Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A generalization of the Anderson model that includes pseudo-Jahn-Teller impurity coupling is proposed to describe distortions of an endohedral impurity in a carbon nanotube. Within mean-field theory, spontaneous axial symmetry breaking is found when the vibronic coupling strength g exceeds a critical value. The effective potential is found to have O(2) symmetry, in agreement with numerical calculations. For metallic zigzag nanotubes endohedrally doped with transition metals in the dilute limit, the low-energy properties of the system may display two-channel Kondo behavior; however, strong vibronic coupling is seen to exponentially suppress the Kondo energy scale.

Dennis P. Clougherty

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Plasma performance and impurity behaviour in long pulse discharges on LHD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The superconducting machine LHD has conducted long pulse experiments for four years to achieve long-duration plasmas with high performance. The operational regime was largely extended in discharge duration and plasma density. In this paper, the plasma characteristics, in particular, plasma performance and impurity behaviour in long pulse discharges are described. Confinement studies show that global energy confinement times are comparable to those in short pulse discharges. Long sustainment of high performance plasma, which is equivalent to the previous achievement in other devices, was demonstrated. Long pulse discharges enabled us to investigate impurity behaviour in a long timescale. Intrinsic metallic impurity accumulation was observed in a narrow density window (2–3?1019 m?3) only for hydrogen discharges. Impurity transport study by using active impurity pellet injection shows a long impurity confinement time and an inward convection in the impurity accumulation window, which is consistent with the intrinsic impurity behaviour. The pulsed neon gas injection experiment shows that the neon penetration into the plasma core is caused by the inward convection due to radial electric field. Finally, impurity accumulation control with an externally induced magnetic island at the plasma edge was demonstrated.

Y. Nakamura; Y. Takeiri; R. Kumazawa; M. Osakabe; T. Seki; B.J. Peterson; K. Ida; H. Funaba; M. Yokoyama; N. Tamura; A. Komori; S. Morita; K. Sato; K. Narihara; S. Inagaki; T. Tokuzawa; S. Masuzaki; J. Miyazawa; N. Noda; T. Mutoh; T. Shimozuma; K. Kawahata; Y. Oka; H. Suzuki; N. Ohyabu; T. Akiyama; N. Ashikawa; M. Emoto; P. Goncharov; M. Goto; H. Idei; K. Ikeda; S. Imagawa; M. Isobe; O. Kaneko; H. Kawazome; K. Khlopenkov; T. Kobuchi; A. Kostrioukov; S. Kubo; Y. Liang; T. Minami; T. Morisaki; S. Murakami; S. Muto; K. Nagaoka; Y. Nagayama; H. Nakanishi; Y. Narushima; K. Nishimura; T. Notake; H. Nozato; S. Ohdachi; S. Okamura; T. Ozaki; A. Sagara; T. Saida; K. Saito; S. Sakakibara; R. Sakamoto; M. Sasao; M. Sato; M. Shoji; N. Takeuchi; K. Tanaka; M.Y. Tanaka; K. Toi; Y. Torii; K. Tsumori; K.Y. Watanabe; T. Watari; Y. Xu; H. Yamada; I. Yamada; S. Yamamoto; T. Yamamoto; S. Yoshimura; Y. Yoshimura; M. Yoshinuma; K. Itoh; T. Mito; K. Ohkubo; I. Ohtake; T. Satow; S. Sudo; T. Uda; K. Yamazaki; K. Matsuoka; O. Motojima; Y. Hamada; M. Fujiwara

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

SEPARATION OF PROTEINS BY ION EXCHANGE AND MEMBRANE CHROMATOGRAPHY: BUFFER COMPOSITION, INTERFERING IMPURITIES AND FOULING CONSIDERATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on identifying major impurity and optimization of solution properties for target protein purification. The second approach consisted of designing an adsorbent that interacted specifically with the target molecule. The first study included modification of protein...

Imam, Tahmina

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Prickly Ash and Prickly Pear  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prickly Ash and Prickly Pear Prickly Ash and Prickly Pear Nature Bulletin No. 649-A October 1, 1977 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation PRICKLY ASH AND PRICKLY PEAR In the plant kingdom, as among people, there are so-me that we avoid. They have few virtues, if any, and our experiences with them are painful or have unpleasant after effects. Poison ivy is a notorious example. Prickly Ash, a shrub, is another. Although not poisonous it is thickly armed with wicked thorns and has no ornamental, economic or wildlife value. In 1821 when the first section lines were established in Cook County, the surveyor recorded -- for the benefit of land buyers -- the principal kinds of trees and other vegetation observed along each mile. He frequently encountered prickly ash in thickets near the Little Calumet River and also the north and south branches of the Chicago River.

42

The Mg impurity in nitride alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although several magnetic resonance studies address the Mg acceptor in GaN, there are few reports on Mg doping in the alloys, where hole production depends strongly on the Al or In content. Our electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the p-type alloys suggest that the Mg impurity retains the axial symmetry, characteristic of a p-type dopant in both alloys; however, In and Al produce additional, different characteristics of the acceptor. In InGaN, the behavior is consistent with a lowering of the acceptor level and increasing hole density as In concentration increases. For AlGaN, the amount of neutral Mg decreases with increasing Al content, which is attributed to different kinetics of hydrogen diffusion thought to occur in samples with higher Al mole fraction.

Zvanut, M. E.; Willoughby, W. R.; Sunay, U. R. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL (United States); Koleske, D. D.; Allerman, A. A. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque NM (United States); Wang, Ke; Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nanishi, Yasushi [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan and WCU Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

43

Self-pumping impurity control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for removing the helium ash from a fusion reactor having a D-T plasma comprises a helium trapping site within the reactor plasma confinement device, said trapping site being formed of a trapping material having negligible helium solubility and relatively high hydrogen solubility; and means for depositing said trapping material on said site at a rate sufficient to prevent saturation of helium trapping.

Brooks, Jeffrey N. (Darien, IL); Mattas, Richard F. (Downers Grove, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments† ... Ichikawa et al.(7) measured deposition behavior for ash particles from ashing tests for a series of five coals, using a nominally 1 m tall × 60 mm diameter ash-heating tube that was fitted with a cooled, temperature-controlled particle impact probe oriented at a 30° angle to the atmospheric pressure air flow. ...

Weiguo Ai; John M. Kuhlman

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Insurance coverage for coal ash liabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses how liability insurance can be a valuable tool for limiting coal ash liabilities.

Elkind, D.L. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Effect of Coal Ash Composition on Ash Fusion Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been conducted in which mixtures of selected coal ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, and MgO were subjected to the standard test for ash fusibility. ... One property that specifically gives detail information on the suitability of a coal source [Alpern, B., Nahuys, J., Martinez, L. Mineral matter in ashy and non-washable coals-its influence on chem. ...

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

47

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... struck by the similarity between the preliminary descriptions of moon dust and that of the ash residue collected from pulverized ... residue collected from pulverized coal-fired boilers (that is, pulverized fuel ...

A. B. HART; E. RAASK

1969-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

48

Sustainable Use of Biofuel by Recycling Ash to Forests:? Treatment of Biofuel Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustainable Use of Biofuel by Recycling Ash to Forests:? Treatment of Biofuel Ash ... Ash samples from combustion of biofuels in a circulating fluidized bed and grate-firing combustion plants are studied. ...

Maryam Mahmoudkhani; Tobias Richards; Hans Theliander

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

49

Cast-Concrete Products Made with FBC Ash and Wet-Collected Coal-Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0899-1561 2005 17:6 659 CE Database subject headings: Recycling; Ashes; Concrete et al. 1991 . Fluidized bed combustion FBC ash is the ash produced by an FBC boiler in which the coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

50

Parametrization of the electronic structure of Z+1 impurities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The local electronic structure of substitutional Z+1 impurities in metals is calculated self-consistently by means of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s-function formalism, and parametrized in terms of a generalized Clogston-Wolff impurity model. The purpose of this approach is to investigate the core-hole effect, which is encountered in high-energy spectroscopies. The analysis is applied to simple metals as well as transition metals, including the complete 4d row. For the d states a clear renormalization of the impurity-host interaction is observed. We find general agreement between the values of the attractive potentials and the differences in effective levels obtained by first-principles calculations. Within the formalism of the Clogston-Wolff model the trend in the values of the attractive potentials for the 4d states can be explained by a local screening condition and the position of the Fermi level in the band. We comment on the transferability of the model parameters and investigate the screening of a Z+1 impurity in a metal. The effect of a locally overscreened or underscreened core hole is found to be related to the band filling and the character of the Friedel oscillations.

J. F. van Acker; W. Speier; J. C. Fuggle; R. Zeller

1991-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Disentangling phonon and impurity interactions in ?-doped Si(001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a study of the phonon and impurity interactions in a shallow two dimensional electron gas formed in Si(001). A highly conductive ultra-narrow n-type dopant ?-layer, which serves as a platform for quantum computation architecture, is formed and studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and temperature dependent nanoscale 4-point probe (4PP). The bandstructure of the ?-layer state is both measured and simulated. At 100?K, good agreement is only achieved by including interactions; electron-impurity scattering (W{sub 0}?=?56 to 61?meV); and electron-phonon coupling (??=?0.14?±?0.04). These results are shown to be consistent with temperature dependent 4PP resistance measurements which indicate that at 100?K, ?7?8 of the measured resistance is due to impurity scattering with the remaining 1/8 coming from phonon interactions. In both resistance and bandstructure measurements, the impurity contribution exhibits a variability of ?9% for nominally identical samples. The combination of ARPES and 4PP affords a thorough insight into the relevant contributions to electrical resistance in reduced dimensionality electronic platforms.

Mazzola, Federico; Wells, Justin W., E-mail: quantum.wells@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Polley, Craig M. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); School of Physics, Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Miwa, Jill A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Simmons, Michelle Y. [School of Physics, Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

52

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

54

Ising Chain with a Spin Impurity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Consider a closed, linear chain of N localized spins (each s=12) with nearest-neighbor Ising interaction. Such a chain, exposed to a uniform external magnetic field, will be called the pure host. Replace a single spin in the pure host by an impurity spin which is also subjected to nearest-neighbor Ising interaction and to the external field. The magnitude of the impurity spin, the magnitude of its magnetic moment, and the magnitude and sign of its interaction with the host are allowed to differ from the corresponding values characterizing the host. For the bulk system (N??, for constant linear density of spins), the thermodynamic properties, such as the impurity magnetization, the (position-dependent) magnetization of the impurity-host system and the impurity-host spin correlation functions, are obtained exactly in terms of conventional, tabulated functions. Numerical results are presented for impurity spins of magnitude S=32,52.

H. Falk

1966-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

55

Prediction of ash deposition in pulverized coal combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A predictive scheme based on CCSEM flyash data and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been developed to study the slagging propensity of coals. The model has been applied to predict the deposition potential of three UK coals; Bentinck, Daw Mill and Silverdale, in a pilot scale single burner ash deposition test facility and an utility size multi-burner front wall-fired furnace. The project is part of a collaborative research program sponsored by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and involved various industrial organizations and universities. The objective of the project is to understand the fundamental aspects of slagging in pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This paper is a sequel to the poster paper entitled: The Prediction of Ash Deposition in a Coal Fired Axi-symmetric Furnace, presented in the last Engineering Foundation Conference. The present model predicts the relative slagging propensity of the three coals correctly. The predicted deposition patterns are also consistent with the observations. The results from the model indicate a preferential deposition of iron during the initial stage of ash deposition. The average compositions of the deposits become closer to that of the bulk ash when the accumulation of ash deposits is taken into account.

Lee, F.C.C.; Riley, G.S. [National Power PLC, Swindon (United Kingdom); Lockwood, F.C. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

Leaching of boron from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leaching of boron from coal ash ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ...

James A. Cox; Gary L. Lundquist; Andrzej Przyjazny; C. David Schmulbach

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C. The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Accurate Detection of Impurities in Hydrogen Fuel at Lower Cost...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accurate Detection of Impurities in Hydrogen Fuel at Lower Cost Technology available for licensing: Two alternative strategies for detecting impurities in the hydrogen used in fuel...

62

Pollen Influx and Volcanic Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Artemisia) blooms in the fall and a dis-proportionate percentage...were recorded. The five pollen groups plotted in Fig. 5 were selected...expected to occur during the fall and perhaps winter months...probability of an initial ash-fall in late summer. Certain acid-resist-ant...

Peter J. Mehringer Jr.; Eric Blinman; Kenneth L. Petersen

1977-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

63

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

NONE

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10. Shah, Minish. Capturing CO2 from Oxy-Fuel Combustion Flue Gas. Cottbus, Germany : Praxair Inc., 2005. 11. Spitznogle, Gary O. CO2 Impurity Specification at AEP Mountaineer....

68

The reactions and ashes of thermonuclear explosions on neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on the detailed rp-process reaction flow on an accreting neutron star and the resulting ashes of a type I X-ray burst. It is obtained by coupling a 298 isotope reaction network to a self-consistent one-dimensional model calculation with a constant accretion rate of dM/dt=1.0e17g/s (0.09 Eddington).

J. L. Fisker; E. Brown; M. Liebendoerfer; F. -K. Thielemann; M. Wiescher

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

69

Coupling of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the presence of impurities in tokamak plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coupling of ion temperature gradient (ITG or ?{sub i}) mode and trapped electron mode (TEM) in the presence of impurity ions is numerically investigated in toroidal collisionless plasmas, using the gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation. A framework for excitations of the ITG modes and TEMs with respect to their driving sources is formulated first, and then the roles of impurity ions played in are analyzed comprehensively. In particular, the characteristics of the ITG and TEM instabilities in the presence of impurity ions are emphasized for both strong and weak coupling (hybrid and coexistent) cases. It is found that the impurity ions with inwardly (outwardly) peaked density profiles have stabilizing (destabilizing) effects on the hybrid (namely the TE-ITG) modes in consistence with previous works. A new finding of this work is that the impurity ions have stabilizing effects on TEMs in small ?{sub i} (?{sub i}?1) regime regardless of peaking directions of their density profiles whereas the impurity ions with density gradient L{sub ez}=L{sub ne}/L{sub nz}>1 (L{sub ez}<1) destabilize (stabilize) the TEMs in large ?{sub i} (?{sub i}?1) regime. In addition, the dependences of the growth rate, real frequency, eigenmode structure, and wave spectrum on charge concentration, charge number, and mass of impurity ions are analyzed in detail. The necessity for taking impurity ion effects on the features of turbulence into account in future transport experimental data analyses is also discussed.

Du, Huarong; Wang, Zheng-Xiong, E-mail: zxwang@dlut.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, J. Q. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, S. F. [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Impurity radiation from a tokamak plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In tokamak operating modes, energy balance is often governed by impurity radiation. This is the case near the divertor plates, during impurity pellet injection, during controlled discharge disruptions, etc. The calculation of impurity radiation is a fairly involved task (it is sometimes the most difficult part of the general problem) because the radiation power is determined by the distribution of ions over the excited states and by the rate constants of elementary processes of radiation and absorption. The objective of this paper is to summarize in one place all the approximate formulas that would help investigators to describe radiation from the most often encountered impurities in a fairly simple way in their calculations accounting for plasma radiation, without reference to special literature. Simple approximating formulas describing ionization, recombination, and charge-exchange processes, as well as radiative losses from ions with a given charge, are presented for five impurity species: beryllium, carbon, oxygen, neon, and argon. Estimating formulas that allow one to take into account plasma opacity for resonant photons in line impurity radiation are also presented.

Morozov, D. Kh.; Baronova, E. O. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute (Russian Federation); Senichenkov, I. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The fluidized bed combustion ash management puzzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the electric and industrial power generation industry upgrades and expands, the amount of coal and other solid fuels also expands. With increased environmental controls, the introduction of a competitive market for power, and the increased interest in opportunity fuels will increase the usage of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boilers in the power industry. The combustion of these solid fuels will generate combustion ashes. Power generators, including FBC boilers owners, have traditionally looked to landfills for the disposal of their ash. With the tighter environmental controls being placed on landfills at the federal and state level, power generators are beginning to see constantly escalating tipping fees which now make the landfill option less attractive. In some instances, landfills are beginning to refuse to accept ash regardless of the tipping fee. In view of this, the power generators are now struggling to find a place to store or dispose of the ash that is produced by their power boiler. Other disposal alternatives such as backhaul to the mine and beneficial reuse are now being considered. Either alternative presents its own set of technical and environmental variables to be considered in developing an effective ash management plan. To be effective, these plans need to incorporate an aggressive, yet realistic, role to support beneficial reuse of the ash. Many applications exist for reuse of the various types of ash. The applications for conventional ashes such as those from pulverized coal boilers and stoker fired boilers are mature and more commonplace. The uses for FBC ash are not as well researched and demonstrated and therefore the marketing opportunities for FBC ash continue to require development. FBC boiler owners and operators must be willing to accept the challenges posed in developing these reuse applications for FBC ash for the market to accept the applications for FBC ash and allow the full value of the FBC ash to be realized.

Fitzgerald, H.B. [ReUse Technology, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Consistency, Truth and Ontology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After a brief survey of the different meanings of consistency, the study is restricted to consistency understood as non-contradiction of sets of sentences. The philosophical reasons for this requirement are discu...

Evandro Agazzi

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Assessment of the effect of high ash content in pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing literature on CFD-based coal combustion modelling is applicable mainly for coals of low ash content and the calculations are done on an ash-free basis. In Indian coals, the ash content may be significantly higher, up to 40% or more. Studies reported in the literature show that the mineral matter in the coal may have a number of effects on the combustion characteristics. In the present study, a sensitivity analysis is performed, using the CFD code CFX of AEA Technology, on the likely effect of ash content on the char reactivity, oxygen diffusion rate for char combustion and on the radiative heat transfer parameters. The results show that the effect of enhanced char reactivity is negligible whereas reduced oxygen diffusion rates due to a thicker ash layer may result in a significant reduction in char oxidation rates with a resultant decrease in the peak temperature in the furnace. The global parameters such as the peak temperature and the flue gas temperature remain relatively insensitive to the presence of high ash content. These results are consistent with the experimental observations of Kurose et al. . Kurose, M. Ikeda, H. Makino, Combustion characteristics of high ash coal in pulverized coal combustion, J. Fuel 80 (2001) 1447-1455).

Jayanti, S.; Maheswaran, K.; Saravanan, V. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 150, No 2, 277-280 (669-672) (1999). MODELS OF AXIAL AND LOW-SYMMETRY IMPURITY CENTERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with intrinsic defects, are analysed. Lithium or niobium vacancies can compensate a charge excess of di AND LOW-SYMMETRY IMPURITY CENTERS IN LITHIUM NIOBATE CRYSTALS DERIVED FROM EPR AND ENDOR DATA V configurations of defect complexes in conventional lithium niobate crystals, consisting of an impurity associated

Malovichko, Galina

76

Ash vaporization in circulating fluidized bed coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the vaporization of the ash-forming constituents in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in a full-scale 80 MW{sub th} unit was studied. Ash vaporization in CFBC was studied by measuring the fly ash aerosols in a full-scale boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at the flue gas temperature of 125{degree}C. The fly ash number size distributions showed two distinct modes in the submicrometer size range, at particle diameters 0.02 and 0.3 {mu}m. The concentration of the ultrafine 0.02-{mu}m mode showed a large variation with time and it decreased as the measurements advanced. The concentration of the 0.02-{mu}m mode was two orders of magnitude lower than in the submicrometer mode observed earlier in the bubbling FBC and up to three orders of magnitude lower than in the pulverized coal combustion. Scanning electron micrographs showed few ultrafine particles. The intermediate mode at 0.3 {mu}m consisted of particles irregular in shape, and hence in this mode the particles had not been formed via a gas to particle route. We propose that the 0.3-{mu}m mode had been formed from the partial melting of the very fine mineral particles in the coal. The mass size distribution in the size range 0.01-70 {mu}m was unimodal with maximum at 20 {mu}m. Less than 1% of the fly ash particles was found in the submicrometer size range. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Maenhaut, W. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Shah, A.; Huggins, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Cement Additives from Fly Ash Opportunity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon and Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon and Cement Additives from Fly Ash Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon, and Cement Additives from Fly Ash." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview This invention includes a device, along with a method, to recover and use fly ash as a source of high purity carbon, ash, and minerals. The device and associated method can isolate components of the fly ash based on size and electrical charge. By improving beneficiation and usage methods, fly ash can be transformed from a waste material to a valuable by-product. Recent shifts to low nitrogen

78

Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern \\{WWTPs\\} can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using systems thinking. As modern society becomes increasingly complex and interdependent this

Thomas M. Wilson; Carol Stewart; Victoria Sword-Daniels; Graham S. Leonard; David M. Johnston; Jim W. Cole; Johnny Wardman; Grant Wilson; Scott T. Barnard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy?s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles? Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

McDonald, D.K.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Fuels and Energy and Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part of the System to Inject Limestone Sorbent for SO, Control. Nucla, CO Nucla...continued Before being repowered, the plant consisted of three 12 MWe coal stoker- fired units built in 1959, which were taken out of service in 1984 due to low efficiency and high fuel cost. Antici- pating a need for additional power in the early 1990s. and after review of many power generation alternatives, CUEA started constmction of the re- powered Nucla CFB plant in Novem- ber 1984 and completed the project in May 1987. The original boilers were replaced with a new Fympower Corp. CFB bailer, a new high pressure 74 MWe steam turbine generator was installed, the three original 12 MWe steam turbines were

83

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Application of Coal Fly Ash in Air Quality Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of Coal Fly Ash in Air Quality Management ... It has been found from the literature that fly ash possesses potential application in the management of air quality. ... Application of Zeolite Synthesized from Fly Ash in Air Quality Management ...

M. Ahmaruzzaman; V.K Gupta

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

85

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Impurity and particle control for INTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The INTOR impurity control system studies have been focused on the development of an impurity control system which would be able to provide the necessary heat removal and He pumping while satisfying the requirements for (1) minimum plasma contamination by impurities, (2) reasonable component lifetime (approx. 1 year), and (3) minimum size and cost. The major systems examined were poloidal divertors and pumped limiters. The poloidal divertor was chosen as the reference option since it offered the possibility of low sputtering rates due to the formation of a cool, dense plasma near the collector plates. Estimates of the sputtering rates associated with pumped limiters indicated that they would be too high for a reasonable system. Development of an engineering design concept was done for both the poloidal divertor and the pumped limiter.

Post, D.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Impurity production and acceleration in CTIX  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) produces a high density, high velocity hydrogen plasma that maintains its configuration in free space on a MHD resistive time scale. In order to study the production and acceleration of impurities in the injector, several sets of silicon collector probes were exposed to spheromak-like CT’s exiting the accelerator. Elemental analysis by Auger Electron Spectroscopy indicated the presence of O, Al, Fe, and Cu in films up to 200 Å thickness (1000 CT interactions). Using a smaller number of CT interactions (10–20), implantation of Fe and Cu was measured by Auger depth profiling. The amount of impurities was found to increase with accelerating voltage and number of CT interactions while use of a solenoidal field reduced the amount. Comparison of the implanted Fe and Cu with TRIM simulations indicated that the impurities were traveling more slowly than the hydrogen CT.

D. Buchenauer; W.M. Clift; R. Klauser; R.D. Horton; S.J. Howard; S.J. Brockington; R.W. Evans; D.Q. Hwang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Evaluation of Impurity Extremes in a Plutonium-loaded Borosilicate Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vitrification technology utilizing a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass appears to be a viable option for the disposition of excess weapons-usable plutonium that is not suitable for processing into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A significant effort to develop a glass formulation and vitrification process to immobilize plutonium was completed in the mid-1990's. The LaBS glass formulation was found to be capable of immobilizing in excess of 10 wt % Pu and to be tolerant of a range of impurities. To confirm the results of previous testing with surrogate Pu feeds containing impurities, four glass compositions were selected for fabrication with actual plutonium oxide and impurities. The four compositions represented extremes in impurity type and concentration. The homogeneity and durability of these four compositions were measured. The homogeneity of the glasses was evaluated using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The XRD results indicated that the glasses were amorphous with no evidence of crystalline species in the glass. The SEM/EDS analyses did show the presence of some undissolved PuO{sub 2} material. The EDS spectra indicated that some of the PuO{sub 2} crystals also contained hafnium oxide. The SEM/EDS analyses showed that there were no heterogeneities in the glass due to the feed impurities. The durability of the glasses was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT results indicated that the durability of Pu impurity glasses was comparable with Pu glasses without impurities and significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used as the benchmark for repository disposition of high-level waste (HLW) glasses. (authors)

Fox, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Marra, J.C.; Bibler, N.E.; Hoffman, E.N.; Edwards, T.B. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel...

90

The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

91

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties deer12kamp.pdf More Documents...

92

Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under the test...

93

Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission...

94

Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S. [IIT Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Analytical impurity transport model: Coupling between particle and charge state transports in tokamak plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interpretation and understanding of a set of coupled continuity equations commonly used in impurity tokamak transport studies are found to be syncretic and inadequate, since they do not distinguish between the cross-field fluxes of impurity particles and of their charge states (cs). An analytical approach to impurity transport studies previously developed is generalized to the case of diffusive-convective cs dynamics and provides a set of dimensionless parameters to describe the impurity behavior more correctly than using empirical coefficients D and V, which, in turn, have to be interpreted in terms of their cs, rather than of particles. An analytical transport model (ATM) with underlying interpretation is proposed. It is based on the solutions of two separate transport problems for impurity cs and particles instead of a single one. It is shown that ATM consistently explains two groups of available empirical dependences regarding the scaling D{proportional_to}n{sub e}{sup -1} and the profiles of V/D, which are shown to be the density profile gradients, {nabla}n{sub Z}/n{sub Z} and suggests the neoclassical scale of the particle diffusion coefficient.

Shurygin, V. A. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

97

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

98

A Urinary Metabolite of Phenanthrene as a Biomarker of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolic Activation in Workers Exposed to Residual Oil Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the boilers and accumulated in the ash pit. We studied the association between urinary...tubing of the boilers and repairing the ash pit. Most subjects did not consistently wear...New York (NY): Springer; 1997. 28 Burns DM. Cigarettes and cigarette smoking...

Jee Young Kim; Stephen S. Hecht; Sutapa Mukherjee; Steven G. Carmella; Ema G. Rodrigues; and David C. Christiani

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Simulation of iron impurity gettering in crystalline silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work discusses the Impurity-to-Efficiency (12E) simulation tool and applet. The 12E simulator models the physics of iron impurity gettering in silicon solar cells during high temperature processing. The tool also ...

Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Process and system for removing impurities from a gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Influence of seeded impurities on the fusion reactor operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to study the influence of seeded impurities on ITER like reactor operation the COREDIV code has been extended to include the transport of several sputtered and/or injected impurities. In the COREDIV c...

R. Stankiewicz; R. Zagórski

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Tell: Building a consistent,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Joseph M. Hellerstein, William R. Marczak UC Berkeley November 19, 2010 #12;Show and Tell: BuildingShow and Tell: Building a consistent, replicated shopping cart in Bloom Peter Alvaro, Neil Conway, Joseph M. Hellerstein, William R. Marczak Background The CALM Conjecture Introducing Bloom Writing

California at Irvine, University of

104

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

Winstead, M.L.

1995-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

107

Characterization, decontamination and health effects of fly ash from waste incinerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of the present work are (a) to investigate the physical and chemical properties of incinerator ash which are of importance for its utilization and environmental impact; (b) to evaluate the occupational exposure of incinerator workers to trace metals; and (c) to develop a novel technology for the conversion of contaminated fly-ash from incinerators into a material which can be disposed of cheaply or used in the construction industry. The discussion is illustrated by results obtained through experiments. Morphologically, fly-ash consists of irregularly shaped material, of widely varying sizes. Some minerals are identified using powder X-ray diffraction, i.e., calcite, pyrite, halite and maghemite. The chemical composition of ash samples examined consist of Ca, Al, Si, K, Ti, Mg, Fe, K, Na and Mn as the major and minor elements. Trace elements such as Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Se, Mo and Cd are also found. The samples tested are rich in Cl, Cr, Zn, Sn, and Pb, as compared to the earth`s crust values. About 50% of the fly-ash particles are smaller than 5.5 {micro}m. These particles can play an important role in transferring toxic metals into the human blood stream by inhalation, deposition and absorption.

Lee, P.H.; Delay, I.; Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.; McLeod, C.; Argent, B.B. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom); Goodfellow, J. [Dyson-Hotwork Limited, Dewsbury (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Dennis Papadias and Shabbir Ahmed Argonne National Laboratory Presented at the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Golden, CO June 11-13, 2012 Biogas is the product of anaerobic decomposition of organic waste Municipal solid wastes (MSW)  For every 1 million tons of MSW: - 432,000 cubic feet per day of landfill gas (LFG) for a period of 20 years - 1 MW of electricity 1 Sewage sludge/waste water (WWTP or ADG)  A typical WWTP processes 100 gallons per day (GD) for every person served - 1 cubic foot of digester gas can be produced per 100 gallons of wastewater  100 kW of electricity 1 can be generated from 4.5 MGD of waste water Agricultural waste (i.e. dairy waste)  About 70-100 ft 3 /day of digester gas is produced

109

Scaling 2XIIB impurity radiation to BPNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the author computes the radiative power losses which would be expected from the beam-plasma neutron source, which is proposed as a neutron source for doing accelerated end-of-life testing of fusion reactor materials. The source is based on a high density tritium target, bombarded with a deuterium beam of energy 120 to 150 keV. Oxygen was observed to be a major source of power loss for beam injection into the 2XIIB device, and the author considers that problem here. Oxygen impurities are a small component of the beam. The analysis indicates that higher charge states are reached in this device, resulting in less power radiation from oxygen impurities, and the beam is expected to attain higher purity levels at pulse lengths in the seconds range, than was observed in the past for millisecond pulse lengths.

Molvik, A.W.

1993-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

110

Fly ash system technology improves opacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Aqueous alteration of municipal solid waste ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) ash is composed largely of amorphous oxides and approximately 20% minerals including halite, magnetite, hematite, quartz, gypsum, calcite, and rutile. It is also enriched in toxic trace metals by up to three orders of magnitude over average soil. The thermodynamic stabilities and rates of dissolution of the minerals and glasses in MSW ash will determine whether the ash is an environmental problem. The authors have used batch reactors at 20, 40, and 60 C over time periods up to 60 days to simulate longer reaction times for ash under cooler landfill conditions. Soluble salts are most quickly dissolved, giving solutions dominated by Ca[sup 2+], Na[sup +], K[sup +], SO[sub 2][sup 2[minus

Kirby, C.S.; Rimstidt, J.D. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Carbonation of FBC ash by sonochemical treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work explores the sonochemical-enhanced carbonation of FBC ash for direct disposal in landfills. Tests have been conducted using four ashes originating from three commercial CFBC boilers. Experiments with additives such as NaCl and seawater have also been carried out. Tests were performed at low (20°, 40 °C) and high (60°, 80 °C) temperatures. Sonicated samples were analyzed using TGA, TGA–FTIR and XRD techniques to determine the influence of other calcium compounds (OCC). The particle size reduction brought about by sonication was quantified using wet sieving. The ash reactivity displays a strong temperature dependency with almost complete carbonation achieved in minutes at higher temperatures. Additives were found to increase the level of hydration of the ashes, in line with previous work; however, carbonation levels were unaffected. TGA, TGA–FTIR and XRD analysis of the samples indicated participation of OCC, which were also formed during hydration.

A. Rao; E.J. Anthony; L. Jia; A. Macchi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

Funston, G.A.

1995-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

114

INTOR impurity control and first wall system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work.

Abdou, M.A.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Consistent Quantum Reasoning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precise rules are developed in order to formalize the reasoning processes involved in standard non-relativistic quantum mechanics, with the help of analogies from classical physics. A classical or quantum description of a mechanical system involves a {\\it framework}, often chosen implicitly, and a {\\it statement} or assertion about the system which is either true or false within the framework with which it is associated. Quantum descriptions are no less ``objective'' than their classical counterparts, but differ from the latter in the following respects: (i) The framework employs a Hilbert space rather than a classical phase space. (ii) The rules for constructing meaningful statements require that the associated projectors commute with each other and, in the case of time-dependent quantum histories, that consistency conditions be satisfied. (iii) There are incompatible frameworks which cannot be combined, either in constructing descriptions or in making logical inferences about them, even though any one of these frameworks may be used separately for describing a particular physical system. A new type of ``generalized history'' is introduced which extends previous proposals by Omn\\`es, and Gell-Mann and Hartle, and a corresponding consistency condition which does not involve density matrices or single out a direction of time. Applications which illustrate the formalism include: measurements of spin, two-slit diffraction, and the emergence of the classical world from a fully quantum description.

Robert B. Griffiths

1995-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

116

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emphasis of the work done has been to determine the reactivities of two ashes believed to be representative of those generated. A bituminous ash and a lignitic ash have been investigated. The reactions of these ashes undergo when subjected to mild hydrothermal conditions were explored. The nature of the reactions which the ashes undergo when alkaline activators, calcium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are present was also investigated. It was determined that calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, and the calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate ettringite form under these conditions. It appears 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}3CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}32H{sub 2}O (ettringite) formation needs to be considered in ashes which contain significant amounts of sulfate. Therefore the stability region for ettringite was established. It was also determined that calcium silicate hydrate, exhibiting a high internal surface area, will readily form with hydrothermal treatment between 50{degrees} and 100{degrees}C. This phase is likely to have a significant capacity to take up heavy metals and oxyanions and this ability is being explored.

Brown, P.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash technical progress Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and economic benefits. (1) Fly ash... of coal in conventional and or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom... ash, boiler slag, and flue...

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash blended cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CLSM mixture utilized... . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... investigation. Two additional ash ......

120

Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture toughness, creep rupture, and fatigue. Although there are some studies on the effects of impurities in helium coolant on creep rupture and fatigue strength, very little is known about their effects on creep crack initiation and crack growth rate at elevated temperatures.

Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Z-Stable ASH Algebras  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nuclear C*-algebras for which the Elliott conjecture has been confirmed so far consist ... of evidence linking Z to Elliott's program to classify separable, nuclear.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many different forest ecosystems in North America, are one of the more widely planted trees in urban areas, and are a valuable commercial timber species. If emerald ash borer populations are not contained and eventually eradicated, the ash resource in North America could be devastated. The destruction caused by EAB and its rate of spread are likely to be strongly influenced by the spatial distribution and status of the ash tree host, but general information regarding the abundance, health and distribution of ash trees is diffused throughout the literature. Here, we summarize what is currently known regarding the characteristics and potential spatial distribution of various species of Fraxinus in natural and planted ecosystems in North America and evaluate this information with specific regard to assessing the relative risk of ash populations to EAB.

David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Utilization of ash from fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion ash from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler contains not only carbon, but also silica alumina, quicklime as a sorbent, and a calcium sulfate by-product. These substances react chemically during fluidized bed combustion, and with the addition of water, they start an ettringite reaction and solidify. We determined the conditions necessary for producing hard solids through the study of the composition, curing methods, and characteristics of the solidified ash. We then used two types of road base material, crushed stone and solidified ash from an FBC boiler, to construct a test road at a site with a great deal of heavy traffic. Construction began in 1985, and since then, periodic tests have been performed to evaluate the performance of the road base materials. The testing of the manufacturing techniques centered on the amount and manner that water was added to the mixture and the curing methods of the mixture. Additional testing focused on the handling of the ash powder, the mixtures, and the solidified ash. Since 1991, under the sponsorship of MITI, the Center for Coal Utilization, in conjunction with Naruto Salt Mfg., Ltd., Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd., and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has used the referenced results to undertake a joint research and development project aimed at the eventual practical application of the technology. In 1993, a pilot facility to solidify ash with the fluidized bed boiler of 75 t/h capacity was completed. At present, all the discharged ash from the pilot facility is being solidified, and experiments on solidification and road base application techniques are underway. Actual road base tests are also in progress, and we are continuing research to meet the national certification requirements for road base materials.

Takada, Tomoaki [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Use of Ekibastuzsk coal ash as a filler for acid resistant plaster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acid resistant plasters are used extensively at thermal power plants for protection of gas conduits, ash traps with spouts and hydraulic valves, and the internal surfaces of smoke pump housings. The surface being protected is preliminarily cleaned and a No. 16-20 steel grid attached to the surface by electrial welding. In producing the acid resistant plaster, 14-17 parts by weight of sodium silicofluoride are added to 100 parts by weight of sodium water glass; the remainder consists of andesite or diabase meal to the required consistency. The water glass fulfills the role of a binder; the sodium silicofluoride accelerates solidification of the water glass and the andesite and diabase meal serve as fillers. We found, tested in the laboratory and used successfully (under experimental-industrial conditions) a substitute for andesite and diabase meal. This substitute was ash of Ekibastuzsk coal, which was not only comparable to the meal in regard to quality of the acid resistant plaster, but even exceeded andesite and diabase meal in regard to several qualitative indicators. At the present time, a formula is being developed for an acid resistant plaster produced on the basis of water glass, sodium silicofluoride and ash of Ekibastuzsk coal. In order to verify the possibility of using other ashes instead of andesite and diabase meal, we also tested, under laboratory conditions, acid resistant plasters using ash from thermal power plants (TPP's) also burning Karagandinsk, Kuuchekinsk, Kuznetsk and Kansko-Achinsk coals. In compositions produced with polymer binders, Kansko-Achinsk coal ash was one of the best fillers, providing the most favorable physico-mechanical properties of the composition.

Korsakov, F.F.; Isichenko, I.I.; Kabanov, G.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. E

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Coal ash behavior in reducing environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a four-year program designed to investigate the transformations and properties of coal ash in reducing environment systems. This project is currently midway through its third year. The work to date has emphasized four areas of research: (1) the development of quantitative techniques to analyze reduced species, (2) the production of gasification-type samples under closely controlled conditions, (3) the systematic gasification of specific coals to produce information about their partitioning during gasification, and (4) the study of the physical properties of ashes and slags under reducing atmospheres. The project is organized into three tasks which provide a strong foundation for the project. Task 1, Analytical Methods Development, has concentrated on the special needs of analyzing samples produced under a reducing atmosphere as opposed to the more often studied combustion systems. Task 2, Inorganic Partitioning and Ash Deposition, has focused on the production of gasification-type samples under closely controlled conditions for the study of inorganic partitioning that may lead to deposition. Task 3, Ash and Slag Physical Properties, has made large gains in the areas of sintering and strength development of coal ashes under reducing atmospheres for the evaluation of deposition problems. Results are presented for all three tasks.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Brekke, D.W.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Tibbetts, J.E.; Nowok, J.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Leaching of elements from bottom ash, economizer fly ash, and fly ash from two coal-fired power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To assess how elements leach from several types of coal combustion products (CCPs) and to better understand possible risks from CCP use or disposal, coal ashes were sampled from two bituminous-coal-fired power plants. One plant located in Ohio burns high-sulfur (about 3.9%) Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal from the Monongahela Group of the Central Appalachian Basin; the other in New Mexico burns low-sulfur (about 0.76%) Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation coal from the San Juan Basin, Colorado Plateau. The sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the Ohio plant were bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA); the sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the New Mexico plant were BA, mixed FA/EFA, FA, and cyclone-separated coarse and fine fractions of a FA/EFA and FA blend. Subsamples of each ash were leached using the long-term leaching (60-day duration) component of the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP) or the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP, 18-hour duration). These ashes were all alkaline. Leachate concentrations and leachabilities of the elements from the \\{CCPs\\} were similar between corresponding CCP types (BA, EFA, and FA) from each plant. The leachabilities of most elements were lowest in BA (least leachable) and increased from EFA to FA (most leachable). Ca and Sr were leached more from EFA than from either BA or FA. Leachability of most elements also increased as FA particle size decreased, possibly due in part to increasing specific surface areas. Several oxyanion-forming elements (As, Mo, Se, U, and V) leached more under SGLP than under TCLP; the opposite was true for most other elements analyzed.

Kevin B. Jones; Leslie F. Ruppert; Sharon M. Swanson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Influence of Particle Morphology on the Hydraulic Behavior of Coal Ash and Sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Residues of thermo electrical power plants are generically known as ashes, and can be classifies as slag, bottom ash and fly ash. Slag has a high content of unburned ... %) and coarse grains or clods. Bottom ash ...

Karla Salvagni Heineck; Rosemar Gomes Lemos…

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on Diesel Exhaust Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Metal Impurities on Diesel Exhaust Catalysts Aaron Williams, Jonathan Burton, Robert McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Todd Toops, Michael Lance, Andrew...

131

Ash limitation of physical coal beneficiation for medium–high ash coal—A geochemistry perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays the industrial coal beneficiation in China could only reduce the ash yield to about 10%, which could not meet the requirement or standard of environment protection. In this work, the possibility of reducing the ash yield was studied from the aspect of geochemistry. The channel samples were collected from two coal seams in Guizhou and Shanxi province, China and then conducted analysis by combining data from coals worldwide. The result reveals that the same coal seam or the coals deposited in the same peat swamp show a significantly positive correlation between ash yield and Al2O3 + SiO2 content, and the intercept of regression equation on the ash axis is always less than 5% (generally 2–5%). Overall, the coal from China is featured with a higher intercept compared with that in the other countries. The intercept of 2–5% on the ash axis indicates an original inorganic component in coal-forming peat. The research result also presents a theoretical limitation of coal ash by coal cleaning, because 2–5% of inorganic components in medium–high quality ash coal could hardly be separated by traditional physical coal beneficiation.

Wenfeng Wang; Weiduo Hao; Simon Xu; Fuchang Qian; Shuxun Sang; Yong Qin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Grain characteristics and engineering properties of coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Ash produced by the coal fired thermal plants is often used as ... the grain characteristics and the engineering properties of coal ash. The results of x-ray diffraction, ... characteristic that may be used for ...

A. Trivedi; V. K. Sud

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Leaching of Major and Trace Elements from Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most power stations currently operate wet ash disposal systems. However, this method of ash disposal is being subjected to increasing scrutiny as there is a potential for contamination of surface and groundwat...

D. R. Jones

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

High carbon fly ash finds uses in highway construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The beneficial use of high carbon fly ash in a highway construction project is discussed. The fly ash also had a relatively high content of mercury and some other heavy metals. 1 fig., 4 photos.

Wen, H.; Patton, R. [University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Recycled Materials Resources Center

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Leaching of Selected Elements from Coal Ash Dumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A ... ionic strength of river water, we extracted coal ash with distilled water and 0.002 M–...3. The results show that changes in river water ionic ...

A. Popovic; D. Radmanovic; D. Djordjevic; P. Polic

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rattanasak, Ubolluk, E-mail: ubolluk@buu.ac.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the

V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash ... A new technique has been developed to determine the sintering rate of coal ash based on the measurement of the pressure-drop across a pellet of ash. ... The technique developed in this study shows a good repeatability of the rate of sintering and confirms that viscous flow is the dominant mechanism for sintering of coal ash. ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; L. K. Elliott; T. F. Wall; B. Moghtaderi

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

142

Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems ... A holding pond for coal ash collapsed, releasing billions of gallons of coal-ash sludge onto nearby farmland and into the waters of the Emory and Tennessee rivers. ... For decades, researchers, environmental advocates, local communities, and even the U.S. EPA have been concerned about the ongoing risks posed by the unregulated management of coal ash. ...

Rhitu Chatterjee

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

143

Fractionation and transport of nutrients among coal ash residues and in soil covered with fly ash-amended organic compost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants generate different types of ash residues and discharge small particles and vapors to the atmosphere. The ash residues which account for the major part ... the byproducts are collected and ...

M. P. Menon; K. S. Sajwan; G. S. Ghuman; J. James…

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Impact of Coal Ash Lagoons Upon the Surrounding Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash and slag are the waste products from thermal power stations (TPS). In one Polish TPS, 10,000 Mg of slag, and 48,700 Mg of ash are produced every year. All the slag is utilizedi whereas the ash is tipped of...

E. S. Kempa; A. J?drczak

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash John N. Ward Ben Franklin Headwaters;2 A Headline You May Have Seen What is the future of coal fly ash utilization in a mercury controls world? What is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications

146

Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Geochemistry and mineralogy of fly-ash from the Mae Moh lignite deposit, Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of 21 elements in fly ash from three boilers (75 MW, 150 MW, and 300 MW) at the EGAT power plant, Mae Moh, Thailand, were determined by INAA. The concentration of 10 major elements was determined by XRF. As, Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, and Sb generally increase in concentration going from bottom ash (BA) through the sequence of electrostatic precipitator ashes (ESPA) and reach maxima of As (352 ppm), Co (45 ppm), Cr (105 ppm), Mo (32 ppm), Ni (106 ppm), and Sb (15 ppm) in the ESPA. Ce, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Ta, Tb, and Yb did not exhibit concentration trends or are variable except in the case of one boiler, which showed an increase going from BA to ESPA. Only Br decreased in composition going from BA to ESPA. Rb, Sm, U, and Th showed marked variation in trends. The major elements identified by EDS were Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Fe, and Ba, with minor amounts of Mg, Na, Ti, Mn, and Sr. Al, Si, K, and Ca occur together and are present in most of the fly-ash particles. Ba was found as a major component with Ca, Al, and Si. Fe and Ca are usually associated with sulfur. Some small spheres (< 5 {mu}m) are comprised almost entirely of Fe (probably as oxide). Symplectite textures are noted in high-Fe phases. All elements except Br are significantly enriched in the fly ash relative to the coal, which contains 35% ash. Particle chemistry is consistent with the major mineral phases identified by XRD, which include: quartz, magnetite, mullite, gehlenite, anorthite, hematite, anhydrite, and clinopyroxene.

Hart, B.R.; Powell, M.A.; Fyfe, W.S. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Ratanasthien, B. [Univ. of Chaing Mai (Thailand). Dept. of Geology

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - anderson impurity model Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics ; Materials Science 17 Loss of -junction behavior in an interacting impurity Josephson junction Aashish A. Clerk and Vinay Ambegaokar Summary: the impurity. Formalism....

150

The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fly ash production. Researchers have subsequently had the opportunity to develop a full body of knowledge concerning bitum1nous ash and its applications. The first s1gn1ficant use of b1tuminous fly ash probably occurred 20 in the 1940's when...THE VARIABILITY OF FLY ASH AND ITS EFFECTS ON SELECTED PROPERTIES OF FRESH PORTLAND CEi'1ENT/FLY ASH MORTARS A Thesis by WILLIAM CARLTON MCKERALL Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas A&M Uni ver s i ty in partia1 fu1fi11ment...

McKerall, William Carlton

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

ON CONSISTENCY OF BAYES PROCEDURES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ON CONSISTENCY OF BAYES PROCEDURES Loraine Schwartz DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA...COLUMBIA. | Journal Article ON CONSISTENCY OF BAYES PROCEDURES BY LORAINE SCHWARTZ DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA...

Loraine Schwartz

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The impact of impurities on long-term PEMFC performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical experimentation and modeling indicates that impurities degrade fuel cell performance by a variety of mechanisms. Electrokinetics may be inhibited by catalytic site poisoning from sulfur compounds and CO and by decreased local proton activity and mobility caused by the presence of foreign salt cations or ammonia. Cation impurity profiles vary with current density, valence and may change local conductivity and water concentrations in the ionomer. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia species may be electrochemically active under fuel cell operating conditions. The primary impurity removal mechanisms are electrooxidation and water fluxes through the fuel cell.

Garzon, Gernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopes, Thiago [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sansinena, Jose - Maria [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kienitz, Brian [LLNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Negative compressibility observed in graphene containing resonant impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We observed negative compressibility in monolayer graphene containing resonant impurities under different magnetic fields. Hydrogenous impurities were introduced into graphene by electron beam (e-beam) irradiation. Resonant states located in the energy region of {+-}0.04 eV around the charge neutrality point were probed in e-beam-irradiated graphene capacitors. Theoretical results based on tight-binding and Lifshitz models agreed well with experimental observations of graphene containing a low concentration of resonant impurities. The interaction between resonant states and Landau levels was detected by varying the applied magnetic field. The interaction mechanisms and enhancement of the negative compressibility in disordered graphene are discussed.

Chen, X. L.; Wang, L.; Li, W.; Wang, Y.; He, Y. H.; Wu, Z. F.; Han, Y.; Zhang, M. W.; Xiong, W.; Wang, N. [Department of Physics and The William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physics and The William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

Royer, L.T.

1987-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

Decoherence induced by magnetic impurities in a quantum hall system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scattering by magnetic impurities is known to destroy coherence of electron motion in metals and semiconductors. We investigate the decoherence introduced in a single act of electron scattering by a magnetic impurity in a quantum Hall system. For this, we introduce a fictitious nonunitary scattering matrix for electrons that reproduces the exactly calculated scattering probabilities. The strength of decoherence is identified by the deviation of eigenvalues of the product from unity. Using the fictitious scattering matrix, we estimate the width of the metallic region at the quantum Hall effect inter-plateau transition and its dependence on the exchange coupling strength and the degree of polarization of magnetic impurities.

Kagalovsky, V. [Shamoon College of Engineering (Israel); Chudnovskiy, A. L., E-mail: alexander.chudnovskiy@gmail.com [Universitat Hamburg, I. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaobin Wang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ash fusibility and compositional data of solid recovered fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several approaches are established to analyse the fouling and slagging propensities of coal ashes, but the same cannot be said of solid recovered fuel (SRF) ashes. This work has been conducted by using some fouling and slagging indicators, which are commonly applicable to coal ashes, on SRF ashes to ascertain their applicability. In this work, laboratory prepared ashes derived from municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, demolition wood, shredded rubber tyres, and plastic/paper fluff are analysed for their fusibility leading to fouling and slagging using three approaches; the ash fusibility temperatures (AFT), ternary phase diagrams, and fouling/slagging indices. The results from each approach are examined to determine the inclination of the ashes toward fouling and slagging. A subsequent inter-comparison of the methods was conducted to validate the methods which are in agreement and are applicable to SRF ashes. The study showed that ternary equilibrium phase diagram SiO2–CaO–Al2O3, various fouling and slagging indices, and AFT can be used to complement each other to predict ash fusion properties, fouling and slagging propensities of SRF ashes.

Gregory Dunnu; Jörg Maier; Günter Scheffknecht

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Q Q U U A A L L I I T T Y Y G G U U I I D D E E L L I I N N E E S S F F O O R R E E N N E E R R G G Y Y S S Y Y S S T T E E M M S S T T U U D D I I E E S S C C O O 2 2 I I m m p p u u r r i i t t y y D D e e s s i i g g n n P P a a r r a a m m e e t t e e r r s s DOE/NETL-2010/???? DOE/NETL-341/011212 August 2013 CO 2 Impurity Design Parameters Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ICRF_impurity_penetrtation_miniproposal_2014_v2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effect of detachment o number of nitrogen atoms in the core using MIST, and the N 2 flow rate norm Fig.1 Relative penetration of low-Z impurities into C-Mod Ohmic L-mode plasmas...

162

Impurities in a Homogeneous Electron Gas Jung-Hwan Song  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron Gas Abstract approved: Henri J. F. Jansen Immersion energies for an impurity in a homogeneous. Jansen, who has been a most important contributor to this thesis, and gave me guidelines and helps

Jansen, Henri J. F.

163

Accurate Detection of Impurities in Hydrogen Fuel at Lower Cost...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Accurate Detection of Impurities in Hydrogen Fuel at Lower Cost Advancing the science of fuel...

164

Lattice relaxations and hyperfine fields of heavy impurities in Fe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present first-principles calculations of the lattice relaxations and hyperfine fields of heavy impurities in bcc Fe. We consider impurities of the 5sp and 6sp series, containing the largest atoms in the periodic table. As an application we calculate the hyperfine fields of these impurities and in particular the effects of lattice relaxations on these fields. The calculations are based on a full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s-function method for defects and employ the local spin-density approximation for the exchange and correlation effects. The nonspherical parts of the potential and the charge density are included in the calculations and the forces are calculated by an ionic version of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. The resulting lattice relaxations are relatively small, even for the largest impurities considered. The comparison of the calculated hyperfine fields with the experimental data shows that the inclusion of lattice relaxations improves the overall agreement with experiment.

T. Korhonen; A. Settels; N. Papanikolaou; R. Zeller; P. H. Dederichs

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

Liu, M. [GM China Lab] [GM China Lab; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

2009-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

167

The lime-soda sinter process for resource recovery from fly ash: A new look  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lime-soda sinter process is one of the earliest and most thoroughly researched and evaluated of the several methods available for resource recovery from fly ash. The principle product, metallurgical grade alumina, is obtained with yields as high as 90% depending upon how much alumina needs to be left in the residue to form acceptable byproduct cement clinker. The process has the advantages of requiring a relatively low sintering temperature (1100-1200{degree}C), using conventional equipment of carbon steel construction, utilizing a variety of calcium and mineralizer raw materials, and producing only a single byproduct consisting of dicalcium silicate that has been shown to be an attractive raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. An economic feasibility study for a combined facility to produce alumina and cement from the fly ash generated by a 1000 MWe coal-fired power station shows a 10.5% return on average investment. This is increased to 14.2% when a disposal charge of $10/ton of fly ash consumed is credited to the process. Research has shown that the soda ash can be replaced by coal cleaning refuse or that the soda ash and one-fourth of the limestone can be replaced by FGD sludge with a savings in raw material cost in both cases. The return on average investment becomes 14.5% when the refuse is used and 15.2% when the sludge is used. The return could be increased further if an inexpensive fluxing agent were substituted for the alumina deliberately left in the residue. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Burnet, G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Does the Addition of Fly Ash to Concrete Present a Radon Hazard? J. A. Siegel1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Street, Suite 450, Austin, Texas, 78701, USA Summary: Fly ash, a waste material from coal-fired power of fly ash [9]. Fly ash is a waste material from coal fired power plants; when added to concrete, fly ashDoes the Addition of Fly Ash to Concrete Present a Radon Hazard? J. A. Siegel1 , M. Juenger1 and J

Siegel, Jeffrey

169

Use of High-Calcium Fly Ash in Cement-Based Construction Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, total coal ash production in the world was estimated to be 600 million tons, of which 100 million tons with ASTM 618, coal fly ash is classified into two main categories, Class F fly ash (low-calcium) and Class coal, and Class C fly ash is generated from burning of lignite and subbituminous coals. Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

170

Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol ubility_Paper.doc Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 and Karl Schroeder 2 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Research Group Leader, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, activated carbon, pH ABSTRACT It is expected that increased controls on Hg emissions will shift the environmental burden from the flue gas to the solid coal utilization by-products (CUB), such as fly ash and flue-gas

171

Surface studies of coal, oil, and coal-oil-mixture ash using auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by the combustion of coal, oil, and a coal-oil mixture have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques. The Auger data indicate that the surface concentration of the metal ions Na, Fe, Mg, Ni, V, and Al as well as S and C increases on going from coal to coal-oil mixture and oil ash. The relative surface enrichments of oil and coal-oil-mixture ash are consistent with a simple model of the ash-formation process, and the results confirm that several toxic metals are significantly enriched on the surface of the ash particles. The Auger data are compared to HCl and tris buffer leachate composition analyses, and in neither case does the leachate give an accurate representation of the surface composition. HCl apparently dissolves large oxide deposits and thus overestimates the surface concentrations of Fe, Al, and V. Conversely, several metallic ions are essentially insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, so their surface concentration is underestimated by the tris leachate.

Stinespring, C.D.; Harris, W.R.; Cook, J.M.; Casleton, K.H.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

NETL: Utilization Projects - Managing High-Carbon Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Managing High-Carbon Ash Managing High-Carbon Ash Task 1: Effect of Coal Quality The objective of this task is to assess if fuel selection is an important factor determining ash quality. Work on this task will involve each of the three participating organizations. Ash samples from three coals will be generated under identical firing conditions in the pilot furnace at the University of Utah, and the matching ash and coal samples sent to Brown. Additional matching sets of coal and ash will be obtained from commercial-scale firing at Southern Company. The ashes will be characterized for LOI and surfactant adsorption activity under standard conditions and trends with fuel type identified. At the same time, chars will be prepared from the matching coal set under standard conditions in a laboratory furnace and also characterized for surfactant adsorptivity. A variety of standard conditions may need to be explored. The combined data set will be analyzed to determine cross correlations between ash behavior, standard laboratory char behavior, and parent coal properties. Our goal is to be able to anticipate ash behavior either (a) from coal properties directly, or (b) from the properties of chars made by a simple laboratory procedure. Either could be the basis for a coal quality index -- one based on fuel properties and the other based on a simple screening test.

173

Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ash Loading Protocol Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols to AssessFuel and Lube Effects on Diesel Aftertreatment (Agreement 13415) Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies...

174

Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ash in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 7172005 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL...

175

Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Bruce G. Bunting and Todd J. Toops Oak Ridge National Laboratory Adam Youngquist and Ke Nguyen University of...

176

Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

Sulloway, H. M.

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Predicting and validating the tracking of a Volcanic Ash Cloud during the 2006 Eruption of Mt. Augustine Volcano  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On 11 January 2006, Mount Augustine volcano in southern Alaska began erupting after 20-year repose. The Anchorage Forecast Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) issued an advisory on 28 January for Kodiak City. On 31 January, Alaska Airlines cancelled all flights to and from Anchorage after multiple advisories from the NWS for Anchorage and the surrounding region. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) had reported the onset of the continuous eruption. AVO monitors the approximately 100 active volcanoes in the Northern Pacific. Ash clouds from these volcanoes can cause serious damage to an aircraft and pose a serious threat to the local communities, and to transcontinental air traffic throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Within AVO, a dispersion model has been developed to track the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds. The model, Puff, was used operational by AVO during the Augustine eruptive period. Here, we examine the dispersion of a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Augustine across Alaska from 29 January through the 2 February 2006. We present the synoptic meteorology, the Puff predictions, and measurements from aerosol samplers, laser radar (or lidar) systems, and satellites. UAF aerosol samplers revealed the presence of volcanic aerosols at the surface at sites where Puff predicted the ash clouds movement. Remote sensing satellite data showed the development of the ash cloud in close proximity to the volcano and a sulfur-dioxide cloud further from the volcano consistent with the Puff predictions. Lidars showed the presence of volcanic aerosol with consistent characteristics aloft over Alaska and were capable of detecting the aerosol, even in the presence of scattered clouds and where the cloud is too thin/disperse to be detected by remote sensing satellite data. The lidar measurements revealed the different trajectories of ash consistent with the Puff predictions. Dispersion models provide a forecast of volcanic ash cloud movement that might be undetectable by any other means but are still a significant hazard. Validation is the key to assessing the accuracy of any future predictions. The study highlights the use of multiple and complementary observations used in detecting the trajectory ash cloud, both at the surface and aloft within the atmosphere.

Webley, Peter W.; Atkinson, D.; Collins, Richard L.; Dean, K.; Fochesatto, J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Cahill, Catherine F.; Prata, A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mizutani, K.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when ... of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly ... ash and correspond...

S. H. Zhang; H. H. Luo; H. P. Chen…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

180

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationarea to volume ratio of coal ash is 200 times greater than1 mm diameters and spherical coal ash particles with 5 ?m

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. Abstract: Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a...

182

Seasonal effects of volatile oils in ashe and redberry juniper on preference and digestibility by goats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(qnodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) and live Oak [Quercus virginiana (Small) Sarg. var. fusiformis] during the spring and fall. Angora and Spanish goats were exposed to ashe female, ashe male, redberry female and redberry...

Riddle, Richard R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned ... ash, and hence the coal conversio...

Zhang Shihong; Tian Luning; Zhou Xianrong…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum-fly ash metal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

extent, bottom ash, contain elevated amounts of heavy metals, and fly ash... . The dioxinsfurans on ash then don't seem to create an environmental problem. Heavy metals are...

185

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cenospheres composites Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Composites Addition of fly ash cenospheres to polymer matrix influences all... , polyethylene, etc.). The effects of addition of fly ash cenospheres on polymer composites...

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash slag silica Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 91 By-Products Utilization Summary: pozzolans include coal fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and other combustion ashes. When...

189

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposition propensities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 51...

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposits part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reading Collection: Geosciences 24 Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation Summary: being used for coal ash deposits....

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash char deposits Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 86...

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash nasal lavage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the people of North America for thousands of years. Of the nine ash... species, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ... Source: USDA, Forestry Service, Northern Research...

193

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash intranasal instillation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Combustion Residue: Origins, Fate and Potential for Treatment Summary: in the form of ash (Liberti et al. 2005). The management of this ash presents a unique challenge... or...

194

Characterization of the Thermal Transport Through a Temporally-Varying Ash Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ash deposits in commercial coal-fired boilers frequently pose serious maintenance challenges and decrease thermal efficiency. A better understanding of fundamental thermal transport properties in ash… (more)

Cundick,Darron Palmer 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash disposal area Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 83 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: combustion 1. Fly ash is...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashe higher education Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

higher abrasion... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quarterly technical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash paving demonstration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND DEMONSTRATION... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash penurunan kadar Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ahto lobjakas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based gepolymer Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash projekt vaendoera Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

205

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

Colon-Mercado, H.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

206

Study of ash deposition during coal combustion under oxyfuel conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative study on ash deposition of two selected coals, Russian coal and lignite, under oxyfuel (O2/CO2) and air combustion conditions. The comparison is based on experimental results and subsequent evaluation of the data and observed trends. Deposited as well as remaining filter ash (fine ash) samples were subjected to XRD and ICP analyses in order to study the chemical composition and mineral transformations undergone in the ash under the combustion conditions. The experimental results show higher deposition propensities under oxyfuel conditions; the possible reasons for this are investigated by analyzing the parameters affecting the ash deposition phenomena. Particle size seems to be larger for the Russian coal oxy-fired ash, leading to increased impaction on the deposition surfaces. The chemical and mineralogical compositions do not seem to differ significantly between air and oxyfuel conditions. The differences in the physical properties of the flue gas between air combustion and oxyfuel combustion, e.g. density, viscosity, molar heat capacity, lead to changes in the flow field (velocities, particle trajectory and temperature) that together with the ash particle size shift seem to play a role in the observed ash deposition phenomena.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Glazer; C. Bertrand; M. Cieplik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Reactivity of fly ashes in a spray dryer FGD process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the period 1981-1982, a study was performed to determine the ability of various fly ashes to retain sulfur dioxide in a pilot plant spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system. This knowledge would provide design engineers with the necessary data to determine whether the fly ash from a particular utility could be used as an effective supplement or substitute for slaked lime in a spray dryer system. The study commenced with the collection of 22 fly ashes from lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous eastern and western coals. The ashes were contacted with the flue gas entering the pilot plant by two different techniques. In the first, the ashes were slurried in water and injected into the spray dryer through a spinning disk atomizer. In the second, the ashes were injected as a dry additive into the flue gas upstream of the spray dryer. Analyses were conducted to determine the ability of each ash to retain sulfur dioxide in the system followed by statistical correlations of the sulfur retention with the physical/chemical properties of each ash. 17 references, 32 figures, 19 tables.

Davis, W.T.; Reed, G.D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

210

Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal Utility Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State Government Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Ashe County Planning Department In 2007 Ashe County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in unincorporated areas of the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a system may be obtained. This policy was adopted in the context of an ongoing debate over

211

Purple traps yield Reservation's first detection of Emerald Ash Borer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

traps yield Reservation's first detection of Emerald Ash Borer traps yield Reservation's first detection of Emerald Ash Borer The question of whether or not DOE's forests are infested with Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has been answered. On May 10, a trap on Highway 95 at the Highway 58 interchange produced the first instance of the destructive non-native insect in Roane County. Five days later, a second trap on Bethel Valley Road near the East Portal turned up the first capture in Anderson County. "Unfortunately, these finds signal the beginning of a decline of ash species throughout the reservation" according to Greg Byrd, forester with the ORNL Natural Resources Program. "Dieback will become more prominent as the insect populations expand. Native ash trees have little defense against this pest, which was

212

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

213

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

214

Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Formation and Stability of Impurity "snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New observations of the formation and dynamics of long-lived impurity-induced helical "snake" modes in tokamak plasmas have recently been carried-out on Alcator C-Mod. The snakes form as an asymmetry in the impurity ion density that undergoes a seamless transition from a small helically displaced density to a large crescent-shaped helical structure inside q < 1, with a regularly sawtoothing core. The observations show that the conditions for the formation and persistence of a snake cannot be explained by plasma pressure alone. Instead, many features arise naturally from nonlinear interactions in a 3D MHD model that separately evolves the plasma density and temperature

L. Delgado-Aparicio, et. al.

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

Role of Ash Deposits in the High Temperature Corrosion of Boiler Tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits cause accelerated corrosion of waterwall boiler tubes in waste to energy (WTE) incinerators. To study this effect, a series of experiments were planned to determine the mechanism of corrosion of carbon steel boiler tubes under ash deposits. Results reported here were for carbon steel tubes exposed to an environment consisting of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and water vapor. Future experiments will include HCl and SO{sub 2}. Test procedures included both isothermal and thermal gradient tests. Temperatures ranged from 300 C to 510 C for the isothermal tests and a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C for the thermal gradient test. Initial results indicated that increasing temperature caused the isothermal corrosion rates of ash-covered samples to increase. A shakedown test of a thermal gradient test apparatus was conducted at a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C, a more severe environment than normally encountered in WTE waterwalls. Results showed that the corrosion rate under those conditions exceeds the isothermal corrosion rates at the same metal temperature by a factor of 2 or more.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Matthes, S.A.; White, M.L.

2003-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

Categorical Exclusion 4566, Ash Removal Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FOrnI FOrnI Project Title: Ash Removal Project (4566) Program or Program Office: Y -12 Site Office Location: Oak Ridge Tennessee Project Description: This work scope is to split, containerize, package, transport and disposition one hundred and two (102) cans of mixed waste. General Administration/Management OA I - Routine business actions OA2 * Administrative contract amendments OA4 - Interpretations/rulings for existing regulations OA5 - Regulatory interpretations without environmental effect OA6 - Procedural rule makings upgrade OA 7 - Transfer of property, use unchanged OA8 . Award of technical supportlM&O/personal service contracts OA9 - Info gathering, analysis, documentation, dissemination, and training OA 10 - Reports on non-DOE legislation OA II -

218

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Charged impurity-induced scatterings in chemical vapor deposited graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of defect scatterings on the electric transport properties of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene by measuring the carrier density dependence of the magneto-conductivity. To clarify the dominant scattering mechanism, we perform extensive measurements on large-area samples with different mobility to exclude the edge effect. We analyze our data with the major scattering mechanisms such as short-range static scatters, short-range screened Coulomb disorders, and weak-localization (WL). We establish that the charged impurities are the predominant scatters because there is a strong correlation between the mobility and the charge impurity density. Near the charge neutral point (CNP), the electron-hole puddles that are induced by the charged impurities enhance the inter-valley scattering, which is favorable for WL observations. Away from the CNP, the charged-impurity-induced scattering is weak because of the effective screening by the charge carriers. As a result, the local static structural defects govern the charge transport. Our findings provide compelling evidence for understanding the scattering mechanisms in graphene and pave the way for the improvement of fabrication techniques to achieve high-quality CVD graphene.

Li, Ming-Yang; Tang, Chiu-Chun [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei 25137, Taiwan (China); Li, L. J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

220

Impurity effects on electronmode coupling in high-temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Impurity effects on electron­mode coupling in high-temperature superconductors K. TERASHIMA espite years of intensive research on copper oxide superconductors with high transition temperatures (Tc in the high-Tc superconductors. The interaction of electrons with bosonic excitations (phonons or spin

Loss, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comprehensive electrostatic gyrokinetic linear stability calculations for ion-scale microinstabilities in an LHD plasma with an ion-ITB and carbon "impurity hole" are used to make quasilinear estimates of particle flux to explore whether microturbulence can explain the observed outward carbon fluxes that flow "up" the impurity density gradient. The ion temperature is not stationary in the ion-ITB phase of the simulated discharge, during which the core carbon density decreases continuously. To fully sample these varying conditions the calculations are carried out at three radial locations and four times. The plasma parameter inputs are based on experimentally measured profiles of electron and ion temperature, as well as electron and carbon density. The spectroscopic line-average ratio of hydrogen and helium densities is used to set the density of these species. Three ion species (H,He,C) and the electrons are treated kinetically, including collisions. Electron instability drive does enhance the growth rate significantly, but the most unstable modes have characteristics of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in all cases. As the carbon density gradient is scanned between the measured value and zero, the quasilinear carbon flux is invariably inward when the carbon density profile is hollow, so turbulent transport due to the instabilities considered here does not explain the observed outward flux of impurities in impurity hole plasmas. The stiffness of the quasilinear ion heat flux is found to be 1.7-2.3, which is lower than several estimates in tokamaks.

Mikkelsen, David R. [PPPL; Tanaka, K. [NIFS; Nunami, M. [NIFS; Watanabe, T-H. [Nagoya University; Sugama, H. [NIFS; Yoshinuma, M. [NIFS; Suzuki, Y. [NIFS; Goto, M. [NIFS; Morita, S. [NIFS; Wieland, B. [NIFS; Yamada, I. [NIFS; Yashura, R. [NIFS; Akiyama, T. [NIFS; Pablant, Novimir A. [PPPL

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Impurity pellet injection systems for tokamak diagnostics and burn control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper contains recent results in the field of pellet diagnostics obtained on the T-10 and ASDEX-Upgrade tokamaks (collaboration between STU and IPP) and a proposal to inject high Z impurity pellets for control of the disruption and ramp-down phase in ITER.

Kuteev, B.V.; Sergeev, V.Yu.; Egorov, S.M.; Kapralov, V.G.; Khlopenkov, K.V.; Miroshnikov, I.V.; Polyakov, D.V.; Reznichenko, P.V. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lang, P.T.; Buechl, K.P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)] [and others

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Thermomechanical Analysis of Coal Ash:? The Influence of the Material for the Sample Assembly  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although the proposed temperatures were low compared to conventional AFTs, especially for iron-rich samples, the use of TMA appeared to be an excellent tool for routine characterization of ash fusibility of various coals. ... BN, C, and Al2O3 assemblies are not suitable in studying the thermal behavior of coal ashes due to reactions with components of the ash. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; S. K. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; R. P. Gupta; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

224

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests V. Tsiridis t The environmental hazard of six coal fly ash samples collected from various coal incineration plants were examined- bustion, considerable amounts of coal fly ash are still produced. Although coal fly ash can be moderately

Short, Daniel

225

Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for three and five years respectively prior to removal and evaluation. The objective is to determine how well each material resists corrosion at different operating temperatures and over different time periods and provide characteristic data. Selection of the test materials, system engineering, fabrication, installation and startup of this system is now completed and data acquisition is in progress. This paper gives an overview of the program and its objectives, explains the system, describes section fabrication, identifies the materials selected, and describes ORNL's experience in fabricating four of the advanced materials.

McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Neutron spectroscopy of H impurities in PdD: Covibrations of the H and D atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three powder samples of solid isotopic solutions PdD1?xHx with x=0.050, 0.072, and 0.091 are prepared under high pressure, and the spectra of their optical vibrations are studied by inelastic neutron scattering at ambient pressure and 5 K using the high-luminosity IN1-BeF spectrometer at ILL, Grenoble. These spectra are shown to be well represented by a linear combination of a contribution from the undisturbed matrix of stoichiometric PdD and a contribution due to the H impurity. The optical spectrum of PdD consists of a strong peak at 37 meV with a shoulder extending to 65 meV. The spectrum due to the H impurity is composed of a broad peak of defect H modes centered at 68 meV and superimposed on a broad N-shaped feature with a range of negative intensity near 36 meV and a shallow maximum at 45 meV. Simulations using the Born-von Kármán model show that this unusual feature is a result of the formation of a band of optical vibrations of the D and H atoms with equal frequencies (covibrations) caused by H-D interactions.

V. E. Antonov; A. I. Davydov; V. K. Fedotov; A. S. Ivanov; A. I. Kolesnikov; M. A. Kuzovnikov

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type.

229

Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: December 2, 2013 S. Van Wychen and L. M. L. Laurens Technical Report NRELTP-5100-60956 December...

230

Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E. [Montana State University, MT (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Coal ash composition of Australian low rank coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The iron-containing phases in nine precipitator ashes of widely differing composition have been analyzed by57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The importance of the relative proportion of calcium ferrite to magnesioferr...

L. J. Brown; J. D. Cashion; R. C. Ledger

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

INAA multielemental analysis of Nigerian bituminous coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyzed Nigerian bituminous coal and ash. Good statistical agreement (p...?0.05) between the literature and reported elemental values of USGS AGV-1 sam...

V. O. Ogugbuaja; W. D. James

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Coal Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review summarizes formation mechanisms of coal ash, its chemistry and use pattern in the Finnish industry. Coal is composed of organic and inorganic materials. The properties of coal varies from one region t...

Arun B. Mukherjee; Ryunosuke Kikuchi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The mild hydrothermal synthesis of hydrogrossular from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an attempt was made to synthesize hydrogrossular, a group of garnet minerals, under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures below 180°C, using coal ash, which is the solid waste from thermal...

Satoru Fujita; Kenzi Suzuki; Yasuo Shibasaki

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash is recognized as an alternative fill material to the conventional natural soils near a coal fired thermal power station where its large ... This paper presents experimental investigations on footings on

Ashutosh Trivedi; Vijay Kumar Sud

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17-acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a...

237

Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastes Increases soil pH Add plant nutrients Low cost #12;UNH COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Food & Agriculture and scab-susceptible potatoes varieties thrive in acid soils, and should not be supplemented with wood ash

New Hampshire, University of

238

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in US history occurred in December 2008 ... Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such ... ...

Mark S. Greeley Jr.; Logan R. Elmore…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Enhancement of phosphogypsum with high lime fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH'LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Approved as to style and content by: Dr. ona d Saylak (Chairman f Committee) Dr. W. edbetter ( ember) (Member) r. Lloyd Deuel, 3...

Gregory, Chuck Alan

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Use of Biomass Gasification Fly Ash in Lightweight Plasterboard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition, the overall environmental benefit of waste gasification plus ash utilization of a difficult fly ash makes the overall process attractive. ... Only the Autonomous Government of Catalonia has established regional regulations for waste management, including limited recycling for some wastes considered as byproducts. ... viability of gasifying untreated olive stone, also called "orujillo", a byproduct of the olive oil industry that comprises both olive stone and pulp. ...

C. Leiva; A. Gómez-Barea; L. F. Vilches; P. Ollero; J. Vale; C. Fernández-Pereira

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that, due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also is intended to compare and summarize the results for all three test sections. The analysis of T

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial distribution, and chemical binding of metals within clusters is just as important as the total metal concentration in limiting the performance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells led to the concept of defect engineering by optimizing growth and processing sequences to trap metals in their least harmful state.

247

A REVIEW OF RECENT IMPURITY MEASUREMENTS OF LANL MATERIAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Applied Computational Engineering and Statistics (ACES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to review recent measurements performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on material from that facility that is being considered for processing through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). There are specification limits for impurities in the feed to the MOX facility: a maximum limit and an exceptional limit. The limits for an impurity apply to the population of concentration values for that impurity for a class of material that is to be processed through MOX. For the purposes of this report, these limits were defined as follows. The concentration of an elemental impurity, expressed as micrograms of the element per gram of plutonium ({micro}g/g Pu), is to be no more than the maximum limit for that element for 98% of the material coming through MOX; that is, 98% of the material processed at MOX is to have a concentration of the given element less than the maximum limit. In addition, the concentration for a given element is to be no more than the exceptional limit for that element for 99.9% of the material processed through MOX. The measurements evaluated as part of this study included LANL blend lots 1 through 29 and cover carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and sulfur (S). Note that all of the measurements for each impurity were below their respective maximum (and obviously, therefore, their exceptional) limits. Thus, there is no immediate concern regarding the LANL material being suitable for processing through MOX. Two approaches were used to investigate the quantiles of the impurity populations. The first approach used was a nonparametric approach. While the results from this approach did not indicate any problems for any of the impurities, there was too little data available to lead to confident statements about satisfying the maximum and exceptional limits. Impurity data from additional random samples of the LANL material would be needed to increase the confidence level associated with the results from a nonparametric approach for investigating the population quantiles of interest. For S, F, and Cl, only a nonparametric approach was used. A second approach, a parametric approach, was attempted for C, P, and N. However, the results for the P and N measurements indicated that each of their respective populations was not well modeled by a normal or by a lognormal distribution. Thus, the conclusions for the P and N populations were those provided by the nonparametric approach. From the parametric approach, the results for C indicated no issue in the LANL material meeting the maximum limit for this element assuming that the measurements for this element follow a lognormal distribution.

Edwards, T.

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial distribution, and chemical binding of metals within clusters is just as important as the total metal concentration in limiting the performance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells led to the concept of defect engineering by optimizing growth and processing sequences to trap metals in their least harmful state.

249

Suppression of Metallic Impurities by Electron Injection in a Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We found that the sheath potential plays a dominant role in the plasma-wall interaction in the Macrotor tokamak. An increase in the sheath potential, produced by removing electrons from the plasma, results in the enhancement of the metal influx. When the sheath potential is reduced by electron injection, the metal influx is suppressed. This mechanism may be used as a tool in controlling metallic impurities in tokamaks.

R. J. Taylor and Lena Oren

1979-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

250

An overview of the behaviour of biomass during combustion: Part II. Ash fusion and ash formation mechanisms of biomass types  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An extended overview of the phase–mineral transformations of organic and inorganic matter during biomass combustion was conducted in Part I of the present work. The ash fusion and ash formation mechanisms of biomass types and sub-types during combustion are described in the present Part II. For that purpose the identified systematic associations based on the occurrence, content and origin of elements and phases in the biomass ash (BA) system, namely (1) Si–Al–Fe–Na–Ti (mostly glass, silicates and oxyhydroxides); (2) Ca–Mg–Mn (commonly carbonates, oxyhydroxides, glass, silicates and some phosphates and sulphates); and (3) K–P–S–Cl (normally phosphates, sulphates, chlorides, glass and some silicates and carbonates); were used as classification of \\{BAs\\} into four types (“S”, “C”, “K” and “CK”) and six sub-types with high, medium and low acid tendencies and their description was given. Then, topics related to ash fusion behaviour such as: some general considerations and observations about ash melting; ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of biomass and their comparisons with coal; relationships between \\{AFTs\\} and inorganic composition of biomass and coal; and ash fusion mechanisms of biomass and coal are characterized. Further, issues connected with the ash formation mechanisms of BA types and sub-types are discussed. Subsequently, aspects related to potential applications of ash formation mechanisms for BA types and sub-types, namely some key technological problems (fusion, slagging and fouling predictions, low ash fusion temperatures, co-combustion and application of BA) and environmental risks (volatilization, capture and water leaching of hazardous elements) are described. Finally, it is emphasized that the application of this new classification approach based on combined phase–mineral and chemical composition of biomass and BA has not only fundamental importance, but also has potential applications in prediction of behaviour and properties connected with the innovative and sustainable utilization of biomass and BA. It is also demonstrated that the definitive utilization, technological and environmental advantages and challenges related to biomass and BA associate preferentially with their specific types and sub-types and they could be predictable to some extent by using the above or similar combined chemical and phase–mineral classification approaches.

Stanislav V. Vassilev; David Baxter; Christina G. Vassileva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Role of Fly Ash in the Removal of Organic Pollutants from Wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In India the problem is further compounded by the use of wet fly ash collection systems by a large number of power plants, which results in degradation of the pozzolanic characteristics of ash, an essential ingredient for several ash-based products. ... To accommodate the many new subbituminous fly ashes, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) established two classes of fly ash, Class F from bituminous coal and Class C from subbituminous and lignite coal. ... Thermal power plant waste material (bottom ash) was utilized as a potential adsorbent for the textile dye malachite green. ...

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

252

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash 2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash October 28, 2003 Table of Contents Disclaimer Participants List [PDF-31KB] Papers and Presentations Control Measures Predictive Performance Tools (Including Instrumentation) Processing and Utilization of High-LOI Fly Ash Beneficiation of High-LOI Fly Ash Characterization of High-LOI Fly Ash Poster Presentations Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

254

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: ? Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. ? Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. ? Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. ? Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. ? Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. ? Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

CHRISTOPHER J. ZYGARLICKE; DONALD P. MCCOLLOR; JOHN P. KAY; MICHAEL L. SWANSON

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Influence of Coal Ash/Organic Waste Application on Distribution of Trace Metals in Soil, Plant, and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of coal ash mixture (coal ash, biosolids and yard waste compost ratio of ... fruits, and its leaching potential into groundwater. Coal ash mixture was applied at rates...

Yuncong Li; Min Zhang; Peter Stoffella; Zhenli He…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The abundance of AsH3 in Jupiter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both ground-based and airborne observations of the AsH3 Q-branch at 2126/cm, in conjunction with newly-analyzed laboratory comparison spectra at AsH3, are employed in the derivation of a new estimate of Jovian As abundance. The mole fraction on AsH3 in the Jovian atmosphere is 0.22 + or - 0.11 ppb; this is merely 0.5 times the solar abundance, and a factor-of-9 less than the mole fraction found in Saturn, duplicating the pattern noted in the relative abundance of P in these two planets and furnishing a useful constraint for models of heavy element incorporation in the outer planets' gaseous envelopes. 20 refs.

Noll, K.S.; Larson, H.P.; Geballe, T.R. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA) Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Fly Ash from a Waste Incineration Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article | 0 Benzofurans 0 Coal Ash 0 Particulate Matter...purification Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Education,Departmentof Chemistry,42099 Konya,Turkey...obtained from various combustion processes.The combustionprocess......

Mustafa Pehlivan; Erol Pehlivan; Hüseyin Kara

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with ... and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because ... the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated f...

D. X. Li; H. L. Li; M. Xu; J. F. Lu; Q. Liu…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash aqueous carbonation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash Summary: Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of...

263

SINGLE ELEMENT TEST PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Fly-ash is a waste product produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It is often used. Introduction Fly-ash is a fine powdery material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. Fly

Prashant, Amit

264

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash silica fume Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

,and Bruce W. Ramme CBU-1996-08 REP-283 July 1996 Presented andPublished at the American Coal Ash Association... 's Twelfth International Coal Ash Use Symposium,Orlando,FL,January...

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dosage du Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality characterization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

267

Elemental characterization of coal ash and its leachates using sequential extraction techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Over 50 million tons of coal ash are produced annually in North America. Technological ... but have also increased contaminant concentrations in the ash of coal-fired boiler applications. The leaching of heavy .....

S. Landsberger; J. F. Cerbus; S. Larson

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Ash Transformations in the Real-Scale Pulverized Coal Combustion of South African and Colombian Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the formation of ash particles in the combustion of South African Klein Kopie coal and a Colombian coal was studied by measuring the ash particle characteristics upstream of the electrostatic precip...

Terttaliisa Lind; Esko I. Kauppinen…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Tephrochronology and Stratigraphy of Eocene and Oligocene Volcanic Ashes of East and Central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of bulk ash and glass shards, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) of bulk ash, and electron microprobe analysis of both apatite phenocrysts and glass shards to characterize their geochemistry...

Heintz, Mindi

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing dry Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shrinkage of Non-Air Entrained HRWRA Concrete -0.05% 0.00% 0.05% 0... NS3, 33% Clean Coal Ash, 5% Class F Fly Ash Fig. 15 - ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of -...

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline coal ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... ") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash utilization symposium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... ") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash material analisis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was used in this work. An ASTM Class F fly ash... , and N3) were proportioned with clean coal fly ash containing 22% ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

277

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dispersion utilizing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R... , utilization rate of such ashes is much lower compared to a...

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes total contents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash content for normal concrete... contained fly ash up to a maximum of 35% of clean-coal ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

280

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash formation transformations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chlorinated phenols because their presence in the ash could result in the formation of dioxins and furans... THE USE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

284

Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy C.T. Liu*, M composition Zr­10 at.%Al­5% Ti­17.9% Cu­14.6% Ni (BAM-11) was used to study the effects of oxygen impurities and microalloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Oxygen impurity at a level of 3000 appm

Pennycook, Steve

285

Non-Equilibrium Conformal Field Theories with Impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a construction of non-equilibrium steady states within conformal field theory. These states sustain energy flows between two quantum systems, initially prepared at different temperatures, whose dynamical properties are represented by two, possibly different, conformal field theories connected through an impurity. This construction relies on a real time formulation of conformal defect dynamics based on a field scattering picture parallelizing - but yet different from - the Euclidean formulation. We present the basic characteristics of this formulation and give an algebraic construction of the real time scattering maps that we illustrate in the case of SU(2)-based conformal field theories.

D. Bernard; B. Doyon; J. Viti

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

287

Perpetual motion and backscattering oscillations of a mobile impurity in a quantum fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of a mobile impurity in a quantum fluid at zero temperature. Two related settings are considered. In the first setting the impurity is injected in the fluid with some initial velocity ${\\mathbf v}_0$, and we are interested in its velocity at infinite time, ${\\mathbf v}_\\infty$. We derive a rigorous lower bound on $|{\\mathbf v}_\\infty|$ for initial velocities smaller than some critical velocity. In the limit of vanishing impurity-fluid coupling this bound amounts to ${\\mathbf v}_\\infty={\\mathbf v}_0$ which can be regarded as a rigorous proof of the Landau criterion of superfluidity. In the case of a finite coupling the velocity of the impurity can drop, but not to zero; the bound quantifies the maximal possible drop. In the second setting a small constant force acts upon the impurity. We identify two possible regimes of the impurity dynamics -- backscattering oscillations of the impurity velocity and saturation of the velocity without oscillations. Which regime is realized depends on the spectrum of the fluid and the mass of the impurity. In particular, backscattering oscillations are possible for sufficiently heavy impurities in fluids with a roton feature of the spectrum. Our results are equally valid in one, two and three dimensions.

Oleg Lychkovskiy

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

288

Detection of surface impurity phases in high T.sub.C superconductors using thermally stimulated luminescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Detection of surface impurity phases in high-temperature superconducting materials. Thermally stimulated luminescence has been found to occur in insulating impurity phases which commonly exist in high-temperature superconducting materials. The present invention is sensitive to impurity phases occurring at a level of less than 1% with a probe depth of about 1 .mu.m which is the region of interest for many superconductivity applications. Spectroscopic and spatial resolution of the emitted light from a sample permits identification and location of the impurity species. Absence of luminescence, and thus of insulating phases, can be correlated with low values of rf surface resistance.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Los Alamos, NM); Jahan, Muhammad S. (Bartlett, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Batch methods for enriching trace impurities in hydrogen gas for their further analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided herein are batch methods and devices for enriching trace quantities of impurities in gaseous mixtures, such as hydrogen fuel. The methods and devices rely on concentrating impurities using hydrogen transport membranes wherein the time period for concentrating the sample is calculated on the basis of optimized membrane characteristics, comprising its thickness and permeance, with optimization of temperature, and wherein the enrichment of trace impurities is proportional to the pressure ratio P.sub.hi/P.sub.lo and the volume ratio V.sub.1/V.sub.2, with following detection of the impurities using commonly-available detection methods.

Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Kumar, Romesh; Papdias, Dionissios D.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

291

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Spectroscopy of infrared emission characteristics of thermal power plant boiler coal ash deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant are investigated. Normal emittance spectra in 2.5-25 µm wavelength region and total normal emittance are measured on four kinds of ash at 600-1100K ... Keywords: ash deposit, emittance, pulverized coal combustion boiler furnace, spectroscopic measurement, thermal radiation

Aleksandar Saljnikov; Darko Goricanec; Danijela Dobersek; Dorde Kozic

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

297

Study of Radioactive Impurities in Neutron Transmutation Doped Germanium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A program to develop low temperature (mK) sensors with neutron transmutation doped Ge for rare event studies with a cryogenic bolometer has been initiated. For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron flux from Dhruva reactor at BARC, Mumbai. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated samples have revealed that the environment of the capsule used for irradiating the sample leads to significant levels of $^{65}$Zn, $^{110}$Ag and $^{182}$Ta impurities, which can be reduced by chemical etching of approximately $\\sim50 \\mu$m thick surface layer. From measurements of the etched samples in the low background counting setup, activity due to trace impurities of $^{123}$Sb in bulk Ge is estimated to be $\\sim$ 1 Bq/gm after irradiation. These estimates indicate that in order to use the NTD Ge sensors for rare event studies, a cool down period of $\\sim$ 2 years would be necessary to reduce the radioactive background to $\\le$ 1 mBq/gm.

S. Mathimalar; N. Dokania; V. Singh; V. Nanal; R. G. Pillay; A. Shrivastava; K. C. Jagadeesan; S. V. Thakare

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

298

BEyond thE BAcklAsh: equity and participation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BEyond thE BAcklAsh: equity and participation in bicycle planning. executive summary | May 2011 Camp Conor Clarke Joe Delia Jennifer Harris-Hernandez Sungbae Park Brian Paul Scott Richmond Sam Stein Jessame Hannus ValeriaTreves Bill DiPaola Kristen Jones Paul Steely White Katie Lyon-Hart We thank

Qiu, Weigang

299

Cathode-Luminescence of Rare Earths in Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Samples of a number of Indian coals (from Darjeeling, Assam, Raniganj, Jharia and Hyderabad) were incinerated in thin layers ... in an electric furnace at 400° C. The presence of rare earths in the ashes so obtained could not be detected by arc spectrographic analysis with a current of 10 ...

BIBHUTI MUKHERJEE

1949-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

Thermal properties of high-volume fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volume of concrete placed is receiving renewed interest. Concrete mixtures in which the fly ash replaces Academic Group on Concrete Technology, Universidad Auto´noma de Nuevo Leo´n, Monterrey, Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico are critical in assessing the potential energy efficiency of HVFA concrete structures, such as residential

Bentz, Dale P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Spectroscopic research on infrared emittance of coal ash deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a pulverized coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant. Normal emittance spectra in the near to medium infrared (2.5-25 {mu}m) region and total normal emittances were measured on four kinds of ground ash deposits. Measurements were conducted in the 570-1460 K temperature range which is common for boiler furnaces, by both heating and cooling the ash samples, with the aim to study the effect of their thermal history. Dependence of emittance on wavelength, temperature and chemical composition was studied, too. Samples were tested for transparency (opacity) to verify the accuracy of results. It was determined that the thicknesses used for the ash powders are opaque for infrared radiation for thicknesses in the order of a millimeter. Tests have shown that spectral emittance increases with an increase of wavelength with a characteristic pattern common for all samples. Spectral normal emittance increases strongly with temperature at shorter wavelengths and remains high and unchanged at longer ones. Emittance spectra are not very sensitive to chemical composition of ashes especially beyond {lambda} {approx} 5 {mu}m. With an increase of temperature, total emittance of the powdered sample decreases to a minimum value around 1200 K. Further temperature rise induces an increase of total emittance due to sintering in the ash. On cooling, the emittance increases monotonically following the hysteresis. Quantitative directions for evaluating thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits for the merits of the safety design of boiler furnaces were proposed. That comprises correlating the experimentally obtained emittance spectra with curves of simple analytical form, i.e., a continuous function of minimum emittance vs. wavelength. The proposed method can be extended to other specimens from the same furnace and used to determine correlations for thermal calculation of old and design of new furnaces - with similar geometry and combusting similar coal. The method is potentially applicable to completely different boiler furnaces combusting different coal, and the authors recommend running the tests with new deposit samples. The data will then be applicable to the thermal design of a whole new class of furnaces, having similar geometry and combusting similar coal. This is expected to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of thermal calculation as well as the efficiency of thermal design of steam boilers. (author)

Saljnikov, Aleksandar; Komatina, Mirko; Gojak, Milan [Department of Thermomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS); Vucicevic, Biljana [Laboratory for Thermal Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (RS); Goricanec, Darko [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000 (Slovenia); Stevanovic, Zoran [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Environment impact from ash disposal of the thermal power plant 'Kosova A'  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mining activities impact on environment is as old as these activities themselves. It is estimated that thermal power plants in Kosova produce about 1.6 million tons of ash per year, and all ash produced is disposed as waste material. The main problems for environment pollution are the ash dumps containing more than 40 million tons of ash cover about 150 ha of land. The ash dumps sites of the thermal power plant Kosovo 'A', which are situated among settlement, present one of the most serious problems in the environment and are one of the potential dangers for underground and surface water.

Sabri Avdullahi; Isalm Fejza; Raif Bytyqi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China). National Lab. of Coal Combustion; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C. [Hubei Boiler Auxiliary Factory, Jingshan, Hubei (China)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Impurity-induced van der Waals transition during decohesion A. Van der Ven and G. Ceder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge- acterizing the crack region is embedded in a solid described by continuum plasticity.3,4 The traction curve is on the details of modification of the traction curve by mobile impurities. It has long been known that impurities

Ceder, Gerbrand

307

Influence of Impurity Segregation on Temper Embrittlement and on Slow Fatigue Crack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of segregated impurity atoms (temper embrittlement) and hydrogen atoms, evolved from crack tip surface reactions with water vapor in the moist air environment (hydrogen embrittlement). The signifi- cance of crack closureInfluence of Impurity Segregation on Temper Embrittlement and on Slow Fatigue Crack Growth

Ritchie, Robert

308

Effects of nonmagnetic impurities on the spin transport property of a graphene nanoribbon device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of nonmagnetic impurities on the spin transport property of a graphene nanoribbon device to an edge of a graphene nanoribbon device GND with zigzag edges. A center-located impurity enables both American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3138776 I. INTRODUCTION Electronic spin transport in graphene

Lee, EokKyun

309

Catalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethylene glycol: Effects of inorganic impurities in biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of typical inorganic impurities on the catalytic conversion of cellulose to ethylene glycol (EG) were investigated, and the mechanism of catalyst deactivation by certain impurities were clarified. It was found that most impurities did not affect the EG yield, but some non-neutral impurities or Ca and Fe ions greatly decreased the EG yield. Conditional experiments and catalyst characterization showed that some impurities changed the pH of the reaction solution and affected the cellulose hydrolysis rate; Ca and Fe cations reacted with tungstate ions and suppressed the retro-aldol condensation. To obtain a high EG yield, the pH of the reaction solution and the concentration of tungstate ions should be respectively adjusted to 5.0–6.0 and higher than 187 ppm. For raw biomass conversion, negative effects were eliminated by suitable pretreatments, and high EG yields comparable to those from pure cellulose were obtained.

Jifeng Pang; Mingyuan Zheng; Ruiyan Sun; Lei Song; Aiqin Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Tao Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Creep properties of Hastelloy-X in impure helium environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In impure helium environments, Hastelloy-X is susceptible to carburization and oxidation. These effects are investigated separately, and are related to the creep behavior of the alloy. Experiments were carried out at 900/sup 0/C in both helium and air. Carburization resulted in a slight increase of the creep strength up to the onset of the tertial creep. Suppression of the creep crack growth by oxidation was confirmed using notched plate specimens of Inconel alloy 600 and Hastelloy-X. Although the difference of creep strength in air and in helium was very small and considered to be inclusive in the usual scatter, a pessimistic ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was estimated to be 0.9.

Nakanishi, T.; Kawakami, H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Physics and application of impurity plume dispersal as an edge plasma flow diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A unique system has been developed for studying impurity transport in the edge plasma of Alcator C-Mod. Impurity gas (which for these experiments is deuterated ethylene, C?D?) is injected locally into the scrape-off layer ...

Gangadhara, Sanjay, 1972-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Common non-Fermi liquid phases in quantum impurity physics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study correlated quantum impurity models that undergo a local quantum phase transition (QPT) from a strong coupling, Fermi liquid phase to a non-Fermi liquid phase with a globally doubly degenerate ground state. Our aim is to establish what can be shown exactly about such “local moment” (LM) phases, of which the permanent (zero-field) local magnetization is a hallmark, and an order parameter for the QPT. A description of the zero-field LM phase is shown to require two distinct self-energies, which reflect the broken symmetry nature of the phase and together determine the single self-energy of standard field theory. Distinct Friedel sum rules for each phase are obtained, via a Luttinger theorem embodied in the vanishing of appropriate Luttinger integrals. By contrast, the standard Luttinger integral is nonzero in the LM phase but found to have universal magnitude. A range of spin susceptibilites are also considered, including that corresponding to the local order parameter, whose exact form is shown to be RPA-like, and to diverge as the QPT is approached. Particular attention is given to the pseudogap Anderson model, including the basic physical picture of the transition, the low-energy behavior of single-particle dynamics, the quantum critical point itself, and the rather subtle effect of an applied local field. A two-level impurity model that undergoes a QPT (“singlet-triplet”) to an underscreened LM phase is also considered, for which we derive on general grounds some key results for the zero-bias conductance in both phases.

David E. Logan; Adam P. Tucker; Martin R. Galpin

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

14 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 SILVICS AND SILVICULTURE OF ASH IN MIXED HARDWOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN MIXED HARDWOOD FORESTS OF THE SOUTHERN BOTTOMLANDS AND LOESSIAL HILLS Steve Meadows U.S. Forest Service wet bottomland sites. White ash is the primary ash species in the loessial hills and on other upland sites across the South. The natural range, distribution across site types, and associated forest cover

316

Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.2320029°, -84.3782734° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.2320029,"lon":-84.3782734,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

317

Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration Y. Roh (rohy@ornl.gov; 865-576-9931) T. J. Phelps (phelpstj1@ornl.gov; 865-574-7290) Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6036 A. D. McMillan (mcmillanad@ornl.gov; 865-241-4554) R. J. Lauf (laufrj@ornl.gov; 865-574-5176) Metal and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6085 *Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration estimates atmospheric greenhouse gas releases may exceed 8 billion metric tons by the year 2010 heightening its international environmental concern. Carbon dioxide will dominate the

318

Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate cleanup of the basin and complete the project five years earlier than the target set in a regu- latory schedule. In late 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control determined the closure met all regulatory requirements after inspection

319

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh {times} 0, 200 mesh {times} 0, and 325 mesh {times} 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

Brodzik, P.

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Microsoft Word - CX-Ashe-CGSFiberInstallation_WEB.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5, 2011 5, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Debbie Ruckwardt Electrical Engineer - TEP-CSB-1 Proposed Action: Installing fiber optic cables between Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Ashe Substation and Energy Northwest's Columbia Generating Station (CGS). Budget Information: Work Order # 00261540 PP&A Project No.: PP&A 1864 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3, Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights of way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Location: The project takes place between BPA's Ashe Substation and Energy Northwest's

322

Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2250114°, -112.4840675° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.2250114,"lon":-112.4840675,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

323

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z. [Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Classification of carbon in Canadian fly ashes and their implications in the capture of mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ashes produced from Canadian power plants using pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustors were examined for their carbon content to determine their ability to capture mercury. The feed coal used in these power plants were lignite, subbituminous, high and medium volatile bituminous, their blends, and also blends of coal with petroleum coke (Petcoke). The carbon and mercury content of the coals and fly ashes were determined using the ASTM standard method and by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry method. The carbon content of the fly ash was concentrated by strong acid digestion using \\{HCl\\} and HF. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the carbon concentrate were made by using a reflected light microscope. The results show that the carbon content of fly ash appears to be partially related to depositional environment during coalification and to the rank of the coal. The Hg captured by the fly ash depends on the rank and blend of the feed coals and the type of carbon in the fly ash. The isotropic vitrinitic char is mostly responsible for the capture of most Hg in fly ash. The inadvertent increase in carbon content due to the blending of coal with petroleum coke did not increase the amount Hg captured by the fly ash. The fly ash collected by the hot side electrostatic precipitator has a low Hg content and no relation between the Hg and carbon content of the ash was observed. These results indicate that the quantity of carbon in the fly ash alone does not determine the amount Hg captured. The types of carbon present (isotropic and anisotropic vitrinitic, isotropic inertinitic and anisotropic Petcoke), the halogen content, the types of fly ash control devices, and the temperatures of the fly ash control devices all play major roles in the capture of Hg.

Fariborz Goodarzi; James C. Hower

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, and Environmental Research Center (ERC)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL] [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL] [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Modelling fly ash generation for UK power station coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-depth characterization has been made of three UK bituminous coals and the combustion products from these coals when burned at a power station and on a range of experimental combustion facilities. The coals were chosen to represent the range of ash compositions and slagging propensities found at UK power stations. CCSEM analysis of the pulverized coals has been performed to provide quantitative data on the size and chemical composition of individual mineral occurrences, and to determine the nature of the mineral-mineral and mineral-organic associations in the pulverized fuel. In a similar way the size and chemical composition of individual fly ash particle has been determined. The mineral-mineral association information has been used to predict the effects of mineral coalescence, the dominant mineral transformation process for UK power station coals. The CCSEM information correctly identifies the types of mineral-mineral association and hence the predicted effects of coalescence. The limitations of the information are inherent in the analysis of a cross-section, but useful information for the modelling of ash generation may still be obtained.

Wigley, F.; Williamson, J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Unique method of ash disposal can benefit marine life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As more communities turn to waste-to-energy facilities to help solve their solid waste disposal problems, the amount of ash created by these facilities increases. Incineration of solid waste produces particulate residues which are often rich in lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc because of the concentration which occurs as a result of reduction. It has been shown that such metals can sometimes be leached from ash residues, giving rise to special concerns that incineration ashes be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. In urban coastal areas where landfills are few and increasingly distant, ocean disposal of stabilized incineration residues (SIR) may provide an acceptable alternative to current landfill practices. In May 1985, a research program was initiated at the Marine Sciences Research Center to examine the feasibility of utilizing SIR for artificial reef construction in the ocean. Results of these studies showed that particulate incineration residues could be combined with cement to form a solid block possessing physical properties necessary for ocean disposal. The stabilized residues were subjected to regulatory extraction protocols, and in no instance did the metal concentrations in the leachates exceed the regulatory limits for toxicity. Bioassays revealed no adverse effects on the phytoplankton communities exposed to elutriate concentrations higher than could be encountered under normal disposal conditions. The success of the laboratory studies resulted in securing the necessary permits for the placement of an artificial habitat constructed using SIR in coastal wasters. Results from this program are described.

Roethel, F.J.; Breslin, V.T. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Study of impurities in the Tandem Mirror Experiment using extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) have been studied using extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. Three time-resolving absolutely-calibrated normal-incidence monochromators, one on each section of TMX, were used to study the impurity emissions in the wavelength range of 300 A to 1600 A. The instruments on the east end cell and central cell were each capable of obtaining spatially-resolved profiles from 22 chords of the plasma simultaneously while the instrument on the west end cell monitored the central chord. The impurities identified in TMX were carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and titanium. Emphasis was placed upon determining the impurity densities and radiated power losses of the central cell; results indicate that the impurity concentrations were low - less than 0.4% for each species - and that less than 10% of the total net trapped neutral beam power was lost to radiation. The use of titanium gettering on the central cell walls was observed to decrease the brightnesses of singly- and doubly-ionized carbon and oxygen in the central cell plasma. In the end cells, oxygen was the main impurity with a concentration of about 1.5% and was injected by the neutral beams; the other impurities had concentrations of about 0.5%. Radiation losses from the end cells were negligible.

Strand, O.T.

1982-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

334

Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was previously known the liquidus temperature of the molten salt would change as spent fuel is processed through the Mk-IV electrorefiner. However, the extent of the increase in liquidus temperature was not known. This work is first of its kind in determining thermodynamic properties of a molten salt electrolyte containing transuranics, fission products and bond sodium. Experimental data concluded that the melting temperature of the electrolyte will become greater than the operating temperature of the Mk-IV ER during current fuel processing campaigns. Collected data also helps predict when the molten salt electrolyte will no longer be able to support electrorefining operations.

Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Dynamic regime of conduction in a 1D system with a single impurity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new regime of electron transport through an impurity in 1D conductors, which resembles the Josephson effect in its manifestations, is predicted. Passage of current through the impurity under voltages above the threshold value is accompanied with generation of ac current oscillations. The temperature below which the effect can be observed, the threshold voltage, and the frequency range are determined by the impurity potential and the strength of electron-electron interaction. The generation line width and the current-voltage characteristics are determined.

Shapiro, D. S., E-mail: shapiro@ire.cplire.ru; Artemenko, S. N., E-mail: art@ire.cplire.ru; Remizov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Ionized-impurity scattering of quasi-two-dimensional quantum-confined carriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hall-effect measurements of electron mobility in anti-modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells indicate that the ionized-impurity scattering of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas immersed in the identical concentration of ionized impurities is greater than that of a bulk electron gas of the same density. This enhancement results from an increase of the overlap of the electronic wave function with the impurities, a decrease in screening, and an increase in large-angle scattering. The enhanced scattering rate may be further increased by confining the dopant ions to a deltalike doping profile in the center of the well.

W. Ted Masselink

1991-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

337

Superheater Tube Corrosion in Wood Gasifier Ash Deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The upper operating temperature of tubes in heat exchangers/steam generators is strongly influenced by the degradation that can occur because of the reaction of the exchanger/generator tubing with the deposits that accumulate on the surface of the tubes. In fact, severe corrosion has been observed in some biomass fired systems, particularly with elevated potassium and chlorine concentrations in the deposits. Wood gasifiers have recently been and are currently being constructed at several sites in North America. In these systems, the syngas is burned to produce steam and the performance of the heat exchanger tubes under ash deposits is of great concern. As temperatures of the heat exchangers are increased in an effort to increase their operating efficiency, the performance of the tubes is of greater interest. The corrosion behavior of alloy steel tubes as a function of temperature has been investigated by exposing samples of selected alloys to ash collected from the steam generator fired by syngas produced in wood gasifiers. This study compares corrosion rates from laboratory exposures of synthesis gas and ash at 500 C and 600 C. This study investigated the material performance of four ferritic steels and one austenitic steel exposed to conditions expected on the fireside of a wood gasifier. The purpose of this study was to identify an effective method for determining material performance for samples exposed to both the process gas and the fly ash that is typically observed within the steam generator for times up to 1000 hours. Mass changes were measured for all of the samples, but this information can be misleading concerning material performance due to the difficulty in sufficiently cleaning the samples after exposure in the ash. Therefore, small cross sections of the samples were collected and imaged using optical microscopy. Oxide thicknesses were measured along with metal losses. The metal loss information provides a clear indication of material performance. The metal loss rates for the ferritic steels at 500 C were almost half of those observed at 600 C and the rates decreased with increasing exposure time. It was also reported that the metal loss rates generally decrease with increasing chromium concentration.

Bestor, Michael A [ORNL] [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin More Documents & Publications Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Add Time Capsule Before Sealing Reactor for Hundreds

339

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Mineralogical characterization of Sasol feed coals and corresponding gasification ash constituents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed coal and coarse ash particles (heated rock fragments and clinkers), produced from Sasol-Lurgi gasifier tests under different operating conditions, have been characterized by quantitative X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and associated chemical techniques, as a basis for better understanding of the relations between the mineralogical and physical properties of the ash particles. Crystalline phases in the ashes include quartz particles inherited directly from the feed coal, as well as anorthite, mullite, and diopside, derived from solid-state reactions or crystallization of a silicate melt during the gasification process. Glass, cooled from the melt, is also abundant in the ash materials. The abundance of large particles of hard minerals in the coal or the ash, such as quartz, anorthite, pyrite, and diopside, has been correlated with a laboratory-determined abrasion index and may contribute significantly to wear on mechanical equipment during coal- or ash-handling operations. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Aivo B. Hlatshwayo; Ratale H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward [Sasol Technology (Proprietary) Limited, Sasolburg (South Africa)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity ... Samples were prepared by ashing coals to completion at 815 °C; then a slag was generated under nitrogen at >1650 °C with the appropriate amount of reagent grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as flux added. ... (5)?Watt, J. D.; Fereday, F. The Flow Properties of Slags Formed from the Ashes of British Coals:? Part 1. Viscosity of Homogeneous Liquid Slags in Relation to Slag Composition. ...

G. J. Browning; G. W. Bryant; H. J. Hurst; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

A review of ash in conventional and advanced coal-based power systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process conditions are briefly described for conventional and advanced power systems. The advanced systems include both combustion and gasification processes. We discuss problems in coal-based power generation systems, including deposition, agglomeration and sintering of bed materials, and ash attack are discussed. We also discuss methods of mitigating ash problems and anticipated changes anticipated in ash use by converting from conventional to advanced systems.

Holcombe, N.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

Weiss, J.D.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash upptag av Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Processing Conference Proceedings ASME 1994 MONTGOMERY COUNTY Summary: for cooling the condensate and auxiliary cooling water. Incombustible material and ash residue from the...

346

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

E-Print Network 3.0 - agglomerating ash process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 8 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: index for animal manure ash...

348

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part 1 Drop-tube observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports a systematic and comprehensive laboratory investigation into the ash chemistry and mineralogical changes undergone by a low-rank Indonesian coal during combustion. Combustion experiments conducted in a drop-tube furnace included ash formation experiments (using cyclone and filter arrangement) under closely controlled conditions in the range of 1200–1400 °C and deposition experiments at a probe temperature of 750 °C. Tests conducted with raw coal, coal/additive mixtures and washed coal indicated significant changes in ash characteristics. Of the ash formation and deposit samples examined, the raw coal + bauxite showed the lowest glass content and high contents of corundum indicating low ash deposition propensities. When compared to the ash formation samples, the deposit samples showed even significantly lower glass contents and were enriched in quartz. With the exception of the raw coal + bauxite sample, all are characterized by high silica and iron and moderate aluminium contents. In contrast, the raw coal + bauxite sample have low silica and much higher alumina contents which is in agreement with XRD observations. QEMSCAN™ results showed that the ash particles are sparsely distributed suggesting lack of a deposit initiation layer. Experimental observations suggest that the use of raw coal with bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to handling ash-related issues. Present findings are of practical significance to power utilities employing Indonesian coal as there is no comprehensive work reported in the literature on ash chemistry and mineralogy of such coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash forming acid-resistant Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

European Summer Fly Ash Workshop," Warsaw, Poland, June 2005. Department... combustion of coal in conventional and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. These include fly...

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash financial aspects Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash separators Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash flowable fill Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: ash as filler. A highly flowable concrete is not necessarily self-compacting because SCC should... ;4. Kurita, M., and Nomura, T., "High-Flowable Steel...

353

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

354

INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Prediction of Chinese coal ash fusion temperatures in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of 21 typical Chinese coal ash samples and 60 synthetic ash samples were measured in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres. The computer software package FactSage was used to calculate the temperatures corresponding to different proportions of the liquid phase and predict the phase equilibria of synthetic ash samples. Empirical liquidus models were derived to correlate the AFTs under both Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres of 60 synthetic ash samples, with their liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage. These models were used to predict the AFTs of 21 Chinese coal ash samples in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres, and then the AFT differences between the atmospheres were analyzed. The results show that, for both atmospheres, there was an apparently linear correlation and good agreement between the AFTs of synthetic ash samples and the liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage (R > 0.89, and {sigma} < 30{sup o}C). These models predict the AFTs of coal ash samples with a high level of accuracy (SE < 30{sup o}C). Because the iron oxides in coal ash samples fused under a H{sub 2} atmosphere are reduced to metallic iron and lead to changes of mineral species and micromorphology, the AFTs in a H{sub 2} atmosphere are always higher than those with an Ar atmosphere. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Characterization and modeling of toxic fly ash constituents in the environment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion that has drawn renewed public scrutiny due to the negative environmental impacts from accidental release of… (more)

Zhu, Zhenwei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: pb = C + Va(pa) Equation 3 where C is a constant. Ash content can therefore be geophysically determined as variations In log-derived bulk density measurements are in direct response to variations in ash content. However, when any of the above... by applying the relationships between geophysi cally-derived gamma-gamma density and laboratory-derived percent dry ash. The linear gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationship is dependent upon a constant fuel ratio (percent fixed carbon...

Wright, David Scott

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash corrosion resistant Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 48 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: in improved resistance to...

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cement matrixes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 13 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: to a construc- tion material...

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash confinement time Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 36 ccsd-00002019,version1-18Oct2004 Stabilization of Burn Conditions in an ITER FEAT Summary: with Uncertainties in the Helium Ash Confinement...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality recycling Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... CANMET Conference on Quality of Concrete Structures and...

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash fraxinus excelsior Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

we planted green ash trees... Identification of a Biomarker Gene for Fraxinus spp. Darla French and ... Source: Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources,...

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash related problems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the environment is an environmental problem created. It is generally conceded... . The dioxinsfurans on ash then don't seem to create an ... Source: Columbia University -...

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash inhalation exposure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in England and Summary: tests on blocks containing mixed ash. 1 See page 17, Dioxins, what they are, their sources, our exposure... into the potential exposure to dioxins...

365

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash impact sorbent Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for By-Products Utilization Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science 23 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: , and baghouses) including fly ash,...

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash management regulations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air and Waste Management Division U.S. Environmental... unacceptable levels of dioxins and furans. Thus they argue for cradle to grave ash management under Subtitle C......

367

A Method for Making In Situ Emittance Measurements of Coal Ash Deposits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A major problem associated with any power generation process in which coal is burned is the formation of ash and slag from the inorganic constituents… (more)

Moore, Travis J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Extracting Coal Ash Content from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Spectra by Multivariate Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) analysis has been applied for the quantitative analysis of the ash content of coal in this...

Yao, Shunchun; Lu, Jidong; Dong, Meirong; Chen, Kai; Li, Junyan; Li, Jun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered volcanic ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: when hot ash flows enter the sea. Volcanic activity was practically absent on Gran Canaria between 9... expected the Slump scarp Subaerial volcanics Sealevel Distal...

370

Numerical Simulation of Wind Currents and Propagation of Impurities in the Balaklava Bay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the results of numerical experiments aimed at the simulation of the circulation of waters and transport ... of impurities in the Balaklava Bay for typical wind conditions established on the basis of th...

V. V. Fomin; L. N. Repetin

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Perpetual motion of a mobile impurity in a one-dimensional quantum gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consider an impurity particle injected in a degenerate one-dimensional gas of noninteracting fermions (or, equivalently, Tonks-Girardeau bosons) with some initial momentum $p_0$. We examine the infinite-time value of the momentum of the impurity, $p_\\infty$, as a function of $p_0$. A lower bound on $|p_\\infty(p_0)|$ is derived under fairly general conditions. The derivation, based on the existence of the lower edge of the spectrum of the host gas, does not resort to any approximations. The existence of such bound implies the perpetual motion of an impurity in a one-dimensional gas of noninteracting fermions or Tonks-Girardeau bosons at zero temperature. The bound has an especially simple and useful form when the interaction between the impurity and host particles is everywhere repulsive.

Oleg Lychkovskiy

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - adatom impurity role Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: adatom impurity role Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Nitrogen in graphite and carbon nanotubes: Magnetism and mobility Yuchen Ma,* A. S. Foster, A. V. Krasheninnikov, and R. M....

373

Tunneling current of the contact between impurity-containing graphene nanoribbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current-voltage characteristics of a tunneling contact between two graphene nanoribbons containing impurity atoms are obtained based on the previously calculated density of states. The dependences on the nanoribbon geometrical and energy characteristics are calculated.

Belonenko, M. B. [Volgograd Institute of Business (Laboratory of Nanotechnologies) (Russian Federation); Pak, A. V., E-mail: pak.anastasia@gmail.com; Lebedev, N. G. [Volgograd State University (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Physica E 40 (2007) 1224 Electron coherence at low temperatures: The role of magnetic impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

new measurements of the phase coherence time in ultra-clean gold and silver wires and analyse, Kondo temperatures below 1 mK and extremely small magnetic-impurity concentration levels of less than 0

375

Determination of trace impurities in zircaloy-2 and tellurium by spark source mass spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of trace impurities in zircaloy-2 and tellurium by Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (SSMS) is reported. The advantage of SSMS lies in the fact that along with metallic trace constituents even the n...

K. L. Ramakumar; V. A. Raman; V. L. Sant…

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

First-principles real-space calculations of Fe impurities in Mo and Nb  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have applied the recently developed first-principles real-space muffin-tin-orbital scheme to study the electronic structure around Fe impurities in bcc Mo and Nb hosts. These local-spin-density calculations give values for the magnetic moment, hyperfine field, and isomer shift at the impurity site, which are in good agreement with experimental results, when available. We note that, in contrast with reported Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s-function (KKR-GF) results for the same systems, the magnetic behavior at the impurity is well described when the angular momentum of the wave functions is cut off at lmax=2. Our local impurity moments, calculated using a minimum basis of s, p, and d orbitals, are compatible with those obtained via the KKR-GF formalism, when a cutoff lmax=3 is used.

Helena M. Petrilli and Sonia Frota-Pessôa

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radiative energy exhaust by sputtered and seeded impurities in fusion reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combine effect of the seeded and sputtered impurities on the power load to the divertor plate and operation of fusion reactor is investigated in the paper. Since the ... temperature). The steady states of ITE...

R. Stankiewicz

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Studies of the impurity pellet ablation in the high-temperature plasma of magnetic confinement devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ablation of impurity pellets in tokamak and stellarator plasmas is investigated. Different mechanisms for shielding the heat fluxes from the surrounding plasma to the pellet surface are discussed. A model ...

V. Yu. Sergeev; O. A. Bakhareva; B. V. Kuteev; M. Tendler

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Imaging the Effects of Individual Impurity Atoms in High-Tc Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

created at W1 and W2 · On-site component of both impurity-states is four-fold symmetric, pointing at gap-state is four-fold symmetric · Oriented with gap nodes. Balatsky, A.V., Salkola M.I., & Rosengren, A., Phys. Rev intra-gap impurity-state · Magnetic interactions lift the spin-degeneracy · Two spin-polarized states

Davis, James C.

380

Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

Trent Molter

2012-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Contact formation and gettering of precipitated impurities by multiple firing during semiconductor device fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for contact formation and gettering of precipitated impurities by multiple firing during semiconductor device fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical semiconductor device comprises: a first step that includes gettering of impurities from a semiconductor wafer and forming a backsurface field; and a second step that includes forming a front contact for the semiconductor wafer, wherein the second step is performed after completion of the first step.

Sopori, Bhushan

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

382

The electrochemical analysis of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate in solutions containing oilfield impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING OILFIELD IMPURITIES A Thesis by MICHAEL CARL BECKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING OILFIELD IMPURITIES A Thesis by MICHAEL CARL BECKER Approved as to style...

Becker, Michael Carl

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

Ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation on-line low cost sulfur and ash analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program of design, fabrication, and field testing of an on-line sulfur and ash analyzer was undertaken by The Babcock Wilcox Company. The analyzer is intended for use on coal slurry streams such as those found at coal cleaning facilities. The analyzer design consists of a sample preparation and delivery system (SPAD) and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The program consisted of the following major tasks: Selection and screening of delivery systems; Design of the analyzer system; Fabrication of SPAD system; Field testing of the SPAD system; and Laboratory ICP testing of field collected samples. The field testing was conducted at CQ Inc., (Homer City, Pa. pilot plant). Testing was completed without taking the ICP to the field, since the analysis of coal slurry by ICP had been demonstrated during the delivery system screening tests and the field tests were aimed primarily at demonstrating the performance of the SPAD system. Although the ICP was not deployed to the field, the subsequent laboratory testing of field collected samples simulated the performance of the entire system. 16 refs., 103 figs., 38 tabs.

Malito, M.L.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Sintering and fouling characterization of ashes with high calcium oxide content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research work has taken into consideration the behavior of Estonian oil shale ash with high calcium oxide content under typical FB conditions while focusing the main attention on bed agglomeration and fireside deposits. The different types of ashes tested included: (1) ash collected from the cyclone of a PF oil shale boiler, (2) ash collected from the electrostatic precipitator of the same boiler, and (3) oil shale ash prepared by standard laboratory procedures. The ashes were tested for their compression strength, a sintering test under laboratory conditions. First, cylindrical pellets were made from the ash samples. Then the pellets were exposed for four hours to various atmospheres, and various temperatures in the range 300--1,050 C, in a tube furnace. After the exposure, the pellets were tested for compression strength, and the pellet crushing stress was taken as an indicator for the degree of sintering. The compression tests were complemented with chemical analyses of heat treated ash pellets. Changes of mass and dimensions of the heat treated pellets were also recorded. Some experiments were also made to simulate the impact energy of different ash particles, to investigate the buildup of ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces of boilers. The tests showed that significant sintering occurred under most of the conditions tested. The sintering of the oil shale ash was found to be dependent on both heat treatment temperature and gas atmosphere. Higher pressure at pellet making resulted in some cases in increased sintering. Based on these results, it was concluded that bed sintering would probably not be a problem in a FBC, but fouling of the heat transfer surfaces after the fluidized bed combustor could be a potential problem, in particular, at flue gas temperatures in the range 600 to 900 C.

Ots, A.; Parve, T. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia); Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data that are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the thermodynamic database developed in this project, thermodynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the effect of sodium on the HTE of Al-Mg alloys. The simulation results indicated that the liquid miscibility gap resulting from the dissolved sodium in the molten material plays an important role in HTE. A liquid phase forms from the solid face-centered cubic (fcc) phase (most likely at grain boundaries) during cooling, resulting in the occurrence of HTE. Comparison of the thermodynamic simulation results with experimental measurements on the high-temperature ductility of an Al-5Mg-Na alloy shows that HTE occurs in the temperature range at which the liquid phase exists. Based on this fundamental understanding of the HTE mechanism during processing of aluminum alloy, an HTE sensitive zone and a hot-rolling safe zone of the Al-Mg-Na alloys are defined as functions of processing temperature and alloy composition. The tendency of HTE was evaluated based on thermodynamic simulations of the fraction of the intergranular sodium-rich liquid phase. Methods of avoiding HTE during rolling/extrusion of Al-Mg-based alloys were suggested. Energy and environmental benefits from the results of this project could occur through a number of avenues: (1) energy benefits accruing from reduced rejection rates of the aluminum sheet and bar, (2) reduced dross formation during the remelting of the aluminum rejects, and (3) reduced CO2 emission related to the energy savings. The sheet and extruded bar quantities produced in the United States during 2000 were 10,822 and 4,546 million pounds, respectively. It is assumed that 50% of the sheet and 10% of the bar will be affected by implementing the results of this project. With the current process, the rejection rate of sheet and bar is estimated at 5%. Assuming that at least half of the 5% rejection of sheet and bar will be eliminated by using the results of this project and that 4% of the aluminum will be lost through dross (Al2O3) during remelting of the rejects, the full-scale industrial implementation of the project results would lead to energy

Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han; Vinod Sikka

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

387

A Generalization of Generalized Arc Consistency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- binary classic constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Based on the Semiring CSP and Valued CSP such as fuzzy CSP, probabilistic CSP, max CSP, and weighted CSP. This extension is based on an idempotent satisfaction problem (CSP), local consistency can be char- acterized as deriving new constraints based on local

Mackworth, Alan K.

388

Lightweight consistency analysis of dataflow process networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process networks are a popular modelling technique for distributed computing and signal processing applications. The ability to support various parallelism or communication patterns also makes them suitable for modelling multiprocessor architectures. ... Keywords: component-based systems, consistency analysis, dataflow process networks

Yan Jin; Robert Esser; Charles Lakos

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental composition in field and laboratory aged DPFs.

390

Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effectiveness of wood ash containing charcoal as a fertilizer for a forest plantation in a temperate region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amendment of forest soils with mixed wood ash (MWA) generated in biomass power plants can prevent the depletion of ... that results from the intensive harvesting of forest plantations. Unlike fly wood ash, MWA co...

Martín Santalla; Beatriz Omil; Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro; Agustín Merino

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* , L. S. Fisher1 , J of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands, we have found that based on laboratory and field and its influence on carbon sequestration. Also, addition of fly ash to soil, while generally considered

Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

393

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......from 15 countries(4). The combustion of coal in a CFPP leads to an increase...of utilization of Turkish coal combustion fly ash in concrete production...7440-29-1 Thorium | Coal analysis Coal Ash analysis chemistry Environmental Exposure analysis......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Updating for Ash Cooler Fluidized Air System of a 410 t/h CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents an updating scheme for ash cooler fluidized air system of a 410 t/h CFB boiler. The ash cooler fluidized air, which is originally designed, is provided by the independent configuration of two forced fans. By analyzing and studying ...

Gao Jian-qiang; Chen Hong-wei; Zhang Wei

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Resuspension of Relic Volcanic Ash and Dust from Katmai: Still an Aviation Hazard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Northwest winds were strong enough to continuously resuspend relic volcanic ash from the Katmai volcano cluster and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes on 20–21 September 2003. The ash cloud reached over 1600 m and extended over 230 km into the ...

David Hadley; Gary L. Hufford; James J. Simpson

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial fly ash-clay Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash-clay Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Summary: studied. Context SiO2 CaO Al2O3 OPC BFS Class C fly ash Clays Metakaolin...

399

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

400

Re-imaging coal: novel process removes mercury while retaining ash sales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage thermal pretreatment process for removing moisture and mercury from raw coal has been developed by the Western Research Institute. This allows sales of ash from power plants to continue since no sorbents end up in the ash. 3 figs., 1 photo.

Bland, A. [Western Research Institute (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Properties of concrete incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the results of research performed in developing high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete incorporating ASTM Type I cement and ASTM Class F fly ash from Big Brown Power Plant of TU Electric, Texas. In HVFA concrete, the proportion...

Li, Wei Tung

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Effect of Fly Ash on Solidification and Heavy Metals Chemical Speciation of Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to explore new municipal sewage sludge treatment method and reduce its harm for environment, fly ash discarded from power plant was used as conditioner in sludge treatment in the paper. The properties of sewage sludge were changed after adding ... Keywords: fly ash, sludge, compressive strength, heavy metal, speciation

Yongjian Piao; Mingsong Wu; Xun Xu; Qingliang Zhao; Fugui Zhang; Nanqi Ren

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of a Shallow Ash Occurrence: in the Mahanadi Basin, offshore India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of a Shallow Ash Occurrence: in the Mahanadi Basin, offshore sampled in the continental margins offshore India (Fig 1). A volcanic ash layer was recovered below seafloor Surrounding Sediments: Grey sediment in A is a nannofossil and plant debris bearing clay

New Hampshire, University of

405

Investigation of Vanadium Compounds in Ashes from a CFBC Firing 100 Petroleum Coke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Vanadium Compounds in Ashes from a CFBC Firing 100 Petroleum Coke ... The ash pits have since gone through an extensive remedial process. ... The other metals investigated (i.e., Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) also were present predominantly as sulfates. ...

L. Jia; E. J. Anthony; J. P. Charland

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

406

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

407

Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation which results in an ash which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety).

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Controlling ettringite formation in FBC fly ash geopolymer concrete  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fluidized bed coal combstion (FBC) is extensively used in small self-generation power plants. The fly ash obtained from this FBC process contains high quantity of calcium and sulfate compounds which hinders its use in the construction industry. In addition, its reactivity is low and additional source material or additive is, therefore, needed to increase the reaction. This research studied the use of Al(OH)3 and high concentrations of NaOH to control ettringite formation in the FBC fly ash geopolymer. Two replacement levels of 2.5 wt.% and 5.0 wt.% of Al(OH)3 and three NaOH concentrations of 10, 12 and 15 M were used in the study. Results indicated that the NaOH concentration affected the ettringite formation and strength of the FBC geopolymer. No ettringite was formed at high NaOH concentration of 15 M which helped the dissolution of calcium sulfate and formed the additional calcium hydroxide. The subsequent pozzolanic reaction led to strength gain of the geopolymer. For 15 M NaOH, the addition of 2.5 wt.% Al(OH)3 promoted the reaction and formed a dense matrix of alumino silicate compound. Relatively high 7-day compressive strength of 30 MPa was obtained.

Prinya Chindaprasirt; Siwanant Thaiwitcharoen; Supranee Kaewpirom; Ubolluk Rattanasak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Argonne CNM HighlightL Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Calcium Map Calcium map of an activated fly ash geopolymer displays regions of high calcium concentration (circled). Their distribution suggests localization as a discrete calcium-rich phase within the lower-calcium aluminosilicate geopolymer gel. Use of the Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) has provided the first access to the nature of heterogeneity in real fly ash-derived geopolymers at the nanoscale. Direct evidence of the formation of discrete high-calcium nanometer-sized particles within a hydroxide-activated geopolymer synthesized from a low-calcium fly ash has been obtained using HXN fluorescence characterization. Additionally, the team of CNM users from the University of Melbourne, the Universidad del Valle of Colombia, and the

410

Influence of curing temperature on cement hydration and mechanical strength development of fly ash mortars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of fly ash and curing temperature on cement hydration and compressive strength development of mortars was investigated. Test parameters included type of fly ash (two different Class F fly ashes were tested), the level of cement replacement (10, 20 and 30% by mass), and curing temperature (20 C and 40 C). The mortar physical and microstructural properties were determined by means of thermal analyses, compressive strength measurements and SEM observations. Test results confirm that fly ash tends to increase significantly the rate of cement hydration at early age. Data also demonstrate that an elevation of the curing temperature reduces the long-term compressive strength of the reference mortar mixture. In contrast, an increase of the curing temperature seems to have no detrimental effect on the long-term compressive strength of the fly ash mixtures.

Maltais, Y.; Marchand, J. [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche Interuniversitaire sur le Beton] [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche Interuniversitaire sur le Beton

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin More Documents & Publications EIS-0220: Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0220: Final Environmental Impact Statement

412

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing experimental ash particle deposition measurements from the literature have been simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discrete phase model (DPM) Lagrangian particle tracking method and an existing ash particle deposition model based on the Johnson?Kendall?Roberts (JKR) theory, in the Fluent commercial CFD code. The experimental heating tube was developed to simulate ash temperature histories in a gasifier; ash-heating temperatures ranged from 1873 to 1573 K, spanning the ash-melting temperature. The present simulations used the realizable k?? turbulence model to compute the gas flow field and the heat transfer to a cooled steel particle impact probe and DPM particle tracking for the particle trajectories and temperatures. A user-defined function (UDF) was developed to describe particle sticking/rebounding and particle detachment on the impinged wall surface. Expressions for the ash particle Young’s modulus in the model, E, versus the particle temperature and diameter were developed by fitting to the E values that were required to match the experimental ash sticking efficiencies from several particle size cuts and ash-heating temperatures for a Japanese bituminous coal. A UDF that implemented the developed stiffness parameter equations was then used to predict the particle sticking efficiency, impact efficiency, and capture efficiency for the entire ash-heating temperature range. Frequency histogram comparisons of adhesion and rebound behavior by particle size between model and experiments showed good agreement for each of the four ash-heating temperatures. However, to apply the present particle deposition model to other coals, a similar validation process would be necessary to develop the effective Young’s modulus versus the particle diameter and temperature correlation for each new coal.

Ai, Weiguo; Kuhlman, John M

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

413

Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

common grackles (Quiscalus quis- cala) nesting in association with coal fly ash settling basins be warranted. The disposal of slurried coal combustion waste (hereafter, ash) into open settling impoundments grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) nesting at coal ash settling basins for trace elements to determine

Hopkins, William A.

415

Coal ash as an absorbent to remove SO2, and its activity change in NO?NH3 reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After being activated with NaOH aqueous solution, coal ash showed a maximal sorption capacity of about...3 SO2/g ash. Catalytic activity of coal ash for the NO?NH3 reaction was gradually depressed by the presence...

F. Nozaki; O. Watanabe; T. Sodesawa

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung The use of fly ash as an admixture results in enhancement of the electromagnetic interference (EMI of fly ash as an admixture for enhancing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. EMI shielding

Chung, Deborah D.L.

417

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244­252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low 2005 Available online 4 November 2005 Abstract Paper sludge ash was partially converted into zeolites by reaction with 3 M NaOH solution at 90 C for 24 h. The paper sludge ash had a low abundance of Si

Downs, Robert T.

418

Smoking Status and Occupational Exposure Affects Oxidative DNA Injury in Boilermakers Exposed to Metal Fume and Residual Oil Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sensitization by residual oil fly ash particles...composition of residual oil fly ash determines...coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry...particulate-mediated cytokine production in lung epithelial...et al. Residual oil fly ash induces cytotoxicity...probably through cumulative oxidative DNA damage...

Sutapa Mukherjee; Lyle J. Palmer; Jee Young Kim; David B. Aeschliman; Robert S. Houk; Mark A. Woodin; and David C. Christiani

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fourier Transform Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy of Impurity Centres in CdS Films: Doping and Annealing Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subgap optical absorption of polycrystalline thin films was measured by Fourier Transform Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy. Some impurity levels were identified : copper doping and annealing effects we...

M. Fathallah; B. Rezig; M. Zouaghi; N. M. Amer…

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Rank Reduction for the Local Consistency Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address the problem of how simple a solution can be for a given quantum local consistency instance. More specifically, we investigate how small the rank of the global density operator can be if the local constraints are known to be compatible. We prove that any compatible local density operators can be satisfied by a low rank global density operator. Then we study both fermionic and bosonic versions of the N-representability problem as applications. After applying the channel-state duality, we prove that any compatible local channels can be obtained through a global quantum channel with small Kraus rank.

Jianxin Chen; Zhengfeng Ji; Alexander Klyachko; David W. Kribs; Bei Zeng

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Self-consistent generator coordinate method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An optimum continuous representation technique derived in analogy with the self-consistent harmonic approximation in quantum lattice dynamics is discussed and applied to Lipkin's model. The method is based on the variational principle and corresponds to an infinite summation of an expansion of the appropriate Hamiltonian kernel. The overlap kernel is treated exactly. The actual results indicate the removal of the drawbacks of low order perturbation theory previously employed in this connection.NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Continuous representation method applied to a solvable model.

Bernard Laskowski and Erkki Brändas

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Methods for Characterization of Composition of Fly Ashes from Coal-Fired Power Stations:? A Critical Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HTA and LTA are laboratory-produced coal ashes that are originated at (i) regulated temperatures, commonly at 500?815 °C in air (after the spontaneous coal combustion), and (ii) oxygen plasma ashing (normally at 150?200 °C), respectively. ... The wet disposal of ash, from the coal-fired thermal power plants, involves its mixing with water and its impoundment in the ash ponds or lagoons. ... The fabric, mineralogy, and chem. of high-calcium ash deposits from the Agios Dimitrios pulverized-lignite power plant in northern Greece were investigated as a key to the ability to improve the performance of the power plant. ...

Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

425

Anomalous impurity effects in the iron-based superconductor KFe2As2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-quality K(Fe1?xCox)2As2 single crystals have been grown by using the KAs flux method. Instead of increasing the superconducting transition temperature Tc through electron doping, we find that Co impurities rapidly suppress Tc down to zero at only x? 0.04. Such an effective suppression of Tc by impurities is quite different from that observed in Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 with multiple nodeless superconducting gaps. Thermal conductivity measurements in zero field show that the residual linear term ?0/T only changes slightly with 3.4% Co doping, despite the sharp increase in the scattering rate. The implications of these anomalous impurity effects are discussed.

A. F. Wang; S. Y. Zhou; X. G. Luo; X. C. Hong; Y. J. Yan; J. J. Ying; P. Cheng; G. J. Ye; Z. J. Xiang; S. Y. Li; X. H. Chen

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nanotubes and nanowires: the effect of impurities and defects on their electronic properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, our laboratory has conducted extensive research studies on nanoscale systems. We give here a brief overview of these activities, and also present some previously unpublished results on the influence of impurities and defects on the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes and metallic nanowires. In the case of carbon nanotubes, we show that the presence of structural defects such as strong bends can lead to the presence of electronic states in the gap (for semiconducting nanotubes), which we correlate with recent scanning tunnel microscopy and spectroscopy measurements. In the case of metallic nanowires, we discuss the effect of the presence of carbon impurities, which have been suggested to be present in atomic gold nanowires, on their electronic transport properties. In particular, we show that the conductance in the presence of impurities deviates considerably from that of the pure gold atomic wires.

Jose L. Mozos; Eduardo Machado; Eduardo Hernandez; Pablo Ordejon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Geopolymer concretes: a green construction technology rising from the ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Louisiana Tech University have embarked on a multi-year research initiative to develop applications for inorganic polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, in the area of civil construction, and to bring solve of these applications to market. One objective was to produce a spray-on coating for use in the harsh environment of wastewater conveyance and treatment facilities. Another project is to establish relationships between fly ash composition and particle size distribution and the mechanical attributes and workability of the resulting geopolymer concrete. A third project is to develop a 'smart' geopolymer concrete whose response to a given electric current can be correlated to the stress level to which the structure is subjected. 1 fig., 6 photos.

Allouche, E. [Louisiana Tech University, LA (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash forming acid-resistant material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To recycle municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash, synthesis of hydrothermal minerals from bottom ash was performed to stabilize heavy metals. MSWI bottom ash was mixed with SiO{sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} so its chemical composition was similar to that of hydrothermal clay minerals. These solid specimens were mixed with water at a liquid/solid ratio of 5. The reaction temperature was 200 deg. C, and reactions were performed for 24-240 h. Generation of kaolinite/smectite mixed-layer clay mineral was found in the samples after the reaction of the mixture of bottom ash, SiO{sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2}. Calcium silicate hydrate minerals such as tobermorite and xonotlite were also generated. X-ray powder diffraction suggested the presence of amorphous materials. Leaching tests at various pHs revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leachates from MSWI bottom ash hydrothermally treated with SiO{sub 2} and Mg(OH){sub 2} was lower than that in leachates from non-treated bottom ash, especially under acid conditions. Hydrothermal treatment with modification of chemical composition may have potential for the recycling of MSWI bottom ash.

Etoh, Jiro [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: etoh@doc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Kawagoe, Takeshi [Department of Earth System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takayuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Watanabe, Koichiro [Department of Earth System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

Beaufrere, Albert H. (Huntington, NY)

1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

432

Assessing determinants of industrial waste reuse: The case of coal ash in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Devising effective strategies to facilitate waste reuse depends on the solid understanding of reuse behaviors. However, previous studies of reuse behavior have been limited in scope, focusing mostly on household recycling behaviors or very limited types of industrial wastes. To gain a better understanding of the business reuse behaviors, this study examined the impact of various factors in technical, economic, regulatory, and behavioral categories in the case of coal ash generated in the United States. The results of fixed effect models for fly ash and bottom ash particularly showed the significance role of the behavioral factor. In both models, a proxy variable, which represents knowledge sharing among the power plants or the utility's decision-making, turned out to be statistically significant and had the largest coefficient estimates among a group of variables. This finding may imply that the characteristics of waste reuse behavior are determined more by business decision-making behaviors than by market or institutional factors. However, the role of the behavioral variable was stronger in the bottom ash models than in the fly ash models. While the reuse of bottom ash was determined primarily by the behavioral variable, fly ash reuse was determined by more diverse factors including economic and regulatory variables. This could be explained by material characteristics in relation to competing resources and the nature of reuse applications.

Joo Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ash content prediction of coarse coal by image analysis and GA-SVM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash content is one of the most important indexes of coal quality, and fast prediction of ash content is urgent and important for coal processing industry. The aim of this paper is to propose a method of ash content prediction of coarse coal by the use of image analysis and GA-SVM. Coal particles on the surface were randomly selected to measure the ash content, and a semi-automatic local-segmentation algorithm was proposed to identify the corresponding coal particle regions. Thirty-eight features were extracted, and selected by GA. Ash content prediction model was established by SVM, and K-CV method is used to determine the hyper-parameters (c, g) of SVM. RMSE and R-square were used to measure the prediction effects of ash content. Results indicated that the prediction effects of narrow size fractions are better than wide size fraction, and larger size fraction is more accurate than smaller size fraction in ash content prediction.

Zelin Zhang; Jianguo Yang; Yuling Wang; Dongyang Dou; Wencheng Xia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Characterization of fly ashes from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers cofiring coal and petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry, mineralogy, morphology, and particle size distribution were investigated in fly ashes from the burning of Datong (ShanXi, China) bituminous coal and the cofiring of Mideast high-sulfur petroleum coke (PC) with 30:70 (cal %) and 50:50 (cal %) blends of Datong bituminous coal in two commercial CFBC boilers. With the exception of CaO, the amounts of major oxides in the fly ashes from cofiring PC and coal were close to those of the common coal fly ashes. The PC-coal fly ashes were enriched in Ni, V, and Mo, implying these trace elements were mainly derived from PC. Ni and V, along with several other elements, such as Cr, Cu, Se, Pb, U, Th, and possibly As and Cd, increased in content with a decrease in temperature of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The results of chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology studies suggested that the desulfurization rate of the CFBC boilers at current conditions was low, and the PC tends to coarsen the fly ash particles and increase the loss on ignition (LOI) values, making these fly ashes unsuitable for use as a cement additive or a mineral admixture in concrete. Further studies on the combustion status of the CFBC boilers are needed if we want to be able to increase the desulfurization rate and produce high-quality fly ashes for broader and full utilization. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Feihu Li; Jianping Zhai; Xiaoru Fu; Guanghong Sheng [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program Evaluation of the First Section Removed in November 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at Reliant Energy’s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles ’ Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

Dennis K. Mcdonald

436

The use of PFBC ashes to ameliorate acid conditions: An equilibrium and greenhouse study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pilot-scale development at the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MW{sub th} circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, has demonstrated the advantages of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) technology. Commercial scale deployment of the technology at the Lakeland Utilities MacIntosh Unit No. 4 has been proposed. Development of uses for the ashes from PFBC systems is being actively pursued as part of commercial demonstration of PFBC technologies. Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), conducted a laboratory scale investigation of the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as an amendment for acidic soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. Ashes were collected from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coals. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following: (1) PFBC fly ash (Karhula-low S fly ash) and ag-lime (CaCO{sub 3}) were used as amendments attempting to ameliorate acid spoil conditions. These materials were found to be effective acid mine spoil amendments. (2) The greenhouse study demonstrated that PFBC ash and/or bed ash amended spoils resulted in similar seed germination numbers as compared to the ag-lime amended spoils. (3) The greenhouse study also demonstrated that PFBC fly ash and/or bed ash amended spoils resulted in comparable plant productivity to the ag-lime amended spoils. In fact, all amendments resulted in statistically the same levels of plant production for each plant species.

Brown, T.H.; Bland, A.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Chemically Consistent Evolutionary Models with Dust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As a tool to interpret nearby and high redshift galaxy data from optical to K-band we present our chemically consistent spectrophotometric evolutionary synthesis models. These models take into account the increasing initial metallicity of successive stellar generations using recently published metallicity dependent stellar evolutionary tracks, stellar yields and model atmosphere spectra. The influence of the metallicity is analysed. Dust absorption is included on the basis of gas content and abundance as it varies with time and galaxy type. We compare our models with IUE template spectra and are able to predict UV fluxes for different spectral types. Combined with a cosmological model we obtain evolutionary and k-corrections for various galaxy types and show the differences to models using only solar metallicity input physics as a function of redshift, wavelength band and galaxy type.

C. S. Möller; U. Fritze-v. Alvensleben; K. J. Fricke; D. Calzetti

1999-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

438

Self Consistent Models of the Solar Wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The origins of the hot solar corona and the supersonically expanding solar wind are still the subject of much debate. This paper summarizes some of the essential ingredients of realistic and self-consistent models of solar wind acceleration. It also outlines the major issues in the recent debate over what physical processes dominate the mass, momentum, and energy balance in the accelerating wind. A key obstacle in the way of producing realistic simulations of the Sun-heliosphere system is the lack of a physically motivated way of specifying the coronal heating rate. Recent models that assume the energy comes from Alfven waves that are partially reflected, and then dissipated by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, have been found to reproduce many of the observed features of the solar wind. This paper discusses results from these models, including detailed comparisons with measured plasma properties as a function of solar wind speed. Some suggestions are also given for future work that could answer the many remain...

Cranmer, Steven R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

440

Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of HD impurities in solid hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report detailed calculations of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of isotopic impurities (HD) in solid hydrogen. Experimentally, a temperature-independent relaxation is observed at low temperatures and is attributed to quantum tunneling of HD impurities. The pronounced minimum observed at intermediate temperatures is associated with the interruption of quantum tunneling by scattering from thermally excited vacancies. The theoretical calculations are compared with recent experimental measurements and provide a severe test of the microscopic model for the motion of point defects in quantum crystals.

Erika G. Kisvarsanyi and N. S. Sullivan

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of a particle injection system for impurity transport study in KSTAR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solid particle injection system is developed for KSTAR. The system has a compact size, compatibility with a strong magnetic field and high vacuum environment, and the capability to inject a small amount of solid particles with a narrow injection angle. The target flight-distance of 10 cm has been achieved with a particle loss rate of less than 10%. Solid impurity particles such as tungsten and carbon will be injected by this system at the midplane in KSTAR. The impurity transport feature will be studied with a soft X-ray array, a vacuum ultra-violet diagnostic, and Stand Alone Non-Corona code.

Lee, H. Y.; Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Siwon; Jang, Juhyeok; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jae Sun; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea and Fusion Plasma Transport Research Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Suk-Ho [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Conversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A. Aksay, and Wei-Heng Shih*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and aluminum sources. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal burning, contains mostly aluminosilicates. Recently, several authors have studied the conversion of fly ash into zeolites.5-7 Shige- moto et al.8 increased the yield of zeolites by first fusing the fly ash with NaOH. The reaction of fly ash with NaOH produced

Aksay, Ilhan A.

443

Study on ash deposition under oxyfuel combustion of coal/biomass blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion in an O2/CO2 mixture (oxyfuel) has been recognized as a promising technology for CO2 capture as it produces a high CO2 concentration flue gas. Furthermore, biofuels in general contribute to CO2 reduction in comparison with fossil fuels as they are considered CO2 neutral. Ash formation and deposition (surface fouling) behavior of coal/biomass blends under O2/CO2 combustion conditions is still not extensively studied. Aim of this work is the comparative study of ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions in a lab scale pulverized coal combustor (drop tube). The fuels used were Russian and South African coals and their blends with Shea meal (cocoa). A horizontal deposition probe, equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, was placed at a fixed distance from the burner in order to simulate the ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces (e.g. water or steam tubes). Furthermore, a cascade impactor (staged filter) was used to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit. The deposition ratio and propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. The SEM/EDS and ICP analyses of the deposit and cascade impactor ash samples indicate K interactions with the alumina silicates and to a smaller extend with Cl, which was all released in the gas phase, in both the oxyfuel and air combustion samples. Sulfur was depleted in both the air or oxyfuel ash deposits. S and K enrichment was detected in the fine ash stages, slightly increased under air combustion conditions. Chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compounds and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect the fine ash (submicron) ash composition, and the ash deposition mechanisms.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Cieplik; W.L. van de Kamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Crystallization of Coal Ash Slags at High Temperatures and Effects on the Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 815 °C, according to the Chinese Standard GB/T1574-2007. ... Shenfu and Beisu coals are enriched in glass modifying oxides (CaO + Fe2O3 + MgO > 30%), while the contents of Al2O3 in Baodian coal ash is higher than 30%; therefore, they exhibit the crystalline slag behavior. ... compn. of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test, x-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chem. ...

Haiping Yuan; Qinfeng Liang; Xin Gong

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

445

Risk Ranking of Bioaccessible Metals from Fly Ash Dissolved in Simulated Lung and Gut Fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power plant fly ash from two fuels, coal and a mixture of coal and shredded tires, were evaluated for trace metal solubility in simulated human lung and gut fluids (SLF and SGF, respectively) to estimate bioaccessibility. ... The proportion of bioaccessible to total metal ranged from zero (V) to 80% (Zn) for coal-derived ash in SLF and from 2 (Th) to 100% (Cu) for tire-derived fly ash in SGF. ... On dissolution in SLF, the most limiting metals were Pb, Cu, and Zn. ...

John Twining; Peter McGlinn; Elaine Loi; Kath Smith; Reto Gieré

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

446

A consistent interface between PIC-simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many applications for PIC-simulations are limited by cpu-time, computer- memory or unphysical noise which is caused at large numbers of timesteps by the movement of particles. Therefore the aim is to divide the calculation area into different smaller parts to reduce the calculation time of each part. This subdivision requires a consistent, physical interface, which handles not only the particle properties but also the electromagnetic fields in the interface plane. Here we present an interface, implemented in a two dimensional (rz-geometry) and a three dimensional (xyz-geometry) PIC-code. The data stored during a two dimensional PIC-simulation can be reused for either another two dimensional or a three dimensional PIC-simulation. The following conditions, which have to be fulfilled at the interface plane, are checked during the simulation: the particle-movement through the plane has to be one-directional and the electromagnetic field of present resonances has to be negligible in the interface plane. We demonstrate the functionality of the interface for different cut-planes, applied to PIC-simulations of high-power tubes.

Becker, U.; Dohlus, M.; Weiland, T. [Technische Hochshule Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, FG TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen Synchroton, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Technische Hochshule Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, FG TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

A consistent interface between PIC-simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many applications for PIC-simulations are limited by cpu-time, computer- memory or unphysical noise which is caused at large numbers of timesteps by the movement of particles. Therefore the aim is to divide the calculation area into different smaller parts to reduce the calculation time of each part. This subdivision requires a consistent, physical interface, which handles not only the particle properties but also the electromagnetic fields in the interface plane. Here we present an interface, implemented in a two dimensional (rz-geometry) and a three dimensional (xyz-geometry) PIC-code. The data stored during a two dimensional PIC-simulation can be reused for either another two dimensional or a three dimensional PIC-simulation. The following conditions, which have to be fulfilled at the interface plane, are checked during the simulation: the particle-movement through the plane has to be one-directional and the electromagnetic field of present resonances has to be negligible in the interface plane. We demonstrate the functionality of the interface for different cut-planes, applied to PIC-simulations of high-power tubes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Becker, U. [Technische Hochshule Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, FG TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Dohlus, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchroton, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, T. [Technische Hochshule Darmstadt, Fachbereich 18, FG TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Diverse latest Pliocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the north-central Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia are newly interpreted as components of a large caldera system that erupted a compositionally zoned rhyolite-dacite ash-flow sheet at 2.83 ± 0.02 Ma (sanidine and biotite 40Ar/39Ar). Despite its location within a cratonic collision zone, the Chegem system is structurally and petrologically similar to typical

450

Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunt's Ash Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Hiko, Nevada Coordinates Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

451

Calculating the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of the coal concentrates used in the Ukrainian coke industry yields a mathematical formula for predicting the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state on the basis of the coal’s charac...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; Ya. S. Balaeva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Rapid Analysis of PAHs in Fly Ash Using Thermal Desorption and Fast GC-TOF-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology...Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...incomplete combustion of organic...Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology......

Daozhong Zou; Kunlei Liu; Wei-Ping Pan; John T. Riley; Yiqan Xu

453

Experimental Study on Heat Transfer in a Rolling Ash Cooler used in the CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the view of the reliability and the techno-economy, the rolling ash cooler is feasible for the large-scale CFB boilers. However, existing studies on heat...

W. Wang; J. J. Li; S. Yang; X. D. Si…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Synthesis of CFB-Coal Fly Ash Clay Bricks and Their Characterisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to test CFB-derived fly ash for its potential to ... . Results showed that large-scale production of CFB FA-containing bricks is feasible, as their...

Nikolaos Koukouzas; Chrisovalantis Ketikidis…

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Evaluation of environmental pollution and possible management options of heavy oil fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to the presence of toxic metals, dumping of heavy oil fly ash (HOFA) is causing ever-growing environmental problem including the pollution of air, water and soil. The present study investigates the possibl...

Abdullah Mofarrah; Tahir Husain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Optimizing Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon produced from heavy oil fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to explore the beneficial utilization of heavy oil fly ash (HOFA) generated in the power plants, the present study is intended to optimize the chromium(VI) [Cr(VI)] adsorption on activated carbon prod...

Abdullah Mofarrah; Tahir Husain; Bing Chen

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Use of Heavy Oil Fly Ash as a Color Ingredient in Cement Mortar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heavy oil fly ash (HOFA) is a byproduct generated by the burning of heavy fuel oil. Chemical analysis showed that HOFA is mainly composed of unburned carbon with a significant amount of heavy metals. Due to to...

Abdullah Mofarrah; Tahir Husain

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Using oil shale ash waste as a modifier for asphalt binders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oil shale rocks represent one of the most available ... Jordan land contains about 50 billion tons of oil shale, which makes Jordan the third in the ... world of the reserve of this material. Oil shale ash is a b...

Khalid Ghuzlan; Ghazi Al-Khateeb…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash fiber fundamental Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Composite Interfaces 18 (2011) 169184 brill.nlci Summary: Fiber-Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete with Fly Ash Osman Gencel a,b , Witold Brostow b, , Tea... . Important for...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash-silica fume pastes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Engineering 100 By-Products Utilization Summary: of Recycled Aggregates in Self-Compacting4 Concrete", Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans... (0.00028 in.). For...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash impurities consisting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash alter innate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: not meet ASTM C 618 requirements for coal fly ash for use as mineral admixture in concrete, and one source... of variable carbon fly...

462

Sewage sludge ash as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were...2...) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were t...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Experimental Options for Determining the Temperature for the Onset of Sintering of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison of techniques that can be used to obtain the sintering temperature of coal ash. These techniques are thermal conductivity analysis (TCA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the compressive strength test (CS), and a proposed ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; G. W. Bryant; L. K. Elliott; B. J. Skrifvars; M. Hupa; T. F. Wall

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

464

Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal

Sang Do Kim; Kwang Jae Woo; Soon Kwan Jeong…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data of ash-particles attrition in a fluidized bed is presented, and also the results of modeling. Five sizes of ash particles (1.02-1.25; 1.25-1.6; 1.6-2.0; 2.0-5.0; 5.0-10.0 mm) produced in an industrial CFB boiler were examined. A new model of mechanical attrition has been proposed which incorporates new parameters: the shape factor of particles and the ratio of the bed height to bed diameter, strongly influencing the rate of bed mass loss. The model describes very well experimental data for coal-ash particles attrition. The attrition-rate coefficient for ash particles was evaluated.

Tomeczek, J.; Mocek, P. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Study on structural and compositional transitions of coal ash by using NMR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structural and compositional transitions of Datong coal ash and its CaCO3...additional effects were carefully examined at a temperature range of 300 to 1 600 °C by using XRD and solid state NMR. The quantitative ...

Xiong-chao Lin; Keiko Ideta; Jin Miyawaki…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

470

Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-going research at Texas A&M University indicated that soil stabilization using calcium chloride filter cake along with Class F fly ash generates high strength. Previous studies were conducted with samples containing calcium chloride filter cake...

Choi, Hyung Jun

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

471

Heterogeneous Surface-Based Freezing of Atmospheric Aerosols Containing Ash, Soot, and Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nucleation will occur through one of several mechanisms including the contact and immersion freezing mechanisms. Through a series of contact freezing experiments, we have characterized the ability of aerosols composed of volcanic ash, soot, and peat soil...

Fornea, Adam P.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

472

Ashe juniper seed production and germination, seedling dynamics and response of live oak/juniper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germination of Ashe juniper seed were compared in a controlled environment at different levels of fruit maturation, lengths of storage, and seed stratification to determine potential germination. Annual mean germination varied by an order...

Reinecke, Rudolph Klaus

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash belite cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 77 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: to a construc- tion material...

474

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash content Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ash content Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Eltra dok nr. 147024, sag 1991 Eltra PSO project no....

475

Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..............................................................................................................1 2.2 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, shrubs, and grasses. 2.2 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study The boundary of the Ash Pits ...................................................................................2 2.4 Remedial Activities

476

Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A. [Center and Department of Geology, Oporto (Portugal)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dump leachate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volume 28, no. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1999.Copyright0 1999,ASA, CSSA, SSSA Summary: ). Leachate Analysis PH The pH values for all leachates from the ash- and sludge-amended soil columns...

478

Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

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