National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ash grove cement

  1. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  2. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  3. Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E.

    2009-07-01

    The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  5. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G.; León-Reina, L.; Aranda, M.A.G.; CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona ; Santacruz, I.

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  6. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  7. Suppression of phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng-Peng Ye; Fan-Zhong Chen; Yan-Qing Sheng; Guo-Ying Sheng; Jia-Mo Fu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, the effect of suppression on phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by small scale experiment. A system including sediment, lake water, and several kinds of capping materials was designed to clarify the suppression of phosphate liberation from sediment under the anaerobic condition. The suppression efficiencies of fly ash, OPC and glass bead used as control material were also determined, and these effects were discussed. The suppression efficiency of glass bead was 44.4%, and those of fly ash and OPC were 84.4%, 94.9%, respectively. The suppression by fly ash and OPC was mainly carried out by the adsorption effect, in addition to the covering effect. The suppression efficiency depended on the amounts of the material used, and about 90% of liberated phosphate was suppressed by fly ash of 10.0 Kg m{sup -2}, and OPC of 6.0 Kg m{sup -2}. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, silver, arsenic and nickel, in fly ash and OPC were lower than those in the environmental materials. And it was considered that the concentrations of heavy metals in fly ash and OPC were too low to influence the ecosystem in natural water region.

  8. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jürgen

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  9. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

  10. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush; Peethamparan, Sulapha

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 °C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: •Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. •CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. •C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  11. Map of Cement Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cement

  12. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  13. Self-degradable Slag/Class F Fly Ash-Blend Cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.; Lance Brothers; Bour, D.

    2011-03-01

    Self-degradable slag/Class F fly ash blend pozzolana cements were formulated, assuming that they might serve well as alternative temporary fracture sealers in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells operating at temperatures of {ge} 200 C. Two candidate formulas were screened based upon material criteria including an initial setting time {ge} 60 min at 85 C, compressive strength {ge} 2000 psi for a 200 C autoclaved specimen, and the extent of self-degradation of cement heated at {ge} 200 C for it was contacted with water. The first screened dry mix formula consisted of 76.5 wt% slag-19.0 wt% Class F fly ash-3.8 wt% sodium silicate as alkali activator, and 0.7 wt% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the self-degradation promoting additive, and second formula comprised of 57.3 wt% slag, 38.2 wt% Class F fly ash, 3.8 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.7 wt% CMC. After mixing with water and autoclaving it at 200 C, the aluminum-substituted 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal phase was identified as hydrothermal reaction product responsible for the development of a compressive strength of 5983 psi. The 200 C-autoclaved cement made with the latter formula had the combined phases of tobermorite as its major reaction product and amorphous geopolymer as its minor one providing a compressive strength of 5271 psi. Sodium hydroxide derived from the hydrolysis of sodium silicate activator not only initiated the pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash, but also played an important role in generating in-situ exothermic heat that significantly contributed to promoting self-degradation of cementitious sealers. The source of this exothermic heat was the interactions between sodium hydroxide, and gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COOH by-products generated from thermal decomposition of CMC at {ge} 200 C in an aqueous medium. Thus, the magnitude of this self-degradation depended on the exothermic temperature evolved in the sealer; a higher temperature led to a sever disintegration of sealer. The exothermic temperature was controlled by the extent of thermal decomposition of CMC, demonstrating that CMC decomposed at higher temperature emitted more gaseous reactants. Hence, such large emission enhanced the evolution of in-situ exothermic heat. In contrast, the excessive formation of geopolymer phase due to more incorporation of Class F fly ash into this cementitious system affected its ability to self-degrade, reflecting that there was no self-degradation. The geopolymer was formed by hydrothermal reactions between sodium hydroxide from sodium silicate and mullite in Class F fly ash. Thus, the major reason why geopolymer-based cementitiuos sealers did not degrade after heated sealers came in contact with water was their lack of free sodium hydroxide.

  14. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore » of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  15. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydration of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators

  16. Leslie Groves - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Students and Kids Hanford Fun Facts Classroom Projects Famous People of Hanford Albert Einstein Enrico Fermi Leslie Groves Franklin Matthias Gilbert Church Crawford...

  17. Grove Theatre | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grove Theatre Grove Theatre Oak Ridgers learn about their role in ending the war

  18. General Groves takes charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groves had fixed all the major problems holding up progress. He had obtained the highest credit rating possible, purchased Site X and secured the needed uranium ore. Next he began...

  19. The effects of the mechanical–chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ? Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ? Increasing heavy metal stability. ? Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  20. Manhattan Project: Groves and the MED, 1942

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, Groves moved the Manhattan Engineer District headquarters from New York to Washington. He quickly recognized the talents of Marshall's deputy, Colonel Kenneth D. ...

  1. EcoGrove Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EcoGrove Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name EcoGrove Wind Farm Facility EcoGrove Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner...

  2. City of Spring Grove, Minnesota (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grove, Minnesota (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Spring Grove Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 507-498-5221 Website: www.springgrove.govoffice.com Outage...

  3. Elk Grove, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Energy Companies in Elk Grove, California Ardent Energy Group Inc Spectrum Energy Inc SEI Energy Generation Facilities in Elk Grove, California Bruceville Road...

  4. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  5. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  6. Twin Groves II (08) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Groves II (08) Wind Farm Facility Twin Groves II (08) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  7. Twin Groves II (07) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    7) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Groves II (07) Wind Farm Facility Twin Groves II (07) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  8. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  9. Forest Grove Light & Power- Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forest Grove Light & Power offers a variety of rebates through Conservation Services Department. Rebates vary based on technology, and are available to residential, commercial, and/or...

  10. Elk Grove Village, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Elk Grove Village, Illinois Lime Energy formerly Electric City Corporation References US Census Bureau Incorporated...

  11. Green Grove, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grove, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 44.9055292, -90.5068824 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  12. Forest Grove, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Grove, Oregon: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 45.5198364, -123.1106631 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  13. Blooming Grove, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Incorporated place and minor civil division population dataset (All States, all geography) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBloomingGrove,Wisconsin&ol...

  14. Lemon Grove, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lemon Grove, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.7425516, -117.0314172 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapp...

  15. Lake Grove, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grove, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8528761, -73.1151102 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservic...

  16. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  17. Oak Grove, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oak Grove is a town in Kaufman County, Texas. It falls under Texas's 5th congressional district.12 References...

  18. Beech Grove, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Beech Grove is a city in Marion County, Indiana. It falls under Indiana's 7th congressional district.12 References...

  19. Linn Grove, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Linn Grove is a city in Buena Vista County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 5th congressional district.12 References ...

  20. Willow Grove, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Willow Grove is a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  1. Washington Grove, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Washington Grove is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland. It falls under Maryland's 8th congressional district.12...

  2. Franklin Grove, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Franklin Grove is a village in Lee County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 14th congressional district.12...

  3. Cedar Grove, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Essex County, New Jersey.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCedarGrove,NewJersey&oldid229691...

  4. Manhattan Project: Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer Home Events > Difficult Choices, 1942 > Groves and the MED, 1942 Events > Bringing it All Together, 1942-1945 Events > Bringing it All Together, 1942-1945 > Implosion Becomes A Necessity, Los Alamos: Laboratory, 1944 Events > Dawn of the Atomic Era, 1945 > Evaluations of Trinity, July 1945 Science > In the Laboratory > Los Alamos Organization and Management, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1942-1946 Resources > Photo Gallery Leslie

  5. Lilienthal and Groves comments on CEW transfer to AEC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lilienthal and Groves comments on CEW transfer to AEC While searching for details of the reduction in force at Y-12 I came across another interesting article in The Oak Ridge Journal. This January 2, 1947, article contained quotes from David Lilienthal, first Chair- man of the Atomic Energy Commission, and Major General Leslie Groves when the Atomic Energy Commission took over the Manhattan Project. Lilienthal indicated that the experience and loyalty of those who have been associated with the

  6. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  7. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  8. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  9. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  10. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  11. Final work plan : environmental site investigation at Sylvan Grove, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-07-15

    In 1998, carbon tetrachloride was found above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L in groundwater from one private livestock well at Sylvan Grove, Kansas, by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The 1998 KDHE sampling was conducted under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) private well sampling program. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), a USDA agency, operated a grain storage facility in Sylvan Grove from 1954 to1966. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites associated with former CCC/USDA grain storage operations. Sylvan Grove is located in western Lincoln County, approximately 60 mi west of Salina (Figure 1.1). To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Sylvan Grove is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA has agreed to conduct an investigation, in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the USDA. This Work Plan presents historical data related to previous investigations, grain storage operations, local private wells and public water supply (PWS) wells, and local geologic and hydrogeologic conditions at Sylvan Grove. The findings from a review of all available documents are discussed in Section 2. On the basis of the analyses of historical data, the following specific technical objectives are proposed for the site investigation at Sylvan Grove: (1) Evaluate the potential source of carbon tetrachloride at the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) Determine the relationship of potential contamination (if present) at the former CCC/USDA facility to contamination identified in 1998 in groundwater samples from one private well to the west; and (3) Delineate the extent of potential contamination associated with the former CCC/USDA facility. The detailed scope of work is outlined in Section 3. The results of the proposed work will provide the basis for determining what future CCC/USDA actions may be necessary, with the ultimate goal of achieving classification of the Sylvan Grove site at no further action status. The proposed activities are to be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory, a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy. Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA concerning environmental site characterization and remediation at former grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. That document should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Sylvan Grove.

  12. Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-cementing fly ashes derived from combustion of subbituminous coal at electric power plants for stabilization of soft fine-grained soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus (M{sub r}) tests were conducted on mixtures prepared with seven soft fine-grained soils (six inorganic soils and one organic soil) and four fly ashes. The soils were selected to represent a relatively broad range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 15 and 38. Two of the fly ashes are high quality Class C ashes (per ASTM C 618) that are normally used in Portland cement concrete. The other ashes are off-specification ashes, meaning they do not meet the Class C or Class F criteria in ASTM C 618. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-fly ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content (a standardized condition), 7% wet of optimum water content (representative of the typical in situ condition in Wisconsin), and 9-18% wet of optimum water content (representative of a very wet in situ condition). Addition of fly ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR and M{sub r} of the inorganic soils. For water contents 7% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils alone ranged between 1 and 5. Addition of 10% fly ash resulted in CBRs ranging between 8 and 17, and 18% fly ash resulted in CBRs between 15 and 31. Similarly, M{sub r} of the soil alone ranged between 3 and 15 MPa at 7% wet of optimum, whereas addition of 10% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 12 and 60 MPa and 18% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 51 and 106 MPa. In contrast, except for one fly ash, addition of fly ash generally had little effect on CBR or M{sub r} of the organic soil.

  13. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  14. Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

  15. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabits, George

    2015-04-20

    After an oil, gas, or geothermal production well has been drilled, the well must be stabilized with a casing (sections of steel pipe that are joined together) in order to prevent the walls of the well from collapsing. The gap between the casing and the walls of the well is filled with cement, which locks the casing into place. The casing and cementing of geothermal wells is complicated by the harsh conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and a chemical environment (brines with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid) that degrades conventional Portland cement. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provided support for the development of fly-ash-modified calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) cement, which offers improved resistance to degradation compared with conventional cement. However, the use of CaP cements involves some operational constraints that can increase the cost and complexity of well cementing. In some cases, CaP cements are incompatible with chemical additives that are commonly used to adjust cement setting time. Care must also be taken to ensure that CaP cements do not become contaminated with leftover conventional cement in pumping equipment used in conventional well cementing. With assistance from GTO, Trabits Group, LLC has developed a zeolite-containing cement that performs well in harsh geothermal conditions (thermal stability at temperatures of up to 300°C and resistance to carbonation) and is easy to use (can be easily adjusted with additives and eliminates the need to “sterilize” pumping equipment as with CaP cements). This combination of properties reduces the complexity/cost of well cementing, which will help enable the widespread development of geothermal energy in the United States.

  16. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  17. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  18. Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

  19. The Round Robin Program: Ground Motion in the Vicinity of the Grove Event

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Grove Event Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Round Robin Program: Ground Motion in the Vicinity of the Grove Event Five Round Robin stations were installed in an easterly line on grove, and, in addition, data are provided form a Round Robin type canister placed at a pore pressure measuring station on another line. Almost all of the gages performed well Authors: Long, J. W. Publication Date: 1975-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 16243 Report Number(s):

  20. Environmental and technical assessments of the potential utilization of sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) as secondary raw materials in construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Maozhe [Université de Lyon, INSA LYON, Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Ingénierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Bâtiment Sadi Carnot, 20 avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Blanc, Denise, E-mail: denise.blanc-biscarat@insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, INSA LYON, Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Ingénierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Bâtiment Sadi Carnot, 20 avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gautier, Mathieu; Mehu, Jacques; Gourdon, Rémy [Université de Lyon, INSA LYON, Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Ingénierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Bâtiment Sadi Carnot, 20 avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We used sewage sludge ashes in ready-mix concrete recipe. ? SSAs were used as a substitution of cement. ? Compressive strength of ready-mix concrete incorporating SSAs were similar as blank one. ? Contaminants leaching from concrete monoliths were above threshold limits. - Abstract: Ashes produced by thermal treatments of sewage sludge exhibit common properties with cement. For example, major elements present in SSA are the same of major elements of cement. Hydraulic properties of SSA are quite the same of cement ones. They may therefore be used to substitute part of cement in concrete or other cementitious materials, provided that technical prescriptions are satisfied and that environmental risks are not significantly increased. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriate substitution ratios to satisfy both technical and environmental criteria. In a first step, the elemental composition and particle size distribution of the ashes were measured. Then the ashes were used along with Portland cement and sand at different ratios of substitution to produce mortar and concrete which were cured for up to 90 days into parallelepipedic or cylindrical monoliths. The mechanical properties of the monoliths were measured using standard procedures for flexural and compressive strengths, and compared to blanks containing no ashes. The environmental criteria were assessed using leaching tests conducted according to standard protocols both on the ashes and the monoliths, and compared to the blanks. Results showed that the characteristics of the ashes ranged between those of cement and sand because of their larger particle size and higher content in SiO{sub 2} as compared to cement. The monoliths made with the highest substitution ratios exhibited a significant decrease in flexural and compressive strengths. However, when the ashes were used in partial substitution of cement at appropriate ratios, the concrete monoliths exhibited similar compressive strengths as the blank samples. The most appropriate ratios were found to be 10% substitution of cement and 2% substitution of sand. The leaching tests conducted on the ashes in their powdery form revealed that amongst the potential contaminants analyzed only Mo and Se were leached at concentrations above the threshold limits considered. The leaching tests conducted on concrete monoliths showed however that none of the contaminants monitored, including Mo and Se, were leached above the limits. In addition, whether concrete recipe incorporated ashes or not, similar concentrations were measured for each potential contaminant in the leachates. This result indicated that mixing ash with cement and sand to produce mortar or concrete induced a stabilization of Mo and Se and thereby constituted in itself a good treatment of the ashes.

  1. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facilityâ??s production process.

  2. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  3. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  4. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  5. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  6. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  7. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F

  8. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Weiss Building & Development LLC., Custom Home, Downers Grove, IL

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Downers Grove, IL, that scored HERS 35 without PV. This 3,600-square-foot custom home has advanced framed walls with R-23 dense-packed fiberglass plus R-13 rigid polyiso, a sealed attic with open-cell spray foam, a pier foundation, and 95% efficient gas furnace.

  9. Hard x-ray nanotomography of amorphous aluminosilicate cements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provis, J. L.; Rose, V.; Winarski, R. P.; van Deventer, J. S. J.

    2011-08-01

    Nanotomographic reconstruction of a sample of low-CO{sub 2} 'geopolymer' cement provides the first three-dimensional view of the pore structure of the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel, as well as evidence for direct binding of geopolymer gel onto unreacted fly ash precursor particles. This is central to understanding and optimizing the durability of concretes made using this new class of binder, and demonstrates the value of nanotomography in providing a three-dimensional view of nanoporous inorganic materials.

  10. History and some potentials of oil shale cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Smith, R.P.; Russell, B.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of oil shale as a cement component is discussed. It was investigated in America and Europe during World War I. Additional development occurred in Western Europe, Russia, and China during the 1920s and 1930s. World War II provided further development incentives and a relatively mature technology was in place in Germany, Russia, and China prior to 1980. The utilization of oil shale in cement has taken a number of different paths. One approach has been to utilize the energy in the oil shale as the principal source for the cement plant and to use the combusted shale as a minor constituent of the plant's cement product. A second approach has been to use the combusted shale as a class C or cementitious fly-ash component in portland cement concrete. Other approaches utilizing eastern oil shale have been to use the combusted oil shale with additives as a specialty cement, or to cocombust the oil shale with coal and utilize the sulfur-rich combustion product.

  11. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  12. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  13. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  14. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Resource recovery plants with waste sorting process prior to incineration have not been successfully developed in many developing countries. The reuse potential of incineration ash in light of toxicity and compressive strength remains unclear due to the inhomogeneous composition and higher

  15. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  16. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  17. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  19. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5) the amount of production of cement by type and grade (in tonnes per year); (6) the electricity generated onsite; and, (7) the energy used by fuel type; and, the amount (in RMB per year) spent on energy. The tool offers the user the opportunity to do a quick assessment or a more detailed assessment--this choice will determine the level of detail of the energy input. The detailed assessment will require energy data for each stage of production while the quick assessment will require only total energy used at the entire facility (see Section 6 for more details on quick versus detailed assessments). The benchmarking tool provides two benchmarks--one for Chinese best practices and one for international best practices. Section 2 describes the differences between these two and how each benchmark was calculated. The tool also asks for a target input by the user for the user to set goals for the facility.

  20. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  1. Power-plant fly-ash utilization: a chemical processing perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) deals with the management of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages energy and resource recovery. Recent research has indicated that solid wastes from coal combustion, including fly ash, could be classified as hazardous under present EPA definitions. The seriousness of this possibility has been recognized and new rules for coal ash waste disposal are being considered. Ames Laboratory research on fly ash utilization as an alternative to disposal includes extraction of metals from the ash and discovery of uses for the process residues. Recovery of alumina and iron oxides by physical and chemical processing would permit large scale utilization of fly ash and help reduce dependency on imports. One of the processes investigated uses a lime-soda sinter method to form soluble aluminate compounds from mixtures of fly ash, limestone, and soda ash. The aluminates are extracted, treated to remove silicates, and precipitated: the precipitate is calcined to metallurgical grade alumina. The extract residue shows promise as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. Process economics are presented, and the effects of alumina and silica contents of the fly ash, sintering temperatures and time, and sales credits for by-products are discussed.

  2. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S.

    2005-11-01

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  3. Pontotoc Co. Greene Co. Hale Co. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL

  4. Pontotoc Co. Greene Co. Hale Co. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL DEGAS

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    COAL DEGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL DEGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL DEGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL

  5. Cement (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cement (2010 MECS) Cement (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Cement Sector (NAICS 327310) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Cement More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Cement Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) Textiles

  6. MECS 2006 - Cement | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cement MECS 2006 - Cement Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Cement (NAICS 327310) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Cement More Documents & Publications Cement (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Glass MECS 2006 - Plastics

  7. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  8. Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov

    2009-04-15

    It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

  9. Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    casing and cement and between cement and borehole wall. Most cement-bond logs are a measurement only of the amplitude of the early arriving casing signal. Although a small...

  10. Radon exhalation rate from coal ashes and building materials in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, A.; Capra, D.; Queirazza, G.

    1992-12-31

    The Italian National Electricity Board, in cooperation with Centro Informazioni Stubi Esperienze (CISE) has a program to assess the hazards connected with using fly ash in civil applications as partial substitutes for cement and other building materials. We investigated the natural radioactivity levels of more than 200 building materials. The survey involved materials available in Italy, categorized by geographical location and type of production. We also examined approximately 100 samples of fly ash from United States and South African coal, obtained from Italian power plants. Exhalation rates from about 40 powdered materials were determined by continuously measuring radon concentration growth in closed containers. Measurements were also performed on whole bricks, slabs, and titles. Details about the high-sensitivity measuring devices are presented. The influence of fly ash on exhalation rates was investigated by accurately measuring radon emanation from slabs with various ash/cement ratios and with slabs of inert materials having various radium concentrations. We will discuss results of forecasting indoor radon concentrations under different ventilation conditions. Two identical test rooms are being built, one with conventional and one with fly-ash building materials, to compare theoretical calculations with experimental data. Specifications for instruments to control and to measure the most important parameters are also discussed.

  11. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  12. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  13. Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

    1994-01-01

    There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

  14. Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited Place: Mumbai, India Zip: 400 021 Sector: Biomass Product: Indian cement company. the company...

  15. Radiological Survey Data for 38 Grove Avenue, Rochelle Park, l'lew Jersey

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    sEP 4 1984 l,lE-24 Radiological Survey Data for 38 Grove Avenue, Rochelle Park, l'lew Jersey E . L . K e l l e r , D i r e c t o r T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n 0ak Ridge Operations 0ffice The radiological survey data for the subject vicinity property has been reviewed by-the Divislbn of Remedial Action Proiects personnel. . Based on these data and the reasons stated ln your memorandum to DeLaney/ldhitman dated 8l?7184, we concur in the proposed remedial action at the subiect

  16. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Industrial properties of lignitic and lignocellulosic fly ashes from Turkish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.; Cetin, S.

    2006-01-21

    Fly ash is an inorganic matter from combustion of the carbonaceous solid fuels. More than half the electricity in Turkey is produced from lignite-fired power plants. This energy production has resulted in the formation of more than 13 million tons of fly ash waste annually. The presence of carbon in fly ash inducing common faults include adding unwanted black color and adsorbing process or product materials such as water and chemicals. One of the reasons for not using fly ash directly is its carbon content. For some uses carbon must be lower than 3%. Fly ash has been used for partial replacement of cement, aggregate, or both for nearly 70 years, and it is still used on a very limited scale in Turkey. The heavy metal content of industrial wastewaters is an important source of environmental pollution. Each of the three major oxides (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fly ash can be ideal as a metal adsorbent.

  18. Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Cement...

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study 2013: Weiss Building & Development, LLC., Custom Home, Downer Grove, IL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LLC Custom Home Downers Grove, IL BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are designed in to give you

  20. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  1. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams.

  2. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  3. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  4. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  5. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eilers, Louis H. (Inola, OK)

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  7. Method of the cementing of material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konovalov, Y.G.; Shutov, G.M.; Khanenya, G.P.; Dyatko, E.K.; Buben, K.K.

    1990-10-30

    Invention relates to woodworking industry and concerns method of cementing of materials of foam plastic with duralumin, glued plywood, etc. Known methods of cementing of materials by effect of electromagnetic field of superhigh frequencies are unproductive and do not make it possible to cement parts on the plane. Target of invention - acceleration of process of cementing of planar, including of complex configuration, parts and assemblies from wood, foam plastic, duralumin, glued plywood and other materials. For this material is cemented under the effect of directed electromagnetic field of superhigh frequency in the range 01-50 GHz, the specific power of 0.5-15 W/cm3.

  8. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  9. Quantification of the degree of reaction of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Haha, M.; De Weerdt, K.; Lothenbach, B.

    2010-11-15

    The quantification of the fly ash (FA) in FA blended cements is an important parameter to understand the effect of the fly ash on the hydration of OPC and on the microstructural development. The FA reaction in two different blended OPC-FA systems was studied using a selective dissolution technique based on EDTA/NaOH, diluted NaOH solution, the portlandite content and by backscattered electron image analysis. The amount of FA determined by selective dissolution using EDTA/NaOH is found to be associated with a significant possible error as different assumptions lead to large differences in the estimate of FA reacted. In addition, at longer hydration times, the reaction of the FA is underestimated by this method due to the presence of non-dissolved hydrates and MgO rich particles. The dissolution of FA in diluted NaOH solution agreed during the first days well with the dissolution as observed by image analysis. At 28 days and longer, the formation of hydrates in the diluted solutions leads to an underestimation. Image analysis appears to give consistent results and to be most reliable technique studied.

  10. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Jan. 23, 1997 -- A new technology brief published by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes how ash use can reduce the cost of waste management and not harm the environment. Communities in the United States typically dump municipal solid waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash

  11. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo

    2007-01-15

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Squeeze cement method using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underdown, D.R.; Ashford, J.D.; Harrison, T.W.; Eastlack, J.K.; Blount, C.G.; Herring, G.D.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of squeeze cementing a well wherein the well has a casing throughout the wellbore, casing cement between the casing and the wellbore of the well, perforations through the casing and the casing cement to establish fluid communication between the interior of the casing and a formation adjacent the perforations, channels in the casing cement in fluid communication with at least some of the perforations, a well tubing string in the casing extending from the surface to the proximity of the perforations, and a packer means for sealing between the tubing and the casing above the perforations. The method consists of: isolating the casing adjacent the perforations; lowering a coiled tubing down the well tubing string to a point adjacent the perforations; flowing uncontaminated squeeze cement through the coiled tubing and through the perforations into the channels; flowing a cement contaminating liquid down the coiled tubing to mix with the squeeze cement remaining in the casing; allowing the uncontaminated squeeze cement in the channels to harden; and removing the contaminated squeeze cement from the casing through the coiled tubing.

  14. High Temperature Cements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gles":,"locations":"text":"Cement for...

  15. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (?-SXRD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Sungchul; Meral, Cagla; Oh, Jae-eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Kunz, Martin; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (?-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using ?-SXRD patterns prove that ?-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. ?-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: • High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. • Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. • The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. • Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS.

  16. Wellbore Integrity Assurance with NETL's Safe Cementing Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us Wellbore cement integrity is paramount to safe, successful oil and natural gas drilling. Cement acts as the primary barrier between the wellbore and the environment....

  17. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well ...

  18. BEST-Cement for China | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BEST-Cement for China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: BEST-Cement AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Partner: Energy...

  19. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  20. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.

  1. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  2. Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2007-12-15

    Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  4. Device and method for separating minerals, carbon and cement additives from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Link, Thomas A.; Schoffstall, Micael R.; Soong, Yee

    2004-01-27

    A process for separating organic and inorganic particles from a dry mixture by sizing the particles into isolated fractions, contacting the sized particles to a charged substrate and subjecting the charged particles to an electric field to separate the particles.

  5. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  6. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17-acre ...

  7. Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunt's...

  8. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  9. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties PDF icon deer12kamp.pdf ...

  10. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their ...

  11. Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S.

    2007-11-15

    Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

  12. Geotechnical characterization of some Indian fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.K.; Yudhbir

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of experimental studies with regard to some common engineering properties (e.g., grain size, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, and unconfined compression strength) of both low and high calcium fly ashes, to evaluate their suitability as embankment materials and reclamation fills. In addition, morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of fly ashes are studied using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray analyzer, x-ray diffractometer, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. In high calcium fly ash, mineralogical and chemical differences are observed for particles, {gt}75 {mu} m and the particles of {lt} 45 {mu} m size. The mode and duration of curing significantly affect the strength and stress-strain behavior of fly ashes. The geotechnical properties of fly ash are governed by factors like lime content (CaO), iron content (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and loss on ignition. The distinct difference between self-hardening and pozzolanic reactivity has been emphasized.

  13. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon cement_wells_trabits_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells Geopolymer Sealing Materials track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review

  14. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

  15. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Fita, I.C.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.; Borrachero, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solid–solution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  16. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  17. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics improves liner cementing operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, N.A.; Archer, G.L. ); Seymour, D.A. )

    1994-09-26

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), an analytical tool for studying fluid mechanics, helped plan the successful cementing of a critical liner in a North Sea extended reach well. The results from CFD analysis increased the confidence in the primary cementing of the liner. CFD modeling was used to quantify the effects of increasing the displacement rate and of rotating the liner on the mud flow distribution in the annulus around the liner.

  19. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  20. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  1. Analysis of CCRL proficiency cements 151 and 152 using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Jeffrey W. . E-mail: jeffrey.bullard@nist.gov; Stutzman, Paul E.

    2006-08-15

    To test the ability of the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory (VCCTL) software to predict cement hydration properties, characterization of mineralogy and phase distribution is necessary. Compositional and textural characteristics of Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) cements 151 and 152 were determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis followed by computer modeling of hydration properties. The general procedure to evaluate a cement is as follows: (1) two-dimensional SEM backscattered electron and X-ray microanalysis images of the cement are obtained, along with a measured particle size distribution (PSD); (2) based on analysis of these images and the measured PSD, three-dimensional microstructures of various water-to-cement ratios are created and hydrated using VCCTL, and (3) the model predictions for degree of hydration under saturated conditions, heat of hydration (ASTM C186), setting time (ASTM C191), and strength development of mortar cubes (ASTM C109) are compared to experimental measurements either performed at NIST or at the participating CCRL proficiency sample evaluation laboratories. For both cements, generally good agreement is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  2. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  3. Ashe County- Wind Energy System Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007 Ashe County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in unincorporated areas of the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a...

  4. Fly ash system technology improves opacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-15

    Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

  5. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  8. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Develop a novel, zeolite-containing lightweight, high temperature, high pressure geothermal cement, which will provide operators with an easy to use, flexible cementing system that saves time and simplifies logistics.

  9. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  10. High temperature expanding cement composition and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Erik B. (Tulsa County, OK); Eilers, Louis H. (Rogers County, OK)

    1982-01-01

    A hydratable cement composition useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expanding cement at temperatures above about 150.degree. C. comprising a water soluble sodium salt of a weak acid, a 0.1 molar aqueous solution of which salt has a pH of between about 7.5 and about 11.5, a calcium source, and a silicon source, where the atomic ratio of sodium to calcium to silicon ranges from about 0.3:0.6:1 to about 0.03:1:1; aqueous slurries prepared therefrom and the use of such slurries for plugging subterranean cavities at a temperature of at least about 150.degree. C. The invention composition is useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expansive cement having about 0.2 to about 2 percent expansion, by volume, when cured at at least 150.degree. C.

  11. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  12. Wellbore Cement: Research That Begins Where the Sidewalk Ends | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Wellbore Cement: Research That Begins Where the Sidewalk Ends Wellbore Cement: Research That Begins Where the Sidewalk Ends October 29, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Wellbore Cement: Research That Begins Where the Sidewalk Ends Learn more To learn more about this research, read the full report, An Assessment of Research Needs Related to Improving Primary Cement Isolation of Formations in Deep Offshore Wells. Full report on NETL's website. As we meander down the sidewalk, how many of us

  13. Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2009-02-15

    This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15 M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 deg. C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

  14. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  15. Chemical evolution of cementitious materials with high proportion of fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.; Bakharev, T.; Brough, A.R.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Struble, L.J.; Young, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Cement mixtures containing high proportions of slag and fly ash were tested to assess their suitability to immobilize simulated off-gas waste solutions after vitrification of low-level radioactive tank wastes stored at Hanford. Materials were mixed with carbonated or alkaline solutions and cured initially adiabatically, then at 70{degrees}C. Chemical changes were monitored for 7 months using X-ray diffraction, selective dissolution and SEM; NMR was utilized to follow the polymerization of silicate species. The process of hydration during the first months of curing was characterized by formation of quite crystalline Al-substituted C-S-H structurally related to 1.1 nm tobermorite and traces of zeolites in some materials. A low content of calcium hydroxide was found in all materials after I month of curing. The SEM examination demonstrated rapidly decreasing porosity, making the mixtures favorable for long-term durability.

  16. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Jun, Ssang Sun; Choi, Sejin; Clark, Simon M.

    2010-02-15

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 deg. C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  17. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  18. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  19. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter

    2015-07-02

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  20. Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessing the Ecological Health of the D-Area Ash Plume Wetland David Scott, Brian Metts, Tracey Tuberville, and Bill Hopkins The ash plume wetland (APW). The APW received coal combustion wastes from a breach in a receiving basin in the 1970s. Several trace metals are elevated in sediments of the APW area, including arsenic, selenium, strontium and copper. Coal-fired facilities have been in operation on the SRS since the early 1950s. After combustion, coal combustion waste (CCW, sometimes also

  1. Using fly ash to mitigate explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taulbee, D.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research was given funding to evaluate the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) to reduce the explosive potential of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers. Fly ash C (FAC), fly ash F (FAF) and flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) were evaluated. It was found that applying a CCB coating to the AN particles at concentrations of 5 wt% or greater prevented the AN explosion from propagating. The article reports on results so far and outlines further work to be done. 6 figs.

  2. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on reclaimed mine lands, leaching studies of fly ash and carbon sorption studies of fly ash.

  3. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.; Wheeldon, J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  4. High carbon fly ash finds uses in highway construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, H.; Patton, R.

    2008-07-01

    The beneficial use of high carbon fly ash in a highway construction project is discussed. The fly ash also had a relatively high content of mercury and some other heavy metals. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  5. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A.

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  6. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  7. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency | Department of Energy Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash

  8. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-05-15

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  9. Phase development in conventional and active belite cement pastes by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rietveld analysis and chemical constraints (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase development in conventional and active belite cement pastes by Rietveld analysis and chemical constraints Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase development in conventional and active belite cement pastes by Rietveld analysis and chemical constraints High belite cements may be an alternative to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Although CO{sub 2} emissions may be depleted up to 10%, unfortunately, the

  10. Study of alinite cement hydration by impedance spectroscopy ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Cement and Concrete Research; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: PII: S0008884602009444; Copyright (c) 2002 Elsevier Science ...

  11. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Krishna, Coimbatore R. (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1986-01-01

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described.

  12. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with Portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Krishna, C.R.

    1984-10-17

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of Portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described. 1 tab.

  13. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic ...

  14. Phase development in conventional and active belite cement pastes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We have also developed a methodology to analyse quantitatively the phase evolution of ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Cement and Concrete Research; Journal Volume: 39; Journal ...

  15. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  16. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  17. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  18. Eirich technology for the preparation of ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eirich, G.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes a mixer manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich that can be used in the agglomeration of power plant ashes and residues. No matter whether the power plant burns coal, fuel oil, wood, peat, or garbage or whether the power plant plans to dispose or utilize the residue, most flowsheets will contain an agglomeration step. The paper describes some of the uses to which this mixer can be put.

  19. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaobin Wang

    2008-10-01

    Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  2. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  3. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions: | Department of Energy Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_plumley.pdf More Documents & Publications Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Unraveling DPF Degradation using Chemical

  4. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  5. Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-04_fujii.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Honeycomb Ceramics Geometrical Cell Design on Urea SCR System Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation

  6. Use of hazardous waste in cement kilns backed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, J.

    1993-07-19

    Cement kiln operators who are making use of hazardous waste as a partial substitute for fossil fuel now have a better engineering foundation for determining what is going on in the kilns and how to optimize their operations. A just-released study by a scientific advisory board of experts commissioned by the Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) in Washington, DC, has provided an in-depth look, at such operations and finds the practice to be a fundamentally sound' technology. Long residence times and high temperatures in cement kilns maximize the combustion efficiency for waste-derived fuels, according to the study report. The scientific advisory board notes that all organic compounds can be destroyed in a kiln at 99.9999% efficiency. Also, the behavior of metals in cement kilns can be readily measured, predicted, and controlled. Cement kilns are extremely efficient in reducing metals emissions.

  7. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  8. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  9. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleus, R.C. [Intertox, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  10. Incinerators and cement kilns face off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.

    1994-04-01

    For the past few years, US incinerators have been at odds with thermal waste processors such as cement kilns. Originally, there was enough room in the industrial waste treatment market for both types of treatment. As waste generators turned to pollution prevention and onsite treatment, however, the volume of waste decreased and its composition changed. Now, each sees the other crowding it out of a tightening market, and the fight between them is growing increasingly bitter. At the center of this battle are the products of alternative thermal processes--for cement kilns, the dust formed after processing, and for other processes, a variety of materials, many of which can be used for construction. Currently, these materials are exempted from regulation under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In addition, the alternative processes offer generators a significant cost advantage over incineration. The question that US regulators are now grappling with is whether these materials are safe enough to justify this preferential treatment. So far, the answer seems to be a qualified yes. The paper discusses these issues.

  11. Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulloway, H. M.

    2012-03-06

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

  12. Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2250114, -112.4840675 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  13. Using fly ash and natural pozzolans in long life structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramme, B.; Jacobsmeyer, J.

    2008-07-01

    The use of fly ash and natural pozzolans in various structures (roads, temples, bridges, buildings etc.) in the USA and Canada is discussed. 22 refs., 4 photos.

  14. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ashe County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 36.4339674, -81.4718387 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant PDF icon deer09watson.pdf More Documents & Publications Minimizing Lubricant-Ash ...

  17. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  18. CONTENTS NETL Boasts State-of-the- Art Capabilities for Cement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NETL Boasts State-of-the- Art Capabilities for Cement Research ..........................................1 Editor's Letter .................................2 Five Challenges: NETL Cementing Research Foci ..........6 Past NETL Well Integrity Research: Special Cements for Special Conditions .......................8 Cooperative Agreement on Energy Technologies: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealant ........................12 Ongoing Cementing Research

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

  20. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  1. Fly ash and coal mineral matter surface transformations during heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, D R; Smith, R D

    1982-05-01

    A study is reported of surface segregation phenomena for fly ash and aluminosilicates representative of coal mineral matter during heating. The materials studied included a 20-..mu..m average diameter fly ash powder, a glass prepared from the fly ash, and Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicate minerals. The samples were heated both in air and under vacuum for extended periods at temperatures up to 1100/sup 0/C. XPS, Auger and SIMS methods were used to obtain relative surface elemental concentrations for major and minor components and depth profiles for some of the samples. Major differences were noted between samples heated in air (oxidizing) and those heated in vacuum (reducing) environments. For the fly ash glass heated in air Fe, Ti and Mg become enriched on the surfaces while heating in vacuum leads to Si surface segregation. Different trends upon heating were also observed for the Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicates. The results indicate two levels of surface enrichment upon the fly ash glass; a thin (< 500 A) layer and a thicker (1- to 2-..mu..m) layer most evident for heating in air where an Fe-rich layer is formed. The present results indicate that the rates of surface segregation may not be sufficiently fast on the time scale of fly ash formation to result in equilibrium surface segregation. It is concluded that condensation processes during fly ash formation probably play a major role in the observed fly ash surface enrichments.

  2. The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

  3. Optimizing the use of fly ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.

    2007-07-01

    The optimum amount of fly ash varies not only with the application, but also with composition and proportions of all the materials in the concrete mixture (especially the fly ash), the conditions during placing (especially temperature), construction practices (for example, finishing and curing) and the exposure conditions. This document discusses issues related to using low to very high levels of fly ash in concrete and provides guidance for the use of fly ash without compromising the construction process or the quality of the finished product. The nature of fly ashes including their physical, mineralogical and chemical properties is covered in detail, as well as fly ash variability due to coal composition and plant operating conditions. A discussion on the effects of fly ash characteristics on fresh and hardened concrete properties includes; workability, bleeding, air entrainment, setting time, heat of hydration, compressive strength development, creep, drying shrinkage, abrasion resistance, permeability, resistance to chlorides, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), sulfate resistance, carbonation, and resistance to freezing and thawing and deicer salt scaling. Case studies were selected as examples of some of the more demanding applications of fly ash concrete for ASR mitigation, chloride resistance, and green building.

  4. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  5. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  6. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  7. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  8. Chemical Reactions of Portland Cement with Aqueous CO2 and their Impacts on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cement's Mechanical Properties under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Chemical Reactions of Portland Cement with Aqueous CO2 and their Impacts on Cement's Mechanical Properties under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical Reactions of Portland Cement with Aqueous CO2 and their Impacts on Cement's Mechanical Properties under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions Authors: Li, Q. ; Lim, Yun Mook ;

  9. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  10. Mineralogy of the hardpan formation processes in the interface between sulfide-rich sludge and fly ash: Applications for acid mine drainage mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; Alvarez-Valero, A.M.; De Almodovar, G.R.

    2007-11-15

    In the present study, experiments in non-saturated leaching columns were conducted to characterize the neoformed phases that precipitate at the interface between two waste residues having different chemical characteristics: an acid mine drainage producer residue (i.e., pyritic sludge) and an acidity neutralizer residue (i.e., coal combustion fly ash). A heating source was placed on top of one of the columns to accelerate oxidation and precipitation of newly formed phases, and thus, to observe longer-scale processes. When both residues are deposited together, the resulting leachates are characterized by alkaline pH, and low sulfate and metal concentrations. Two mechanisms help to improve the quality of the leachates. Over short-time scales, the leaching of pyrite at high pH (as a consequence of fly ash addition) favors the precipitation of ferrihydrite, encapsulating the pyrite grains and attenuating the oxidation process. Over longer time scales, a hardpan is promoted at the interface between both residues due to the precipitation of ferrihydrite, jarosite, and a Ca phase-gypsum or aragonite, depending on carbonate ion activity. Geochemical modeling of leachates using PHREEQC software predicted supersaturation in the observed minerals. The development of a relatively rigid crust at the interface favors the isolation of the mining waste from weathering processes, helped by the cementation of fly ash owing to aragonite precipitation, which ensures total isolation and neutralization of the mine residues.

  11. INFORMAL REPORT PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT- BASED GROUTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    67006 INFORMAL REPORT PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT- BASED GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP APPLICATIONS FINAL REPORT FY 1999 M.L. Allan and A.J. Philippacopoulos November...

  12. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much lower than that of CO2-saturated brine. The study suggests that in deep geological reservoirs the geochemical and geomechanical processes have coupled effects on the wellbore cement fracture evolution and fluid flow along the fracture surfaces.

  13. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnectionmore » of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much lower than that of CO2-saturated brine. The study suggests that in deep geological reservoirs the geochemical and geomechanical processes have coupled effects on the wellbore cement fracture evolution and fluid flow along the fracture surfaces.« less

  14. Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

  15. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration Assessing the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage is one of the major challenges for geological carbon

  16. Massive Cement Pour into Hanford Site Nuclear Facility Underway: Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Act Funding Puts U Canyon in Home Stretch of Demolition Preparations | Department of Energy Massive Cement Pour into Hanford Site Nuclear Facility Underway: Recovery Act Funding Puts U Canyon in Home Stretch of Demolition Preparations Massive Cement Pour into Hanford Site Nuclear Facility Underway: Recovery Act Funding Puts U Canyon in Home Stretch of Demolition Preparations June 14, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Andre Armstrong, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (509) 376-6773

  17. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W.

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  18. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  19. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S. . E-mail: stsiv@central.ntua.gr; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-06-15

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C{sub 2}S and its low content in calcium silicates.

  20. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  1. Cement paste prior to setting: A rheological approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellotto, Maurizio

    2013-10-15

    The evolution of cement paste during the dormant period is analyzed via small amplitude oscillation rheological measurements. Cement paste, from the very first moments after mixing cement and water, shows the formation of an elastic gel whose strength is rapidly increasing over time. Up to the onset of Portlandite precipitation G?(t) increases by more than 2 orders of magnitude and in the acceleratory period G?(t) continues steadily to increase. A microstructural modification is likely to occur between the dormant and the acceleratory period. At low deformations in the linearity domain the storage modulus G?(?) exhibits a negligible frequency dependence. At higher deformations cement paste shows a yield stress which increases on increasing paste concentration. The presence of superplasticizers decreases the yield stress and increases the gelation threshold of the paste. Above the gelation threshold the evolution of cement paste with superplasticizers follows similar trends to the neat paste. -- Highlights: •The gelation of cement paste during the dormant period is analyzed via rheometry. •The observed evolution is proposed to be related to the pore structure refinement. •Similarities are observed with colloidal gels and colloidal glasses.

  2. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  3. Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.; Rano, R.

    2007-07-01

    Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

  4. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F. . E-mail: fromero@ehu.es

    2005-07-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work.

  5. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  7. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  8. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from pyrite and ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    The separation of fine coal from ash and pyrite was evaluated using a microorganism Mycobacterium phlei.

  9. 10 Questions with Well-Bore Cement Researcher Dr. Barbara Kutchko |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Well-Bore Cement Researcher Dr. Barbara Kutchko 10 Questions with Well-Bore Cement Researcher Dr. Barbara Kutchko March 31, 2015 - 2:53pm Addthis Barbara Kutchko, a well-bore cement researcher, studies the make-up and properties of cement used in oil and gas drilling. | Photo courtesy of the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL). Barbara Kutchko, a well-bore cement researcher, studies the make-up and properties of cement used in oil and gas drilling. | Photo courtesy of

  10. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  11. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  12. Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Blue Ash is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 2nd congressional...

  13. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  14. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conditioning Filter | Department of Energy Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under the test conditions used in this study, the strong base filter had a significant and beneficial effect on the rate of oil degradation. The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant PDF icon deer09_watson.pdf More

  15. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  16. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  17. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  18. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  19. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Cement Long-Term Success for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Northern Colorado Duo Partnerships Cement Long-Term Success for Northern Colorado Duo to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Cement Long-Term Success for Northern Colorado Duo on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Cement Long-Term Success for Northern Colorado Duo on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Cement Long-Term Success for Northern Colorado Duo on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  1. Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Amonette, J. E.; Drake, Meghan M; Brown, Steven D; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

  2. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  3. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHRISTOPHER J. ZYGARLICKE; DONALD P. MCCOLLOR; JOHN P. KAY; MICHAEL L. SWANSON

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: ? Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. ? Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. ? Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. ? Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. ? Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. ? Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  5. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  6. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  7. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  8. Experimental study of the relationship between formation factor, porosity, and cementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harig, M.D.; Chaney, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    Cemented granular soils are classified based on the size and distribution of the individual grains and qualitatively on the basis of cementation. To uniquely classify these types of soils, information about the fabric (pore geometry and/or level of cementation) of the specimen needs to be quantified. Electrical resistivity, or its reciprocal, conductivity, methods have been extensively used both in situ and in the laboratory to provide a means for determining a variety of soil index, structural, erosional, and cyclic properties. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between formation factor (F), porosity (n), and cementation factor (m) of remolded sand-cement specimens. This relationship is shown to provide a mechanism for estimating the level of cementation in undisturbed specimens. The formation factor is the ratio of the electrical resistivity of the sand-water-cement mixture to that of the interstitial water.

  9. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  10. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate

  11. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  12. Pioneer Grove | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Acciona Energy Energy Purchaser Central Iowa Power Cooperative Location Mechanicsville IA Coordinates 41.85086289, -91.23407364 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapp...

  13. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R.

    2005-07-01

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  14. Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its ...

  15. Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  16. Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation | Department of Energy Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental

  17. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  18. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun . E-mail: woklee@kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  19. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  1. Effect of large additions of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, to cement raw meal on the composition and the properties of the clinker and the cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat, M.; Sorrentino, F.

    1996-03-01

    The utilization of hydraulic binders to solidify and to stabilize industrial wastes and municipal garbage is presently recognized as one of the solutions to the problem of environment protection. Te addition of important quantities of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn to raw meals of Portland and calcium aluminate cement modifies the mineralogical composition and the properties of the final cement. Portland cement can absorb a large amount of Cd and Zn. This absorption leads to an increase of setting time and a decrease of strengths of the cement. It also can trap chromium with a short setting time and high strengths. Calcium aluminate cements easily trap Cd and Cr with a delayed setting and good strength but also Pb with normal setting time and strengths. Large quantities of zinc oxide have a deleterious effect on calcium aluminate strengths.

  2. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  3. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John [School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-07

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  4. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel efficiency potential equal to 7,949 terajoules (TJ), accounting for 8% of total fuel used in the studied cement plants in 2008. All the fuel efficiency potential is shown to be cost effective. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission reduction potential associated with cost-effective electricity saving is 383 kiloton (kt) CO{sub 2}, while total technical potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction from electricity-saving is 940 ktCO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials associated with fuel-saving potentials is 950 ktCO{sub 2}.

  5. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  6. Automated system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash from electric precipitator hoppers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.K. Konovalov; O.V. Yashkin; V.V. Ermakov

    2008-03-15

    A system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash is examined, in which air pulses act on batches (pistons) of ash formed in a duct. Studies are made of the effect of several physical parameters on the force required to displace a piston of ash and these serve as a basis for choosing a system for removal and pneumatic transport of ash simultaneously from several hoppers of an electric precipitator. This makes it possible to separate the ash particles according to size without introducing additional components. Formulas are given for calculating the structural and dynamic parameters of this system and measurements of indirect dynamic parameters are used to calculate the input-output characteristics of the system. In order to optimize the system, configurations for summing several ducts into a single transport duct for pneumatic ash transport are proposed. Some variants of dry ash utilization and the advantages of producing of size-separated particles are considered.

  7. Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

    2009-06-22

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

  8. Application of resistivity monitoring to evaluate cement grouting effect in earth filled dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jin-Mo; Yoon, Wang-Jung

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we applied electrical resistivity monitoring method to evaluate the cement grouting effect. There are a lot of ways to evaluate cement grouting effect. In order to do this evaluation in a great safety, high efficiency, and lower cost, resistivity monitoring is found to be the most appropriate technique. In this paper we have selected a dam site from Korea to acquire resistivity monitoring data and compare the results of inversion to estimate the cement grouting effect.

  9. Change in pore structure and composition of hardened cement paste during

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the process of dissolution (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Change in pore structure and composition of hardened cement paste during the process of dissolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Change in pore structure and composition of hardened cement paste during the process of dissolution An understanding about the dissolution phenomena of cement hydrates is important to assess changes in the long-term performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. To investigate the

  10. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400 C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount of carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. {alpha}-Iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but ?-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  11. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2013_Foamed Cement_20140124.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressures. Foamed cements with a broader BSD were observed having higher compressive strengths than those with the same density, but smaller bubbles and permeability was found...

  12. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

    1998-05-01

    Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  14. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  15. Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z.

    2009-06-15

    Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

  16. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  18. Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig

    2009-05-15

    Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty; Sherrard, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  20. Relationship between textural properties, fly ash carbons, and Hg capture in fly ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Jose B. Parra

    2007-08-15

    In this work, the textural properties of a series of whole anthracitic-derived fly ashes sampled in eight hoppers from the electrostatic precipitators and their sized fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) are investigated. Data from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K, helium density, and mercury porosimetry have contributed to establish a relationship between the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, VTOT, porosity, carbon content (the type of fly ash carbons), and Hg retention in these fly ashes. The unburned carbons in these ashes are macroporous materials, and they are different from the carbons in fly ashes from classes C and F (the latter derived from the combustion of bituminous coals) and show different textural properties. These ashes represent the end member of the fly ash classes C and F with respect to certain textural properties. Although the BET surface area and VTOT values for the studied samples are the lowest reported, they increase with the increase in carbon content, anisotropic carbon content, and particle size of the ashes. Thus, a positive relationship between all these parameters and Hg capture by the coarser ash fractions was found. The finest fraction of carbons ({lt}25 {mu}m) represented an exception. Although it makes a significant contribution to the total carbon of the whole fly ashes and shows relatively higher surface areas and VTOT values, its Hg concentration was found to be the lowest. This suggests that the type of unburned carbons in the finest fraction and/or other adsorption mechanisms may play a role in Hg concentration. Because the textural properties of anisotropic carbons depend on their subtype and on their origin, the need for its differentiation has been evidenced. 54 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. New subsea wiper plugs hold down deepwater cementing costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, R.; Sonnefeld, A.; Minge, J.

    1997-02-01

    British Petroleum Exploration (BPX) achieved top-quality cementing performance at significantly lower costs in a deepwater area 45 miles offshore Louisiana by using a new method of launching subsea wiper plugs. The method is based on a newly designed subsea casing wiper plug release system, which uses up to three solid wiper plugs loaded in a basket and released by individual darts launched from a surface tool. This design has eliminated the problems sometimes associated with the latching, unlatching and sealing of conventional subsea casing wiper plugs.

  2. Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Daniel L.Y.; Sanjayan, Jay G. Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymers manufactured using metakaolin and fly ash of various mixture proportions. Both types of geopolymers (metakaolin and fly ash) were synthesized with sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide solutions. The strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer increased after exposure to elevated temperatures (800 deg. C). However, the strength of the corresponding metakaolin-based geopolymer decreased after similar exposure. Both types of geopolymers were subjected to thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The paper concludes that the fly ash-based geopolymers have large numbers of small pores which facilitate the escape of moisture when heated, thus causing minimal damage to the geopolymer matrix. On the other hand, metakaolin geopolymers do not possess such pore distribution structures. The strength increase in fly ash geopolymers is also partly attributed to the sintering reactions of un-reacted fly ash particles.

  3. Portland cement for SO/sub 2/ control in coal-fired power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.

    1984-10-17

    A method is described for removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. The cement products that result from this method is also described. 1 tab.

  4. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.; McDaniel, K.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. We cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e., compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion.

  5. Rigless multizone recompletion using a cement packer placed with coiled tubing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, T.W.; Patout, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    Cement packers have been used for some time when reserve estimates have not justified the cost of major rig remedial work. They typically provide a means of zonal isolation of the last reserves in an existing wellbore. The success of these operations has historically been low. This is predominantly because of poor cement bonding in the annulus between the tubing and production casing. Because of the minimal amount of equipment on location and lack of upfront design work involved, most cement packers are doomed to failure before they are even placed. Cement packers have been placed using a large number of methods. In the Ship Shoal 181 field, Well B-4 would not economically justify a major rig workover, even though there were several uphole gas sands capable of producing in this well. With proper upfront planning and design, it would be economical; however, all these reserves could be produced in a through-tubing process using a cement packer. This case history presents a refined look at existing technology involving placement of a cement packer and reviews problems common to cement-packer completions, including a case history. Solutions are also discussed for successfully completing and recovering reserves from not one but several remaining gas intervals. This paper reviews the design considerations and precautions, along with the production results and economics, for placing what is believed to be the largest cement packer placed through coiled tubing.

  6. Portland cement for SO.sub.2 control in coal-fired power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1985-01-01

    There is described a method of removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. There is also described the cement products that result from this method.

  7. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part

  8. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations | Department of Energy The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel PDF icon deer12_wang.pdf More Documents & Publications Controlled Experiments on

  9. Apparatus and method for measuring the expansion properties of a cement composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spangle, Lloyd B. (Claremore, OK)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed which is useful for measuring the expansion properties of semi-solid materials which expand to a solid phase, upon curing, such as cement compositions. The apparatus includes a sleeve, preferably cylindrical, which has a vertical slit on one side, to allow the sleeve to expand. Mounted on the outside of the sleeve are several sets of pins, consisting of two pins each. The two pins in each set are located on opposite sides of the slit. In the test procedure, the sleeve is filled with wet cement, which is then cured to a solid. As the cement cures it causes the sleeve to expand. The actual expansion of the sleeve represents an expansion factor for the cement. This factor is calculated by measuring the distance across the pins of each set, when the sleeve is empty, and again after the cured cement expands the sleeve.

  10. Savannah River Site Takes on Another Environmental Cleanup Challenge: Coal-Fired Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    AIKEN, S.C. – Workers have begun excavating a thick layer of coal ash covering approximately 100 acres of the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Li, Lin

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  12. 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  13. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate

  14. The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type. PDF icon deer08_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design

  15. Evaluation of cement kiln laboratories testing hazardous waste derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln operators wishing to burn hazardous waste derived fuels in their kilns must submit applications for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. One component of each permit application is a site-specific Waste Analysis Plan. These Plans describe the facilities` sampling and analysis procedures for hazardous waste derived fuels prior to receipt and burn. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted on-site evaluations of several cement kiln facilities that were under consideration for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. The purpose of these evaluations was to determine if the on-site sampling and laboratory operations at each facility complied with their site-specific Waste Analysis Plans. These evaluations covered sampling, laboratory, and recordkeeping procedures. Although all the evaluated facilities were generally competent, the results of those evaluations revealed opportunities for improvement at each facility. Many findings were noted for more than one facility. This paper will discuss these findings, particularly those shared by several facilities (specific facilities will not be identified). Among the findings to be discussed are the ways that oxygen bombs were scrubbed and rinsed, the analytical quality control used, Burn Tank sampling, and the analysis of pH in hazardous waste derived fuels.

  16. Leachability of decontamination reagents from cement waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Davis, M.S.; Adams, J.W.

    1984-11-26

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wstes, has begun to study the leachability of organic reagents from solidified simulated decontamination wastes. Laboratory-scale cement waste forms containing EDTA, picolinic acid or simulated LOMI decontamination reagent were leach tested. Samples containing an organic reagent on either mixed bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins were tested. A fixed interval leach procedure was used, as well as the standard procedure ANS 16.1. The leachability indices measured for the release of the acid from resin/cement composites are: 10.1 for EDTA on mixed bed resins; 9.1 for picolinic acid on mixed bed resins; 9.2 for picolinic acid on anion exchange resins; 8.8 for picolinic acid in forms containing simulated low oxidation metallic ion (LOMI) reagent on mixed bed resins and 8.7 for picolinic acid in forms containing simulated LOMI reagent on anion exchange resins. The leachability indices measured varied with leach time and the data indicate that the release mechanism may not be simply diffusion controlled. 5 references, 2 tables.

  17. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunet, Jean-Patrick Leopold; Li, Li; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Strazisar, Brian; Bromhal Grant

    2013-08-01

    Assessing the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage is one of the major challenges for geological carbon sequestration. Injected CO{sub 2} can react with wellbore cement, which can potentially change cement composition and transport properties. In this work, we develop a reactive transport model based on experimental observations to understand and predict the property evolution of cement in direct contact with CO{sub 2}-saturated brine under diffusion-controlled conditions. The model reproduced the observed zones of portlandite depletion and calcite formation. Cement alteration is initially fast and slows down at later times. This work also quantified the role of initial cement properties, in particular the ratio of the initial portlandite content to porosity (defined here as ?), in determining the evolution of cement properties. Portlandite-rich cement with large ? values results in a localized “sharp” reactive diffusive front characterized by calcite precipitation, leading to significant porosity reduction, which eventually clogs the pore space and prevents further acid penetration. Severe degradation occurs at the cement–brine interface with large ? values. This alteration increases effective permeability by orders of magnitude for fluids that preferentially flow through the degraded zone. The significant porosity decrease in the calcite zone also leads to orders of magnitude decrease in effective permeability, where fluids flow through the low-permeability calcite zone. The developed reactive transport model provides a valuable tool to link cement–CO{sub 2} reactions with the evolution of porosity and permeability. It can be used to quantify and predict long-term wellbore cement behavior and can facilitate the risk assessment associated with geological CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  18. Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2011-11-17

    A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

  19. Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P.

    2008-05-15

    To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

  20. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  1. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  2. Stabilization of Oklahoma expensive soils using lime and class C fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buhler, R.L.; Cerato, A.B.

    2007-01-15

    This study uses lime and class C fly ash, an industrial byproduct of electric power production produced from burning lignite and subbituminous coal, to study the plasticity reduction in highly expensive natural clays from Idabel, Oklahoma. This study is important, especially in Oklahoma, because most of the native soils are expansive and cause seasonal damage to roadways and structures. The addition of lime or fly ash helps to arrest the shrinkage and swelling behavior of soil. Four soil samples with the same AASHTO classification were used in this study to show shrinkage variability within a soil group with the addition of lime and class C fly ash. The plasticity reduction in this study was quantified using the linear shrinkage test. It was found that soils classified within the same AASHTO group had varying shrinkage characteristics. It was also found that both lime and fly ash reduced the lienar shrinkage, however, the addition of lime reduced the linear shrinkage to a greater degree than the same percentage of class C fly ash. Even though it takes much less lime than fly ash to reduce the plasticity of a highly expansive soil, it may be less expensive to utilize fly ash, which is a waste product of electric power production. Lime also has a lower unit weight than fly ash so weight percentage results may be misleading.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  4. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  5. Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji

    2009-07-15

    To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blount, Gerald C. (North Augusta, SC); Falta, Ronald W. (Seneca, SC); Siddall, Alvin A. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  7. Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

  8. Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

  9. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  10. Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, Weiguo; Kuhlman, John M

    2011-01-20

    Existing experimental ash particle deposition measurements from the literature have been simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discrete phase model (DPM) Lagrangian particle tracking method and an existing ash particle deposition model based on the Johnson−Kendall−Roberts (JKR) theory, in the Fluent commercial CFD code. The experimental heating tube was developed to simulate ash temperature histories in a gasifier; ash-heating temperatures ranged from 1873 to 1573 K, spanning the ash-melting temperature. The present simulations used the realizable k−ε turbulence model to compute the gas flow field and the heat transfer to a cooled steel particle impact probe and DPM particle tracking for the particle trajectories and temperatures. A user-defined function (UDF) was developed to describe particle sticking/rebounding and particle detachment on the impinged wall surface. Expressions for the ash particle Young’s modulus in the model, E, versus the particle temperature and diameter were developed by fitting to the E values that were required to match the experimental ash sticking efficiencies from several particle size cuts and ash-heating temperatures for a Japanese bituminous coal. A UDF that implemented the developed stiffness parameter equations was then used to predict the particle sticking efficiency, impact efficiency, and capture efficiency for the entire ash-heating temperature range. Frequency histogram comparisons of adhesion and rebound behavior by particle size between model and experiments showed good agreement for each of the four ash-heating temperatures. However, to apply the present particle deposition model to other coals, a similar validation process would be necessary to develop the effective Young’s modulus versus the particle diameter and temperature correlation for each new coal.

  11. Gypsum treated fly ash as a liner for waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivapullaiah, Puvvadi V.; Baig, M. Arif Ali

    2011-02-15

    Fly ash has potential application in the construction of base liners for waste containment facilities. While most of the fly ashes improve in the strength with curing, the ranges of permeabilities they attain may often not meet the basic requirement of a liner material. An attempt has been made in the present context to reduce the hydraulic conductivity by adding lime content up to 10% to two selected samples of class F fly ashes. The use of gypsum, which is known to accelerate the unconfined compressive strength by increasing the lime reactivity, has been investigated in further improving the hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted specimens have been determined in the laboratory using the falling head method. It has been observed that the addition of gypsum reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the lime treated fly ashes. The reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the samples containing gypsum is significantly more for samples with high amounts of lime contents (as high as 1000 times) than those fly ashes with lower amounts of lime. However there is a relatively more increase in the strengths of the samples with the inclusion of gypsum to the fly ashes at lower lime contents. This is due to the fact that excess lime added to fly ash is not effectively converted into pozzolanic compounds. Even the presence of gypsum is observed not to activate these reactions with excess lime. On the other hand the higher amount of lime in the presence of sulphate is observed to produce more cementitious compounds which block the pores in the fly ash. The consequent reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of fly ash would be beneficial in reducing the leachability of trace elements present in the fly ash when used as a base liner.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A.

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Adams, Marshall; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

  14. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

  15. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50°C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore integrity because cement alteration by all phases of CO2 is dominated by carbonation reaction. This is consistent with previous field studies of wellbore cement with extensive carbonation after exposure to CO2 for 3 decades. However, XMT imaging indicates that preferential cement alteration by supercritical CO2 or CO2-saturated groundwater can occur along the cement-steel or cement-rock interfaces. This highlights the importance of further investigation of cement degradation along the interfaces of wellbore materials to ensure permanent geologic carbon storage.

  16. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Harris E.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; DuFrane, Wyatt L.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining “effective linear activity coefficients” (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  17. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  18. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-X-2015_Field-Generated Foamed Cement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in the treating line at the time of the foam generation. ... where cement is more porous can be seen in the false ... Right: false color images. Estimated foam quality 47.3% ...

  19. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  20. Geopolymer concretes: a green construction technology rising from the ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allouche, E.

    2009-07-01

    Researchers at Louisiana Tech University have embarked on a multi-year research initiative to develop applications for inorganic polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, in the area of civil construction, and to bring solve of these applications to market. One objective was to produce a spray-on coating for use in the harsh environment of wastewater conveyance and treatment facilities. Another project is to establish relationships between fly ash composition and particle size distribution and the mechanical attributes and workability of the resulting geopolymer concrete. A third project is to develop a 'smart' geopolymer concrete whose response to a given electric current can be correlated to the stress level to which the structure is subjected. 1 fig., 6 photos.

  1. New technologies address the problem areas of coiled-tubing cementing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Coiled-tubing cementing has been practiced successfully on the Alaskan North Slope for several years. This paper discusses the special problems faced when this technology was applied to offshore U.S. gulf coast operations. The innovative solutions and procedures developed to improve the economic and technical success of coiled-tubing cementing are also discussed. Comparative laboratory and computer studies, as well as field case histories, will be presented to show the economic merit of this technology.

  2. Improved coiled-tubing squeeze-cementing techniques at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornbrook, P.R.; Mason, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents major changes in coiled-tubing squeeze-cementing techniques used in the Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBUWOA). Changes include introduction of a polymer diluent to replace borax contamination, increased differential pressures placed on squeeze and coil, reduced cement volumes, and incorporation of an inflow test and resqueeze procedure. These changes resulted in increased squeeze effectiveness by reducing equipment and engineering time requirements and by shortening well shut-in time after the workover.

  3. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Daniel, J. [Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  4. In-place stabilization of pond ash deposits by hydrated lime columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chand, S.K.; Subbarao, C.

    2007-12-15

    Abandoned coal ash ponds cover up vast stretches of precious land and cause environmental problems. Application of suitable in situ stabilization methods may bring about improvement in the geotechnical properties of the ash deposit as a whole, converting it to a usable site. In this study, a technique of in-place stabilization by hydrated lime columns was applied to large-scale laboratory models of ash ponds. Samples collected from different radial distances and different depths of the ash deposit were tested to study the improvements in the water content, dry density, particle size distribution, unconfined compressive strength, pH, hydraulic conductivity, and leachate characteristics over a period of one year. The in-place stabilization by lime column technique has been found effective in increasing the unconfined compressive strength and reducing hydraulic conductivity of pond ash deposits in addition to modifying other geotechnical parameters. The method has also proved to be useful in reducing the contamination potential of the ash leachates, thus mitigating the adverse environmental effects of ash deposits.

  5. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, Albert H. (Huntington, NY)

    1983-10-04

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  6. Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents for SO[sub 2] removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C.S.; Shih, S.M. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, the reactivity of Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbent with SO[sub 2] is studied by using a fixed-bed differential reactor under the conditions simulating the bag filters of the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. The source of fly ash and the sorbent preparation conditions affect the reactivity of the sorbent. The reactivity of the sorbent was found to be closely related to the content of the calcium silicate hydrate formed in the sorbent preparation. The sorbent has a much higher utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2] than that of pure Ca(OH)[sub 2] sorbent, and in some range of Ca(OH)[sub 2] content the sorbent also has a higher SO[sub 2] capture capacity per unit weight of sorbent than that of pure lime. The fly ash from the Shin-Da plant of the Taiwan Power Company produced the best sorbent of all fly ashes in this study. The higher ratio of fly ash/Ca(OH)[sub 2], the higher slurrying temperature, the longer slurrying time, and the smaller particles of fly ash enhance the utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2], but the water/solid ratio has an optimal value. The relative humidity in the reactor has a significant effect on the reactivity of Ca(PH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents, but the effect of the sulfation temperature is subtle.

  7. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  8. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  9. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  11. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoretti, Nicolas Huwart, Laurent

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  12. Literature survey on cements for remediation of deformed casing in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was requested to conduct a literature survey for the best available cement to use in the proposed casing patch as part of the Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) project on remediation of deformed casings. A total of 50 wells have been identified with deformed production casing in Unocal`s portion of The Geysers geothermal field. A procedure to address the casing deformation and avoid abandonment of these wells has been developed as described in the Geysers Deformed Casing Remediation Proposal. The proposed remediation procedure involves isolation of the zone of interest with an inflatable packer, milling the deformed casing and cementing a 7 inch diameter liner to extend approximately 100 ft above and 100 ft below the milled zone. During the milling operation it is possible that the original cement and surrounding formation may slough away. In order to specify a suitable cement formulation for the casing patch it is first necessary to identify and understand the deformation mechanism/s operating in The Geysers field. Subsequently, the required cement mechanical properties to withstand further deformation of the repaired system must be defined. From this information it can be determined whether available cement formulations meet these requirements. In addition to The Geysers, other geothermal fields are at possible risk of casing deformation due to subsidence, seismic activity, lateral and vertical formation movement or other processes. Therefore, the proposed remediation procedure may have applications in other fields.

  13. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  14. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the material’s quality but also the biorefinery’s ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  15. Leachate concentrations from water leach and column leach tests on fly ash-stabilized soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bin-Shafique, S.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.; Hwang, K.

    2006-01-15

    Batch water leaching tests (WLTs) and column leaching tests (CLTs) were conducted on coal-combustion fly ashes, soil, and soil-fly ash mixtures to characterize leaching of Cd, Cr, Se, and Ag. The concentrations of these metals were also measured in the field at two sites where soft fine-grained soils were mechanically stabilized with fly ash. Concentrations in leachate from the WLTs on soil-fly ash mixtures are different from those on fly ash alone and cannot be accurately estimated based on linear dilution calculations using concentrations from WLTs on fly ash alone. The concentration varies nonlinearly with fly ash content due to the variation in pH with fly ash content. Leachate concentrations are low when the pH of the leachate or the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil is high. Initial concentrations from CLTs are higher than concentrations from WLTs due to differences in solid-liquid ratio, pH, and solid-liquid contact. However, both exhibit similar trends with fly ash content, leachate pH, and soil properties. Scaling factors can be applied to WLT concentrations (50 for Ag and Cd, 10 for Cr and Se) to estimate initial concentrations for CLTs. Concentrations in leachate collected from the field sites were generally similar or slightly lower than concentrations measured in CLTs on the same materials. Thus, CLTs appear to provide a good indication of conditions that occur in the field provided that the test conditions mimic the field conditions. In addition, initial concentrations in the field can be conservatively estimated from WLT concentrations using the aforementioned scaling factors provided that the pH of the infiltrating water is near neutral.

  16. Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding Ash2L is a core component of the MLL family histone methyltransferases and has an important role in

  17. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  18. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  19. Trash, ash and the phoenix : a fifth anniversary review of the Supreme Court's City of Chicago waste-to-energy combustion ash decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Environmental Assessment

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Supreme Court held that ash generated by waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities was not exempt from Subtitle C hazardous waste management regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). As a result of City of Chicago v. Environmental Defense Fund, Inc., WTE installations are required to test their combustion ash and determine whether it is hazardous. The WTE industry and the municipalities utilizing WTE technologies initially feared that if significant amounts of their ash tested hazardous, the costs and liabilities associated with RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste management requirements would pose a serious threat to the continued viability of the WTE concept. In this article, the author presents a review of the WTE industry in the five years following the decision, and finds that the specter of the decline of WTE has not materialized.

  20. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  1. Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

  2. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  3. Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A.

    2008-08-15

    The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

  4. 2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

  5. Comprehensive phase characterization of crystalline and amorphous phases of a Class F fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chancey, Ryan T.; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria C.G.; Fowler, David W.

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative and quantitative characterization of crystalline and amorphous constituent phases of a largely heterogeneous Class F fly ash is presented. Traditionally, fly ash composition is expressed as bulk elemental oxide content, generally determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. However, such analysis does not discern between relatively inert crystalline phases and highly reactive amorphous phases of similar elemental composition. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystalline phases present in the fly ash, and the Rietveld quantitative phase analysis method was applied to determine the relative proportion of each of these phases. A synergistic method of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and multispectral image analysis was developed to identify and quantify the amorphous phases present in the fly ash.

  6. Utilizing fly ash particles to produce low-cost metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, G.

    2008-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are a blend of fine ceramic particles mixed with metals such as aluminium or magnesium. Fly ash is considerably cheaper than ceramics; aluminium-fly ash composites cost less than 60% of conventional aluminium-SiC composites making them attractive to automakers striving for lower weight and cheaper materials for brake rotors or brake drums. Ultalite.com has consulted with US researchers to to find the optimum requirements of the fly ash needed to make MMCs. Particle size 20-40 microns, low calcium oxide content and spherical particles were identified. The desired particles once extracted are stirred into molten aluminum and the resulting composite is into ingots for shipment to a casting facility. Dynamometer testing has shown that aluminium-fly ash composite brake drums have better performance and wear than cast iron drums. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Investigation of air-entraining admixture dosage in fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ley, M.T.; Harris, N.J.; Folliard, K.J.; Hover, K.C.

    2008-09-15

    The amount of air-entraining admixture (AEA) needed to achieve a target air content in fresh concrete can vary significantly with differences in the fly ash used in the concrete. The work presented in this paper evaluates the ability to predict the AEA dosage on the basis of tests on the fly ash alone. All results were compared with the dosage of AEA required to produce an air content of 6% in fresh concrete. Fly ash was sampled from six separate sources. For four of these sources, samples were obtained both before and after the introduction of 'low-NOx burners'. Lack of definitive data about the coal itself or the specifics of the burning processes prevents the ability to draw specific conclusions about the impact of low-NOx burners on AEA demand. Nevertheless, the data suggest that modification of the burning process to meet environmental quality standards may affect the fly ash-AEA interaction.

  8. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  9. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  10. Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Damage for DPFs | Department of Energy X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs New commercially avaliable non-destructive x-ray techniques are used to make measurements on diesel particulate filters. PDF icon deer08_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Non-Destructive

  11. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems | Department of Energy Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_sappok.pdf More Documents

  12. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filters | Department of Energy an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_bunting_2.pdf More Documents & Publications

  13. Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Frost, J.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T.; Swartz, D.

    1995-03-01

    This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by (1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests with fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; (2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; (3) a technical and economic study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are an expected result of this research. If successful, this project should convert an environmental problem (fly ash) into valuable products - bricks. During this quarter, the authors set up the manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co., provided an expanded NEPA questionnaire for DOE, made preliminary arrangements for a larger brick manufacturing run at Marseilles Brick Co., revised laboratory procedures for selective dissolution analysis, and began characterization of brick clays that could be mixed with fly ash for fired-clay products.

  14. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanders, P.J.

    1999-02-15

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field H{sub c}, near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an H{sub c} of {approximately}35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D{sup {minus}1}. As D increases there is a drop in H{sub c}, associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion.

  15. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  16. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  17. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  18. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  19. Chemical leaching of coal to remove ash, alkali and vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smit, F.J.; Huggins, D.K.; Berggren, M.; Anast, K.R.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for upgrading powdered coal to improve the usefulness thereof as a fuel for internal combustion engines which consists of: (a) pressure-leaching powdered coal having a particle size ranging from about 28 mesh to about 200 mesh in an aqueous caustic solution at a temperature ranging from about 175/sup 0/C, to about 350/sup 0/C., the amount of caustic in the solution ranging from about 5% to about 30% by weight, the amount of coal being sufficient to form a slurry comprising about 10% to 30% by weight of solids, (b) hydrochloric acid leaching the caustic leached coal to dissolve acid-soluble constituents resulting from the caustic leach, (c) pressure leaching the acid-leached coal with a liquid from the group consisting of water and dilute aqueous ammonia to remove sodium and chlorine, and thereafter (d) filtering and washing the pressure leached coal, whereby the coal is characterized by up to about 0.85% by weight of ash, up to about 150 ppm of alkali metals and up to about 4 ppm vanadium.

  20. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  1. Effect of curing conditions on the geotechnical and geochemical properties of CFBC ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Western Research Institute, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center, initiated a multi-year program to examine the relationship between CFBC ash chemistry and geotechnical properties as they relate to ash disposal and utilization. Four CFBC facilities supplied ash from their units for the study representing high-sulfur (4%) and medium-sulfur (1.8%) bituminous coal. Sub-bituminous coal (0.9% sulfur) and petroleum coke (5--6% sulfur) fired ashes were also included in the study. The ashes were composed principally of large quantities of anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}) and lime (CaO) and minor amounts of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). The ash curing study addressed the impact of curing conditions (sealed and saturated curing and 23 C and 5 C curing temperature) on the geochemical and geotechnical properties of the ash. The strength development and expansion varied with the type and characteristics of the ashes. The expansion appeared to be inversely related to strength development. As the strength decreased under saturated curing, the expansion increased significantly. The application of 5 C saturated curing resulted in further strength loss and increased expansion. The hydration reaction products appeared to be principally the hydration of lime (CaO) to portlandite (Ca[OH]{sub 2}), the hydration of anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}) to gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center{underscore}dot} 2H{sub 2}O), and the precipitation of ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}[SO{sub 4}]{sub 3}[OH]{sub 12} {center{underscore}dot} 26H{sub 2}O) from the soluble calcium, sulfates and alumina. No thaumasite was noted in the specimens. The ashes appeared to follow one of several hydration reaction trends: (1) ettringite-only development, (2) ettringite and/or gypsum early followed by later gypsum formation, or (3) gypsum-only formation. Testing confirmed that the hydration reaction chemistry was related to geotechnical properties of the ashes. Strength development and expansion appeared to be related to ettringite and/or gypsum formation. The expansion increased with saturated curing and appeared to be predominantly gypsum based. A pore filling model was found to be consistent with the observed relationships between hydration phases (ettringite and gypsum) and strength development and expansion, as well as SEM observations and void reduction observations.

  2. Comparing Metal Leaching and Toxicity from High pH, Low pH, and High Ammonia Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Drake, Meghan M; Ruther, Rose Emily; Fisher, L. Suzanne; Amonette, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7-12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  3. Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high ammonia fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Ruther, Rose; Fisher, L. S.; Amonette, James E.

    2007-07-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7–12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox* system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  4. The necessity for a practical approach to address organic emissions from cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonley, C.; Schreiber, B.; Kellerman, S.; Kellett, C.

    1998-12-31

    There is an inherent difficulty in monitoring organic emissions from hazardous waste combustion in the cement process. Data gathered by the EPA and the industry indicate that organic emissions at the main stack of cement kilns are principally from process characteristics and/or the desorption of organic constituents contained in the raw materials. Organic emissions are primarily based on the facility design and origin of the raw materials. One would generally conclude that organic emissions from fuels are essentially non-existent. To understand alternatives for monitoring organic emissions, this paper reviews some of the historical background behind the issue and reviews trends of characteristic organic emissions data. Based on this discussion and review, some approaches are presented to address organic emissions testing and monitoring when utilizing hazardous waste fuel in a cement kiln.

  5. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otter, Ryan; Bailey, Frank; Fortner, Allison M; Adams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  6. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  7. The correlation between reactivity and ash mineralogy of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkkonen, O.; Mattila, E.; Heiniemi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Rautaruukki is a modern integrated Finnish steel works having a production of 2.4 mil. t/year of flat products. The total fuel consumption of the two blast furnaces in 1994 was 435 kg/t HM. Coke used was 345 kg/t HM and oil injection was 90 kg/t HM. The coking plant was taken in to operation in 1987 and is the only one in Finland, which means that the coking tradition is very short. Coke production is 0.9 mil. t/year. The coking blends include 70--80% medium volatile coals having a wide range of total dilatation. From time to time disturbances in the operation of the blast furnaces have occurred in spite of the fact that the reactivity of the coke used has remained constant or even decreased. It was thought necessary to investigate the factors affecting coke reactivity, in order to better understand the results of the reactivity test. This paper deals with carbonization tests done in a 7 kg test oven using nine individual coals having volatile-matter contents of 17--36% (dry) and seven blends made from these coals. Coke reactivity with CO{sub 2} at 1100 C (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) were determined using the test developed by the Nippon Steel Corporation. The influence of coke carbon form, porosity and especially ash mineralogy on the coke reactivity were examined. The effects of some additives; petroleum coke (pet coke), the spillage material from the coke ovens and oxidized coal, on coke quality were also studied. Typical inorganic minerals found in coals were added to one of the high volatile coals, which was then coked to determine the affect of the minerals on the properties of the coke produced.

  8. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  10. CSER 00-001 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for Cementation Operations at the PFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-04-18

    Glovebox HA-20MB is located in Room 235B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This enclosure contains mixers, mixer bowls, a crusher unit, an isolated inoperable conveyor unit, plutonium residue feed cans, cemented cans, and a feedwater container. Plutonium residue, not conducive to other forms of stabilization, is prepared for storage and ultimate disposal by cementation. The feed residue material cans can have plutonium contents of only a few grams or up to 200 grams. This evaluation accommodates this wide range of container fissile concentrations.

  11. A Signal-Inducing Bone Cement for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Spinal Surgery Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polymethylmethacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlas, Florian, E-mail: florian.wichlas@charite.de; Seebauer, Christian J.; Schilling, Rene [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Rump, Jens [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Chopra, Sascha S. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Walter, Thula; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M. [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bail, Hermann J. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a signal-inducing bone cement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cementoplasty of the spine. This MRI cement would allow precise and controlled injection of cement into pathologic lesions of the bone. We mixed conventional polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA; 5 ml methylmethacrylate and 12 g polymethylmethacrylate) with hydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute (2-4 ml) and a gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA; 0-60 {mu}l). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of different CA doses was measured in an open 1.0-Tesla scanner for fast T1W Turbo-Spin-Echo (TSE) and T1W TSE pulse sequences to determine the highest signal. We simulated MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spines. Compressive strength of the cements was tested. The highest CNR was (1) 87.3 (SD 2.9) in fast T1W TSE for cements with 4 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml) and (2) 60.8 (SD 2.4) in T1W TSE for cements with 1 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml). MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spine was feasible. Compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of HA from 46.7 MPa (2 ml HA) to 28.0 MPa (4 ml HA). An MRI-compatible cement based on PMMA, HA, and CA is feasible and clearly visible on MRI images. MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty using this cement would permit direct visualization of the cement, the pathologic process, and the anatomical surroundings.

  12. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. E

  13. Performance evaluation of highway embankment constructed using coal ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, J.E.; Fox, P.J.; De Battista, D.J.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the environmental and geotechnical performance of two highway embankments constructed using coal combustion fly ash. The environmental work focused on characterizing monitoring well water samples from the site before, during, and after construction. In addition, a number of in-situ lysimeter water samples were also tested during and after construction. In each case, water samples were evaluated in terms of their constitutive organic and metal concentrations, as well as their relative bioassay response using a MicrotoxTM protocol. The geotechnical work included monitoring of ash water content and unit weight during placement, settlement analysis and in-situ testing of the completed as fills using the Standard Penetration Test. Analysis of the groundwater and lysimeter water samples indicated that the coal ash had not adversely affected the environmental quality of the 56th Street overpass site. The embankments also performed well from a geotechnical perspective both during and after construction. The only difficulty was the measurement of coal ash water content and unit weight using the nuclear density gauge. The benefits of reusing coal combustion fly ash for highway construction are: (1) low-cost source material for INDOT, (2) reduced disposal costs for Indiana utilities, and (3) savings of Indiana landfill capacity.

  14. Direct acid dissolution of aluminum and other metals from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Egan, B.Z.; Seeley, F.G.; Campbell, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fly ash could provide a significant domestic source of alumina and thus supply a large part of the US needs for aluminum and possibly also several other metals. The aluminum and other metals can be solubilized from fly ash by acid dissolution methods. The aluminum may be present in any or all of three solid phases: (1) crystalline; (2) glassy amorphous; and (3) irregular, spongy amorphous. The chemistry of these phases controls the solubilization behavior. The aluminum in high-calcium western ashes is primarily found in the amorphous phases, and much of it can be solubilized by using short-time, ambient-temperature leaching. Little of the aluminum in the low-calcium eastern ashes is solubilized under ambient-temperature conditions, and only a portion can be solubilized even at reflux temperature conditions. Some of the aluminum in these eastern ashes is present as mullite, while some is found in the amorphous material. The fraction contained in mullite is relativey acid insoluble, and only partial solubilization can be achieved even under vigorous acid leach conditions.

  15. Investigation of MSWI fly ash melting characteristic by DSC-DTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rundong Wang, Lei; Yang, Tianhua; Raninger, Bernhard

    2007-07-01

    The melting process of MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) fly ash has been studied by high-temperature DSC-DTA experiments. The experiments were performed at a temperature range of 20-1450 deg. C, and the considerable variables included atmosphere (O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), heating rates (5 deg. C/min, 10 deg. C/min, 20 deg. C/min) and CaO addition. Three main transitions were observed during the melting process of fly ash: dehydration, polymorphic transition and fusion, occurring in the temperature range of 100-200 deg. C, 480-670 deg. C and 1101-1244 deg. C, respectively. The apparent heat capacity and heat requirement for melting of MSWI fly ash were obtained by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). A thermodynamic modeling to predict the heat requirements for melting process has been presented, and it agrees well with the experimental data. Finally, a zero-order kinetic model of fly ash melting transition was established. The apparent activation energy of MSWI fly ash melting transition was obtained.

  16. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  18. Thermal behavior of spiral fin-and-tube heat exchanger having fly ash deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuntaphan, Atipoang; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

    2007-08-15

    This research investigates the effect of fly-ash deposit on thermal performance of a cross-flow heat exchanger having a set of spiral finned-tubes as a heat transfer surface. A stream of warm air having high content of fly-ash is exchanging heat with a cool water stream in the tubes. In this study, the temperature of the heat exchanger surface is lower than the dew point temperature of air, thus there is condensation of moisture in the air stream on the heat exchanger surface. The affecting parameters such as the fin spacing, the air mass flow rate, the fly-ash mass flow rate and the inlet temperature of warm air are varied while the volume flow rate and the inlet temperature of the cold water stream are kept constant at 10 l/min and 5 C, respectively. From the experiment, it is found that as the testing period is shorter than 8 h the thermal resistance due to the fouling increases with time. Moreover, the deposit of fly-ash on the heat transfer surface is directly proportional to the dust-air ratio and the amount of condensate on heat exchange surface. However, the deposit of fly-ash is inversely proportional to the fin spacing. The empirical model for evaluating the thermal resistance is also developed in this work and the simulated results agree well with those of the measured data. (author)

  19. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  20. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buist, A.S.; Vollmer, W.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernstein, R.S.; McCamant, L.E.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the 4-yr follow-up of 712 loggers exposed over an extended period to varying levels of fresh volcanic ash from the 1980 eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Concerns related to the irritant effect the ash might have on the airways and also to its fibrogenic potential if exposures were intense and continued over many years. Our subjects were divided into 3 groups: high, low, and no exposure. Baseline testing was begun in June 1980, 1 month after the major eruption, and follow-up testing continued on an annual basis through 1984; 88% of the loggers have been tested at least 3 times. Analysis of lung function data showed that a significant, exposure-related decline in FEV1 occurred during the first year after the eruption. The decline was short-lived, however, and by 1984 the differences between exposure groups were no longer significant. Self-reported symptoms of cough, phlegm, and wheeze showed a similar pattern. No ash-related changes were seen in chest roentgenograms taken in 1980 and in 1984. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhaled ash caused mucus hypersecretion and/or airway inflammation that reversed when the exposure levels decreased. The ash levels to which the loggers were exposed were low compared with permissible occupational levels for nuisance dusts, but generally higher than the total suspended particulate levels permissible in ambient air.

  2. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Wilders Grove Solid Waste Services Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Provide demonstration of Geothermal Heat Pumps viability on energy usage for future Service Centers planned by the City of Raleigh and other similar facilities in the southeast.

  4. Camp Grove Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner OEG (Orion Energy Group) Developer OEG (Orion Energy Group) Energy Purchaser AEP-Appalachian...

  5. Influences of chemical activators on incinerator bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, X.C. Cheeseman, C.R.; Poon, C.S.

    2009-02-15

    This research has applied different chemical activators to mechanically and thermally treated fine fraction (<14 mm) of incinerator bottom ash (IBA), in order to investigate the influences of chemical activators on this new pozzolanic material. IBA has been milled and thermally treated at 800 deg. C (TIBA). The TIBA produced was blended with Ca(OH){sub 2} and evaluated for setting time, reactivity and compressive strength after the addition of 0.0565 mole of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH, KOH and CaCl{sub 2} into 100 g of binder (TIBA+Ca(OH){sub 2}). The microstructures of activated IBA and hydrated samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Thermal treatment is found to produce gehlenite (Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) and mayenite (Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33}) phases. The thermally treated IBA samples are significantly more reactive than the milled IBA. The addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} can increase the compressive strength and calcium hydroxide consumption at 28-day curing ages. However, the addition of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH and KOH reduces the strength and hydration reaction. Moreover, these chemicals produce more porous samples due to increased generation of hydrogen gas. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} has a negative effect on the hydration of TIBA samples. Calcium aluminium oxide carbonate sulphide hydrate (Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.67}(SO{sub 3}){sub 0.33}(H{sub 2}O){sub 11}) is the main hydration product in the samples with activated IBA, except for the sample containing CaCl{sub 2}.

  6. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  7. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, An; Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu

    2013-10-15

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: • We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. • Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. • The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. • The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. • XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  8. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  9. Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Singla, P.; Bursik, M.; Dehn, J.; Jones, M.; Patra, A.; Pavolonis, M.; Pitman, E.B.; Singh, T.; Webley, P.

    2014-08-15

    Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions – height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters – are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 14–16 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

  10. Guidelines for control and prevention of fly ash erosion in fossil fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, J.F.; Kratina, P.

    1994-02-01

    Boiler tube failures (BTF`s) due to fly ash erosion are one of the leading single causes of availability loss in fossil boilers. The damage, which can be very localized, has led to expensive and lengthy forced outages. As part of an overall BTF reduction program, EPRI has documented the available solutions being applied for fly ash erosion. Unfortunately, most of these are regarded as temporary fixes that do not provide long term solutions. A technique applied in Canadian and Australian utilities has provided long term solutions on the order of ten years. This technique has been demonstrated now at two US utilities under an EPRI sponsored project, (RP2711-2). The result of the project is a guideline that outlines, step-by-step, activities for stepping up and running an erosion control program at a utility boiler. The heart of the program is the cold air velocity test (CAVT), done in the convective pass at ambient conditions. With the fans running, one or more two-man teams measure gas flows entering and/or leaving pendants and banks. These data and a boiler assessment are used to identify operating conditions conducive to fly ash erosion. Flow control screens are then selected and installed to redistribute fly ash, reduce gas velocities and produce acceptable erosion rates. The result should be long term relief from boiler tube failures caused by fly ash erosion. The program cost is estimated to be $300--$400/MW depending on unit design, operating characteristics and extent of fly ash erosion.

  11. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  12. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C.

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  13. Synthesis of mesoporous silica materials from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu Li, Wen-Kai; Huang, Chun-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The optimal alkaline agent for the extraction of silica from bottom ash was Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • The pore sizes for the mesoporous silica synthesized from bottom ash were 2–3.8 nm. • The synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. • The materials have potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: Incinerator bottom ash contains a large amount of silica and can hence be used as a silica source for the synthesis of mesoporous silica materials. In this study, the conditions for alkaline fusion to extract silica from incinerator bottom ash were investigated, and the resulting supernatant solution was used as the silica source for synthesizing mesoporous silica materials. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mesoporous silica materials were analyzed using BET, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and solid-state NMR. The results indicated that the BET surface area and pore size distribution of the synthesized silica materials were 992 m{sup 2}/g and 2–3.8 nm, respectively. The XRD patterns showed that the synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. The NMR spectra of the synthesized materials exhibited three peaks, corresponding to Q{sup 2} [Si(OSi){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}], Q{sup 3} [Si(OSi){sub 3}(OH)], and Q{sup 4} [Si(OSi){sub 4}]. The FTIR spectra confirmed the existence of a surface hydroxyl group and the occurrence of symmetric Si–O stretching. Thus, mesoporous silica was successfully synthesized from incinerator bottom ash. Finally, the effectiveness of the synthesized silica in removing heavy metals (Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 2+}) from aqueous solutions was also determined. The results showed that the silica materials synthesized from incinerator bottom ash have potential for use as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  14. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  15. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been

  16. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  17. The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svendsen, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification. Data are presented on; current (1996) regulatory status of fossil-fuel combustion wastes; FBC technology identified for further study; CIBO special project methods; Bevill amendment study factors; data collection; and CIBO special project status.

  18. EM Takes on Next Environmental Cleanup Challenge at SRS: Coal-Fired Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    AIKEN, S.C. – A large, 1950s-era, coal-fired power plant sits cold and dark at the Savannah River Site (SRS), but employees with EM and its management and operations contractor are preparing to clean up the facility’s substantial quantities of ash generated over the decades.

  19. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra-High Ash/Performance Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to demonstrate the economic and technological viability of fibrous filler to manufacture paper containing up to 50% ash, at equal or better quality and performance than conventional alternatives and at a lower cost.

  20. Long-term leaching test of incinerator bottom ash: Evaluation of Cu partition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Cheng-Fang Wu, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Yen-Chiun

    2007-07-01

    Two types of leaching tests were performed on the bottom ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. A short-term batch test specified by the America Nuclear Society (ANS) and long-term column tests with acetic acid (pH 5.2) as leaching solution were used to evaluate copper leachability. The Cu leaching after the 5-d ANS test is about 1% of the original Cu content of 5300 mg/kg. Upon addition of a stabilizing agent, the Cu leaching quantity is reduced; the extent of reduction depends on the type of chemical used (phosphate, carbonate and sulfide). The 1.6% Na{sub 2}S addition showed negligible Cu leaching, and Na{sub 2}S was, therefore, used in subsequent column tests. The 30-d column test indicates a steady increase of Cu leaching amount with time and reaches about 1.5% of the original Cu content after 30 d. A 180-d column test further increased the Cu leaching to about 5.1% of the original Cu content, whereas no appreciable Cu leaching was found with the addition of 1.6% Na{sub 2}S. A sequential extraction was conducted on the raw ash, ash with the addition of Na{sub 2}S and the residue ash after 30 d of operation to characterize Cu affinity for different solid fractions. The data were used to evaluate the fate of Cu through these interactions.

  1. How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  2. Enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent for the dry-desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuo Yamamoto; Satoshi Komaki; Daichi Nakajima; Norihiko Matsushima; Dan Liu; Masateru Nishioka; Masayoshi Sadakata

    2006-10-15

    Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent has been studied as an effective method for SO{sub 2} removal. The effect of iron and other species for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent was investigated in this study. At first, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was added in the preparation of the sorbent, and TG analysis was carried out. The Ca utilization rate over a period of 90 min was about 10% greater than that for Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent. However, it was found that iron is not effective for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent but that NO{sub 3}{sup -} was the most effective factor to enhance it. The mechanism of enhancing the Ca utilization rate was also investigated, and it was found that Ca(NO{sub 3})2 was produced in the sorbent and reacted with SO{sub 2}, so that the reaction Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + SO{sub 2} {yields} CaSO{sub 4} + 2NO + O{sub 2} proceeded. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbothermally Reduced of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamasri; Wildan, M. W.; Sulardjaka; Kusnanto

    2011-01-17

    The addition of fly ash into aluminum as reinforcement can potentially reduce the production cost and density of aluminum. However, mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composite reinforced by fly ash (MMC ALFA) have some limitations due to the characteristic of fly ash. In this study, a carbothermal reduction process of fly ash and activated carbon powder with particle size <32 {mu}m was performed prior to produce MMC ALFA.The process was carried out in a furnace at 1300 deg. C in vacuum condition under argon flow. Synthesis product was analyzed by XRD with Cu-K{sub {alpha}} radiation. From XRD analysis, it shows that the synthesis process can produce SiC powder. The synthesis product was subsequently used as reinforcement particle. Aluminum powder was mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of the synthesized powder, and then uni-axially compacted at pressure of 300 MPa. The compacted product was sintered for 2 hours in argon atmosphere at temperature variation of 550 and 600 deg. C. Flexural strength, hardness and density of MMC ALFA's product were respectively evaluated using a four point bending test method based on ASTM C1161 standard, Brinell hardness scale and Archimedes method. The result of this study shows that the increase of weight of reinforcement can significantly increase the hardness and flexural strength of MMCs. The highest hardness and flexural strength of the MMC product are 300 kg/mm{sup 2} and 107.5 MPa, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  5. Microwave-assisted sample preparation of coal and coal fly ash for subsequent metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srogi, K.

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to review microwave-assisted digestion of coal and coal fly ash. A brief description of microwave heating principles is presented. Microwave-assisted digestion appears currently to be the most popular preparation technique, possibly due to the comparatively rapid sample preparation and the reduction of contamination, compared to the conventional hot-plate digestion methods.

  6. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  7. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  8. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.; Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Gehman, John D.; Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R.; Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 ; Duxson, Peter; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  10. Interaction of planar and nonplanar organic contaminants with coal fly ash: Effects of polar and nonpolar solvent solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Ryba, S.A.; Cantwell, M.G.; Gundersen, J.L.; Tien, R.; Perron, M.M.

    2006-08-15

    Coal fly ash has a very high sorption capacity for a variety of anthropogenic contaminants and has been used to cleanse wastewater of pollutants for approximately 40 years. Like other black carbons, the planar structure of the residual carbon in fly ash results in elevated affinities for planar organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study was performed to understand better the mechanisms affecting the strong interaction between planar contaminants and coal fly ash. The removal of 10 PCBs and 10 PAHs by several fly ashes and other sorbents was evaluated under different experimental conditions to highlight the intermolecular forces influencing adsorption. Varying fly ash concentration and solvent system composition indicated that dispersive interactions were most prevalent. For the PCBs, empirical results also were compared to molecular modeling estimates of the energy necessary for the PCB molecule to assume a planar conformation (PCe). The PCe levels ranged from 8 to 25 kcal/mol, depending on the degree of ortho-substituted chlorination of the PCB. A significant correlation between PCe and PCB removal from solution was observed for the fly ashes and activated carbon, whereas the nonplanar sorbent octadecyl (C{sub 18}) indicated no relationship. These findings demonstrate the strong interaction between black carbon fly ash and planar organic contaminants. Furthermore, as exemplified by the PCBs, these results show how this interaction is a function of a contaminant's ability to assume a planar conformation.

  11. Nano-chemo-mechanical signature of conventional oil-well cement systems: Effects of elevated temperature and curing time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Musso, Simone; James, Simon; Akono, Ange-Therese; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2015-01-15

    With ever more challenging (T,p) environments for cementing applications in oil and gas wells, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms of fracture resistant oil well cements. We report results from a multi-technique investigation of behavior and properties of API class G cement and silica-enriched cement systems subjected to hydrothermal curing from 30 °C to 200 °C; including electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, electron microscopy, neutron scattering (SANS), and fracture scratch testing. The results provide a new insight into the link between system chemistry, micro-texture and micro-fracture toughness. We suggest that the strong correlation found between chemically modulated specific surface and fracture resistance can explain the drop in fracture properties of neat oil-well cements at elevated temperatures; the fracture property enhancement in silica-rich cement systems, between 110° and 175 °C; and the drop in fracture properties of such systems through prolonged curing over 1 year at 200 °C.

  12. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties.

  13. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  14. INFORMAL REPORT PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT- BASED GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    67006 INFORMAL REPORT PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT- BASED GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP APPLICATIONS FINAL REPORT FY 1999 M.L. Allan and A.J. Philippacopoulos November 1999 Prepared for: Office of Geothermal Technologies United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Materials and Chemical Sciences Division DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agenc:y of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency

  15. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  16. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-003-2012_Cementing Research Needs_20121207.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of Research Needs Related to Improving Primary Cement Isolation of Formations in Deep Offshore Wells 7 December 2012 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-3-2012 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  17. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2013_Foamed Cement_20140124.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computed Tomography and Statistical Analysis of Bubble Size Distributions in Atmospheric-Generated Foamed Cement 9 August 2013 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-2-2013 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  18. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2014_Addendum 1 to Foamed Cement_20140623.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Addendum 1 to Computed Tomography and Statistical Analysis of Bubble Size Distributions in Atmospheric-Generated Foamed Cement 6 March 2014 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-2-2014 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  19. Task 3.0 -- Advanced power systems: Subtask 3.18 -- Ash behavior in power systems. Semi-annual report, June 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Swanson, M.L.; Musich, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced power systems such as integrated gasifier combined cycle systems and fluidized bed systems are at the forefront of power industry research because of the need for increased efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Ash behavior in power systems can have a significant impact on the design and performance of these systems. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a focused research initiative aimed at filling gaps in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of ash behavior, which has relevance to commercial application and marketable products associated with advanced power systems. This program develops methods and means to better understand and mitigate adverse coal ash behavior in advanced power systems and can act to relieve the US reliance on diminishing recoverable oil resources and other greenhouse-producing fossil fuels. Subtask 3.18 is structured as three tasks. Task 1 pertains to summarizing the critical issues in ash behavior, especially for advanced power systems. Task 2 focuses on fundamental ash sintering and viscosity-ash composition relationships that are critical for developing a better mechanistic understanding of ash deposit formation and for predicting ash behavior. Task 3 is aimed primarily at determining the role of the ash chemistry and phase relationships for specific ash interactions in advanced power systems. The role of sulfides in the formation of ash deposits in gasification systems and the factors that influence alloy corrosion in supercritical boilers will be specifically analyzed. Task results to date are presented.

  20. Comparison of composition and texture of calcite-cemented concretions and host sandstones, northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cibin, U. . Dept. de Scienze Geologiche); Cavazza, W. . Dept de Scienze Mineralogiche); Fontana, D. . Inst. di Geologia); Milliken, K.L.; McBride, E.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Compositional and textural characteristics of 13 calcite-cemented concretions are compared with those in adjacent but essentially uncemented host sandstones to test the belief that concretions better preserve original detrital compositions than do host rocks. Sandstones sampled are from five upper Eocene to Pliocene clastic units deposited in a piggy-back setting and from one Miocene unit in the foreland basin of the northern Apennines. The authors' data indicate that calcite-cemented concretions do not necessarily preserve unstable grains more readily than host sandstones, especially if cementation occurs late in the burial history of the sandstones. In the examined formations the main factors controlling the capability of concretions to preserve unstable framework grains seem to be (1) the types of unstable grains, (2) their susceptibility to dissolution by interstitial fluids or replacement by calcite, (3) burial depth and temperature during and after concretion development, and (4) time. Correct provenance reconstructions of sandstone units containing concretions must be preceded by assessment of any diagenetic alteration affecting the framework grains of both concretions and host rocks.

  1. Time-variability of NO{sub x} emissions from Portland cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, L.J. Jr.; May, M.S. III [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States)] [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnson, D.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics; MacMann, R.S. [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); Woodward, W.A. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1999-03-01

    Due to the presence of autocorrelation between sequentially measured nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) concentrations in stack gas from portland cement kilns, the determination of the average emission rates and the uncertainty of the average has been improperly calculated by the industry and regulatory agencies. Documentation of permit compliance, establishment of permit levels, and the development and testing of control techniques for reducing NO{sub x} emissions at specific cement plants requires accurate and precise statistical estimates of parameters such as means, standard deviations, and variances. Usual statistical formulas such as for the variance of the sample mean only apply if sequential measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are independent. Significant autocorrelation of NO{sub x} emission measurements revealed that NO{sub x} concentration values measured by continuous emission monitors are not independent but can be represented by an autoregressive, moving average time series. Three orders of time-variability of NO{sub x} emission rates were determined from examination of continuous emission measurements from several cement kilns.

  2. New coiled-tubing cementing techniques at Prudhoe developed to withstand higher differential pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, R.E.; Reem, D.C. )

    1993-11-01

    The successful hydraulic fracturing program at Prudhoe Bay would not have been possible without an effective coiled-tubing-unit (CTU) cement-squeeze program. Many fracture stimulation candidates were wells that have been squeezed previously. Therefore, squeezed perforations were exposed to higher differential pressures during fracturing operations than normally were seen at Prudhoe. At the outset of the fracture stimulation program in 1990, squeeze perforations failed when subjected to fracture job pressures. It quickly became clear that more aggressive CTU squeeze techniques resulting in stronger squeezed perforations would be necessary if the Prudhoe fracture program were to achieve its goals. Arco Alaska Inc. implemented a more aggressive CTU squeeze program in the Eastern Operating Area (EOA) in mid-1990. This paper documents the results of the new squeeze program, in which increased surface coiled-tubing squeeze pressures from 1,500 to 3,500 psi for 1 hour were used. More resilient, acid-resistant latex cement also became the standard in late 1990 for squeeze cementing. Implementation of this program has resulted in a squeeze success rate approaching 90%.

  3. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  4. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  5. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  6. Composition and application of novel sprayable phosphate cement (grancrete) that bonds to styrofoam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Paul, Jr., James W.

    2007-01-09

    A dry mix particulate composition of a calcined oxide of Mg and/or Ca, an acid phosphate, and fly ash or equivalent, wherein the calcined oxide is present in the range of from about 17% to about 40% by weight and the acid phosphate is present in the range of from about 29% to about 52% by weight and the fly ash or equivalent is present in the range of from about 24% to about 39% by weight when sand is added to the dry mix, it is present in the range of from about 39% to about 61% by weight of the combined dry mix and sand. A method of forming a structural member is also disclosed wherein an aqueous slurry of about 8 12 pounds of water is added to dry mix and sand.

  7. The effect of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry on coal ash fine-fragmentation mode formation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, G.; Seames, W. S.; Mann, M. D.; Benson, S. A.; Miller, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Ash particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m in diameter generated during pulverized coal combustion are difficult to capture and may pose greater harm to the environment and human health than the discharge of larger particles. Recent research efforts on coal ash formation have revealed a middle fine-fragment mode centered around 2 {micro}m. Formation of this middle or fine-fragment mode (FFM) is less well understood compared to larger coarse and smaller ultrafine ash. This study is part of an overall effort aimed at determining the key factors that impact the formation of FFM. This work examined the effects of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry (OFS). Pulverized Illinois No.6 bituminous coal was combusted and the ash generated was size segregated in a Dekati low pressure inertial impactor. The mass of each fraction was measured and the ash was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The FFM ash types were classified based on the SEM images to evaluate the significant fine-fragment ash formation mechanisms and determine any possible link between stoichiometry and formation mechanism. From the particle size distributions (PSDs), the coarse mode appears unaffected by the change in OFS, however, the OFS 1.05 lowered the fraction of ultrafine ash in relation to the higher OFS settings, and appears to increase the portion of the FFM. An intermediate minimum was found in the FFM at 1.3 {micro}m for the 1.20 and 1.35 OFS tests but was not observed in the 1.05 OFS. SEM analysis also suggests that OFS may contribute to changing formation mechanisms.

  8. Helium transport and ash control studies. Annual progress report, 1 June 1991--31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-06-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition ``window`` shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A ``best`` value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  9. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (801 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryIncreased recycling of power plant cooling water calls for low-cost means of preventing the formation of calcium carbonate and silicate scale. Hardness (Ca and Mg) and silica are two of

  10. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) (Revised)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: December 2, 2013 Revision Date: December 29, 2015 Stefanie Van Wychen and Lieve M.L. Laurens Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-60956 Revised December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  11. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  12. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Steven J; Oldham, Warren J; Murrell, Michael T; Katzman, Danny

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  13. Compilation of RCRA closure plan conditions applicable to boilers and industrial furnaces at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, A.N.

    1998-12-31

    A prudent approach to closure plan development will assist preparers of closure plans to ensure that a cement kiln BIF unit and associated Resources conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units are effectively closed in a manner that minimizes potential threats to human health and the environment, as well as facilitating closure in an economical and timely manner. Cement kilns burning hazardous waste-derived-fuel (HWDF) must comply with the general facility standards of Subpart G Closure and Post-Closure requirements of 40 CFR parts 264 or 265 in addition to the RCRA Part b permitting requirements of 40 CFR parts 270.13 and 270.22 (e) and (f). As a result, approved closure plans for BIF facilities (or individual BIF units) will contain general and site-specific permit conditions that will mandate numerous closure activities be conducted to successfully implement the partial or final closure of a permitted or interim status BIF unit or facility. Currently, a scarce amount of published information is available to the cement industry in the form of agency guidance documents that would assist facilities with BIF unit closures. A review of seven approved or implemented closure plans revealed significant differences between plans approved recently versus a few years ago as well as observed differences in acceptable closure criteria between EPA regions and various states agencies. The intent of this paper is to first familiarize readers with general closure plan requirements, followed by a detailed discussion of closure requirements that are pertinent to BIF unit facilities. Comparisons are presented to provide an overview of typical components of BIF unit closure plans.

  14. Radiolytic gas generation from cement-based waste hosts for DOE low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using cement-based immobilization binders with simulated radioactive waste containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and fluoride anions, the gamma- and alpha-radiolytic gas generation factors (G/sub t/, molecules/100 eV) and gas compositions were measured on specimens of cured grouts. These tests studied the effects of; (1) waste composition; (2) the sample surface-to-volume ratio; (3) the waste slurry particle size; and (4) the water content of the waste host formula. The radiolysis test vessels were designed to minimize the ''dead'' volume and to simulate the configuration of waste packages.

  15. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  16. Sulfur polymer cement as a low-level waste glass matrix encapsulant. Part 1: Thermal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliva, P.; Peng, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Feng, X.; Martin, P.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a candidate material to encapsulate low-level waste (LLW) glass. Molten SPC will be poured into a LLW glass cullet-filled canister, surrounding the glass to act as an additional barrier to groundwater intrusion. This paper covers the first part of a study performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory concerned with the fundamental aspects of embedding LLW glass in SPC. Part one is a study of the SPC itself. Variations in SPC properties are discussed, especially in relation to long-term stability and controlling crystallization in a cooling canister.

  17. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Cement (NAICS 327310), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cement (NAICS 327310) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 1 Nonprocess Losses 307 101 Steam Distribution Losses 1 3 Nonprocess Energy 214 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 307 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 6 237 31 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 62 243 240 5 245 93 0 4 0.0 5.4 5.4 18.5 23.5 0.6 25 19.1 24.6 0.2 Fuel Total Primary Energy, 2010

  19. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  20. Phased-Resolved Strain Measuremetns in Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement Using Synchrotron x-Rays (Prop. 2003-033)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BIernacki, Joseph J.; Watkins, Thomas R; Parnham, C. J.; Hubbard, Camden R; Bai, J.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction methods developed for the determination of residual stress states in crystalline materials have been applied to study residual strains and strains because of mechanical loading of ordinary portland cement paste. Synchrotron X-rays were used to make in situ measurements of interplanar spacings in the calcium hydroxide (CH) phase of hydrated neat portland cement under uniaxial compression. The results indicate that strains on the order of 1/100 000 can be resolved providing an essentially new technique by which to measure the phase-resolved meso-scale mechanical behavior of cement under different loading conditions. Evaluation of these strain data in view of published elastic parameters for CH suggests that the CH carries a large fraction of the applied stress and that plastic interactions with the matrix are notable.

  1. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K.

    2009-07-01

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  2. Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  5. Rate of H2S and CO2 attack on pozzolan-amended Class H well cement under

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    geologic sequestration conditions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Rate of H2S and CO2 attack on pozzolan-amended Class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rate of H2S and CO2 attack on pozzolan-amended Class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions Authors: Zhang, Liwei ; Dzombak, David A ; Nakles, David V ; Hawthorne, Steven B ; Miller, David J ; Kutchko, Barbara G ; Lopano, Christina L ; Strazisar, Brian R

  6. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  7. H. R. 2670: A bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 18, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 18, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste. When garbage is burned, toxic materials are concentrated in the ash. If the ash is disposed of in a landfill, these toxic materials can contaminate the ground water or surface water by leaching toxic materials from the ash. In addition, disposing of contaminated ash improperly can pose a health hazard. New authority is provided for regulating incinerator ash as a hazardous waste.

  8. Task 6.4 - the use of coal ash in ceramics. Topical report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    Previous empirical tests at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have indicated that coal combustion by-products are a viable starting material for the production of a variety of ceramic products, including brick, tile, and high-flexural-strength ceramics. The EERC has focused on high-temperature properties of coal ashes and has provided valuable insight into ash transformations, fouling, and stagging for the utility industry. It is proposed to utilize the information generated in these past projects to develop material selection criteria and product manufacturing techniques based on scientific and engineering characteristics of the ash. Commercialization of the use of coal combustion by-products in ceramics is more likely to become viable if a quality-assured product can be made, and predictive materials selection is a key component of a quality-assured product. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the development and production of a ceramic material utilizing coal ash as a key component. Chemical and high-temperature properties of ash were carefully determined with the objective of identifying criteria for materials selection and manufacturing options for ceramic production.

  9. Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP); Issue Date: 7/17/2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ash in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 7/17/2005 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42622 January 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by

  10. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  11. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  13. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  14. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  15. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ash and slag characterization. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falcone, S K

    1986-06-01

    A procedure was developed for mine sampling and the storage of standard coals under argon. In total, 53 coals were collected and are also available to other DOE supported projects at the Center. Task 2 was the study of mineral transformation during ashing of low-rank coals. Results of this study verified the importance of organically-bound alkalies, specifically calcium and sodium, in forming low-melting temperature aluminosilicates (i.e., melilites). Task 3 highlighted the viscosity studies on the molten ash of low-rank coals. A major part of this study involved the modification of the Urbain equation so that it can be used to predict the Newtonian behavior of low-rank coal slags. In addition, the effects of iron and sodium on viscosity, hysteresis, and the nature of the non-Newtonian flow were examined. Task 4 comprised the identification of volatilized species evolved during the combustion of selected low-rank coals. In each case sodium, potassium and sulfur were found to be major components of the condensed volatiles. Verification of their volatility on an experimental basis has significance in their possible contributions to forming new solid and liquid phases at high temperatures. Finally Task 5 evaluated the use of various sessile drop techniques to determine the surface tension of low-rank coal slags. Results show that meaningful surface tension measurements can be obtained with the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate.

  17. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

  18. Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and DPY30 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Authors: Chen, Yong ; Cao, Fang ; Wan, Bingbing ; Dou, Yali ; Lei, Ming [1] + Show Author Affiliations (Michigan-Med) Publication Date: 2013-10-07 OSTI Identifier: 1093479 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  19. Predicting and validating the tracking of a Volcanic Ash Cloud during the 2006 Eruption of Mt. Augustine Volcano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webley, Peter W.; Atkinson, D.; Collins, Richard L.; Dean, K.; Fochesatto, J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Cahill, Catherine F.; Prata, A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mizutani, K.

    2008-11-01

    On 11 January 2006, Mount Augustine volcano in southern Alaska began erupting after 20-year repose. The Anchorage Forecast Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) issued an advisory on 28 January for Kodiak City. On 31 January, Alaska Airlines cancelled all flights to and from Anchorage after multiple advisories from the NWS for Anchorage and the surrounding region. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) had reported the onset of the continuous eruption. AVO monitors the approximately 100 active volcanoes in the Northern Pacific. Ash clouds from these volcanoes can cause serious damage to an aircraft and pose a serious threat to the local communities, and to transcontinental air traffic throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Within AVO, a dispersion model has been developed to track the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds. The model, Puff, was used operational by AVO during the Augustine eruptive period. Here, we examine the dispersion of a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Augustine across Alaska from 29 January through the 2 February 2006. We present the synoptic meteorology, the Puff predictions, and measurements from aerosol samplers, laser radar (or lidar) systems, and satellites. UAF aerosol samplers revealed the presence of volcanic aerosols at the surface at sites where Puff predicted the ash clouds movement. Remote sensing satellite data showed the development of the ash cloud in close proximity to the volcano and a sulfur-dioxide cloud further from the volcano consistent with the Puff predictions. Lidars showed the presence of volcanic aerosol with consistent characteristics aloft over Alaska and were capable of detecting the aerosol, even in the presence of scattered clouds and where the cloud is too thin/disperse to be detected by remote sensing satellite data. The lidar measurements revealed the different trajectories of ash consistent with the Puff predictions. Dispersion models provide a forecast of volcanic ash cloud movement that might be undetectable by any other means but are still a significant hazard. Validation is the key to assessing the accuracy of any future predictions. The study highlights the use of multiple and complementary observations used in detecting the trajectory ash cloud, both at the surface and aloft within the atmosphere.

  20. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  1. Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke

    2008-03-15

    Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Structural testing of corrugated asbestos-cement roof panels at the Hanford Facilities, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustafa, S.E.; Rodehaver, S.M.; Frier, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a roof testing program that was carried out at the 105KE/KW Spent Fuel Storage Basins and their surrounding facilities at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof panels were constructed in the mid 1950`s of corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C), which showed common signs of aging. Based on the construction specifications, the panels capacity to meet current design standards was questioned. Both laboratory and in-situ load testing of the corrugated A/C panels was conducted. The objective of the complete test program was to determine the structural integrity of the existing A/C roof panels installed in the 105KE and 105KW facilities. The data from these tests indicated that the roofs are capable of resisting the design loads and are considered safe. A second phase test to address the roof resistance to personnel and roof removal/roofing system installation equipment was recommended and is underway.

  3. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copuroglu, O. . E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-08-15

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

  4. Shut-off of a geopressured water channel behind casing via coiled tubing utilizing a dual slurry cement system: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, T.W.; Lange, K.J.; Grant, W.H.; Patout, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a case history involving a unique dual cement system to shut off a geopressured water channel behind casing utilizing coiled tubing. The channeling problem was identified and documented using water flow logging techniques. Logging indicated the lower gravel packed selective could produce salt water if perforated without eliminating the suspected water channel. Reserves did not warrant a major rig workover, making a non-rig workover via coiled tubing the only viable option to repair the well. A unique dual cement system tested on a hesitation squeeze schedule pumped through coiled tubing with extremely limited thickening time was necessary to repair the primary cement job.

  5. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-11-29

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some of the more interesting results of these investigations are presented.

  6. The effect of low-NO{sub x} combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, K.H.; Jensen, A.D.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2010-02-15

    Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NO{sub x} combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NO{sub x} formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA adsorption capacity based on measurements on a carbon black. The NO{sub x} formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade-off between the AEA requirements of the ash and NO{sub x} formation. The type of fuel had high impact on the AEA adsorption behavior of the ash. Ashes produced from a Columbian and a Polish coal showed similar AEA requirements, but the specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon in the Columbian coal ash was up to six times higher. The AEA requirements of a South African coal ash was unaffected by the applied operating conditions and showed up to 12 times higher AEA adsorption compared to the two other coal ashes. This may be caused by larger particles formed by agglomeration of the primary coal particles in the feeding phase or during the combustion process, which gave rise to increased formation of soot. (author)

  7. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in themore » temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.« less

  8. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

  9. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report: January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This 15th Quarterly Technical Progress Report presents the results of work accomplished during the period January 4, 193 through March 28, 1993 under Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC26288 entitled {open_quotes}Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture.{close_quotes} The fundamental studies conducted by West Virginia University and Pennsylvania State University are provided in subsections of this report. Shakedown testing continued through this period resulting in a series of required modifications for the coal-feed system, coal injector, installation of a water-cooling jacket at the bottom of the agglomeration chamber, and finally, the installation of an additional flow sensor and rate meter. Coal-fired bimodal tests were initiated at the end of the period. The unit was run at 2 atm pressure for 3 hours with steady-state operation for 2 hours. Then, the pressure was increased to 3 atm with steady-state operation for 2 hours.

  10. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  11. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  12. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  13. Alteration of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash focusing on the evolution of iron-rich constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yunmei; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2011-09-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains a considerable amount of Fe-rich constituents. The behaviors of these constituents, such as dissolution and precipitation, are quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of ions between the liquid (percolated fluid) and solid (ash deposit) phases. This paper studied both fresh and weathered MSWI bottom ash from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint by utilizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and powder X-ray diffraction. The analysis results revealed that for the fresh bottom ash, iron preferentially existed in the chemical forms of spinel group (mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and a series of Al- or Ti- substituted varieties), metallic inclusions (including Fe-P, Fe-S, Fe-Cu-Pb), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and unburned iron pieces. In the 1-20 years weathered bottom ash collected from a landfill site, interconversions among these Fe-rich constituents were identified. Consequently, numerous secondary products were developed, including goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), hematite, magnetite, wustite (FeO), Fe-Si-rich gel phase. Of all these transformation products, hydrous iron oxides were the most common secondary minerals. Quantitative chemical analysis of these secondary products by SEM/EDX disclosed a strong association between the newly formed hydrous iron oxides and heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu). The results of this study suggest that the processes of natural weathering and secondary mineralization contribute to reduction of the potential risks of heavy metals to the surrounding environments.

  14. Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

    2010-01-31

    The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

  15. Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, A.P.

    1994-08-01

    Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

  16. LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehmigen, Steffen; Ambos, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

  17. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  18. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  19. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulfates gives increased sintering. At the same time, increased amounts calcium salts in the ash appear to reduce sintering tendency. Thus, the results suggest that a calcium based sorbent for SO{sub 2} and HCl capture might reduce problems related to ash sintering. An extensive literature exists, however, that states otherwise.

  20. Asbestos-cement panels test report, 100K Area, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustafa, S.E.

    1993-12-01

    The 105KE/105KW reactor facilities were constructed in the mid-1950s. The 105KE/105KW fuel-basin roof panels are in a radiation controlled area where there is smearable contamination. The roof panels in all of the inspected areas were constructed from corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C) panels. The corrugated A/C roof panels exhibit common signs of aging including cracking, chipping, spalling, or a combination of these processes. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has engaged Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. (WJE) to perform laboratory and field tests on A/C roof panels of the 105KW building and also to make recommendations for panel replacement, maintenance, or upgrade that will maintain the structural integrity of the roof panels for an additional 20 years of service. This report contains the results of laboratory and in-situ testing performed by WJE. A Roof Proof Load Test Plan was prepared for WJE and approved by WHC. Conclusions and recommendations based on test results are presented for the 190-KE wall panels and 105KW roof panels.

  1. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  2. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable fill can be modified to meet the needs of a range of applications from structural fill applications to excavatable applications, such as utility trench fill. (4) Environmental assessments using standard testing indicate that the environmental properties of the fill materials are compatible with numerous construction applications and do not pose a threat to either adjacent groundwater or soils. (5) WRI developed an Environmental Field Simulator (EFS) method for assessing the impact of flowable fill materials on adjacent soils and found that the zone of impact is less than a couple of inches, thereby posing no threat to adjacent soils. (6) Field-scale demonstrations of the MDU flowable fill were constructed and were successful for structural, as well as excavatable applications. Monitoring has demonstrated the geotechnical performance, environmental performance, and compatibility with common embed materials with the MDU flowable fill products. Technical and economic issues were identified that may hinder the commercial acceptance of MDU flowable fill materials, including: (1) the ability to produce a consistent product; (2) the ability to provide a product year round (cold weather retards strength development); and (3) the ability to evaluate and produce commercial quantities of MDU flowable fill using inexpensive materials.

  3. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  4. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  5. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  6. Leaching behaviour of bottom ash from RDF high-temperature gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gori, M.; Pifferi, L.; Sirini, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated the physical properties, the chemical composition and the leaching behaviour of two bottom ash (BA) samples from two different refuse derived fuel high-temperature gasification plants, as a function of particle size. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the materials contained large amounts of glass. This aspect was also confirmed by the results of availability and ANC leaching tests. Chemical composition indicated that Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr were the most abundant metals, with a slight enrichment in the finest fractions. Suitability of samples for inert waste landfilling and reuse was evaluated through the leaching test EN 12457-2. In one sample the concentration of all metals was below the limit set by law, while limits were exceeded for Cu, Cr and Ni in the other sample, where the finest fraction showed to give the main contribution to leaching of Cu and Ni. Preliminary results of physical and geotechnical characterisation indicated the suitability of vitrified BA for reuse in the field of civil engineering. The possible application of a size separation pre-treatment in order to improve the chemical characteristics of the materials was also discussed.

  7. ACAA pavement manual. Recommended practice: Coal fly ash in pozzolanic stabilized mixtures for flexible pavement systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to guide pavement design engineers, materials engineers, and construction managers in the design and construction of flexible pavement systems in which low- to high-strength Pozzolanic Stabilized Mixtures' ( PSMs') serve as base layers. A PSM incorporates coal fly ash in combination with activators, aggregates and water. Each of three design methods is useful for determining the thickness of a PSM base layer for a flexible pavement system: Method A - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) flexible pavement design procedures, using structural layer coefficients; Method B - Mechanistic pavement design procedures, using resilient modulus values for the pavement layers; and Method C - A combination of Method A and Method B, using mechanistic design concepts for determining pavement layer coefficients. PSMs offer several advantages: PSMs are strong, durable mixtures using locally available materials; PSMs are economically competitive with properly engineered full-depth asphalt or crushed stone base courses; PSMs are suited to stabilizing recycled base mixtures; and PSMs are placed and compacted with conventional construction equipment. To provide the needed guidance for capturing the long-term service and cost-saving features of a PSM design, this manual details the following: a procedure for proportioning PSMs; thickness design procedures which include base layer and asphalt wearing course; and proven techniques for PSM mixing and base layer construction.

  8. Preparation of Cu and Fly Ash Composite by Powder Metallurgy Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, P. Y.; Lim, P. S.; Ng, M. C.; Zahi, S.; You, A. H.

    2011-03-30

    Cu and Fly Ash (FA) mixtures with different weight percentages were prepared. Pellets of the mixture powder were produced with the dimension of 17.7 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height. These different composites were compacted at a constant pressure of 280 MPa. One of the selected weight percentages was then compacted to form into pellet and sintered at different temperatures which were at 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C respectively for 2 hours. Density of green pellet was measured before sintered in furnace. After sintering, all the pellets with different temperatures were re-weighed and sintered density were calculated. The densification of the green and sintered pellets was required to be measured as one of the parameter in selection of the best material properties. Porosity of the pellet shall not be ignored in order to analyze the close-packed particles stacking in the pellet. SEM micrograph had been captured to observe the presence of pores and agglomeration of particles in the sample produced.

  9. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, P.

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  10. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  11. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  12. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-15

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 {sup o}C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY.AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY.AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO{sub 5}]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY.AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  13. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  14. Twin Groves Wind Energy Facility Cut-in Speeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... turbines were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey's test. ...turbine, idling turbines 8.1 3.1 batsturbine; ANOVA, F 2, 26 6.34, P 0.006). ...

  15. Maple Grove Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    95C368.15 K 203 F 662.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 4 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  16. Twin Groves Wind Energy Facility Cut-in Speeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SYNTHESIS OF OPERATIONAL MITIGATION STUDIES TO REDUCE BAT FATALITIES AT WIND ENERGY FACILITIES IN NORTH AMERICA Prepared for: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 Prepared by: Edward B. Arnett 1 , Gregory D. Johnson 2 , Wally P. Erickson 2 , and Cris D. Hein 3 1 Theordore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership 2 Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. 3 Bat Conservation International March 2013 CITATION Arnett, E. B., G. D. Johnson, W. P. Erickson, and C.

  17. Cedar Grove, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.1708774, -106.1900242 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"goog...

  18. General Groves and Ernest O. Lawrence visit 9731

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    first tangible product producing equipment. They did not really know what to expect. So, personal inspection of the operation was a must to fully understand what was going on. One...

  19. A review of Title V operating permit application requirements caused by the use of waste-derived fuel at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarmac, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the USEPA to establish a comprehensive operating permit program which is being administered by the states. Most major air pollution sources will be required to submit operating permit applications by November 15, 1995 or earlier. Portland cement plants that burn waste-derived fuel face some special permitting problems that need to be addressed during the permit application process. This paper presents a brief summary of the Title V application with special emphasis on the permitting requirements incurred by the utilization of waste fuel at cement plants.

  20. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-08-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.