Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Accurate BTU Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

2

BTU Accounting for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, salesmen cars, over the highway trucks, facilities startup, waste used as fuel and fuels received for storage. This is a first step in the DOE's effort to establish usage guidelines for large industrial users and, we note, it requires BTU usage data...-generated electricity, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, in-plant transportation, ore hauling, raw material storage and finished product warehousing. Categories which are excluded are corporate and divisional offices, basic research, distribution centers...

Redd, R. O.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Method for producing low and medium BTU gas from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing low and medium BTU gas from carbonizable material is described which comprises: partly devolatizing the material and forming hot incandescent coke therefrom by passing a bed of the same part way through a hot furnace chamber on a first horizontally moving grate while supplying a sub-stoichiometric quantity of air to the same and driving the reactions: C + O/sub 2/ = CO/sub 2/; 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO discharging the hot incandescent coke from the end of the first grate run onto a second horizontally moving grate run below the first grate run in the same furnace chamber so as to form a bed thereon, the bed formed on the second grate run being considerably thicker than the bed formed on the first grate run, passing the hot incandescent coke bed on the second grate run further through the furnace chamber in a substantially horizontal direction while feeding air and stream thereto so as to fully burn the coke and in ratio of steam to air driving the following reactions: 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO; C + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO; C + 2H/sub 2/O = 2H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/; CO + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ taking off the ash residue of the burned coke and taking off the gaseous products of the reactions.

Mansfield, V.; Francoeur, C.M.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

4

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

5

Ash pelletization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash pelletization is outlined under the following topics: projects with CSX involvement; US Generating (Cedar Bay), Jacksonville, FL; Hydra-Co (Salt City Project), Solvay, NY; Virginia Power, Yorktown Plant; US Generating; Indiantown, FL; Future Projects; Development of ash disposal site;s Reuse of ash product; and Utility Survey.

Woodall, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Springfield Utility Board- Super Good Cents Manufactured Homes Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Springfield Utility Board offers a $600 incentive for the purchase of a Super Good Cents Manufactured Home. Super Good Cents Manufactured Homes offer improve comfort and efficiency. The...

7

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

Vallery, S. J.

8

Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

10

A Residential Duct Leakage Case Study on 'Good Cents' Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This makes the system particularly susceptible to degraded performance if there are leaks in the air distribution system. Nine Good Cents homes in the College Station, Texas area were chosen for a study to determine the extent of HVAC air distribution leakage...

Bryant, J. A.; Perez, R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMroURL. PagesAnnualGenBtuYr

12

High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Vol. 30 no. 14 2014, pages 20912092 BIOINFORMATICS MESSAGE FROM THE ISCB doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu117  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1093/bioinformatics/btu117 Advance Access publication March 3, 2014 The automated function prediction SIG looks back

Radivojac, Predrag

15

Activation of fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Activation of fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

17

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9­i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259 Evaluating synteny

Moret, Bernard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Using CentOS in Public Lab for Remote Login to hafez.sfsu.edu The computers in the public computer lab are able to boot either Microsoft Windows or CentOS. To  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lab are able to boot either Microsoft Windows or CentOS. To use CentOS hold down the Space Bar when booting up the computer. If the computer is already running Windows, restart and hold Space Bar. The following screen should appear. Use the keyboard arrows to select CentOS and press Enter. After CentOS boots

Mahmoodi, Hamid

22

An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

Carney, Christopher Mark

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

NREL: News - NREL Finds Up to 6-cent per Kilowatt-Hour Extra...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

714 NREL Finds Up to 6-cent per Kilowatt-Hour Extra Value with Concentrated Solar Power The greater the penetration of renewables in California, the greater the value of CSP with...

24

"What's Going On Out There?" A Baseline Survey for the LCRA's Good Cents Home Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The question, What constitutes your baseline?" always challenges Demand-Side Management program staff. This study answers that question for the Lower Colorado River Authority's Good Cents Home Program. The Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) has...

Knutsen, T.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ashing properties of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

Biggs, D.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Utilization FLY ASH INFORMATION FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, quarries, and pits (34%), 6% for temporary stockpile, and 7% landfilled. Fly Ash In Europe, the utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

27

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash bottom ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of bottom ash, 3 million tons of boiler slag, and 28 million tons of clean-coal ash materials) were produced... CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By...

28

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

r Human Brain Mapping 32:382396 (2011) r CENTS: Cortical Enhanced Neonatal Tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

r Human Brain Mapping 32:382­396 (2011) r CENTS: Cortical Enhanced Neonatal Tissue Segmentation-quality magnetic resonance (MR) images of neonatal brains is largely ham- pered by their characteristically small head size and insufficient tissue contrast. As a result, subsequent image processing and analysis

Utah, University of

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

DEPARTIIIENT OF ENERGY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EM ENT CENT ER NEPA...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Irmo u.s. DEPARTIIIENT OF ENERGY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EM ENT CENT ER NEPA DETElThIINAIION PROJECT TITl.E: Irma Charing Cross Sidewalk Project ARRA-EECBG Page 1 of2 fJ Wl G) STATE:...

31

Ash deposit workshop: Class outline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The lower the energy rating (KW/Ton or KW/HP or KW/BTU) the more efficient the equipment and the less demand draw on the electric power plants, thereby reducing the need to build new power plants. To encourage DSM, utilities give rebates for high...: Bob Allwein, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. Dick Landry, Gulf States Utility. Curtis Williford, Entex Gas Company. Bret McCants, Central Power and Light Company. Frank Tanner, Southern Union. Patric Coon, West Texas utilities. ESL-IE-93...

Phillips, J. N.

33

Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants: Advanced Characterization and Thermodynamic to analyze MSW-derived ashes by use of CCSEM. Representative samples of 2nd -3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ashes

34

High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Solid state RF power: The route to 1W per euro cent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In most particle accelerators RF power is a decisive design constraint due to high costs and relative inflexibility of current electron beam based RF sources, i.e. Klystrons, Magnetrons, Tetrodes etc. At VHF/UHF frequencies the transition to solid state devices promises to fundamentally change the situation. Recent progress brings 1 Watt per Euro cent installed cost within reach. We present a Silicon Carbide semiconductor solution utilising the Solid State Direct Drive technology at unprecedented efficiency, power levels and power densities. The proposed solution allows retrofitting of existing RF accelerators and opens the route to novel particle accelerator concepts.

Heid, Oliver [Siemens AG, Mozartstrasse 57, Erlangen (Germany)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cast-Concrete Products Made with FBC Ash and Wet-Collected Coal-Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0899-1561 2005 17:6 659 CE Database subject headings: Recycling; Ashes; Concrete et al. 1991 . Fluidized bed combustion FBC ash is the ash produced by an FBC boiler in which the coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

40

Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

U.S. DEPARTl\\IENT OF ENERG Y EERE PROJECT M ANAGE M EN T CENT  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

OF ENERG Y EERE PROJECT M ANAGE M EN T CENT ER NEPA DETERl-IINAIION PROJECT TITLE: EECBG: Solar PV installation at Knoxville Convention Center Page 1 of2 STAT E: TN Funding...

44

ash dispersion utilizing: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the USA for all coal ashes was approximately 34% in the year products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much...

45

Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes Preparatory thesis Randi Skytte Pedersen is to investigate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes with respect to particle sizes, structures and composition with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant M°abjergværket, Holstebro. MSW

47

Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

Horner, M.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . If the L. used are the lower limits of 1 the individual components, then Equation (1) will yield the lower flammability limit of the mixture (Zabetakis, 1965) . If the inert gases nitrogen or carbon dioxide are present, the Equation (1) may still... gas cylinders with the exception of the air which was atmospheric. The carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen came from commercial sources in high- pressure cylinders. The low-BTU gas consisting of 20. 89% CO, 2 . 65% CH4, 0 . 2% C2H6, 15 . 37% H2...

Gaines, William Russell

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

53

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

55

Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission...

56

Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

57

The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

58

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties deer12kamp.pdf More Documents...

59

Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

62

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Processing and utilizing high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from urban solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of technologies in the US that recover energy from urban solid waste is relatively short. Most of the technology as we know it evolved over the past 25 years. This evolution led to the development of about 100 modern mass burn and RDF type waste-to-energy plants and numerous small modular combustion systems, which collectively are handling about 20%, or about 40 million tons per year, of the nations municipal solid waste. Technologies also evolved during this period to co-fire urban waste materials with other fuels or selectively burn specific waste streams as primary fuels. A growing number of second or third generation urban waste fuels projects are being developed. This presentation discusses new direction in the power generating industry aimed at recovery and utilization of clean, high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from municipal and industrial solid waste. It reviews a spectrum of alternative fuels for feasible recovery and reuse, with new opportunities emerging for urban fuels processors providing fuels in the 6,000--15,000 BTU/LB range for off premises use.

Smith, M.L. [M.L. Smith Environmental and Associates, Tinley Park, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Sulfur and ash in Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short toms of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plans region. This is more than 30% of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more F or Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5% sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6% ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short toms of >26% of the total US coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Sulfur and ash in paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short tons of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This is more than 30 percent of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more Fort Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5 percent sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6 percent ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short tons or >26 percent of the total U.S. coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill our future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fly ash enhanced metal removal process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fly ash system technology improves opacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emphasis of the work done has been to determine the reactivities of two ashes believed to be representative of those generated. A bituminous ash and a lignitic ash have been investigated. The reactions of these ashes undergo when subjected to mild hydrothermal conditions were explored. The nature of the reactions which the ashes undergo when alkaline activators, calcium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are present was also investigated. It was determined that calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, and the calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate ettringite form under these conditions. It appears 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}3CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}32H{sub 2}O (ettringite) formation needs to be considered in ashes which contain significant amounts of sulfate. Therefore the stability region for ettringite was established. It was also determined that calcium silicate hydrate, exhibiting a high internal surface area, will readily form with hydrothermal treatment between 50{degrees} and 100{degrees}C. This phase is likely to have a significant capacity to take up heavy metals and oxyanions and this ability is being explored.

Brown, P.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash technical progress Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and economic benefits. (1) Fly ash... of coal in conventional and or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom... ash, boiler slag, and flue...

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash blended cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CLSM mixture utilized... . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... investigation. Two additional ash ......

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash borer agrilus Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Sample search results for: ash borer agrilus Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus...

75

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

77

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

Brown, P.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Approaches to the petrographic characterization of fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The enhanced understanding of fly ash properties provided by petrographic analysis, a level of detail chemical analysis cannot provide, will be essential in the upgrading and utilization of fly ash produced in boilers retrofitted to meet clean air standards. Howe et al estimated that over 25% of the fly ash produced in Kentucky in 1992 would not have met the Kentucky Department of Transportation limit of 3% loss-on-ignition (LOI) for class F fly ash used as a Portland cement admixture. The conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} emission units increases fly ash carbon, hence LOI, by 150-200% rendering the fly ash unsuitable for highway construction use in concrete. The preservation of fly ash`s market share will require increased attention to the removal of excess carbon from the fly ash. In this paper, we will discuss the basic components of fly ash. An example of the petrographic analysis of fly ash from a Kentucky power plant will be used to illustrate the partitioning of fly ash components by size, as well as within the fly ash collection system.

Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rattanasak, Ubolluk, E-mail: ubolluk@buu.ac.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Jacques, Whitford and Associates Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

ash utilization symposium: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST Report No.CBU-1996-07 July 1996 Presented and Published at the...

86

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the

V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

87

Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

2007 world of coal ash conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theme of the conference was science, applications and sustainability. Papers are presented under the following topics: aggregates/geotechnology; agriculture; ash facility; management; CCT products; cement and concrete; chemistry and mineralogy; emerging technology; environmental; LOI/beneficiation/handling; mercury; mining and regulations and standards. The poster papers are included as well.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

Bohac, C.E.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

91

Market assessment of PFBC ash use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Mercury capture by distinct fly ash carbon forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon was separated from the fly ash from a Kentucky power plant using density gradient centrifugation. Using a lithium heterolpolytungstate high-density media, relative concentrations of inertinite (up to 85% vol.), isotropic carbon (up to 79% vol.), and anisotropic carbon (up to 76% vol.) were isolated from the original fly ash. Mercury concentration was lowest in the parent fly ash (which contains non-carbon components); followed by inertinite, isotropic coke, mixed isotropic-anisotropic coke fraction, and, with the highest concentration, the anisotropic coke concentrate. The latter order corresponds to the increase in BET surface area of the fly ash carbons. Previous studies have demonstrated the capture of mercury by fly ash carbon. This study confirms prior work demonstrating the varying role of carbon types in the capture, implying that variability in the carbon content influences the amount of mercury retained on the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Sakulpitakphon, T.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ash in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 7172005 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL...

94

Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

Sulloway, H. M.

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Bruce G. Bunting and Todd J. Toops Oak Ridge National Laboratory Adam Youngquist and Ke Nguyen University of...

96

Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

98

The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the needed quality control of concrete . Another source of concern results from the recent development of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as fuel sources. The ash produced from these coals is of a different chemical composition than traditional bituminous... 50 percent to greater than 200 percent of a control test. An exhaustive literature review has revealed neglig1ble information concerning the PAI of sub- b1tuminous and lignite ashes. Research is greatly needed to determine the ash properties...

McKerall, William Carlton

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Seasonal effects of volatile oils in ashe and redberry juniper on preference and digestibility by goats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(qnodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) and live Oak [Quercus virginiana (Small) Sarg. var. fusiformis] during the spring and fall. Angora and Spanish goats were exposed to ashe female, ashe male, redberry female and redberry...

Riddle, Richard R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cell Ashing for Trace Element Analysis: A New Approach Based on Ultraviolet/Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: synchrotron spectromicroscopy; micro- chemical analysis; MEPHISTO; ashing; incineration; trace element. Ashing ashing is based on high-temperature incineration or on the exposure to oxygen plasma (1­ 4). We adopted

Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

102

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum-fly ash metal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

extent, bottom ash, contain elevated amounts of heavy metals, and fly ash... . The dioxinsfurans on ash then don't seem to create an environmental problem. Heavy metals are...

103

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash samples pressurized Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

group of seven fly ash samples, and have... of coal in conventional and or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom... ash, boiler slag, and flue...

104

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash nasal lavage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the people of North America for thousands of years. Of the nine ash... species, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ... Source: USDA, Forestry Service, Northern Research...

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash disposal area Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 83 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: combustion 1. Fly ash is...

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cenospheres composites Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Composites Addition of fly ash cenospheres to polymer matrix influences all... , polyethylene, etc.). The effects of addition of fly ash cenospheres on polymer composites...

108

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashe higher education Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

higher abrasion... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ahto lobjakas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

111

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash paving demonstration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND DEMONSTRATION... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

112

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based gepolymer Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

113

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash penurunan kadar Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quarterly technical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

115

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

116

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash confinement time Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. The ASH system for the MIPS bounds execution time using a framework inspired by Deutsch 12. Exceptions... Appears in SIGCOMM '96, August 1996. ASHs: ... Source:...

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash slag silica Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 91 By-Products Utilization Summary: pozzolans include coal fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and other combustion ashes. When...

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposition propensities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 51...

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposits part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reading Collection: Geosciences 24 Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation Summary: being used for coal ash deposits....

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash char deposits Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 86...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash intranasal instillation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans...

122

Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

Murtha, M.J.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

123

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

124

Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

none,

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

128

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

129

COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of PNNL's work was to characterize the ash prior to calcination and to investigate the effect of calcination on product quality, representative material was obtained from LANL. Ash obtained from LANL was selected based on its similarity to that currently stored at RFETS. The plutonium-bearing ashes obtained from LANL are likely from a RFETS incinerator, but the exact origin was not identified.

Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

132

Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy?s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles? Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

McDonald, D.K.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash kinetics mechanism Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Some of these ash particles may contribute to surface sealing if rainfall kinetic energy is sufficient... ......

135

Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols Leona incineration fly ash at 200 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermodynamic calculations have been carried out ash produced by municipal waste incineration (MWI) have clearly demonstrated that MWI fly ash can

Cirkva, Vladimir

136

Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................4 3 ­ Clean fill staged prior to grading over the Ash Pit area.............................................................5 4 ­ Clean fill being graded at the Ash Pit I to the early 1950's. The Ash Pits were also used for disposal of coal ash from various buildings

137

Effects of Cutting Time, Stump Height, and Herbicide Application on Ash (Fraxinus Spp.)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or cutting heights. Keywords: Buprestidae, control, coppice, eradication, triclopyr E merald ash borer (EAB

138

Respiratory and Reproductive Characteristics of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) Inhabiting a Coal Ash Settling Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Inhabiting a Coal Ash Settling Basin B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, J. Novak, J. D. Congdon Savannah River 2002/Accepted: 29 March 2002 Abstract. Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present

Hopkins, William A.

139

Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from larger commercial sources such as wood-burning biomass plants which produce heat or electricity in the soil. Wood ash is more soluble and reactive than ground limestone, and brings about a Benefits Recycles

New Hampshire, University of

140

Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: December 2, 2013 S. Van Wychen and L. M. L. Laurens Technical Report NRELTP-5100-60956 December...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Studies of fly ash using thermal analysis techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine quantities of H{sub 2}O, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4} and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analysis, the reduction mechanism of CaSO{sub 4} as CaSO{sub 4} + 4H{sub 2} = CaS + 4H{sub 2}O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed combustion systems.

Li, Hanxu; Shen, Xiang-Zhong; Sisk, B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

ash upptag av: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* Environmental Management and Restoration Websites...

143

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

145

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

Enhancement of phosphogypsum with high lime fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH'LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Approved as to style and content by: Dr. ona d Saylak (Chairman f Committee) Dr. W. edbetter ( ember) (Member) r. Lloyd Deuel, 3...

Gregory, Chuck Alan

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

150

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that, due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also is intended to compare and summarize the results for all three test sections. The analysis of T

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

Bahrami, Majid

153

Metal recovery from fly ash generated from vitrification process for MSW ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-bearing wastes have to be carefully treated because heavy metals could be leached out under uncontrolled conditions when disposed of in a landfill. Consequently, heavy metals should be principally recovered and recycled forever. From this standpoint, the author has been trying to develop a technology to recover heavy metals from toxic vitrification fly ash for recycling to smelters. After a number of laboratory-scale experiments, pilot plant tests were successfully carried out and the developed process has been proven to be commercially realized. The main features of the process are that it recovers almost 100% of the heavy metals, simultaneously separating the metals which are recovered in a lead smelter from those in a zinc smelter, and that the output of the process are only metallurgical products recyclable for smelters and the effluent water which can be released into the environment. The process is considered an ideal one for the treatment of toxic fly ash from the viewpoint of not only natural resources but also environmental conservation.

Izumikawa, Chiaki [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)] [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash yellows 16sr Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORANGE RED Eruption is imminent with significant emission of volcanic ash... that blast volcanic ash (tiny rock fragments) and gas more than 100,000 feet into the air....

159

Tephrochronology and Stratigraphy of Eocene and Oligocene Volcanic Ashes of East and Central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of bulk ash and glass shards, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) of bulk ash, and electron microprobe analysis of both apatite phenocrysts and glass shards to characterize their geochemistry...

Heintz, Mindi

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash material analisis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was used in this work. An ASTM Class F fly ash... , and N3) were proportioned with clean coal fly ash containing 22% ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes total contents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash content for normal concrete... contained fly ash up to a maximum of 35% of clean-coal ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

164

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing dry Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shrinkage of Non-Air Entrained HRWRA Concrete -0.05% 0.00% 0.05% 0... NS3, 33% Clean Coal Ash, 5% Class F Fly Ash Fig. 15 - ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of -...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash formation transformations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chlorinated phenols because their presence in the ash could result in the formation of dioxins and furans... THE USE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF...

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash aqueous carbonation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash Summary: Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of...

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash silica fume Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

,and Bruce W. Ramme CBU-1996-08 REP-283 July 1996 Presented andPublished at the American Coal Ash Association... 's Twelfth International Coal Ash Use Symposium,Orlando,FL,January...

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dosage du Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash transportation distance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality characterization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ash and iron-foundry baghouse dust in the manufacturing of economical self-compacting concrete... . CONCLUSIONS: The limestone-quarry fines and Class C fly ash showed...

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - assess ash related Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has been... Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST... Report No. CBU-1996-07 July 1996 Presented and Published at the...

174

Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs New commercially...

175

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

176

High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Coal-ash slag attack and corrosion of refractories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion characteristics of a variety of fused-cast refractories in contact with various coal-ash slags were investigated. A fused-cast chrome-spinel refractory exhibited excellent corrosion resistance to both acidic and basic coal-ash slags at 1500/sup 0/C, even in the absence of water cooling. The slag-refractory interaction was limited to the formation of a stable band of recrystallized hercynitic spinel. Alumina-chromia refractories were superior to alumina and magnesia-chrome refractories when exposed to acidic slags.

Bonar, J.A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY); Kennedy, C.R.; Swaroop, R.B.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Mt. Etna tropospheric ash retrieval and sensitivity analysis using Moderate Resolution Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In order to derive the ash plume optical thickness, the particle effective radius and the total mass, exploiting the distinct reflectivity of meteorological and volcanic clouds in the near infrared spectral as containing volcanic ash compared to the original method. The retrieved mean ash optical thick- ness at 0

Oxford, University of

180

MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH Waste Management (in source such as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration ash, requires a knowledge of the so is proposed. Key words: Leaching, Waste, Incineration ash, Chromium, L/S ratio, Modelling. hal-00656672

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

182

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

186

BEyond thE BAcklAsh: equity and participation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BEyond thE BAcklAsh: equity and participation in bicycle planning. executive summary | May 2011 Camp Conor Clarke Joe Delia Jennifer Harris-Hernandez Sungbae Park Brian Paul Scott Richmond Sam Stein Jessame Hannus ValeriaTreves Bill DiPaola Kristen Jones Paul Steely White Katie Lyon-Hart We thank

Qiu, Weigang

187

Measurement of the Optical Proper-ties of Volcanic Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ­ Scattering solar radiation. ­ Absorption in the infrared. For chemical reactions: ­ Particles become coatedMeasurement of the Optical Proper- ties of Volcanic Ash Daniel M. Peters and R. G. Grainger@atm.ox.ac.uk http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk 1 Abstract We have just commenced a laboratory project, the "Optical Properties

Oxford, University of

188

Spectroscopic research on infrared emittance of coal ash deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a pulverized coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant. Normal emittance spectra in the near to medium infrared (2.5-25 {mu}m) region and total normal emittances were measured on four kinds of ground ash deposits. Measurements were conducted in the 570-1460 K temperature range which is common for boiler furnaces, by both heating and cooling the ash samples, with the aim to study the effect of their thermal history. Dependence of emittance on wavelength, temperature and chemical composition was studied, too. Samples were tested for transparency (opacity) to verify the accuracy of results. It was determined that the thicknesses used for the ash powders are opaque for infrared radiation for thicknesses in the order of a millimeter. Tests have shown that spectral emittance increases with an increase of wavelength with a characteristic pattern common for all samples. Spectral normal emittance increases strongly with temperature at shorter wavelengths and remains high and unchanged at longer ones. Emittance spectra are not very sensitive to chemical composition of ashes especially beyond {lambda} {approx} 5 {mu}m. With an increase of temperature, total emittance of the powdered sample decreases to a minimum value around 1200 K. Further temperature rise induces an increase of total emittance due to sintering in the ash. On cooling, the emittance increases monotonically following the hysteresis. Quantitative directions for evaluating thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits for the merits of the safety design of boiler furnaces were proposed. That comprises correlating the experimentally obtained emittance spectra with curves of simple analytical form, i.e., a continuous function of minimum emittance vs. wavelength. The proposed method can be extended to other specimens from the same furnace and used to determine correlations for thermal calculation of old and design of new furnaces - with similar geometry and combusting similar coal. The method is potentially applicable to completely different boiler furnaces combusting different coal, and the authors recommend running the tests with new deposit samples. The data will then be applicable to the thermal design of a whole new class of furnaces, having similar geometry and combusting similar coal. This is expected to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of thermal calculation as well as the efficiency of thermal design of steam boilers. (author)

Saljnikov, Aleksandar; Komatina, Mirko; Gojak, Milan [Department of Thermomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS); Vucicevic, Biljana [Laboratory for Thermal Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (RS); Goricanec, Darko [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000 (Slovenia); Stevanovic, Zoran [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

First BTU | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf Jump to:Siting.pdf JumpFirelands Electric Coop,

190

Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

None

1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

192

Process to eliminate production of fly ash by wet bottom boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the reduction of fly ash in a wet bottom boiler of the type having a primary and secondary furnace. It comprises collecting the fly ash from one of an electrostatic precipitator, a bag house, a cyclone collector, a multi- cyclone collector, a gravity separator and a sharply curved duct; removing the fly ash in a stream of carrier gas into the furnace; adding a fuel to the stream of carrier gas and fly ash; introducing the carrier gas and fly ash and fuel into one of the primary and secondary furnaces, wherein the fuel and the heat from at least one of the surrounding gas and molten slag provide energy to melt the fly ash; and discharging the melted fly ash with slag from the furnace bottom.

Breen, B.P.; Schrecengost, R.A.; Gabrielson, J.E.

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

193

Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

Beaufrere, A.H.

1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/yr Operating Cost $/ton ¢/10 6 Btu Selling Price 12% DCF$/ton ¢/10 6 Btu Production (Million Tons Per Year)ash, 3.38% sulfur, 12,821 Btu/lb **15,900 Btu/lb, 1% sulfur.

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with Teflon bags) flue gas obtained while firing PRB coal in a 35 kW combustor. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the Hg speciation after fly ash injection. Wall effects in the combustor complicated interpretation of testing data, although a number of observations could still be made. The amount of Hg collected in the Ontario Hydro impingers was lower than anticipated, and is probably due to sorption of Hg by the fly ash. While firing PRB coal without any ash injection, the percent oxidized Hg in the gas stream was fairly high (average of 63%). The high levels of vapor phase oxidized Hg in these base line tests may be due to catalytic effects from the refractory materials in the combustor. When PRB fly ash was injected into a filtered PRB flue gas stream, the percentage of oxidized Hg in the gas stream decreased dramatically. Decreases in the percentage of oxidized Hg were also observed while injecting Blacksville fly ash, but to a lesser extent. Injecting whole Blacksville fly ash into the filtered PRB flue gas appeared to result in greater concentrations of oxidized Hg relative to the tests where whole PRB fly ash was injected. However, because the Blacksville fly ash has a relatively high surface area, this may be only a surface area effect.

Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

14 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 SILVICS AND SILVICULTURE OF ASH IN MIXED HARDWOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN MIXED HARDWOOD FORESTS OF THE SOUTHERN BOTTOMLANDS AND LOESSIAL HILLS Steve Meadows U.S. Forest Service wet bottomland sites. White ash is the primary ash species in the loessial hills and on other upland sites across the South. The natural range, distribution across site types, and associated forest cover

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

Brodzik, P.

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh {times} 0, 200 mesh {times} 0, and 325 mesh {times} 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The reactions and ashes of thermonuclear explosions on neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on the detailed rp-process reaction flow on an accreting neutron star and the resulting ashes of a type I X-ray burst. It is obtained by coupling a 298 isotope reaction network to a self-consistent one-dimensional model calculation with a constant accretion rate of dM/dt=1.0e17g/s (0.09 Eddington).

J. L. Fisker; E. Brown; M. Liebendoerfer; F. -K. Thielemann; M. Wiescher

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL] [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL] [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Unique method of ash disposal can benefit marine life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As more communities turn to waste-to-energy facilities to help solve their solid waste disposal problems, the amount of ash created by these facilities increases. Incineration of solid waste produces particulate residues which are often rich in lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc because of the concentration which occurs as a result of reduction. It has been shown that such metals can sometimes be leached from ash residues, giving rise to special concerns that incineration ashes be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. In urban coastal areas where landfills are few and increasingly distant, ocean disposal of stabilized incineration residues (SIR) may provide an acceptable alternative to current landfill practices. In May 1985, a research program was initiated at the Marine Sciences Research Center to examine the feasibility of utilizing SIR for artificial reef construction in the ocean. Results of these studies showed that particulate incineration residues could be combined with cement to form a solid block possessing physical properties necessary for ocean disposal. The stabilized residues were subjected to regulatory extraction protocols, and in no instance did the metal concentrations in the leachates exceed the regulatory limits for toxicity. Bioassays revealed no adverse effects on the phytoplankton communities exposed to elutriate concentrations higher than could be encountered under normal disposal conditions. The success of the laboratory studies resulted in securing the necessary permits for the placement of an artificial habitat constructed using SIR in coastal wasters. Results from this program are described.

Roethel, F.J.; Breslin, V.T. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Modeling the formation and size distribution of fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of mathematical models has been developed to predict the size distribution of fly ash particles formed in pulverized coal combustion. The large particle mode of the size distribution, typically centered about 10 to 20 ..mu..m, is predicted by a simple breakup model that is based on the complete coalescence of molten mineral inclusions within fragments of the devolatilized coal char. The ultrafine particle mode, that is typically centered about 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..m, is modeled in terms of ash volatilization, nucleation, and coagulation. Silica and alumina are reduced to volatile suboxides through reactions at the char surface. The volatile suboxides are transported from the char surface where they are oxidized back to the stable oxides in the bulk gas, and then nucleated in accordance with homogeneous nucleation theory. The ultrafine nuclei coagulate in accordance with Brownian coagulation theory. The predicted particle size spectra have been compared to measured size distributions from a pilot-scale combustor and a full-scale utility boiler. Considering the disproportionate loss of coarse particles in the pilot-scale unit, the agreement between the predicted and measured size distributions was considered reasonably good. Both the predicted ultrafine and large particle modes agreed reasonably well with the measured particle size distribution for the full scale boiler. The validated computer models were used to study the effect of changes in the coal ash content, coal particle size, and the combustion flame temperature.

Dahlin, R.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Investigation of the potential of fly ash as an adsorbent for removal of priority pollutants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

billion. Application of the full complement of hazardous waste rules would increase the cost to over $3. 4 billion (EPRI, 1982). It is clear that the handling and disposal of fly ash will be increasingly costly. This cost increase will be compounded.... Several different applications are possible if fly ash shows reasonable adsorption for priority pollutants. For example, fly ash can be used for lining landfills to retard transport of contaminants mto the soil until more permanent disposal solutions...

Zardkoohi, Minoo

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

213

INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash corrosion resistant Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 48 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: in improved resistance to...

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cement matrixes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 13 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: to a construc- tion material...

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - agglomerating ash process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 8 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: index for animal manure ash...

217

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash fraxinus excelsior Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

we planted green ash trees... Identification of a Biomarker Gene for Fraxinus spp. Darla French and ... Source: Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources,...

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality recycling Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... CANMET Conference on Quality of Concrete Structures and...

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash related problems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the environment is an environmental problem created. It is generally conceded... . The dioxinsfurans on ash then don't seem to create an ... Source: Columbia University -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash inhalation exposure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in England and Summary: tests on blocks containing mixed ash. 1 See page 17, Dioxins, what they are, their sources, our exposure... into the potential exposure to dioxins...

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash impact sorbent Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for By-Products Utilization Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science 23 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: , and baghouses) including fly ash,...

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash metal matrix Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This list included inorganic metals, since they are known to occur in all ashes, and dioxins... of the best available tools for evaluating whether ... Source: Columbia University...

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash management regulations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air and Waste Management Division U.S. Environmental... unacceptable levels of dioxins and furans. Thus they argue for cradle to grave ash management under Subtitle C......

225

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash particle deposition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RDF ASH GEORGE M. SAVAGE AND LUIS F. DIAZ Cal Recovery ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 36...

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ozonation technology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ozonation technology Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ash ozonation technology Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Fine volcanic Predicting...

227

Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density/Ash Relationship . APPLICATION OF THE GAMMA-GAMMA DENSITY/PERCENT DRY ASH RELATIONSHIPS The Density/Ash Relationship of a South Texas Lignite Deposit Characterization of a South Texas Lignite Deposit CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. 52 53 53 53... 58 64 67 6g 80 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Coal Classification by Rank. 2 Common Minerals in Coal. 3 Results of Linear Regression Analyses for a South Texas Lignite Deposit. 4 Variability of Geophysica11y-Derived Percent Dry Ash Values...

Wright, David Scott

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash forming acid-resistant Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

European Summer Fly Ash Workshop," Warsaw, Poland, June 2005. Department... combustion of coal in conventional and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. These include fly...

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash financial aspects Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash separators Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash flowable fill Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: ash as filler. A highly flowable concrete is not necessarily self-compacting because SCC should... ;4. Kurita, M., and Nomura, T., "High-Flowable Steel...

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash sekitanbai wo Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-sulfurcoal combustionby-products generated by using both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes analisis espectroquimico Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-sulfurcoal combustionby-products generated by using both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

234

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes oral biotillgaenglighet Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-sulfurcoal combustionby-products generated by using both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash projekt vaendoera Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

generated by using both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

236

Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of ash andor particulate matter shall be limited to less than .6 pounds per million BTU for installations less than 10 million BTU per hour heat. For installations equal or...

237

Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--January 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to investigate the kinetics of beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7--2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash beneficiation have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550--750{degrees}C. The P{sub 02} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively.

Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

High Carbon Fly Ash Treatment | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in the Madison SymmetricHigh Carbon Fly Ash Treatment

240

Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:form ViewBlackBloomfield,710541°,Ash, Ohio: Energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Properties of concrete incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the results of research performed in developing high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete incorporating ASTM Type I cement and ASTM Class F fly ash from Big Brown Power Plant of TU Electric, Texas. In HVFA concrete, the proportion...

Li, Wei Tung

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Measurement of the Optical Proper-ties of Volcanic Ash: Current status.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of the Optical Proper- ties of Volcanic Ash: Current status. Daniel M. Peters and R. G is to allow further assessment of the role of volcanic ash in atmospheric chem- istry, and radiative transfer. Applications of the measurements include: · Radiative transfer from: ­ Scattering solar radiation. ­ Absorption

Oxford, University of

245

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of a Shallow Ash Occurrence: in the Mahanadi Basin, offshore India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of a Shallow Ash Occurrence: in the Mahanadi Basin, offshore sampled in the continental margins offshore India (Fig 1). A volcanic ash layer was recovered below seafloor Surrounding Sediments: Grey sediment in A is a nannofossil and plant debris bearing clay

New Hampshire, University of

246

FLY ASH GENERATION AND UTILIZATION -AN OVERVIEW* Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Class F fly ashes are normally generated due to combustion of anthracite or bituminous coal. The Class CFLY ASH GENERATION AND UTILIZATION - AN OVERVIEW* By Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director, Center GENERATION AND UTILIZATION - AN OVERVIEW By Tarun R. Naik, and Shiw S. Singh ABSTRACT This chapter describes

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

247

Emission Control Technology, Performance/Durability -POSTER Effect of Accelerated Ash Loading on Performance of Diesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Morphology of Ash Layers Bruce G. Bunting and Todd J. Toops using a single-cylinder diesel engine has been developed for accelerated ash loading in catalyzed and non- catalyzed diesel particular filters (DPF) made of cordierite, SiC and mullite substrate

Pennycook, Steve

248

California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial fly ash-clay Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash-clay Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Summary: studied. Context SiO2 CaO Al2O3 OPC BFS Class C fly ash Clays Metakaolin...

250

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

251

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* , L. S. Fisher1 , J of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands, we have found that based on laboratory and field and its influence on carbon sequestration. Also, addition of fly ash to soil, while generally considered

Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

252

Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted vadose zone. Ã? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Over 100 million tons of fly ash

Aydilek, Ahmet

253

Ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the metacarpus of hereford cows under different nutritional and physiological conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASH, CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT OF THE METACARPUS OF HEREFORD COWS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS A Thesis By MOZAMMEL HAQUE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... centages of Calcium, Phosphorus snd Magnesium in Bone Ash for Cows Gi;en Different Treatments During Pre- And Post-Partum Periods 22 10 Analysis of Variance oi Calcium in Bone Ash Dun an's )tultiple tvange Test 1'or Calcium in Bone Ash. Analy...

Haque, Mozammel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

Fernandes, M. R. S., E-mail: monica.fernandes@lanxess.com [Lanxess Elastômeros do Brasil S.A., Brasil and Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Furtado, C. R. G., E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de, E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

488-D Ash Basin Vegetative Cover Treatibility Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 488-D Ash Basin is an unlined containment basin that received ash and coal reject material from the operation of a powerhouse at the USDOE's Savannah River Site, SC. They pyretic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage (AD), which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatens biota in down gradient wetlands. Establishment of a vegetative cover was examined as a remedial alternative for reducing AD generation within this system by enhanced utilization of rainwater and subsequent non-point source water pollution control. The low nutrient content, high acidity, and high salinity of the basin material, however, was deleterious to plant survivability. As such, studies to identify suitable plant species and potential adaptations, and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and/or chemical stabilization were needed. A randomized block design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five duplicated surface amendments (treatments) was developed. One hundred inoculated pine trees were planted on each plot. Herbaceous species were also planted on half of the plots in duplicated 1-m2 beds. After two growing seasons, deep ripping, subsurface amendments and surface covers were shown to be essential for the successful establishment of vegetation on the basin. This is the final report of the study.

Barton, Christopher; Marx, Don; Blake, John; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon-Jun; Czapka, Stephen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Influence of curing temperature on cement hydration and mechanical strength development of fly ash mortars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of fly ash and curing temperature on cement hydration and compressive strength development of mortars was investigated. Test parameters included type of fly ash (two different Class F fly ashes were tested), the level of cement replacement (10, 20 and 30% by mass), and curing temperature (20 C and 40 C). The mortar physical and microstructural properties were determined by means of thermal analyses, compressive strength measurements and SEM observations. Test results confirm that fly ash tends to increase significantly the rate of cement hydration at early age. Data also demonstrate that an elevation of the curing temperature reduces the long-term compressive strength of the reference mortar mixture. In contrast, an increase of the curing temperature seems to have no detrimental effect on the long-term compressive strength of the fly ash mixtures.

Maltais, Y.; Marchand, J. [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche Interuniversitaire sur le Beton] [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche Interuniversitaire sur le Beton

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Metal Bioavailability and Speciation in a Wetland Tailings Repository Amended with Biosolids Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate Pam S. DeVolder, Sally L. Brown,* Dean Hesterberg, and Kumi Pandya ABSTRACT tundra swans surface amendments: (i) biosolids compost plus wood ash, (ii) and other animals found in the area have tested positive compost wood ash a low SO2 4 addition as K2SO4, and (iii) for Pb poisoning

Brown, Sally

260

Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung The use of fly ash as an admixture results in enhancement of the electromagnetic interference (EMI of fly ash as an admixture for enhancing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. EMI shielding

Chung, Deborah D.L.

262

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244­252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low 2005 Available online 4 November 2005 Abstract Paper sludge ash was partially converted into zeolites by reaction with 3 M NaOH solution at 90 C for 24 h. The paper sludge ash had a low abundance of Si

Downs, Robert T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

J. Marshall Ash Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 108, No. 2. (Feb., 1990), p. 571.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Erratum J. Marshall Ash Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 108, No. 2. (Feb, February 1990 ERRATUM J. MARSHALL ASH The paper "A new proof of uniqueness for multiple trigonometric series" by J. Marshall Ash, which appeared in 107(2) October 1989, should have been entitled "A new proof

Ash, J. Marshall

264

Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the benefication of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7-2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash benefication have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550-750{degrees}C. The P{sub O{sub 2}} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

2009-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

Beaufrere, Albert H. (Huntington, NY)

1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

269

Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Oxonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the fifth quarterly report and it refers to the time period from April-July 2005. (An additional month is included in this quarterly report as we have been in a data analyses mode and wanted to provide new data relative to the previous report). During this period, the project team has been reviewing and analyzing data from the onsite ozonation tests, as well as conducting additional laboratory ash and concrete tests. This report summarizes these activities including some preliminary results. No significant issues or concerns are identified.

Larry LaBuz; Rui Afonso

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Petrography and chemistry of sized fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December, 1994, from two units representing high- and low-sulfur feed coals at a Kentucky power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh. The dried ({approximately}40 C) fractions were then weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, mounted in epoxy and prepared as polished pellets, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The November ashes had a similar size distribution in the +325 mesh fractions. The low-sulfur hot side and cool side ashes had a similar size distribution in the November ashes. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the typical trend, the cool-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh fraction) than the hot-side ash. Carbon tends to be relatively concentrated in the coarse fractions. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes is an important consideration in the utilization potential of the fly ash.

Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Trimble, A.S. [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Conversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A. Aksay, and Wei-Heng Shih*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and aluminum sources. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal burning, contains mostly aluminosilicates. Recently, several authors have studied the conversion of fly ash into zeolites.5-7 Shige- moto et al.8 increased the yield of zeolites by first fusing the fly ash with NaOH. The reaction of fly ash with NaOH produced

Aksay, Ilhan A.

274

Comparison of photosynthetic responses of Ashe juniper and live oak on the Edwards Plateau, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Bucholz) has encroached into the historical grasslands of the Edwards Plateau. This area is environmentally sensitive as it serves as the recharge zone for the Edwards aquifer, providing large municipalities...

Bendevis, Mira Arpe

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

275

Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-going research at Texas A&M University indicated that soil stabilization using calcium chloride filter cake along with Class F fly ash generates high strength. Previous studies were conducted with samples containing calcium chloride filter cake...

Choi, Hyung Jun

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

276

Heterogeneous Surface-Based Freezing of Atmospheric Aerosols Containing Ash, Soot, and Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nucleation will occur through one of several mechanisms including the contact and immersion freezing mechanisms. Through a series of contact freezing experiments, we have characterized the ability of aerosols composed of volcanic ash, soot, and peat soil...

Fornea, Adam P.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Ashe juniper seed production and germination, seedling dynamics and response of live oak/juniper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germination of Ashe juniper seed were compared in a controlled environment at different levels of fruit maturation, lengths of storage, and seed stratification to determine potential germination. Annual mean germination varied by an order...

Reinecke, Rudolph Klaus

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash belite cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 77 Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung* Summary: to a construc- tion material...

279

Leaching of Metals from Fly ash-Amended Permeable Reactive Barriers Doina L. Morar 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Petzrick 2001). Unfortunately, this HCC fly ash cannot be beneficially reused in the construction industry organic and inorganic pollutants. Specific reactive materials such as wood chips, limestone, manure (USEPA

Aydilek, Ahmet

280

2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dump leachate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volume 28, no. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1999.Copyright0 1999,ASA, CSSA, SSSA Summary: ). Leachate Analysis PH The pH values for all leachates from the ash- and sludge-amended soil columns...

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash cements stabilized Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science 6 By-Products Utilization Summary: OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE 12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu... as setting time...

283

Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, October 1996--December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called {open_quotes}Loss On Ignition{close_quotes} (LOI). The concrete producer`s day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash 25mi ja Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coal-fired power plants that may be applied at WTE facilities combusting... proved solution for dry bottom ash collection and handling. Up to now the MAC system has been...

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash-flow tuff yucca Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ash-flow tuff yucca Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 27 (1986)...

286

Lubricant-derived ash : in-engine sources and opportunities for reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are an effective means for meeting increasingly stringent emissions regulations that limit particulate matter. Over time, ash primarily derived from metallic additives in the engine oil ...

Watson, Simon A. G. (Simon Andrew Glean)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Iron distribution among phases in high- and low-sulfur coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Moessbauer spectroscopy, reflected-light optical microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, wet chemical, and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted on six fly ash samples. The fly ashes, representing the combustion by-products of coals with total sulfur contents of less than 2% to greater than 4%, ranged from 17.6 to 32.0% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by XRF analysis. Wet chemical analysis was used to determine the Fe{sup 3+}/{summation}Fe content of the ashes, which ranged from 72% to 83%. Optical analysis of the ashes indicated that the spinel, encompassing iron oxides of various compositions, ranges from 4.0 to 12.6% (vol.). Moessbauer analyses confirmed the presence of three Fe-bearing phases: magnetite, hematite (possibly of two different compositions), and glass. The variation in the Fe-oxidation state follows the variation in the sulfur, consequently pyrite, content of the feed coal.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Dyar, M.D.; Taylor, M.E. [West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Astronomy

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A. [Center and Department of Geology, Oporto (Portugal)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash fiber fundamental Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Composite Interfaces 18 (2011) 169184 brill.nlci Summary: Fiber-Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete with Fly Ash Osman Gencel a,b , Witold Brostow b, , Tea... . Important for...

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash-silica fume pastes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Engineering 100 By-Products Utilization Summary: of Recycled Aggregates in Self-Compacting4 Concrete", Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans... (0.00028 in.). For...

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash washing experiments Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Std. Dev. type prep . calc.b "out" (m%,d) (m... of the total chlorine in the ash, condensate (from collector ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research and...

292

Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Charles E.A. Finney, Todd J. Toops, C. Stuart Daw Oak Ridge National Laboratory Jan...

294

Influence of age/size and grazing history on understory relationships of Ashe juniper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INFLUENCE OF AGE/SIZE AND GRAZING HISTORY ON UNDERSTORY RELATIONSHIPS OF ASHE JUNIPER A Thesis by SAMUEL DEAN FUHLENDORF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Rangeland Ecology and Management INFLUENCE OF AGE/SIZE AND GRAZING HISTORY ON UNDERSTORY RELATIONSHIPS OF ASHE JUNIPER A Thesis by SAMUEL DEAN FUHLENDORF Approved as to style and content by...

Fuhlendorf, Samuel Dean

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Selected life history and synecological characteristics of ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELECTED LIFE HISTORY AND SYNECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASHE JUNIPER ON THE EDWARDS PLATEAU OF TEXAS A Thesis by KEVIN WAYNE BLOMQUIST Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Range Science SELECTED LIFE HISTORY AND SYNECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASHE JUNIPER QN THE EDWARDS PLATEAU OF TEXAS A Thesis by KEVIN WAYNE BLOMQUIST Approved as to style...

Blomquist, Kevin Wayne

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Canopy, litter and allelopathic effects of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei, Buchholz) on understory vegetation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CANOPY, ~ AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ASHE JUNIPER (JUNIPERUS ASHEI, BUCHHOLZ) ON UNDERSTORY VEGETATION A Thesis by LISA YVONNE YAGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fufillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993 Major Subject: Range Science CANOPY, LIITER AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF ASHE JUNIPER (JUNIPERUS ASHEI, BUCHHOLZ) ON UNDERSTORY VEGETATION A Thesis by LISA YVONNE YAGER Submitted to Texas A...

Yager, Lisa Yvonne

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Evaluation of lime-fly ash stabilized bases and subgrades using static and dynamic deflection systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASFS AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis GARY W. RABA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASES AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis by Gary Nl. Raba Approved as to style and content by: !Chairman...

Raba, Gary W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUHIPER WOODLAND TYPES IN REAL COUNTY& TEXAS By DONAID L. RUSS Approved as to style end content by: ~c-". '~ Z). 4:-. = Chairman of Committee Bead of Depantme Nay l954. LIBgARV A... A M GOLLEGL OF TEXAS FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUNIPER WO(NILAND TIPES IN REAL COUNTI, TEUIS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment oi...

Huss, Donald Lee

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Industrial properties of lignitic and lignocellulosic fly ashes from Turkish sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is an inorganic matter from combustion of the carbonaceous solid fuels. More than half the electricity in Turkey is produced from lignite-fired power plants. This energy production has resulted in the formation of more than 13 million tons of fly ash waste annually. The presence of carbon in fly ash inducing common faults include adding unwanted black color and adsorbing process or product materials such as water and chemicals. One of the reasons for not using fly ash directly is its carbon content. For some uses carbon must be lower than 3%. Fly ash has been used for partial replacement of cement, aggregate, or both for nearly 70 years, and it is still used on a very limited scale in Turkey. The heavy metal content of industrial wastewaters is an important source of environmental pollution. Each of the three major oxides (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fly ash can be ideal as a metal adsorbent.

Demirbas, A.; Cetin, S. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

2006-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the total amount of Hg passing through the filter as well as the percentages of elemental and oxidized Hg collected. Results indicated that substantial amounts of Hg oxidation did not occur with either fly ash, regardless of the temperature used for testing. When oxidation was observed, the magnitude of the oxidation was comparable between the two fly ashes. These results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important than the ash components with respect to the distribution of Hg species observed in gaseous effluents at coal-fired power plants.

Glenn A. Norton

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Investigation of fly ash carbon by thermal analysis and optical microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous study investigated various fly ashes that had comparable loss on ignition values, but significant differences with respect to air entrainment performance. Thermal analysis data suggested that a poorly performing fly ash, with respect to air entrainment, contained a higher proportion of carbon that gasifies (oxidizes) at comparatively low temperatures. A relatively high abundance of isotropic carbon was identified in the poor-performing ash using optical microscopy. The present investigation examined a larger collection of fly ash samples to determine if thermal analysis could be used as a prognostic tool for fly ash performance. An attempt was made to correlate mortar air and foam index values for each sample with differential thermal analysis (DTA) data. Optical microscopy and BET surface area analysis were used as supportive techniques. No clear relationship could be established with the thermal or optical methods, although fly ash performance did correlate well with BET surface area. A low temperature component of the DTA exotherms was considered to be a function of inorganic catalytic species that reside on the carbon surface and lower the ignition temperature.

Hill, R. [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Effect of environment atmosphere on the sintering of Thai lignite fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sintering of ash particles, related to deposit formation in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, was investigated for two lignite fly ashes obtained from Mae Moh and Bangpudum coal seams. The tests involved measuring the compressive strength of cold sintered pellets at varying sintering temperature, both under oxidizing (air) and non-oxidizing atmospheres (CO{sub 2}). Under ambient air condition, Mae Moh fly ash which contained higher amount of glassy phase gave significantly higher sinter strength than Bangpudum fly ash. The role of glassy phase was confirmed by the lowering of sinter strength when HF-extracted fly ash was tested. Sintering under CO{sub 2} environment resulted in larger strength development than sintering in air. Under this non-oxidizing condition, the pellet color turned black, indicating that most of the iron was in the reduced state and could form additional low melting-point glassy phase, hence facilitated sintering rate. In addition, blending of the two ashes yielded intermediate maximum strength, under both air and CO{sub 2} environments. This observation substantiates the important role of glassy phase in the sintering process and indicates the possibility of lowering deposit strength by judicious mixing of different raw coal feeds.

Tangsathitkulchai, C.; Tangsathitkulchai, M. [Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jürgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); León-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain) [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

Phifer, M.

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

309

Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul; Prasert Pavasant [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

CENT Center for Energy Nanoscience and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, solar cells from earth abundant materials, and nanowire based solar cells. Concentrator photovoltaics that has prevented nanowire solar cells (and other nanostructured solar cells) from demonstrating high and in this capacity is responsible for overseeing IBM's worldwide research strategy in the physical sciences. His

Southern California, University of

311

Mississippi Power- EarthCents Financing Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Mississippi Power offers loans to residential customers to help pay for energy efficiency upgrades. The loan can be used for heat pumps, heating and cooling systems, electric water heaters,...

312

SEP 6 1929 './ -./ 10 CentsAUGUST,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ng it. If. :a.rd· . Lb, !ike ;old n t . c b t ·· Ink · r rsest ;ler. ,RS For gue .roph :itil1g rcnd

313

Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Predicting the Operating Behavior of Ceramic Filters from Thermo-Mechanical Ash Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stable operation, in other words the achievement of a succession of uniform filtration cycles of reasonable length is a key issue in high-temperature gas filtration with ceramic media. Its importance has rather grown in recent years, as these media gain in acceptance due to their excellent particle retention capabilities. Ash properties have been known for some time to affect the maximum operating temperature of filters. However, softening and consequently ''stickiness'' of the ash particles generally depend on composition in a complex way. Simple and accurate prediction of critical temperature ranges from ash analysis--and even more so from coal analysis--is still difficult without practical and costly trials. In general, our understanding of what exactly happens during break-down of filtration stability is still rather crude and general. Early work was based on the concept that ash particles begin to soften and sinter near the melting temperatures of low-melting, often alkaline components. This softening coincides with a fairly abrupt increase of stickiness, that can be detected with powder mechanical methods in a Jenicke shear cell as first shown by Pilz (1996) and recently confirmed by others (Kamiya et al. 2001 and 2002, Kanaoka et al. 2001). However, recording {sigma}-{tau}-diagrams is very time consuming and not the only off-line method of analyzing or predicting changes in thermo-mechanical ash behavior. Pilz found that the increase in ash stickiness near melting was accompanied by shrinkage attributed to sintering. Recent work at the University of Karlsruhe has expanded the use of such thermo-analytical methods for predicting filtration behavior (Hemmer 2001). Demonstrating their effectiveness is one objective of this paper. Finally, our intent is to show that ash softening at near melting temperatures is apparently not the only phenomenon causing problems with filtration, although its impact is certainly the ''final catastrophe''. There are other significant changes in regeneration at intermediate temperatures, which may lead to long-term deterioration.

Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

315

Melting behavior of ashes from the co-combustion of coal and straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Straw may be used today as a substitute fuel to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from traditional coal-fired power plants and provide green-based electricity. It may also provide an alternative source of income to the local farmers helping the developed countries to support sustainable development. The use of straw as a co-firing feedstock in traditional coal-fired plants is associated with operational problems, such as deposition, agglomeration, and/or corrosion, mainly because of the higher amounts of alkali metals and chlorine in straw compared to coal. This may lead to unscheduled shutdowns and costly repairs, increasing the operational costs and the cost of the produced power. In this paper, the melting characteristics of several ash fractions sampled from different parts of a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler operating with different coal/straw mixtures is determined by measuring the ash viscosity using a high-temperature rotational viscometer. The produced data provide information on the melting of the ash material, its flow characteristics, and the rates of crystallization and recrystallization, as a function of the temperature. This information may be used to modify the temperature profile in the different parts of the boiler to reduce the deposition of the ash material. The results show that the straw in the co-combustion mixture changes the viscosity characteristics of the produced ash fractions. The viscosity of the different ash fractions is lowered, as the percentage of straw in the co-combustion mixture increases, and leads to higher stickiness of the produced ash particles at lower temperatures. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Arvelakis; F.J. Frandsen [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby (Denmark). CHEC Research Centre

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Experimental program for the development of peat gasification. Process designs and cost estimates for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu/day SNG from peat by the PEATGAS Process. Interim report No. 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents process designs for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu's per day of SNG by the PEATGAS Process from peats. The purpose is to provide a preliminary assessment of the process requirements and economics of converting peat to SNG by the PEATGAS Process and to provide information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to plan the scope of future peat gasification studies. In the process design now being presented, peat is dried to 35% moisture before feeding to the PEATGAS reactor. This is the basic difference between the Minnesota peat case discussed in the current report and that presented in the Interim Report No. 5. The current design has overall economic advantages over the previous design. In the PEATGAS Process, peat is gasified at 500 psig in a two-stage reactor consisting of an entrained-flow hydrogasifier followed by a fluidized-bed char gasifier using steam and oxygen. The gasifier operating conditions and performance are necessarily based on the gasification kinetic model developed for the PEATGAS reactor using the laboratory- and PDU-scale data as of March 1978 and April 1979, respectively. On the basis of the available data, this study concludes that, although peat is a low-bulk density and low heating value material requiring large solids handling costs, the conversion of peat to SNG appears competitive with other alternatives being considered for producing SNG because of its very favorable gasification characteristics (high methane formation tendency and high reactivity). As a direct result of the encouraging technical and economic results, DOE is planning to modify the HYGAS facility in order to begin a peat gasification pilot plant project.

Arora, J.L.; Tsaros, C.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. E

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Investigation of MSWI fly ash melting characteristic by DSC-DTA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The melting process of MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) fly ash has been studied by high-temperature DSC-DTA experiments. The experiments were performed at a temperature range of 20-1450 deg. C, and the considerable variables included atmosphere (O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), heating rates (5 deg. C/min, 10 deg. C/min, 20 deg. C/min) and CaO addition. Three main transitions were observed during the melting process of fly ash: dehydration, polymorphic transition and fusion, occurring in the temperature range of 100-200 deg. C, 480-670 deg. C and 1101-1244 deg. C, respectively. The apparent heat capacity and heat requirement for melting of MSWI fly ash were obtained by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). A thermodynamic modeling to predict the heat requirements for melting process has been presented, and it agrees well with the experimental data. Finally, a zero-order kinetic model of fly ash melting transition was established. The apparent activation energy of MSWI fly ash melting transition was obtained.

Li, Rundong [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)], E-mail: leerd@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tianhua; Raninger, Bernhard [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the 4-yr follow-up of 712 loggers exposed over an extended period to varying levels of fresh volcanic ash from the 1980 eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Concerns related to the irritant effect the ash might have on the airways and also to its fibrogenic potential if exposures were intense and continued over many years. Our subjects were divided into 3 groups: high, low, and no exposure. Baseline testing was begun in June 1980, 1 month after the major eruption, and follow-up testing continued on an annual basis through 1984; 88% of the loggers have been tested at least 3 times. Analysis of lung function data showed that a significant, exposure-related decline in FEV1 occurred during the first year after the eruption. The decline was short-lived, however, and by 1984 the differences between exposure groups were no longer significant. Self-reported symptoms of cough, phlegm, and wheeze showed a similar pattern. No ash-related changes were seen in chest roentgenograms taken in 1980 and in 1984. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhaled ash caused mucus hypersecretion and/or airway inflammation that reversed when the exposure levels decreased. The ash levels to which the loggers were exposed were low compared with permissible occupational levels for nuisance dusts, but generally higher than the total suspended particulate levels permissible in ambient air.

Buist, A.S.; Vollmer, W.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernstein, R.S.; McCamant, L.E.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Final technical report, September 30, 1992--January 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal ash, and particularly fine fly ash, remain one of the principal practical and environmental problems in coal-based power generation. In particular, submicron aerosols are identified with direct inhalation risk. Submicron ash is thought to arise from mineral vaporization during char combustion, followed by nucleation, condensation and coagulation to yield an aerosol. While aerosols are predominantly made out of volatile alkali minerals, they also can include refractory oxides that are chemically reduced to more volatile forms within the char particle and vaporized. Most of the ash of size greater than 1 {mu}m is generated by agglomeration of mineral as the char particle bums out. These two principal mechanisms are thought to account for most of the ash generated in coal combustion. Previous research has shown that various forms of coal treatment can influence the yields of fine ash from combustion. The research reported here investigates various forms of treatment, including physical coal cleaning, aerodynamic sizing, degree of grinding, and combinations of these on both aerosol yields and on yields of fine residual ash (1-4 {mu}m). The work also includes results from the combustion of artificial chars that include individual mineral elements. This research shows that these various forms of coal treatment can significantly change ash characteristics. While none of the treatments affected the bulk of the residual ash size distribution significantly, the yield of the ash aerosol mode (d<0.5 {mu}m) and fine residual ash mode (1-4 {mu}m) are changed by the treatments.

Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, Jungsung; Hoffman, D.A.; Butcher, E.K.

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fluorination of incinerator ash by hydrofluorination or ammonium bifluoride fusion for plutonium recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incinerator ash containing small quantities of plutonium has been accumulating across the defense complex for many years. Although the total Pu inventory is small, the ash is a nondiscardable residue which presents storage and accountability difficulties. The work discussed here is the result of a joint exploratory effort between members of Savannah River Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory to compare two proposed pyrochemical pretreatments of incinerator ash prior to aqueous processing. These experiments attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of hydrofluorination and ammonium bifluoride fusion as head-end operations for a two step aqueous recovery method. The two pretreatments are being considered as possible second generation enhancements for the New Special Recovery Facility nearing operation at Savannah River Plant. Experimental results and potential engineering concerns are discussed. 3 figs.

Fink, S.D.; Gray, J.H.; Kent, S.J.; Apgar, S.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Petrography and chemistry of high-carbon fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shawnee power station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150-MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur (< 1 wt %) eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units burn medium- and high-sulfur (> 1 wt %) coal in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25 wt %. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6% to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety, but there is a portion that is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Petrography and chemistry of fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shawnee Power Station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150 MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units bum medium and high-sulfur coal in an AFBC unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25%. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6 to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety but there is a portion which is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Wild, G.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Analysis and correlation of volcanic ash in marine sediments from the Peru Margin, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201: explosive volcanic cycles of the north-central Andes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed investigation of cores from three Peru Margin sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 has been conducted to determine the occurrence of volcanic ash layers and ash accumulations within marine sediments along the Peru...

Hart, Shirley Dawn

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

328

Slonakar carried out research to manufacture forty percent core area fly ash bricks using sodium silicate as the binder, and bottom as the coarse aggregate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

West Virginia fly ash in manufacture of fly ash bricks. The mix proportion for the bricks was composed silicate as the binder, and bottom as the coarse aggregate [4,5,6,13]. Slonakar [4] utilized a Southern

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

329

ASHE PDC: The Quality and Patient Safety Movement Posted on: 3.15.2011 11:50:52 AM Posted by Jennifer Kovacs, Managing Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASHE PDC: The Quality and Patient Safety Movement Posted on: 3.15.2011 11:50:52 AM Posted for Patient Care and Hospital Facilities?" at the ASHE PDC Summit in Tampa, Florida. Benneyan is director

Vaziri, Ashkan

330

Use of Ekibastuzsk coal ash as a filler for acid resistant plaster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acid resistant plasters are used extensively at thermal power plants for protection of gas conduits, ash traps with spouts and hydraulic valves, and the internal surfaces of smoke pump housings. The surface being protected is preliminarily cleaned and a No. 16-20 steel grid attached to the surface by electrial welding. In producing the acid resistant plaster, 14-17 parts by weight of sodium silicofluoride are added to 100 parts by weight of sodium water glass; the remainder consists of andesite or diabase meal to the required consistency. The water glass fulfills the role of a binder; the sodium silicofluoride accelerates solidification of the water glass and the andesite and diabase meal serve as fillers. We found, tested in the laboratory and used successfully (under experimental-industrial conditions) a substitute for andesite and diabase meal. This substitute was ash of Ekibastuzsk coal, which was not only comparable to the meal in regard to quality of the acid resistant plaster, but even exceeded andesite and diabase meal in regard to several qualitative indicators. At the present time, a formula is being developed for an acid resistant plaster produced on the basis of water glass, sodium silicofluoride and ash of Ekibastuzsk coal. In order to verify the possibility of using other ashes instead of andesite and diabase meal, we also tested, under laboratory conditions, acid resistant plasters using ash from thermal power plants (TPP's) also burning Karagandinsk, Kuuchekinsk, Kuznetsk and Kansko-Achinsk coals. In compositions produced with polymer binders, Kansko-Achinsk coal ash was one of the best fillers, providing the most favorable physico-mechanical properties of the composition.

Korsakov, F.F.; Isichenko, I.I.; Kabanov, G.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions – height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters – are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 14–16 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

Madankan, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pouget, S. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Singla, P., E-mail: psingla@buffalo.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Bursik, M. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Dehn, J. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States); Jones, M. [Center for Computational Research, University at Buffalo (United States); Patra, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pavolonis, M. [NOAA-NESDIS, Center for Satellite Applications and Research (United States); Pitman, E.B. [Department of Mathematics, University at Buffalo (United States); Singh, T. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Webley, P. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Geochemistry and mineralogy of fly-ash from the Mae Moh lignite deposit, Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of 21 elements in fly ash from three boilers (75 MW, 150 MW, and 300 MW) at the EGAT power plant, Mae Moh, Thailand, were determined by INAA. The concentration of 10 major elements was determined by XRF. As, Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, and Sb generally increase in concentration going from bottom ash (BA) through the sequence of electrostatic precipitator ashes (ESPA) and reach maxima of As (352 ppm), Co (45 ppm), Cr (105 ppm), Mo (32 ppm), Ni (106 ppm), and Sb (15 ppm) in the ESPA. Ce, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Ta, Tb, and Yb did not exhibit concentration trends or are variable except in the case of one boiler, which showed an increase going from BA to ESPA. Only Br decreased in composition going from BA to ESPA. Rb, Sm, U, and Th showed marked variation in trends. The major elements identified by EDS were Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Fe, and Ba, with minor amounts of Mg, Na, Ti, Mn, and Sr. Al, Si, K, and Ca occur together and are present in most of the fly-ash particles. Ba was found as a major component with Ca, Al, and Si. Fe and Ca are usually associated with sulfur. Some small spheres (< 5 {mu}m) are comprised almost entirely of Fe (probably as oxide). Symplectite textures are noted in high-Fe phases. All elements except Br are significantly enriched in the fly ash relative to the coal, which contains 35% ash. Particle chemistry is consistent with the major mineral phases identified by XRD, which include: quartz, magnetite, mullite, gehlenite, anorthite, hematite, anhydrite, and clinopyroxene.

Hart, B.R.; Powell, M.A.; Fyfe, W.S. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Ratanasthien, B. [Univ. of Chaing Mai (Thailand). Dept. of Geology

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The influence of high quantity of fly ash on reducing the expansion due to ASR in the presence of alkalis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A testing program was devised to study the role of high volume fly ash (HVFA) in reducing the expansion caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). A series of modified ASTM C 1260 tests were performed, where the replacement of cement by Class F fly ash...

Mohidekar, Saleel D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of arsenic in coal and coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the comparative analysis of different methods for the preparation and analysis of arsenic content in coal and coal ash have been presented. The suggested method is coal digestion method, i.e., coal ash digestion using the mixture of acids: nitric and sulphuric in presence of vanadium-pentoxide as catalyzer. The comparative analysis of different recording techniques (AAS-GH, AAS-GF and ICP-AES) has also been presented. For arsenic recording the suggested technique is AAS-GF technique. The obtained results show that the method of high precision, high sensitivity and high reproductivity has been obtained.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.L.; Blagojevic, N.Z.; Rajakovic, L.V. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Intra- and inter-unit variation in fly ash petrography: Examples from a western Kentucky power station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash was collected from eight mechanical and ten baghouse hoppers at each of twin 150-MW wall-fired units in a western Kentucky power station. The fuel burned at that time was a blend of low-sulfur, high volatile bituminous Central Appalachian coals. The baghouse ash showed less variation between units than the mechanical units. The coarser mechanical fly ash showed significant differences in the amount of total carbon and in the ratio of isotropic coke to both total carbons and total coke; the latter excluding inertinite and other unburned, uncoked coal. There was no significant variation in ratios of inorganic fly ash constituents. The inter-unit differences in the amount and forms of mechanical fly ash carbon appear to be related to differences in pulverizer efficiency, leading to greater amounts of coarse coal, therefore unburned carbon, in one of the units.

Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Goodman, J. [Prestonburg High School, KY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Production of low BTU gas from biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. To utilize this untapped resource, several tech- nologies were proposed. Among them were pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. As the study group ' s objective was focused on actual farm usage, pyrolysis This thesis follows the style and format... for combustion is simple relative to the gasification or pyrolysis and construc- tion and operation of the necessary equipment should also be easier. However, the final product of com- bustion, steam energy, cannot be stored for long periods of time...

Lee, Yung N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

BTU International Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine: EnergyAustin Energy Place:Guidance DocumentsOperationsBSST LLC JumpBTMBTU

342

Nitration of Benzo[a]pyrene Adsorbed on Coal Fly Ash Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Activation R O B E R T L . K R I S T O V I C H A N D P R A B I R K . D U T T A * Department of Chemistry fly ash, diesel and gasoline exhaust, and wood smoke (1-4). The potential carcinogenicity

Dutta, Prabir K.

343

Optimizing recovery using on-line ash analyzers or sorting for dollars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quest for profitability in the complex coal industry requires continual examination of common practices looking for better and more cost effective methods of performing these tasks. As the available coal reserves become more difficult to mine and the quality decreases, this examination process grows in importance. Over the past fifteen years, we have all seen major changes in the methods used to mine, clean and load coal in an attempt to increase the bottom line and proliferate a safer work place. The long wall mining method has greatly increased the profitably of the larger mines that have the reserves and the seams suitable for this method. Bigger and faster conveyor belts have increased loading capacities and decreased time spent performing the task. New technology in the cleaning and preparation of coal has also assisted in increasing yield and thus decreasing the final cost of a ton of coal. What about the smaller mines that do not have the mining conditions or reserves for a longwall or the monetary resources to upgrade belt lines and preparation plants, they to must remain profitable. The on-line ash analyzer is one answer that is not only for the smaller mines but can show quick and substantial returns for the larger operations. The on-line ash analyzer is a nuclear device that is mounted directly on the conveyor belt to produce an instantaneous ash analysis on the coal as it moves beneath the detector. The on-line ash analyzer is described.

Litz, P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Dewatering Fly Ash Slurries Using Geotextile Containers M. E. Kutay1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during its settlement. However, the hydraulic compatibility of a geotextile with the contact soil is also for ensuring hydraulic compatibility is that the geotextile should not be clogged during the dewatering process ash slurries. A testing program that included filter press and hanging bag tests was implemented

Aydilek, Ahmet

345

Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra-High Ash/Performance Paper  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to demonstrate the economic and technological viability of fibrous filler to manufacture paper containing up to 50% ash, at equal or better quality and performance than conventional alternatives and at a lower cost.

346

Hydrologic impacts of mechanical shearing of Ashe juniper in Coryell County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at assessing the impacts of the mechanical removal of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) on the quantity and quality of water, as well as wildlife habitat and livestock forage production. The objectives of this particular study are to assess the short and long term...

Greer, Courtney Hale

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

The use of sulfer modified bottom ash (SMBA) as an aggregate in asphaltic mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Of the 20 million tons of bottom ash and boiler slag generated annually in the United States less than 40 percent is used. The eastern half of Texas is served by 18 coal burning electric power generating plants which produce approximately 3...

Chimakurthy, Harshavardhan

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The Effect of Ashe Juniper Removal on Groundwater Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in response to simulated rainfall events. In 2004, simulations were conducted over the cave to measure recharge rates with a dense Ashe juniper canopy. The data and observations from the initial simulations were used to establish a baseline with the juniper...

Bazan, Roberto

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

TRACE ELEMENTS LEACHING FROM ORGANIC SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON FLY ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

53706 USA, chbenson@wisc.edu 3 Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering INTRODUCTION Fly ash is a silt-size particulate collected by air pollution control systems at coal and transport of large volumes of soft soil and replacement with crushed rock from quarries. Eliminating removal

Aydilek, Ahmet

350

AO05: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 249038  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Carboni and Dr. R.G. Grainger Word count: 5480 Abstract High resolution infrared spectra from the In approximates three regions of the infrared spectrum between 840 - 1210 cm-1 to linear functions for correlation with other pixels to find the ash plume. Based on simulations of a radiative transfer model some

Oxford, University of

351

Mt. Etna volcanic aerosol and ash retrievals using MERIS and AATSR data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation. Explosive plume particles component optical characteristics has been retrieved as a spatial calculating the optical properties of the volcanic ash a radiative transfer model has been used to simulated visible and near infrared channels we have estimated the optical depth (at 550nm) and the effective radius

Oxford, University of

352

INCO-WBC-1-509173 Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Alex Dellantonio HEIS Hydro-Engineering Institute Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Tarik Kupusov, Hamid Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mihajlo Markovic, Mladen Babic, Svetlana Lazic, Milan Sipka FAZ University in Bosnia and Herzegovina 38 5.2. The industry's impact on the local environment 39 5.3. Coal ash disposal

353

Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites polyurea and the polyurea matrix for the composites based on Isonate® 2143L (diisocyanate) and Versalink® P of the composites. Particle size and volume fraction were varied to study their effects on the tensile properties

Nemat-Nasser, Sia

354

High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustors Lydie Le Forestier a,*, Guy Libourel b,c a ISTO, UMR 6113 CNRS-Université d'Orléans, Polytech, a destruction of pathogenic agents and a possible recovery of energy. Whatever MSW combustor used, combustion of MSW produces two kinds of solid residues: (i) bottom ashes recovered from the primary combustor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH USING MODIFIED CAM CLAY MODEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the fact that fly-ash is a granular material and its mechanical response may be similar to that of soils) is based on critical state soil mechanics, and today it is one of the most widely used constitutive model for predicting the mechanical behavior of geo-materials. In critical state soil mechanics, it is proposed

Prashant, Amit

356

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program is focused on the process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture for the development of coal fired combustion gas turbines. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering materials. During this period, further dismantling of the existing bimodal test unit was performed. The design of a revised process development unit and hot gas cleanup unit have been completed.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

358

Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Groundwater Using High Carbon Content Fly Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Groundwater Using High Carbon Content Fly Ash M. Melih for retardation of petroleum contaminants in barrier applications. Sorbed amounts measured in batch scale tests on remediation efficiency. INTRODUCTION Remediation of groundwater contaminated with petroleum-based products has

Aydilek, Ahmet

359

The impact of conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners on ash characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research initiative focusing on the changes in coal-combustion byproducts that result from the conversion of coal-fired boilers to low-NO{sub x} burners has been implemented at the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER). This paper presents selected results from the first such study, the conversion of East Kentucky Power`s 116 MW, wall-fired unit {number_sign}1 at the John Sherman Cooper Station in Pulaski County, Kentucky. Samples of the coal feedstock and fly ash recovered in several downstream collection vessels were collected prior to and following conversion and extensively analyzed. The results presented in this report include total carbon, petrography, mineralogy, particle size, and leaching characteristics. The major changes noted in the fly-ash properties include an increase in carbon content, a slight increase in particle size, and a decrease in glassy components in the ash following conversion. Those changes induced by the conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners are evaluated in terms of the potential impact on the marketability of the fly ash.

Robi, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Groppo, J.G.; Rathbone, R.F.; Taulbee, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Ash transformations in the real-scale pulverized coal combustion of South African and Colombian coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the formation of ash particles in the combustion of South African Klein Kropie coal and a Colombian coal was studied by measuring the ash particle characteristics upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at a 510 MW{sub e} pulverized coal fired power plant. The authors measured the ash particle mass size distributions in the size range 0.01--50 {micro}m using low-pressure impactors and precutter cyclones. Also, samples were collected for computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) with a cyclone with an aerodynamic cut-diameter of about 1 {micro}m. The cyclone-collected samples were analyzed with standard CCSEM procedure by depositing the particles on a filter, and by embedding the particles in epoxy hence acquiring the cross-section analysis of the sample. All major mineral classes in both coals were found to undergo extensive coalescence during combustion. Iron, calcium and magnesium rich particles resulting from the decomposition of pyrite, calcite and dolomite were found to coalesce with quartz and aluminosilicate particles. The size distributions of the fly ash determined with CCSEM and low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampler were found to be similar.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Valmari, T. [VTT (Finland); Klippel, N. [ABB Corporate Research, Baden (Switzerland); Mauritzson, C. [ABB Flaekt Industri AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

TRACE METAL CONTENT OF COAL AND ASH AS DETERMINED USING SCANNINGELECTRON MICROSCOPYWITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRACE METAL CONTENT OF COAL AND ASH AS DETERMINED USING SCANNINGELECTRON MICROSCOPYWITE WAVELENGTH Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 Keywords: scanning electron microscopy, trace metals, coal analysis ABSTRACT Scanningelectron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry has been used to measure trace metals in coal

Laughlin, Robert B.

363

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The lime-soda sinter process for resource recovery from fly ash: A new look  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lime-soda sinter process is one of the earliest and most thoroughly researched and evaluated of the several methods available for resource recovery from fly ash. The principle product, metallurgical grade alumina, is obtained with yields as high as 90% depending upon how much alumina needs to be left in the residue to form acceptable byproduct cement clinker. The process has the advantages of requiring a relatively low sintering temperature (1100-1200{degree}C), using conventional equipment of carbon steel construction, utilizing a variety of calcium and mineralizer raw materials, and producing only a single byproduct consisting of dicalcium silicate that has been shown to be an attractive raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. An economic feasibility study for a combined facility to produce alumina and cement from the fly ash generated by a 1000 MWe coal-fired power station shows a 10.5% return on average investment. This is increased to 14.2% when a disposal charge of $10/ton of fly ash consumed is credited to the process. Research has shown that the soda ash can be replaced by coal cleaning refuse or that the soda ash and one-fourth of the limestone can be replaced by FGD sludge with a savings in raw material cost in both cases. The return on average investment becomes 14.5% when the refuse is used and 15.2% when the sludge is used. The return could be increased further if an inexpensive fluxing agent were substituted for the alumina deliberately left in the residue. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Burnet, G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Relationship of fly ash composition, refractive index, and density to in-stack opacity. Final report, June 1981-May 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of an investigation of the refractive index, density, and composition of fly ash from coal-fired boilers, aimed at determining: (1) the interrelationship of refractive index and composition, and (2) the significance of ash properties on in-stack plume opacity. A survey was made of 14 ash samples representing a wide range of coals. Light absorption was measured using the Integrating Plate Method, which compares light absorption through a clean filter to that through a filter with a single layer of aerosol. Only absorption is measured, while scattered light is integrated equally for both cases. This technique requires fine particles (volume absorbers) for easy interpretation of results. The technique was calibrated using an aerosol, methylene blue, with known absorption characteristics. The real part of the refractive index was measured by an oil immersion technique. The real refractive index and density were found to be highly correlated with composition with a multilinear regression equation. The absorbing refractive index was well correlated with ash carbon content. The modeling of in-stack opacity showed a weak dependence on ash optical properties for the range of ashes studied. The effect of the real part of the refractive index on opacity tends to be counterbalanced by particle density effects. Furthermore, most fly ash absorbs relatively little light.

Cowen, S.J.; Ensor, D.S.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: s.bernal@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gehman, John D. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia) [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Duxson, Peter [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)] [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Influence of conversion to low NO{sub x} combustion on fly ash petrology and mineralogy: A case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The wall-fired 116 MW unit 2 at the John Sherman Cooper Station, Pulaski County, Kentucky, was converted to low-NO{sub x} combustion in the winter of 1993--1994. The fly ash from before and after conversion was studied in detail. The coal feed, which did not change significantly over the study, was from southeastern Kentucky and had an ash range of 10--12% and a sulfur range of 1.5--1.9%. The coal rank was high volatile bituminous A with a vitrinite reflectance (R{sub max}) of about 0.8%. The coal had about 17% by volume inertinite macerals (mineral-free basis). The fly ash carbon can be divided into three types: anisotropic coke, isotropic coke and inertinite. The post-conversion fly ash has nearly twice the amount of carbon as the pre-conversion ash and shows an increase in anisotropic coke. Mullite and quartz were observed petrographically to be more abundant in the post-conversion fly ash, although only the mullite increase was confirmed by XRD. The proportion of glass is slightly less in the post-conversion ash and is accompanied by one-third drop in the amount of cenospheres.

Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NO{sub x} combustion: Impact on fly ash quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} combustion can influence fly ash quality in terms of the amount and forms of carbon, the overall fly ash fineness, and the relative amount of glass versus crystalline inorganic phases. All of these factors can influence the potential for a fly ash to be marketed for utilization. In this study, three coal-fired combustors, two tangentially fired and one wall-fired, all burning high-sulfur Illinois coal at the same power plant, were studied before and after conversion to low-NO{sub x} combustion. In all cases, the post-conversion fly ash was higher in carbon than the pre-conversion ash from the same unit. The fly ashes in at least two of the units would appear to have post-conversion ashes which still fall within the regional guidelines for the limit of carbon (or loss on ignition).

Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Haeberlin, B.O. [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States)] [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Surface and bulk studies of leached and unleached fly ash using XPS, SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effective chemical utilization of fly ash in environmental applications requires a detailed knowledge of the surface and bulk changes induced by leaching in acid solutions. The surface and bulk characteristics of fly ash from the combustion of Texas lignite have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of leaching with acid solutions commonly used in environmental studies have been documented using these techniques. The results of these studies reveal that the fly ash particles are relatively resistance to either chemical or physical changes due to attack by acidic leaching solutions.

Yousuf, M.; Mollah, A.; Hess, T.R.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Gill Chair of Chemistry

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Utilizing New Binder Materials for Green Building has Zero Waste by Recycling Slag and Sewage Sludge Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

binding material to save energy and to produce new innovative zero materials waste . The current research aims to investigate new binder materials as alternative of Portland cement. Alkali activated slag (AAS) blended with sewage sludge ash (SSA...

Zeedan, S. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

The nature of lubricant-derived ash-related emissions and their impact on diesel aftertreatment system performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as an effective means for meeting increasingly stringent particle emissions regulations. Over time, incombustible material or ash, ...

Sappok, Alexander G. (Alexander Georg)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

18 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF FRAXINUS SPP. FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in cold storage. This regeneration system provided a foundation for developing a genetic modification, the nursery and forest products industries, and the U.S. foreign trade of ash lumber and logs. This research

376

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

County looks at turning waste ash into money Two companies using grant to investigate ways to recycle incinerator byproduct  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

County looks at turning waste ash into money Two companies using grant to investigate ways Ellen O'Connor. The research money totals $240,000. "Looking down the road and recognizing that waste

Columbia University

378

Patterns of geographic variation in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) in the Western Gulf region: by Keith William Hendrix.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of check-tree system. These families were considered to be a nearly random sample of phenotypically superior green ash from the working areas of the WGFTIP cooperators. Two families ?ere deleted from the analysis. One was actually a bulk lot of half...PATTERNS OF GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN GREEN ASH (FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANICA MARSH. ) IN THE WESTERN GULF REGION A Thesis by KEITH WILLIAM HENDRIX Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Hendrix, Keith William

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Weathering and genesis of volcanic ash-influenced vertisols and vertic-like soils of El Salvador  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

weathered Vertisol. Many studies have been done on the clay mineralogy of volcanic ash-derived soils. These soils have considerable amounts of amorphous materials in the clay fraction resulting in properties different from other mineral soils. Literature... on the mineralogy of Vertisols derived from or influenced by pyroclastic deposits, however, remain sparse. The mineralogical composition of volcanic ash depends on the conditions existing at the time of eruptions, the stage of soil 13 formation, the thickness...

Yerima, Bernard Palmer Kfuban

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

Reethof, G.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Engineering properties of miniature cement - fly ash compacts prepared by high pressure compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY HDOBPvvIi va vGI ge(iD(vI oannItI au NId(R E)L xrP1IeRPvT 9(evP(n uDnuPnnBIrv au vGI eI0DPeIBIrvR uae vGI i...IteII au LEHNFA -M Ho2FYoF EDtDRv 3456 L(7ae HDO7I8v? oP1Pn FrtPrIIePrt ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY E99ea1Ii (R va RvTnI (ri 8arvIrv OT? LP...

Bormann, Jeffrey Ray

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Recent studies on activated carbons and fly ashes from Turkish resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article deals with adsorptive properties of activated carbons (ACs) and fly ashes from Turkish coal and biomass resources. ACs because of their high surface area, microporous character and the chemical nature of their surface have been considered potential adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Pyrolysis is an established process method for preparation of activated carbon from biomass. The bio-char is can be used as AC. The adsorption properties of ACs were strictly defined by the physicochemical nature of their surface and their texture, i.e., pore volume, pore size distribution, surface area. It is well known that the pH of the solution-adsorbant mixture is an important variable in the adsorption process. Fly ash has the highest adsorption capacity (198.2 mg/g for Cd(II)). Almond shell AC has the lowest adsorption capacity (2.7 mg/g).

Ayhan Demirbas; Gulsin Arslan; Erol Pehlivan [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Concentration of carbon types from fly ash by density gradient centrifugation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the increasing amount of unburned carbon in fly ash is known to preclude the use of ash in the cement industry, very little is known about the characteristics of the unburned carbon. Three types of carbon particles have been identified microscopically: inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke. This manuscript describes a method to isolate these three types of carbon. A preliminary enrichment, followed by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) with a high-density polytungstate media (2.85 g/cm{sup 3} max), resulted in an enrichment of inertinites from a starting concentration of 3.8% to 61%, isotropic coke from 13.4% to 65%, and anisotropic coke from 19.2% to 74%. Large scale runs (LS) have been conducted to accumulate sufficient sample for subsequent analyses. The recovery weights and petrography composition of the PS and LS fractions are very similar.

Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

An examination of fly ash carbon and its interactions with air entraining agent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four fly ash samples, which had previously been found to effect concrete air entrainment in a manner inconsistent with their respective loss on ignition, were investigated using several physico-chemical techniques. This study focused on characterization of the high-carbon fraction of each fly ash, obtained by a triboelectric separation process. While the four samples displayed varying reactivities toward AEA adsorption, the BET specific surface area of all four samples was determined to be essentially the same. Thermal analysis and petrographic examination revealed that the higher demand for air entraining agents exhibited by two of the samples could be directly related to the presence of a higher proportion of optically isotropic, amorphous carbon. Liquid and vapor phase adsorption analysis suggested that the surface chemistry characteristics of the isotropic carbon resulted in a higher adsorption capacity for polar compounds such as air entraining surfactants.

Hill, R.L. [Monex Resources, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Monex Resources, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Sarkar, S.L. [Sarkar and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)] [Sarkar and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Task 3.15 -- Impacts of low-NO{sub x} combustion on fly ash and slagging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) focuses on the issues of entrained-ash formation and slagging for low-NO{sub x} combustion systems in general. Time-resolved combustion tests under conventional and low-NO{sub x} conditions have been conducted to note particle-size formation and slagging deposition. Results will be used to support demonstration projects at the utility boiler scale. The results from this work are yielding an increased understanding of the mechanisms of ash formation during low-NO{sub x} combustion along with methods for enhancing heat transfer and fly ash collectibility. Specific objectives of this research project include (1) determining whether initial char and ash generated under low-NO{sub x} conditions have greater tendencies for slagging than conventionally generated ash and (2) determining the differences, if any, between particle size and composition for entrained ash generated under low-NO{sub x} and conventional combustion conditions. Progress on this sub-task is presented.

Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Geotechnical characteristics of low-NO{sub x} fly ash when used as structural fill material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shawville Generating Station, owned and operated by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) a subsidiary of GPU-Genco, is located in north-central Pennsylvania, near the City of Clearfield. In 1990, Penlec was instructed by the Pennsylvania DEP (formerly PADER) to close the Shawville Ash Disposal site and to prepare a new facility meeting the requirements of the Chapter 287/288 regulations. Due to site limitations, an alternate plan was developed and approved wherein the existing facility was {open_quotes}closed{close_quotes} by placement of an approved liner system at the current grade with the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} landfill developed immediately above. The key to this innovative technique of piggy-backing of state-of-the-art facility on top of a closed facility was the use of a multi-layered geosynthetic zone which could act as both a cap to the old site, and a liner/leachate collection system for the new facility. And a critical component of the liner/collection zone was construction of an adequate subbase for placement of the geosynthetic materials. For this facility, the logical material for use in this subbase zone was fly ash since the PADEP considered material placed prior to installation of the liner system as part of the {open_quotes} closed{close_quotes} portion of the landfill. The disposal site has been in operation since the early 1960`s when the plant was initially constructed like a dam, with well-compacted ash material placed in an arched shape and loose ash end-dumped behind that. In the mid-1980`s Penelec began placing tighter control over the placement methods and required compaction throughout. The operation of the site is discussed.

Minnear, D.G.; Phillippi, H.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. Currently only about 30% of the 5 million tons of these coal combustion residues generated in Illinois each year are utilized, mainly as aggregate. These residues are composed largely Of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. The process being developed in this program will use the residues directly in the manufacture of cement products. Therefore, a much larger amount of residues can be utilized. To achieve the above objective, in the first phase (current year) samples of coal combustion residues will be blended and mixed, as needed, with a lime or cement kiln dust (CKD) to adjust the CaO composition. Six mixtures will be melted in a laboratory-scale furnace at CTL. The resulting products will then be tested for cementitious properties. Two preliminary blends have been tested. One blend used fly ash with limestone, while the other used fly ash with CKD. Each blend was melted and then quenched, and the resulting product samples were ground to a specific surface area similar to portland cement. Cementitious properties of these product samples were evaluated by compression testing of 1-inch cube specimens. The specimens were formed out of cement paste where a certain percentage of the cement paste is displaced by one of the sample products. The specimens were cured for 24 hours at 55{degrees}C and 100% relative humidity. The specimens made with the product samples obtained 84 and 89% of the strength of a pure portland cement control cube. For comparison, similar (pozzolanic) materials in standard concrete practice are required to have a compressive strength of at least 75% of that of the control.

Wagner, J.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bhatty, J.I.; Mishulovich, A. [Construction Technology Labs., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Role of Ash Deposits in the High Temperature Corrosion of Boiler Tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits cause accelerated corrosion of waterwall boiler tubes in waste to energy (WTE) incinerators. To study this effect, a series of experiments were planned to determine the mechanism of corrosion of carbon steel boiler tubes under ash deposits. Results reported here were for carbon steel tubes exposed to an environment consisting of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and water vapor. Future experiments will include HCl and SO{sub 2}. Test procedures included both isothermal and thermal gradient tests. Temperatures ranged from 300 C to 510 C for the isothermal tests and a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C for the thermal gradient test. Initial results indicated that increasing temperature caused the isothermal corrosion rates of ash-covered samples to increase. A shakedown test of a thermal gradient test apparatus was conducted at a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C, a more severe environment than normally encountered in WTE waterwalls. Results showed that the corrosion rate under those conditions exceeds the isothermal corrosion rates at the same metal temperature by a factor of 2 or more.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Matthes, S.A.; White, M.L.

2003-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

390

Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

The role of birds and mammals in the dispersal ecology of Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei Buckh.) in the Edwards Plateau, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' th Ed d Pl t, T (Nay 1992) Felipe Chavez-Ramirez, B. S. , Sul Ross State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. R, Douglas Slack Seed dispersal ecology of Ashe juniper in the Edwards Plateau was investigated at the Texas Agricultural... Experiment Station, near Sonora, Texas. Ashe juniper fruiting characteristics and avian and mammalian seed dispersers were studied to evaluate relative seed dispersal potential and dispersal efficiency of different species. Ashe juniper produced large...

Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Surface studies of coal, oil, and coal-oil-mixture ash using auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by the combustion of coal, oil, and a coal-oil mixture have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques. The Auger data indicate that the surface concentration of the metal ions Na, Fe, Mg, Ni, V, and Al as well as S and C increases on going from coal to coal-oil mixture and oil ash. The relative surface enrichments of oil and coal-oil-mixture ash are consistent with a simple model of the ash-formation process, and the results confirm that several toxic metals are significantly enriched on the surface of the ash particles. The Auger data are compared to HCl and tris buffer leachate composition analyses, and in neither case does the leachate give an accurate representation of the surface composition. HCl apparently dissolves large oxide deposits and thus overestimates the surface concentrations of Fe, Al, and V. Conversely, several metallic ions are essentially insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, so their surface concentration is underestimated by the tris leachate.

Stinespring, C.D.; Harris, W.R.; Cook, J.M.; Casleton, K.H.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume, beneficial uses of dry FGD by-products, such as for mine reclamation and embankment stabilization, will require temporary stockpiling of the by-product. Purpose for constructing this pile was to study changes with time in the LIMB by-product material when exposed to weathering. This by-product material was studied over a 2 1/2 year period. The water to control fugitive dust was added in the ash conditioner at the power plant while being loaded into dump trucks. Amount of water normally added in the conditioning process is close to the optimum moisture content of 40--50 % (dry weight basis), to construct a compacted road embankment or road base. Four environmental operating permits required for construction of the storage pile were obtained, three from Ohio EPA (air, water and solid waste), and one from the Ohio Division of Reclamation (revised reclamation area permit). There was no significant environmental impacts from storm runoff or leachate water from the LIMB ash stockpile during the initial 18 month period through December, 1992. After 2 1/2 years of storage, the potential value of the LIMB material for use as a road embankment material or soil conditioner has declined significantly. Ettringite formation occurs. Aging allows the expansive reaction to take place before its potential use as compacted structural fill or embankment.

Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bigham, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wolfe, W.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Soil solution chemistry of a fly ash-, poultry litter-, and sewage sludge-amended soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixing coal fly ash (FA) with organic wastes to provide balanced soil amendments offers a potential viable use of this industrial by-product. When such materials are land-applied to supply nutrients for agronomic crops, trace element contaminant solubility must be evaluated. In this study, major and trace element soil solution concentrations arising from application of fly ash, organic wastes, and mixtures of the two were compared in a laboratory incubation. Two fly ashes, broiler poultry litter (PL), municipal sewage sludge (SS), and mixtures of FA with either PL or SS were mixed with a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludult) at rates of 32.3, 8.1, and 16.1 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil for FA, PL, and SS, respectively. Treatments were incubated at 22 C at 17% moisture content and soil solution was periodically extracted by centrifugation over 33 d. Initial soil solution concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and Cu were significantly greater in FA/OL treatments than the respective FA-only treatments. For Cu, increased solution concentrations were attributable to increased loading rates in FA/PL mixtures. Solution Cu concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved C (R{sup 2} > 0.96) in all PL treatments. Significant interactive effects for solution Mo and Se concentrations were observed for the FA/PL and may have resulted from the increased pH and competing anion concentrations of these treatments. Solution As concentrations showed a significant interactive effect for one FA/PL mixture. For the individual treatments, As was more soluble in the Pl treatment than either FA treatment. Except for soluble Se from on FA/SS mixture, trace element solubility in the FA/SS mixtures was not significantly different than the respective FA-only treatment.

Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Investigation of mechanisms of ash deposit formation from low-rank coal combustion: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to determine the chemical behavior of alkali metal and other species implicated in the ash fouling which can occur during the combustion of low rank coals. The coal combustion was studied in unaugmented premixed pulverized coal flames. Vapor species were measured by molecular beam mass spectrometry. Temperatures were also measured, and time-resolved coal/ash particulate samples were collected and analyzed. A major part of the research on this project was devoted to: (1) the development and refinement of techniques for the MBMS analysis of trace quantities of unstable and reactive high temperature vapor species from the pulverized coal flames; and (2) the time-resolved sampling and collection of particulates. The equipment is now operating very satisfactorily. Inorganic species, some of which were present at parts-per-million levels, were quantitatively sampled and measured in the pulverized coal flames. Time-resolved particulate samples which were free of vapor deposited contaminants were collected without the use of an interfering substrate. Profiles of the alkali metal species in Beulah lignite and Decker subbituminous coal flames were obtained. It was found in both flames that sodium is volatilized as the atomic species early (milliseconds) in the combustion process. The gaseous Na reacts, also in milliseconds, to form an unknown species which is probably an oxide fume, but which is not NaOH or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. This is probably the mechanism for the formation of the alkali ''fumes'' observed in other systems. Measurements were also made of a number of other gaseous species, and time-resolved coal/ash samples were obtained and analyzed. 27 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

Greene, F.T.; O'Donnell, J.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

Zhu, Jingxi [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Nakano, Jinichiro [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mu, Haoyuan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bennett, James P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Rozelle, Peter [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Clean Energy Systems; Sridhar, Seetharaman [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationClean Communities ofCellulosic Feedstock - EnergyCoal Fly Ash as a

403

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work completed in this reporting period focused primarily on continuing measurements of the rate of ammonia loss from concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above concrete and flowable fill immediately after placement. Concrete slabs were prepared to monitor the loss of ammonia during mixing, the concentration in the airspace above the slabs soon after placement, and the total quantity of ammonia evolved over a longer time period. Variables tested include temperature, ventilation rate, water:cementitious (W:C) ratio, and fly ash source. Short-term data indicate that for concrete placed in areas with poor air ventilation the fly ash NH{sub 3} concentration should not exceed about 90 to 145 mg/kg ash, depending on the water:cement ratio and the fly ash replacement rate, if a concentration of 10 ppm NH{sub 3} in the air is assumed to be the maximum acceptable level. Longer-term experiments showed that the ammonia loss rate is dependent on ammonia source (that is ammoniated ash vs. non-ammoniated ash with ammonia added to the water), and is also dependent on W:C ratio and temperature. Experiments were also conducted to study the loss of ammonia from fresh concrete during mixing. It was found that a high water:cementitious mix lost a greater percentage of ammonia than a low W:C mix, with a medium W:C mix losing an amount intermediate between these two. However, a larger batch size resulted in a smaller percentage of ammonia lost. The data suggest that a significant quantity of ammonia could be lost from Ready Mix concrete during transit, depending on the transit time, batch size, and mix proportions.

Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) by Don Cipollini, a professor at Wright State University in Ohio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer been collected in areas where the abundance of dead ash trees suggest that local populations of EAB were high. · Widespread attack of white fringe trees have not been reported. · These findings indicate

Ginzel, Matthew

406

doi: 10.3176/oil.2008.2.02 © 2008 Estonian Academy Publishers THERMAL PROCESSING OF POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study is concerned with thermal processing of polyvinylchloride (PVC) in the presence of alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the feedstock is heated by mixing with ash from retorted feed-stock combustion, are potentially an

V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

407

JOM November 2006, Volume 58, Issue 11, pp 71-76 71 Applications of Fly Ash in Synthesizing Low Cost Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive and other Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive and other Engineering Applications P. K. Rohatgi Materials and adequate properties for several automotive applications [1, 2]. Fly ash particles can be either solid will have to be remelted. Additions of fly ash can make automotive castings lighter, leading to further

Gupta, Nikhil

408

Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

409

Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles Cowden, Sam Willis, and Richard Shefferson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles 30602 Introduction Estonia relies on vast reserves of oil shale to produce electricity. The mining and burning of oil shale is extremely inefficient and produces large quantities of tailings and ash (Vallner

Shefferson, Richard P.

411

JOM Volume 63, Number 2 (2011): 48-52 High strain rate compressive response of magnesium-aluminum alloy/fly ash cenosphere composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or fly ash cenospheres have been used in the syntactic foam structure. Glass microballoons are commercial to be about 19- 41% higher in the composites containing fly ash cenospheres. Keywords: Magnesium alloys, foams in these metals, or by using foams of these metals. Foams provide additional advantages such as high damage

Gupta, Nikhil

412

The Establishment of Several Range Grasses Seeded in Burned and Unburned Slash of Ashe Junipe: (Juniperus Ashei Buchholz)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that Ashe )uniper in Texas is found on rochy hills, cliffs, canyons, and di vides from Fort Worth to San Antonio, west to the Pecos River, and as far north as Nolan, Stephens, and Young counties. It is found mostly on soils derived from lime- -stone... in Travis County, Texas. The area is characteristic of the Edwards Plateau Region where Ashe )uniper is a ma)or problem to ranchers. The topography is very rough and rocky with shallow soils derived from limestone. Several canyons dissect the ranch...

Bonnett, Norman Neal

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Task 3.15 -- Impacts of low-NOx combustion on fly ash and slagging. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the advent of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the coal-fired power industry began a more accelerated move toward using low-NOx burner (LNB) technologies to reduce NOx emissions. Most LNBs incorporate less oxygen with the coal initially, creating a cooler and somewhat substoichiometric initial combustion zone, with additional oxygen added further on in the combustion process to complete char combustion. Another method used to achieve lower NOx emissions is to fire the coal substoichiometrically and add additional air through overfire air ports. Both of these methods create certain impacts on fireside performance that are different from conventional high-excess-air firing arrangements. Some of the impacts that have been noticed by the utility industry are higher levels of unburned carbon in the fly ash and bottom ash, increased boiler tube corrosion, higher particulate loadings on control devices, and changes in slagging in the main furnace. Work on the fundamental mechanisms of entrained ash and ash deposit formation during low-NOx combustion has been sparse. This project by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) focuses on the issues of entrained ash formation and slagging for low-NOx combustion systems in general. Time-resolved combustion tests under conventional and low-NOx conditions have been conducted to note particle-size formation and slagging deposition. The results from this work are yielding an increased understanding of the mechanisms of ash formation during low-NOx combustion along with methods for enhancing heat transfer and fly ash collectability. Specific objectives of this research project include (1) determining whether initial char and ash generated under low-NOx conditions have greater tendencies for slagging than conventionally generated ash and (2) determining the differences, if any, between particle size and composition for entrained ash generated under low-NOx and conventional combustion conditions.

Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The effect of low-NO{sub x} combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NO{sub x} combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NO{sub x} formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA adsorption capacity based on measurements on a carbon black. The NO{sub x} formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade-off between the AEA requirements of the ash and NO{sub x} formation. The type of fuel had high impact on the AEA adsorption behavior of the ash. Ashes produced from a Columbian and a Polish coal showed similar AEA requirements, but the specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon in the Columbian coal ash was up to six times higher. The AEA requirements of a South African coal ash was unaffected by the applied operating conditions and showed up to 12 times higher AEA adsorption compared to the two other coal ashes. This may be caused by larger particles formed by agglomeration of the primary coal particles in the feeding phase or during the combustion process, which gave rise to increased formation of soot. (author)

Pedersen, K.H.; Jensen, A.D.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require large reductions in emissions of NO{sub x} from coal-fired electric utility boilers. This will necessitate the use of ammonia injection, such as in selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in many power plants, resulting in the deposition of ammonia on the fly ash. The presence of ammonia could create a major barrier to fly ash utilization in concrete because of odor concerns. Although there have been limited studies of ammonia emission from concrete, little is known about the quantity of ammonia emitted during mixing and curing, and the kinetics of ammonia release. This is manifested as widely varying opinions within the concrete and ash marketing industry regarding the maximum acceptable levels of ammonia in fly ash. Therefore, practical guidelines for using ammoniated fly ash are needed in advance of the installation of many more SCR systems. The goal of this project was to develop practical guidelines for the handling and utilization of ammoniated fly ash in concrete, in order to prevent a decrease in the use of fly ash for this application. The objective was to determine the amount of ammonia that is released, over the short- and long-term, from concrete that contains ammoniated fly ash. The technical approach in this project was to measure the release of ammonia from mortar and concrete during mixing, placement, and curing. Work initially focused on laboratory mortar experiments to develop fundamental data on ammonia diffusion characteristics. Larger-scale laboratory experiments were then conducted to study the emission of ammonia from concrete containing ammoniated fly ash. The final phase comprised monitoring ammonia emissions from large concrete slabs. The data indicated that, on average, 15% of the initial ammonia was lost from concrete during 40 minutes of mixing, depending on the mix proportions and batch size. Long-term experiments indicated that ammonia diffusion from concrete was relatively slow, with greater than 50% of the initial ammonia content remaining in an 11cm thick concrete slab after 1 month. When placing concrete in an enclosed space, with negligible ventilation, it is recommended that the ammonia concentration in the concrete mix water should not exceed 110 mg NH{sub 3}/L, if the NIOSH exposure limit of 25 ppm in the air is not to be exceeded. If even a modicum of ventilation is present, then the ammonia concentration in the concrete water should be less than 170 mg/L. The maximum level of ammonia in the fly ash can then be calculated using these limits if the concrete mix proportions are known. In general, during the mixing and placement of ammonia-laden concrete, no safety concerns were encountered. The only location where the ammonia concentration attained high levels (i.e. > 25 ppm in the air) was within the concrete mixing drum.

Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work completed in this reporting period focused on the measurement of the rate of ammonia loss from mortar and concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above the materials immediately after placement. The majority of mortar experiments have been completed, and testing has begun on concrete. The mortar experiments indicate that the rate of ammonia loss is greater in mortars prepared using a higher water content and water:cement (W:C) ratio, although the higher rate is primarily observed within the first 2 days, after which the loss rates are nearly the same. The source of low-calcium (Class F) fly ash exerted a negligible influence on the loss rate. However, mortar prepared using a higher-calcium fly ash evolved ammonia at a slightly slower rate than the Class F ash mortars. The data also indicate that an increase in ventilation increases the ammonia loss rate from mortar, and suggest that a well-ventilated space could substantially increase the loss of ammonia from mortar and, by inference, a concrete slab. Analysis of ammonia concentrations in the air above freshly-placed mortars in an enclosed space indicate that the fly ash ammonia concentration should not exceed 100 mg N/kg ash in confined space applications. For most other applications with some ventilation the maximum acceptable concentration would be approximately 200 mg/kg. Early results from experiments on concrete suggest that, under similar conditions, ammonia diffusion from concrete occurs at a higher rate than in mortar. In addition, increasing the slump of concrete through the use of chemical admixtures has only a minor effect on the ammonia loss rate.

Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work completed in this reporting period focused on finalization of the Work and Management Plan, sample acquisition and analysis, evaluation of ammonia measurement methods, and measurement of ammonia loss from mortar. All fly ash samples have been acquired and analyzed for chemical composition and particle fineness. Three non-ammoniated fly ash samples were obtained from power plants that do not inject ammonia for NOx or particulate control, while three ammoniated fly ashes originate from plants that inject ammonia into the flue gas. The fly ash sources were selected based on their marketability as concrete admixtures and ammonia content. Coarse and fine aggregates for mortar and concrete testing have also been secured and have been thoroughly characterized using ASTM methods. Methodologies for the measurement of ammonia in the gaseous and aqueous phase have been carefully considered in the context of their suitability for use in this project. These include ammonia detection tubes, carbon impregnated with sulfuric acid (CISA) tubes, titration, and electrochemical methods. It was concluded that each of these methods is potentially useful for different aspects of the project, depending on the phase and concentration of ammonia to be measured. Preparation of fly ash-containing mortars both with and without ammonia indicated that the ammonia has no significant influence on compressive strength. Finally, measurement of ammonia loss from mortar has begun and the results of several of these experiments are included herein. It has been found that, under the laboratory curing conditions devised, ammonia release from mortar occurs at a relatively rapid rate in the first 24 hours, proceeded by a much slower, essentially linear rate. Furthermore, at the end of the three-week experiments, it was calculated that greater than 80% of the initial ammonia concentration remained within the mortar.

Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

419

Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evaluation of fly ash-surfaced pens as a control for fugitive dust emissions from beef cattle feedyards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of pens was surfaced with fly ash from a coal-fired power plant, while the other set, surfaced with caliche, served as a control. Five sampling trips were completed for a total of 492 TSP samples and 288 PM10 samples. Results indicate that statistically...

Kantor, Theodore Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Investigation of mineral transformation and ash deposition during staged combustion. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document a recently completed four-year study to examine the impact of low-NOx firing technologies on ash formation and deposition while firing pulverized coal. Low-NOx burners and staged combustion inhibit NOx formation by restricting the amount of oxygen available to form a fuel-rich zone in which nitrogen compounds are reduced to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) rather than oxidized. Additional oxygen is provided downstream for complete combustion. Consequently, coal and mineral particles encounter different temperatures and oxygen concentrations when they are burned under low-NOx firing conditions than they do in conventionally-fired units. Two coals with distinctly different inorganic contents and ash characteristics were fired in a pilot-scale laboratory combustor under both conventional and staged combustion conditions. Ash and deposit samples were collected at various locations in the reactor and analyzed in order to assess the influence of staged combustion. This report is organized as follows. First, a background section provides the foundation needed in order to understand the motivation for and the results of the experimental program. The next section presents a description of the experimental apparatus and procedures, including the development the analytical methods critical to the study. Results of the analyses of coal, ash and deposit samples are then presented and discussed for each of the two coals. Finally, the report ends with a short summary and statement of conclusions.

Harb, J.N.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 2631­2643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal navigation on Lake Lucerne. The successive burning of wood (after AD 1838), coal (after AD 1862), and diesel

Gilli, Adrian

423

Volcanic particle aggregation in explosive eruption columns. Part I: Parameterization of the microphysics of hydrometeors and ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA d Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol imply that volcanic particles are active as condensation nuclei for water and ice formation. Ash can: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK. 2 Present address: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Rose, William I.

424

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

26 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 STRIKE ONE! ALUMINUM. STRIKE TWO! MAPLE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

26 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 STRIKE ONE! ALUMINUM. STRIKE TWO) 431-2708 or email at jwiedenbeck@fs.fed.us. ALUMINUM BATS ... STRIKE ONE! The aluminum bat arrived percent of the overall bat market, were made out of aluminum. Likewise, the majority of adult bats

426

To be published in Waste Management (2010) Bodnan et al. MINERALOGY AND PORE WATER CHEMISTRY OF A BOILER ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To be published in Waste Management (2010) ­ Bodénan et al. MINERALOGY AND PORE WATER CHEMISTRY presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al0 are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over

Boyer, Edmond

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

Zhu, Jingxi [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Nakano, Jinichiro [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mu, Haoyuan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bennett, James P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Rozelle, Peter [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Clean Energy Systems; Sridhar, Seetharaman [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cement technology for borehole plugging: interim report on the effects of fly ash and salt on the physical properties of cementitious solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of initial studies of a systematic investigation to determine the effects of fly ash and salt on the physical properties of pozzolanic concretes and saltcretes are reported. Addition of fly ash to mortars decreased the set time and bleed characteristics and increased the compressive strength and permeability, but it had very little effect on the density or the thermal conductivity of the solid. The magnitude of these effects was only slightly related to the lime content of the fly ash. In the case of saltcretes, low-lime fly ash slightly decreased the set time and the bleed characteristics of the wet mix. However, a high-lime fly ash doubled the set time and decreased the bleed characteristics to essentially zero. The compressive strength of saltcretes was increased by the addition of fly ash and was independent of the lime content. Such additions had little effect on the thermal conductivity or density. The thermal conductivities of cement pastes containing fly ash showed a near-linear relationship with the density of the resulting solids. In the case of mortars, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature and showed some hysteresis in the initial heating cycle. After the first cycle, the thermal conductivity decreased from about 1.32 W/m.K at 350/sup 0/K to 1.27 W/m.K at 475/sup 0/K.

Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, W.A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

Johann Engelbrecht, Ilias Kavouras, Dave Campbell, Scott Campbell, Steven Kohl and David Shafer

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Sorghum: Value as Feed Stuff, Effect on Soil - Teosinte:Analyses at Different Stages of Growth - Miscellaneous Analyses.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of heads per acre, while a, or 18,750 pounds, will consist of stalks. Multiplying the weight of stalks, 18,750 pounds, by the per cent of ash, we get the total quantity of ash removed by the stalks; multiplying the weight of heads, 1250 pounds... by the grain. In a similar manner, with 2000 pounds of straw to the acre, the straw contain 1 ing 5 37 per cent of ash, we get the amount of ash removed by the straw. I The ash of the grain contains 31.16 per cent of potash and 46.95 per cent...

Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill); Adriance, Duncan; Tilson, P. S.

1890-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable fill can be modified to meet the needs of a range of applications from structural fill applications to excavatable applications, such as utility trench fill. (4) Environmental assessments using standard testing indicate that the environmental properties of the fill materials are compatible with numerous construction applications and do not pose a threat to either adjacent groundwater or soils. (5) WRI developed an Environmental Field Simulator (EFS) method for assessing the impact of flowable fill materials on adjacent soils and found that the zone of impact is less than a couple of inches, thereby posing no threat to adjacent soils. (6) Field-scale demonstrations of the MDU flowable fill were constructed and were successful for structural, as well as excavatable applications. Monitoring has demonstrated the geotechnical performance, environmental performance, and compatibility with common embed materials with the MDU flowable fill products. Technical and economic issues were identified that may hinder the commercial acceptance of MDU flowable fill materials, including: (1) the ability to produce a consistent product; (2) the ability to provide a product year round (cold weather retards strength development); and (3) the ability to evaluate and produce commercial quantities of MDU flowable fill using inexpensive materials.

Alan E. Bland

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Soluble arsenic and selenium species in fly ash/organic waste-amended soils using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixing coal fly ash with an organic waste increases macronutrient content and may make land application of fly ash a viable disposal alternative. However, trace element chemistry of these mixed waste products warrants investigation. Speciation of As and Se in soil solutions of fly ash-, poultry litter- and sewage sludge-amended soils was determined over a 10-day period by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Detection limits were 0.031, 0.028, 0.051, 0.161, 0.497, and 0.660 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1} for dimethylarsinate (DMA), As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI), respectively. Arsenic was highly water-soluble from poultry litter and appeared to be predominantly As(V). Arsenic(V) was the predominant species in soil amended with two fly ashes. Application of fly ash/poultry litter mixtures increased As solubility and led to the prevalence of DMA as the major As species. DMA concentrations of these soil solutions decreased rapidly over the sampling period relative to As(V), suggesting that DMA readily underwent mineralization in the soil solution. Se(VI) was the predominant soluble Se species in all treatments indicating rapid oxidation of Se(IV) initially solubilized from the fly ashes.

Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences] [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

437

Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Association of the sites of heavy metals with nanoscale carbon in a Kentucky electrostatic precipitator fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HRTEM-STEM-EELS) was used to study fly ashes produced from the combustion of an eastern Kentucky coal at a southeastern-Kentucky wall-fired pulverized coal utility boiler retrofitted for low-NOx combustion. Fly ash was collected from individual hoppers in each row of the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) pollution-control system, with multiple hoppers sampled within each of the three rows. Temperatures within the ESP array range from about 200 {degree}C at the entry to the first row to <150{degree}C at the exit of the third row. HRTEM-STEM-EELS study demonstrated the presence of nanoscale (10 s nm) C agglomerates with typical soot-like appearance and others with graphitic fullerene-like nanocarbon structures. The minute carbon agglomerates are typically juxtaposed and intergrown with slightly larger aluminosilicate spheres and often form an ultrathin halo or deposit on the fly ash particles. The STEM-EELS analyses revealed that the nanocarbon agglomerates host even finer (<3 nm) metal and metal oxide particles. Elemental analysis indicated an association of Hg with the nanocarbon. Arsenic, Se, Pb, Co, and traces of Ti and Ba are often associated with Fe-rich particles within the nanocarbon deposits. 57 refs., 5 figs.

James C. Hower; Uschi M. Graham; Alan Dozier; Michael T. Tseng; Rajesh A. Khatri [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Mississippi Power- EarthCents Residential Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Mississippi Power offers rebates to its residential customers to help offset the cost of conversions from gas equipment to energy efficient electric equipment. Rebates are eligible for heat pumps,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Gulf Power- Residential Energy Efficiency EarthCents Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Gulf Power, owned by Southern Company, offers programs to make customers' homes more energy efficient through do-it-yourself or professionally installed efficiency measures. First, the utility...

442

Mississippi Power- EarthCents Commercial Incentives Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Mississippi Power offers rebates to commercial customers to help offset the cost of conversions from gas equipment to energy efficient electric equipment. Rebates are eligible for heat pumps,...

443

Mississippi Power- EarthCents New Home Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Mississippi Power offers incentives to its residential customers to help offset the cost of installing energy efficient measures in new homes. A three-level program is offered to encourage the...

444

RetiRement CenteR mission statement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this supportive, concerned and important member of the campus family. Associate Vice Provost Angy Stacy will lead and their families and that support the UC community. CONTACT US 1925 Walnut Street #1550 Berkeley, CA 94720 live well in their own homes, educational programs for older adult service providers so they can

Jacobs, Lucia

445

EERE PROJECT M AN AG EM ENT CENT ER  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

concerning tbe proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.iA). I have made Ibe following determination: ex, EA, IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER:...

446

Gulf Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency EarthCents Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Gulf Power offers a program to make customer businesses more energy efficient through do-it-yourself professionally installed efficiency measures. First, the utility conducts a free analysis of...

447

PowerCentsDC Program Final Report | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15, 2010Energy6DepartmentOutages Update: Post-Tropical

448

Theoretical foundations of the 100 per cent reserve doctrine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Boris Pesek and Thomas Saving on the definition of wealth and the real-balance effect. More specifically, this thesis will demonstrate that the Pesek-Saving hypothesis, that demand deposits are outside money and therefore are not wealth, not only has.... Cummings and Frederick Soddy through the works of Irving Fisher and Henry Simons of the 1930's to the current day proponent, Milton Friedman. In Section III, the Pesek-Saving hypothesis, that demand deposits are outside money and therefore subject...

Ramsey, Charlene

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

RetiRement CenteR mission statement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's newsletter offers a harvest of educational, fun, and retirement management programs. We recognize that life programs and services that contribute to the well being and creativity of retired faculty, staff these programs help you to engage both as well as possible. Medical Plan Information Day ­ Fall is open

Zakhor, Avideh

450

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Preparation of Cu and Fly Ash Composite by Powder Metallurgy Technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu and Fly Ash (FA) mixtures with different weight percentages were prepared. Pellets of the mixture powder were produced with the dimension of 17.7 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height. These different composites were compacted at a constant pressure of 280 MPa. One of the selected weight percentages was then compacted to form into pellet and sintered at different temperatures which were at 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C respectively for 2 hours. Density of green pellet was measured before sintered in furnace. After sintering, all the pellets with different temperatures were re-weighed and sintered density were calculated. The densification of the green and sintered pellets was required to be measured as one of the parameter in selection of the best material properties. Porosity of the pellet shall not be ignored in order to analyze the close-packed particles stacking in the pellet. SEM micrograph had been captured to observe the presence of pores and agglomeration of particles in the sample produced.

Chew, P. Y.; Lim, P. S.; Ng, M. C. [Infineon Technologies (M) Sdn Bhd, Batu Berendam, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Zahi, S.; You, A. H. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

Survey and evaluation of modern electrostatic concepts applied to high-resistivity fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ineffectiveness of conventional electrostatic precipitators on high resistivity fly ash has different, though interrelated, causes. Voltages high enough to generate corona at the discharge electrode also generate back corona on the deposited dust layer. Removal of the layer results in reentrainment losses. Reduction of voltage to suppress back corona reduces precipitation effectiveness. All of the surveyed concepts attempt to deal with one or more of these problems; most but none will address all of the deficiencies. A versatile multiple-concept pilot precipitator would allow GFETC to develop the optimum combination of novel concepts. Acurex is recommending a precipitator with component interchangeability in three sections: (1) the main precipitator section (one or more cells) should be designed to accept either conventional electrodes or a few tri-electrode configurations. Versatile pulse-charged power supplies will be needed to accommodate the various electrode configurations. The best method of suppressing back-corona in the precipitator itself can thus be developed; (2) a precharger section should be installed ahead of the main precipitator to optimize precharger design; and (3) a downstream collector section would test the effectiveness of concepts which lend themselves to effective collection of low-load, high-resistivity, small particles. These include wet precipitators, fabric filters, and bed filters. The separation of functions will allow more effective particle charging in the first section, collection of most of the particulate without reverse ionization in the main section, and polishing of the remaining fine and reentrained particulate in a suitable downstream collector.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

THE IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SALTS ON PASTES CONTAINING FLY ASH, CEMENT AND SLAG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degree of hydration of a mixture of cementitious materials (Class F fly ash, blast furnace slag and portland cement) in highly concentrated alkaline salt solutions is enhanced by the addition of aluminate to the salt solution. This increase in the degree of hydration, as monitored with isothermal calorimetry, leads to higher values of dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength and lower values of total porosity. This enhancement in performance properties of these cementitious waste forms by increased hydration is beneficial to the retention of the radionuclides that are also present in the salt solution. The aluminate ions in the solution act first to retard the set time of the mix but then enhance the hydration reactions following the induction period. In fact, the aluminate ions increase the degree of hydration by {approx}35% over the degree of hydration for the same mix with a lower aluminate concentration. An increase in the blast furnace slag concentration and a decrease in the water to cementitious materials ratio produced mixes with higher values of Young's modulus and lower values of total porosity. Therefore, these operational factors can be fine tuned to enhance performance properties of cementitious waste form. Empirical models for Young modulus, heat of hydration and total porosity were developed to predict the values of these properties. These linear models used only statistically significant compositional and operational factors and provided insight into those factors that control these properties.

Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ultrafine particles formed by heating droplets of simulated ash containing metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal and biomass combustion and waste incineration produce inorganic aerosol, whose ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be generated mainly by metal vaporization and subsequent nucleation and growth in a high-temperature atmosphere. To investigate this mechanism, we investigated nanoparticle inception and early growth processes at high temperature by spraying monodisperse droplets of simulated ash containing metals in the centerline of a laboratory ethylene/air laminar premixed flame at stoichiometric conditions. Particles were collected by thermophoresis on mica substrates for atomic force microscopy dimensional and morphological analysis. Chemical nature, volume fraction, and mean diameter of particles were evaluated by in situ UV-Vis broadband light absorption and laser light-scattering measurements. We also measured size distribution of material sampled from the flame without dilution using differential mobility analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy provided further information on the chemical composition of particles deposited on substrates. Size distributions showed that the flame-generated aerosol have a high number concentration, are mostly smaller than 10 nm, and persist far downstream of the droplet injection point. Preliminary results showed that the coagulation rate of those nanoparticles is much slower than their collision rate, which implies that their lifetime may be long and may represent a severe problem for environmental pollution.

Carbone, F.; Barone, A.; Pagliara, R.; Beretta, F.; D'Anna, A.; D'Alessio, A. [University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al{sup 0}, as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al{sup 0} are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction.

Bodenan, F., E-mail: f.bodenan@brgm.f [BRGM - French Geological Survey, Environment and Processes Division, BP 36009, 3 Av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Guyonnet, D.; Piantone, P.; Blanc, P. [BRGM - French Geological Survey, Environment and Processes Division, BP 36009, 3 Av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS - ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature; Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined; Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (T{sub cv}) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt; Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles; Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems; and Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

POTENTIAL MARKETS FOR HIGH-BTU GAS FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has become increasilngly clear that the energy-related ilemna facing this nation is both a long-term and deepening problem. A widespread recognition of the critical nature of our energy balance, or imbalance, evolved from the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The seeds of this crisis were sown in the prior decade, however, as our consumption of known energy reserves outpaced our developing of new reserves. The resultant increasing dependence on foreign energy supplies hs triggered serious fuel shortages, dramatic price increases, and a pervsive sense of unertainty and confusion throughout the country.

Booz, Allen, and Hamilton, Inc.,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ash btu cents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Fumigation of a diesel engine with low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 0.5 liter single-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine has been fumigated with producer gas. Measurements of power, efficiency, cylinder pressure, and emissions were made. At each operating condition, engine load was held constant, and the gas-to-diesel fuel ratio was increased until abnormal combustion was encountered. This determined the maximum fraction of the input energy supplied by the gas, E/sub MAX/, which was found to be dependent upon injection timing and load. At light loads, E/sub MAX/ was limited by severe efficiency loss and missfire, while at heavy loads it was limited by knock or preignition. Fumigation generally increased ignition delay and heat release rates, but peak pressures were not strongly influenced. Efficiency was slightly decreased by fumigation as were NO/sub X/ and particle emissions while CO emissions were increased.

Ahmadi, M.; Kittelson, D.B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34

463

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34Week Of

464

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34Week

465

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading new

466

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading newYear Jan

467

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading newYear

468

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cellHeat TransferHelping Make TheHenry C.Henry