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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Variation of the magnetic susceptibility of artificial graphite with exposure in the materials testing reactor  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic susceptibility of artificial graphite was determined as a function of exposure in the MTR. Specimens were studied with exposures ranging from 0.07 to 82 {times} 10{sup18} nvt. Fluxes were determined by means of x-ray measurements and resistivity measurements. The dependence of the magnetic susceptibility on exposure in the MTR and also in a Hanford reactor are graphed, and an equivalence factor is calculated.

McCelland, J.D.

1955-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

2

A new probabilistic approach to independent component analysis suitable for on-line learning in artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, elements of probabilistic model that are suitable for modeling of learning algorithms in biologically plausible artificial neural networks framework, have been introduced. Model was based on two of the main concepts in quantum physics --- a ... Keywords: born rule, local learning rules, probabilistic independent component analysis, tsallis entropy

Marko V. Jankovic; Neil Rubens

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Brazing graphite to graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphite is joined to graphite by employing both fine molybdenum powder as the brazing material and an annealing step that together produce a virtually metal-free joint exhibiting properties similar to those found in the parent graphite. Molybdenum powder is placed between the faying surfaces of two graphite parts and melted to form molybdenum carbide. The joint area is thereafter subjected to an annealing operation which diffuses the carbide away from the joint and into the graphite parts. Graphite dissolved by the dispersed molybdenum carbide precipitates into the joint area, replacing the molybdenum carbide to provide a joint of virtually graphite.

Peterson, George R. (Andersonville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Graphite Leaching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graphite moderators of retired gas-cooled nuclear reactors present a difficult challenge during demolition activities. As part of the EPRI graphite initiative on the technical issues involved in the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite, this report examines the international data on leaching of radioactive isotopes from graphite, relevant to the decommissioning of graphite-moderated reactors.

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

Graphite Decommissioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many of the international participants in the EPRI Decommissioning Technology Program use graphite as a moderator material in their gas cooled reactors. This report reviews the current options for the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite following the decommissioning of these nuclear installations. It also discusses specific issues associated with the disposal of graphite, and outlines innovative options for recycling or reusing products formed from the irradiated material.

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

6

GRAPHITE EXTRUSIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new lubricant for graphite extrusion is described. In the past, graphite extrusion mixtures have bcen composed of coke or carbon black, together with a carbonaceous binder such as coal tar pitch, and a lubricant such as petrolatum or a colloidal suspension of graphite in glycerin or oil. Sinee sueh a lubricant is not soluble in, or compatible with the biiider liquid, such mixtures were difficult to extrude, and thc formed pieees lacked strength. This patent teaches tbe use of fatty acids as graphite extrusion lubricants and definite improvemcnts are realized thereby since the fatty acids are soluble in the binder liquid.

Benziger, T.M.

1959-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Electrical Resistance of Graphitic and Graphitized Cathode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrical resistance of graphitic and graphitized cathode materials before and after electrolysis was also measured at temperatures from 30°C to 965°C. An  ...

8

Graphite Dust Deflagration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graphite moderators of retired gas-cooled nuclear reactors present a difficult challenge during demolition activities. As part of the EPRI graphite initiative on the technical issues involved in the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite, this report examines the international data on dust deflagration relevant to the decommissioning of graphite-moderated reactors. The report concludes that the risk of an explosion involving graphite dust during decommissioning is extremely low, and s...

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

9

Graphite Dust Deflagration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graphite moderators of retired gas-cooled nuclear reactors present a difficult challenge during demolition activities. As part of the EPRI graphite initiative on the technical issues involved in the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite, EPRI Report 1014797 Graphite Dust Deflagration: A Review of International Data with Particular Reference to the Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Reactors (March 2007) examined the international data on dust deflagration relevant to the decommiss...

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

10

Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation  

SciTech Connect

At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

Morgan, W.C.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Baseline Graphite Initial Mechanical Test Report  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. One of the major fundamental objectives of the project is establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing of specimens drawn from carefully controlled sections of each billet. This report is confirmation that the test procedures are in place and approved, and that mechanical testing of graphite under the Baseline Graphite Characterization program has commenced.

Mark Carroll; Randy Lloyd

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pressure dependence of the c-axis resistivity of graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The c-axis resistivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been measured from 2 to 300 K under hydrostatic pressures of up to 40 kbar. A resistivity peak near 40 K, typical for this type of graphite at ambient pressure, rapidly diminishes with increasing pressure but does not shift its position with respect to temperature. This observation suggests that the origin of the resistivity peak is not in a strong electron-phonon interaction but is associated with a particular structural matrix of these artificially produced graphites. A model is proposed, based on tunneling between microcrystallites, which accounts for the peculiar temperature and pressure dependence of the resistivity.

Uher, C.; Hockey, R.L.; Ben-Jacob, E.

1987-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Thermally Conductive Graphite Foam  

oriented graphite planes, similar to high performance carbon fibers, which have been estimated to exhibit a thermal conductivity greater than 1700 ...

14

Artificial Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I Artificial Photosynthesis I - Design Principles for Light Harvesting FlemingSmall.png Key Challenges: Researchers measure a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic...

15

Coating method for graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

1975-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

16

Climate Suitability Tool Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Climate Suitability Tool implements the method outlined in the following publications ... The analysis is based on a single-zone model of natural ...

17

Graphitization in C and C-Mo Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the recent carbon (C) and carbon-molybdenum (C-Mo) steel graphitization experience reported by several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) members, it became apparent that the industry could benefit from better predictive guidance to prioritize component inspections and examinations for graphitization. This research effort collected and analyzed the additional experience gained since the last EPRI project on the subject and focused on developing suitably conservative time-temperature predi...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

18

An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible capacity in lithium-ion cells. Title An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible capacity in lithium-ion cells. Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Hardwick, Laurence J., Marek Marcinek, Leanne Beer, John B. Kerr, and Robert Kostecki Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 155 Start Page A442 Issue 6 Pagination A442-A447 Keywords chromatography, electrochemical electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectra, graphite, infrared spectra, lithium, mass spectra, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, secondary cells, sputtering, surface structure Abstract The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display a similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle compared to fresh unaltered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on surface-modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with Mw on the order of 1600gmol-1 for the surface-modified electrode with no evidence of elevated Mw species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling may be responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

19

NEW METHOD OF GRAPHITE PREPARATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A method is described for producing graphite objects comprising mixing coal tar pitch, carbon black, and a material selected from the class comprising raw coke, calcined coke, and graphite flour. The mixture is placed in a graphite mold, pressurized to at least 1200 psi, and baked and graphitized by heating to about 2500 deg C while maintaining such pressure. (AEC)

Stoddard, S.D.; Harper, W.T.

1961-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

20

Artificial Intelligence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is a general overview of the field of artificial Intelligence and of some of the application issues within that field. Its first objective is to try and establish a viable definition for what artificial intelligence is, and to make a commentary on the state of the art. It next presents an overview of AI technology and explains some existing programs in Japan, England and the United States to evolve that technology further. It then examines application issues for AI technology, specifically focusing on how to identify potential AI projects. And finally, the paper examines some of the myths surrounding artificial intelligence and some of the barriers inhibiting its commercial introduction.

Appleton, D. S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Artificial insemination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial insemination Artificial insemination Name: Allison K Mocko Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is it true that when undergoing artificial insemination there is a greater chance of conceiving a boy? Why? Replies: I believe so. Normally the semen is centrifuged and the top fraction picked off for insemination. Sperm swim up by instinct, naturally, and so those that make it to the top in the artificially high gravity are the fittest of the bunch, to be preferred for insemination success. They also happen more often to be sperm carrying Y sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome is half the size of the X chromosome, so the sperm carrying it are lighter and tend to be able to swim faster. The same effect may operate in the natural process: the percentage of newborns that are boys is slightly higher than 50. The imbalance is corrected by the higher death rate of baby boys.

22

Graphite design handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the Graphite Design Handbook (GDH) are to provide and maintain a single source of graphite properties and phenomenological model of mechanical behavior to be used for design of MHTGR graphite components of the Reactor System, namely, core support, permanent side reflector, hexagonal reflector elements, and prismatic fuel elements; to provide a single source of data and material models for use in MHTGR graphite component design, performance, and safety analyses; to present properties and equations representing material models in a form which can be directly used by the designer or analyst without the need for interpretation and is compatible with analytical methods and structural criteria used in the MHTGR project, and to control the properties and material models used in the MHTGR design and analysis to proper Quality Assurance standards and project requirements. The reference graphite in the reactor internal components is the nuclear grade 2020. There are two subgrades of interest, the cylinder nuclear grade and the large rectangular nuclear grade. The large rectangular nuclear grade is molded in large rectangular blocks. It is the reference material for the permanent side reflector and the central column support structure. The cylindrical nuclear grade is isostatically pressed and is intended for use as the core support component. This report gives the design properties for both H-451 and 2020 graphite as they apply to their respective criteria. The properties are presented in a form for design, performance, and safety calculations that define or validate the component design. 103 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Ho, F.H.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

Innovative Graphite Removal Technology for Graphite Moderated Reactor Decommissioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report defines a trial program to support the development of a new concept for the removal of reactor graphite by remote in-situ size reduction and vacuum transfer, known as nibble-and-vacuum. This new approach to graphite retrieval has significant potential for simplifying the decommissioning process of graphite moderated reactors. It produces graphite gravel, which has potential as feedstock for processes such as gasification/steam reforming. This report includes definition of the trial program, t...

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

25

Artificial companions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What will an artificial Companion be like? Who will need them and how much good or harm will they do? Will they change our lives and social habits in the radical way technologies have in the past: just think of trains, phones and television? Will they ...

Yorick Wilks

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Diamond-graphite field emitters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Graphite-based photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

28

Graphite technology development plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents the plan for the graphite technology development required to support the design of the 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR within the US National Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Besides descriptions of the required technology development, cost estimates, and schedules, the plan also includes the associated design functions and design requirements.

NONE

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Artificial insemination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial insemination Artificial insemination Name: Sandy C. and Becca S. and Jessica M. Grade 7 Glen Crest Jr. High Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Would it ever be possible for an animal to have another animals baby? For example, women can be impregnated without having intercourse now because of modern technology. So, could a cow for example carry an endangered species' offspring? Replies: Sandy, Becca, and Jessica, Is suspect that you have not received an answer to this question yet because there is not a definite answer. In order to bear offspring there are many factors that must be met. Primarily, the father and mother must be of the same species or at least very similar. There are so many new developments in the area of artificial insemination that it is hard to say no, a cow can not carry and endangered species, it is highly unlikely at this time. Keep up your curiosity, it is a characteristic of all scientists! (By the way I teach 6th grade science and am currently teaching a human growth and development unit in which the students have been asking questions very similar to yours).

30

Security and Suitability Process Reform  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security and Suitability Process Reform December 2008 Provided by the Joint Security and Suitability Reform Team EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

31

HAPO GRAPHITE IRRADIATION CAPSULES  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the broad field of graphite irradiation capsules. The various capsule designs are considered; they include temperature- controlled and temperature-monitored capsules. The components and materials of the capsules are described. Finally, methods are given for carrying out heat trandsfer calculations in capsule design and neutron spectra calculations for correlation of radiation data from different reactors. (D.L.C.)

Helm, J.W.

1963-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Heat exchanger using graphite foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volume 1 Start Page 1176 Issue 8 Pagination 1176-1180 Keywords anode, diffusion, graphene, lithium ion battery, transport Abstract Graphitic carbon is currently considered the...

34

Graphitic packing removal tool  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Artificial Photosynthesis II -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

II - Artificial Photosynthesis II - Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) Simulations NathanLewis.png Schematic of a photoelectrochemical cell being designed to harness...

36

Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the development of the Baseline Graphite Characterization program from a testing and data collection standpoint through the completion of characterization on the first billet of nuclear-grade graphite. This data set is the starting point for all future evaluations and comparisons of material properties.

Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Spent graphite fuel element processing  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Using Graphite to view network data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite Graphite to Visualize Network Data Jon Dugan Summer ESCC 2010, Columbus, OH Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science ESnet Statistics Overview ESxSNMP (Data Collection) ESxSNMP (Data Collection) Graphite (Visualization) Graphite (Visualization) Analytics (Custom Reports) Analytics (Custom Reports) Net Almanac (Metadata) Net Almanac (Metadata) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science What is Graphite? "Enterprise scalable realtime graphing" * Developed by Orbitz for visualizing internal performance data * Open source: https://launchpad.net/graphite * Has own RRD like database called Carbon * RRD Compatible ESxSNMP Integration * via REST interface * Easy integration, Graphite is well written

39

Program on Technology Innovation: Graphite Waste Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graphite moderators of retired gas-cooled nuclear reactors present a difficult challenge during demolition activities. There is a widespread view that disposal would be greatly facilitated if carbon-14 could be removed from the graphite blocks. As part of the EPRI graphite initiative on the technical issues involved in the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite, this report describes an engineering feasibility study of graphite radioisotope separation technology. The report evaluates ...

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

40

Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a brazing material for joining graphite structures that can be used at temperatures up to about 2800.degree. C. The brazing material formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600.degree. C. with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800.degree. C. so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. This brazing temperature for hafnium carbide is considerably less than the eutectic temperature of hafnium carbide of about 3150.degree. C. The brazing composition also incorporates the thermosetting resin so that during the brazing operation the graphite structures may be temporarily bonded together by thermosetting the resin so that machining of the structures to final dimensions may be completed prior to the completion of the brazing operation. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures joined thereby and also provides a joint of sufficient integrity so as to at least correspond with the strength and other properties of the graphite.

Taylor, Albert J. (Ten Mile, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Destruction of nuclear graphite using closed chamber incineration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Closed chamber incineration (CCI) is a novel technique by which irradiated nuclear graphite may be destroyed without the risk of radioactive cation release into the environment. The process utilizes an enclosed combustion chamber coupled with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The transport of cations is intrinsically suppressed by the MCFCs, such that only the combustion gases are conducted through for release to the environment. An example CCI design was developed which had as its goal the destruction of graphite fuel elements from the Fort St. Vrain reactor (FSVR). By employing CCI, the volume of high level waste from the FSVR will be reduced by approximately 87 percent. Additionally, the incineration process will convert the SiC coating on the FSVR fuel particles to SiO{sub 2}, thus creating a form potentially suitable for direct incorporation in a vitrification process stream. The design is compact, efficient, and makes use of currently available technology.

Senor, D.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Morgan, W.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Marianowski, L.G. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Artificial Retina Project Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technological Challenges in Engineering a Retinal Implant Photo of Eye with Silicon Chip The artificial retina consists of an electrode-studded soft polymer array (shown) that is...

43

AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package  

SciTech Connect

The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Graphite in Science and Nuclear Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The monograph is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. The structure and electrical properties, the technological aspects of production of high-strength synthetic graphites, the dynamics of the graphite destruction, traditionally used in the nuclear industry are discussed. It is focuses on the characteristics of graphitization and properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. The book is based, generally, on the original results, and concentrated on the actual problems of application and testing of graphite materials in modern nuclear physics, in scientific and technical applications. For scientists and engineers specializing in nuclear physics and engineering, physics of nuclear reactors, condensed matter, for undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students of universities physical specialties.

Zhmurikov, E I; Pokrovsky, A S; Harkov, D V; Dremov, V V; Samarin, S I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Graphite in Science and Nuclear Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The monograph is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. The structure and electrical properties, the technological aspects of production of high-strength synthetic graphites, the dynamics of the graphite destruction, traditionally used in the nuclear industry are discussed. It is focuses on the characteristics of graphitization and properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. The book is based, generally, on the original results, and concentrated on the actual problems of application and testing of graphite materials in modern nuclear physics, in scientific and technical applications. For scientists and engineers specializing in nuclear physics and engineering, physics of nuclear reactors, condensed matter, for undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students of universities physical specialties.

E. I. Zhmurikov; I. A. Bubnenkov; A. S. Pokrovsky; D. V. Harkov; V. V. Dremov; S. I. Samarin

2013-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A brazing material is described for joining graphite structures that can be used up to 2800/sup 0/C. The brazing material is formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600/sup 0/C with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800/sup 0/C so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures.

Taylor, A.J.; Dykes, N.L.

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

Designing creative artificial systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Can artificial systems be creative? Can they be designed to be creative on their own? What are the requirements of such creative artificial systems? To be able to support humans who are expected to deliver creative solutions, or to automate part of their ... Keywords: Agent, Creativity, Design, Interactivity, Learning, Self-Organization

Pieter H. G. Van Langen; Niek J. E. Wijngaards; Frances M. T. Brazier

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Nonstationary artificial black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the existence of artificial non-stationary spherically symmetric black holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of artificial black holes.

Eskin, Gregory

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Graphite Reactor | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite Reactor Graphite Reactor 'In the early, desperate days of World War II, the United States launched the top-secret, top-priority Manhattan Project...' In the early, desperate days of U.S. involvement in World War II, American scientists began to fear that the German discovery of uranium fission in 1939 might enable the Nazis to develop a super bomb. Afraid of losing this crucial race, the United States launched the top-secret, top-priority Manhattan Project. The plan was to create two atomic weapons-one fueled by plutonium, the other by enriched uranium. Hanford, Washington, was selected as the site for plutonium production, but before large reactors could be built there, a pilot plant was necessary to prove the feasibility of scaling up from laboratory experiments. A secluded, rural area near Clinton, Tennessee, was

50

AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Artificial light and plant growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial light and plant growth Name: Lim Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What color of artificial light works the best in plant growth? Replies:...

52

Previous Meetings: Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Previous Meetings Second DOE International Symposium on Artificial Sight, Sponsored by DOE, April 18, 2005 First DOE International Symposium on Artificial Sight, Sponsored by DOE,...

53

X-10 Graphite Reactor | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor When President Roosevelt in December 1942 authorized the Manhattan Project, the Oak Ridge site in eastern Tennessee had already been obtained and plans laid for an air-cooled experimental pile, a pilot chemical separation plant, and support facilities. The X-10 Graphite Reactor, designed and built in ten months, went into operation on November 4, 1943. The X-10 used neutrons emitted in the fission of uranium-235 to convert uranium-238 into a new element, plutonium-239. The reactor consists of a huge block of graphite, measuring 24 feet on each side, surrounded by several feet of high-density concrete as a radiation shield. The block is pierced by 1,248 horizontal diamond-shaped channels in

54

Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

55

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor(BGRR) BGRR Overview BGRR Complex Description Decommissioning Decision BGRR Complex Cleanup Actions BGRR Documents BGRR Science &...

56

Toughened Graphite Electrodes for Electric Arc Furnaces  

Benefits of Fiber Toughened Electrode Summary: Technology Description A method to more uniformly distribute graphite/carbon fibers into the electrode matrix by ...

57

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - LCLS Graphite Experiment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LCLS Graphite Experiment Poses New Questions for Researchers By Glenn Roberts Jr. May 21, 2012 In experiments at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a powerful X-ray laser...

58

THE NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT GRAPHITE PROGRAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing new nuclear grades of graphite used in the core of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the critical development activities being pursued within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. Graphite’s thermal stability (in an inert gas environment), high compressive strength, fabricability, and cost effective price make it an ideal core structural material for the HTGR reactor design. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermo-mechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. The NGNP graphite R&D program has selected a handful of commercially available types for research and development activities necessary to qualify this nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor. These activities fall within five primary areas; 1) material property characterization, 2) irradiated material property characterization, 3) modeling, and 4) ASTM test development, and 5) ASME code development efforts. Individual research and development activities within each area are being pursued with the ultimate goal of obtaining a commercial operating license for the nuclear graphite from the US NRC.

William E. Windes; Timothy D. Burchell; Robert L. Bratton

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Cleanup at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite Research Reactor placeholder Remotely operated robot known as a BROKK manipulator In April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Lab, and the regulatory agencies...

60

Exercise in artificial gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial gravity provided by short radius centrifugation is considered a promising countermeasure to the deleterious physiological effects of microgravity during long-duration space flight. We investigated the feasibility ...

Edmonds, Jessica Leigh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shift" (8). HydroQuebec's SNG-12 anode graphite was chosenElectrode laminates with SNG-12 graphite as the activePrevious experiments with SNG-12 graphite in coin cells with

Ridgway, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting registration web site PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting registration web site PIA - 10th...

64

Graphite/Copper Composites from Natural Wood Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite derived from natural wood precursors provides a uniquely anisotropic porous scaffold for the fabrication of graphite/copper composites. The wettability ...

65

Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

Karthik Chinnathambi; Joshua Kane; Darryl P. Butt; William E. Windes; Rick Ubic

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products on each type of graphite site. The model will include multiple simultaneous adsorbing species, which will allow for competitive adsorption effects between different fission product species and O and OH (for modeling accident conditions).

Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

67

AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for ...  

not applicable to an assembly line manufacturing process. The invention is cost-effective and suitable for manufacturing solid electrolyte

69

Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for ...  

Batteries with solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes would ... The invention is cost-effective and suitable for manufacturing solid electrolyte ...

70

Artificial neural networks for automated year-round temperature prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crops and livestock in most of the southeastern United States are susceptible to potential losses due to extreme cold and heat. However, given suitable warning, agricultural and horticultural producers can mitigate the damage of extreme temperature events. ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Frost protection, Fruit crops, Neural network, Temperature prediction, Vegetable crops

Brian A. Smith; Gerrit Hoogenboom; Ronald W. McClendon

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Artificial Retina Implant Eligibility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CRADA Established October 14, 2004 CRADA Established October 14, 2004 A Joint Research Partnership Between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Laboratories, Universities, and a Private Company On October 14, 2004, the Department of Energy and Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. of Sylmar, California, held a press conference to announce the formal signing of a CRADA* for the Artificial Retina Project. This press conference included a speech by Energy Secretary Abraham, five minute video presentation, and multiple press releases. The press releases and video are listed below. Video A video explaining the artificial retina project and retinitis pigmentosa was shown during the press conference. This video is available on the video page. "See Artificial Retina Project Overview."

72

Retention of hydrogen in graphite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

Langley, R.A.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study.

Propp, W.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method for molding threads in graphite panels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A graphite panel (10) with a hole (11) having a damaged thread (12) is repaired by drilling the hole (11) to remove all of the thread and make a new hole (13) of larger diameter. A bolt (14) with a lubricated thread (17) is placed in the new hole (13) and the hole (13) is packed with graphite cement (16) to fill the hole and the thread on the bolt. The graphite cement (16) is cured, and the bolt is unscrewed therefrom to leave a thread (20) in the cement (16) which is at least as strong as that of the original thread (12).

Short, William W. (Livermore, CA); Spencer, Cecil (Silverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Method for molding threads in graphite panels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A graphite panel with a hole having a damaged thread is repaired by drilling the hole to remove all of the thread and making a new hole of larger diameter. A bolt with a lubricated thread is placed in the new hole and the hole is packed with graphite cement to fill the hole and the thread on the bolt. The graphite cement is cured, and the bolt is unscrewed therefrom to leave a thread in the cement which is at least as strong as that of the original thread. 8 figures.

Short, W.W.; Spencer, C.

1994-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

76

Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction

Provancher, William

77

Team Highlights: Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Team Highlights Artificial Retina Team Wins Prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Award Researchers involved with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Artificial Retina Project have...

78

Genetic algorithms and artificial life  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Genetic algorithms are computational models of evolution that play a central role in many artificial-life models. We review the history and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, giving illustrative examples in which the ...

Melanie Mitchell; Stephanie Forrest

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V. Presentation Title, Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite ... Tensile and Fatigue Testing of 304 Stainless Steel after Gaseous Hydrogen ...

80

Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective: Consciousness is often thought to be that aspect of mind that is least amenable to being understood or replicated by artificial intelligence (AI). The first-personal, subjective, what-it-is-like-to-be-something nature of consciousness is thought ... Keywords: Artificial consciousness, Heterophenomenology, Interactive empiricism, Machine consciousness, Prosthetic artificial intelligence, Synthetic phenomenology

Ron Chrisley

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

GRAPHITE PRODUCTION UTILIZING URANYL NITRATE HEXAHYDRATE CATALYST  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>The graphitizing of a mixture composed of furfuryl alcohol binder and uranyl nitrate hexahydrate hardener and the subsequent curing, baking, and graphitizing with pressure being initially applied prior to curing are described. The pressure step may be carried out by extrusion, methyl cellulose being added to the mixture before the completion of extrusion. Uranium oxide may be added to the graphitizable mixture prior to the heating and pressure steps. The graphitizable mixture may consist of discrete layers of different compositions. (AEC)

Sheinberg, H.; Armstrong, J.R.; Schell, D.H.

1964-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Carbon-14 in Irradiated Graphite Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the international data on the formation and distribution of 14C in graphite moderators in the context of the treatment and/or disposal of the material upon reactor decommissioning. International organizations from the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, and the United Kingdom collaborated in this program. This report provides an informed and improved understanding of the formation and behavior of 14C in irradiated graphite to determine where agreement or residual differ...

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

84

Adsorption potential of alkanes on graphite  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the extended Hueckel theory, the short-range repulsive interaction of alkanes with graphite is determined with band structure calculations from the difference between the total energy of the system (adsorbate + graphite) and the energy of the separated species. This theoretical approach enables one to determine the coefficients of the repulsive exponential term in the atom-atom potential simplified expression. The adsorption potential of alkanes on graphite is obtained when the dispersion atom-atom potential, which takes into account the high anisotropic polarizability of graphite, is added to the repulsive term. The equilibrium distance of methane on graphite and its vibrational frequency perpendicular to the surface are in good agreement with the experimental ones measured at low temperatures by neutron scattering techniques. The van der Waals radii of carbon and hydrogen atoms are obtained from the equilibrium distance of the atom-atom potential simplified expression. They are compared with those used in the literature to establish the semiempirical potential expressions. The molecular statistical theory of adsorption based on the atom-atom potential function enables one to predict the second adsorbate/surface virial coefficient and the thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption, measured for methane, ethane, and propane on graphitized carbon black at zero surface coverage by static and gas chromatographic methods.

Vidal-Madjar, C.; Minot, C.

1987-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

85

Byland's artificial retina story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vision Quest Pioneer: Artificial Retina Recipient Sees Brighter Future Vision Quest Pioneer: Artificial Retina Recipient Sees Brighter Future Byland and Humayun Terry Byland and Dr. Mark Humayun at a 2006 Council for Competitiveness event. When Terry Byland began having trouble seeing in the dim light of dark restaurants and nightclubs, he wasn't overly concerned. Soon after, however, the problem began to affect his night driving. A year later, he went to an ophthalmologist to have his eyes checked. He wasn't prepared for the grave diagnosis: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP). "What's going to happen to me?" Byland asked his doctor, who told him that eventually he could go blind. RP is a group of relatively rare inherited eye diseases that attack the photoreceptor cells in the retina, affecting about 1 in 4,000 people. Symptoms begin with night blindness, generally progressing to tunnel vision

86

Artificial Retina Project Collaborators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collaborators map Map of project collaborators and descriptions of their primary contributions. Click on map for larger image. Artificial Retina Project Collaborators An effort spanning 6 DOE national laboratories, 4 universities, and private industry Multidisciplinary groups across the United States are using a highly focused and coordinated approach to develop a dramatically improved retinal prosthetic device to restore sight to the blind. The Doheny Eye Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Second Sight(tm) Medical Products, Inc., lead the collaborative effort through an executive committee. Meet the Team Doheny logo Doheny Eye Institute at the University of Southern California Provided medical direction and performs preclinical and clinical testing of the electrode array implants. Leads the Artificial Retina Project.

87

Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

88

Artificial mismatch hybridization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

Guo, Zhen (Madison, WI); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Graphite oxidation modeling for application in MELCOR.  

SciTech Connect

The Arrhenius parameters for graphite oxidation in air are reviewed and compared. One-dimensional models of graphite oxidation coupled with mass transfer of oxidant are presented in dimensionless form for rectangular and spherical geometries. A single dimensionless group is shown to encapsulate the coupled phenomena, and is used to determine the effective reaction rate when mass transfer can impede the oxidation process. For integer reaction order kinetics, analytical expressions are presented for the effective reaction rate. For noninteger reaction orders, a numerical solution is developed and compared to data for oxidation of a graphite sphere in air. Very good agreement is obtained with the data without any adjustable parameters. An analytical model for surface burn-off is also presented, and results from the model are within an order of magnitude of the measurements of burn-off in air and in steam.

Gelbard, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration Projects |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Documents Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Documents Feasibility Study (PDF) Proposed Remedial Action Plan (PDF) Record of Decision (PDF) RD/RA Work Plan for the BGRR Pile (PDF) RD/RA Work Plan for the Bioshield (PDF) RD/RA Work Plan for the BGRR Cap (PDF) Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Explanation of Significant Differences (PDF) (4/12) NYSDEC Approval Letter for BGRR ESD (PDF) (5/12) USEPA Approval Letter for BGRR ESD (PDF) (6/12) DOE BGRR ESD Transmittal Letter (PDF) (7/12) Remedial Design Implementation Report (PDF) (12/11) Completion Reports Removal of the Above-Ground Ducts and Preparation of the Instrument House (708) for Removal (PDF) - April 2002 Below-Ground Duct Outlet Air Coolers, Filters and Primary Liner Removal (PDF) - April 2005 Canal and Deep Soil Pockets Excavation and Removal (PDF) - August

91

Artificial Retina In the News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

retinal prostheses Neurotech Business Report, 2003 (free) Rays of hope for the blind Wall street Journal, August 27, 2003 (subscription required) Visionary implant: artificial...

92

Site Map: Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Index Home About the Project Overview How the Artificial Retina Works Implant Patient Stories Terry Byland Linda M. Kathy B. How to Participate Project Collaborators CRADA...

93

Electrochemical and Solid-State Lithiation of Graphitic C3N4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

: Lithiated graphitic carbon n.itride {C3N4 ) was fabricated by electrochemical and solid-state reactions. The addition of Li to C3N4 results in a reaction between the Li and the graphite-like C3N species in C3N4. This irreversible reaction leads to the formation of Li-CH=NR and Li-N=CR2 species, which are detrimental to anode properties. Suitable nitrogen-doped carbon structures for anode applications are predicted to need high concentrations of pyridinic C-N-C terminal bonds and low concentrations of w quaternary C3N species to boost electronic conductivity and reversibly cycle Li ions. 3.5r-- - - -------, Li 25 + 1 5 0.5 KEYWORDS: mrbo11 uilride, lit!Jiatiou, auode, battery Copaoty tmAIVol

Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Albert, Austin A [ORNL; Humble, James R [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Barnes, Craig E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bojdys, Michael J [University of Liverpool; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface.

McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Chih-Wen (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Artificial Agent Action in Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We summarise our experiences of a number of demonstrators and simulation experiments designed to test the feasibility of using artificial decision making agents in real-time domains, and comment on the significance of our results to autonomous artificial ... Keywords: norm, pronouncer, real-time decision making, simulation, trust

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

US graphite reactor D&D experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the U.S. Graphite Reactor Experience Task for the Decommissioning Strategy Plan for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 1 Study. The work described in this report was performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE).

Garrett, S.M.K.; Williams, N.C.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

METHOD FOR TREATING GRAPHITE PRODUCT  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for treating a carbon body with a carbonyl consisting of nickel, iron, and mixtures thereof. The carbonyl is decomposed in a non-oxidizing atmosphere into a mixture of the metal and carbon monoxide on the surface of a carbon body heated to above the decomposition point of the carbonyl. The temperature is increased of the carbon body to an elevated temperature above the point at which a liquid eutectic mixture of the metal and carbon of the carbon body is formed at the surface and below that at which substantial carburization occurs. The elevated temperature is maintained whereby the liquid mixture flows over the surface of the carbon body. The carbon body is cooled below the decomposition temperature of the carbonyl of the metal and to a temperature suitable for forming the carbonyl of the metal. The carbon body is then contacted with carbon monoxide at the carbonyl-forming temperature, whereby carbonyl of the metal is formed in and on the carbon body. The carbonyl is removed from the carbon body by gasifying the carbonyl. (AEC)

Gurinsky, D.H.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Artificial Night Lighting Catherine Rich and Travisof artificial night lighting. This book provides editedage of modern urban lighting was ushered in. Coincidentally,

Piselli, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB2000 is a graphitized petroleum coke. The availability of KRB2000 is perhaps in question, so a replacement synthetic graphite may need to be identified. This report presents data on potential replacements for KRB2000.

Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration Projects |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Was the BGRR Decommissioned? Why Was the BGRR Decommissioned? BGRR The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned to ensure the complex is in a safe and stable condition and to reduce sources of groundwater contamination. The BGRR contained over 8,000 Curies of radioactive contaminants from past operations consisting of primarily nuclear activation products such as hydrogen-3 (tritium) and carbon-14 and fission products cesium-137 and strontium-90. The nature and extent of contamination varied by location depending on historic uses of the systems and components and releases, however, the majority of the contamination (over 99 percent) was bound within the graphite pile and biological shield. Radioactive contamination was identified in the fuel handling system deep

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Single artificial-atom lasing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid-state superconducting circuits are versatile systems in which quantum states can be engineered and controlled. Recent progress in this area has opened up exciting possibilities for exploring fundamental physics as well as applications in quantum information technology; in a series of experiments it was shown that such circuits can be exploited to generate quantum optical phenomena, by designing superconducting elements as artificial atoms that are coupled coherently to the photon field of a resonator. Here we demonstrate a lasing effect with a single artificial atom - a Josephson-junction charge qubit - embedded in a superconducting resonator. We make use of one of the properties of solid-state artificial atoms, namely that they are strongly and controllably coupled to the resonator modes. The device is essentially different from existing lasers and masers; one and the same artificial atom excited by current injection produces many photons.

O. Astafiev; K. Inomata; A. O. Niskanen; T. Yamamoto; Yu. A. Pashkin; Y. Nakamura; J. S. Tsai

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

102

Removal of iron from impure graphites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iron-impregnated and ash-rich graphites have been purified by leaching with gaseous I/sub 2/ at 900/sup 0/C. With addition of H/sub 2/, the rate of removal of impurity iron can be markedly increased and becomes comparable to that obtained with Cl/sub 2/. I/sub 2/ has an advantage in that it can also volatilize Ca and perhaps Ba and Sr.

Growcock, F.B.; Heiser, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

Rudisill, T. S.

1998-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

105

Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Reactor:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Reactor: Reactor core and associated structures successfully removed; waste shipped offsite for disposal Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Reactor: Reactor core and associated structures successfully removed; waste shipped offsite for disposal September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor’s bioshield, which contains the 700-ton reactor core, is shown prior to decommissioning. The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor's bioshield, which contains the 700-ton reactor core, is shown prior to decommissioning. Pictured here is the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, where major decommissioning milestones were recently reached after the remaining radioactive materials from the facility’s bioshield were shipped to a licensed offsite disposal facility.

106

Irradiation Induced Dimensional Changes in Bulk Graphite; The theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basing on experimental data on irradiation-induced deformation of graphite we introduced a concept of diffuse domain structure developed in reactor graphite produced by extrusion. Such domains are considered as random continuous deviations of local graphite texture from the global one. We elucidate the origin of domain structure and estimate the size and the degree of orientational ordering of its domains. Using this concept we explain the well known radiation-induced size effect observed in reactor graphite. We also propose a method for converting the experimental data on shape-change of finite-size samples to bulk graphite. This method gives a more accurate evaluation of corresponding data used in estimations of reactor graphite components lifetime under irradiation.

Panyukov, S V; Arjakov, M V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Irradiation Induced Dimensional Changes in Bulk Graphite; The theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basing on experimental data on irradiation-induced deformation of graphite we introduced a concept of diffuse domain structure developed in reactor graphite produced by extrusion. Such domains are considered as random continuous deviations of local graphite texture from the global one. We elucidate the origin of domain structure and estimate the size and the degree of orientational ordering of its domains. Using this concept we explain the well known radiation-induced size effect observed in reactor graphite. We also propose a method for converting the experimental data on shape-change of finite-size samples to bulk graphite. This method gives a more accurate evaluation of corresponding data used in estimations of reactor graphite components lifetime under irradiation.

S. V. Panyukov; A. V. Subbotin; M. V. Arjakov

2012-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

108

Thermal Conductivity of Wood-Derived Graphite and Copper-Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of wood-derived graphite and graphite/copper composites was studied both experimentally and using finite element analysis. The unique, naturally-derived, anisotropic porosity inherent to wood-derived carbon makes standard porosity-based approximations for thermal conductivity poor estimators. For this reason, a finite element technique which uses sample microstructure as model input was utilized to determine the conductivity of the carbon phase independent of porosity. Similar modeling techniques were also applied to carbon/copper composite microstructures and predicted conductivities were compared to those determined via experiment.

Johnson, M. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Childers, Amanda [Northwestern University, Evanston; Ramírez-Rico, J. [Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Spain; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Faber, K. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface. 2 figures.

McKernan, M.A.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Chen, C.W.

1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

110

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon and Implications for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon and Implications for the Rate Capability of Anodes Title Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon and Implications for the Rate Capability of Anodes Publication Type Journal...

111

Carbon or Graphite Foam Heating Element for Regulating Engine ...  

ORNL 2010-G00640/es UT-B ID 200000861 Carbon or Graphite Foam Heating Element for Regulating Engine Fluids Technology Summary Automotive engines need ...

112

Interaction of sodium vapor and graphite studied by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of the reaction between graphite and sodium vapor is analyzed with support ... High temperature compression test to determine the anode paste ...

113

The Effect of Graphitization Heat Treatment Temperature on Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Effect of Graphitization Heat Treatment Temperature on Thermal Properties of PAN-Based Carbon Fiber Carbon-Carbon Composites in ...

114

PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM-IMPREGNATED GRAPHITE BODY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the fabrication of graphite bodies containing uniformly distributed uranium is described. It consists of impregnating a body of graphite having uniform porosity and low density with an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate preferably by a vacuum technique, thereafter removing excess aqueous solution from the surface of the graphite, then removing the solvent water from the body under substantially normal atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure in the presence of a stream of dry inert gas, and finally heating the dry impregnated graphite body in the presence of inert gas at a temperature between 800 and 1400 d C to convert the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to an oxide of uranium.

Kanter, M.A.

1958-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Characterization of Graphite from PAN Aerogels - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PAN aerogels were aromatized oxidatively at 240°C and further treated pyrolytically to graphite under helium atmosphere at 2300°C for 24 hours. Properties of ...

116

Silicon/Graphite –Tin Nano-structured Composites Synthesized by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Silicon/Graphite –Tin Nano-structured Composites Synthesized by High Energy Mechanical Milling for Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries ...

117

Final report on graphite irradiation test OG-2  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of dimensional, thermal expansivity, thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and tensile strength measurements on specimens of nuclear graphites irradiated in capsule OG-2. About half the irradiation space was allocated to H-451 near-isotropic petroleum-coke-based graphite or its subsized prototype grade H-429. Most of these specimens had been previously irradiated. Virgin specimens of another near-isotropic graphite, grade TS-1240, were irradiated. Some previously irradiated specimens of needle-coke-based H-327 graphite and pitch-coke-based P$sub 3$JHAN were also included.

Price, R.J.; Beavan, L.A.

1975-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

How the Artificial Retina Works  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Artificial Retina Works the Artificial Retina Works Artificial Retina Diagram Normal vision begins when light enters and moves through the eye to strike specialized photoreceptor (light-receiving) cells in the retina called rods and cones. These cells convert light signals to electric impulses that are sent to the optic nerve and the brain. Retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa destroy vision by annihilating these cells. With the artificial retina device, a miniature camera mounted in eyeglasses captures images and wirelessly sends the information to a microprocessor (worn on a belt) that converts the data to an electronic signal and transmits it to a receiver on the eye. The receiver sends the signals through a tiny, thin cable to the microelectrode array, stimulating it to emit pulses. The artificial retina device thus bypasses defunct photoreceptor cells and transmits electrical signals directly to the retina's remaining viable cells. The pulses travel to the optic nerve and, ultimately, to the brain, which perceives patterns of light and dark spots corresponding to the electrodes stimulated. Patients learn to interpret these visual patterns.

119

Prediction of spontaneous heating susceptibility of Indian coals using fuzzy logic and artificial neural network models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal mine fires due to spontaneous heating are a major concern worldwide. Most of these fires could be averted if suitable preventive measures are taken. Since the spontaneous heating potential of all types of coals are not the same, its accurate prediction ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Coal, Crossing point temperature, Fuzzy expert system, Spontaneous heating, Sugeno model

H. B. Sahu; S. Padhee; S. S. Mahapatra

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A new probabilistic approach to on-line learning in artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce elements of probabilistic model that is suitable for modeling of learning algorithms in biologically plausible artificial neural networks framework. Model is based on two of the main concepts in quantum physics - a density ... Keywords: Hebbian learning rule, born rule, probabilistic PSA/PCA, von Neumann entropy

Marko V. Jankovic; Neil Rubens

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Artificial Retina In the News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Press Releases Press Releases News Articles Press Releases Mark Humayun Inducted into Institute of Medicine Institute of Medicine press release, 10/12/2009 Artificial Retina Project Wins Prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Award Article and multiple press releases, 07/20/2009 Second Sight to Double Patient Enrollment for Argus(tm) II Retinal Implant U.S. Clinical Trial Second Sight press release, 05/04/09 See more releases in Press Release Archive Recent Articles Bionic eye opens new world of sight for blind National Public Radio, October 20, 2009 Burst of technology helps blind to see New York Times, September 26, 2009 Artificial retina project has ORNL roots ORNL Reporter, August 28, 2009 The "holy grail" of ophthalmic devices Assembly Magazine, August 20, 2009 Artificial-retina project designed to restore sight to the blind

122

Small Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: Interim Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests requires high performance propulsion systems to support missions beyond low Earth orbit. A robust space exploration program will include robotic outer planet and crewed missions to a variety of destinations including the moon, near Earth objects, and eventually Mars. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option for the human exploration of Mars because of its high thrust and high specific impulse ({approx}900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. The recently announced national space policy2 supports the development and use of space nuclear power systems where such systems safely enable or significantly enhance space exploration or operational capabilities. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted under the Rover/NERVA, GE-710 and ANL nuclear rocket programs (1955-1973). Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. The primary and significantly larger Rover/NERVA program focused on graphite type fuels. Research, development, and testing of high temperature graphite fuels was conducted. Reactors and engines employing these fuels were designed, built, and ground tested. The GE-710 and ANL programs focused on an alternative ceramic-metallic 'cermet' fuel type consisting of UO2 (or UN) fuel embedded in a refractory metal matrix such as tungsten. The General Electric program examined closed loop concepts for space or terrestrial applications as well as open loop systems for direct nuclear thermal propulsion. Although a number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs suitable for direct nuclear thermal propulsion were proposed and designed, none were built. This report summarizes status results of evaluations of small nuclear reactor designs suitable for direct nuclear thermal propulsion.

Bruce G. Schnitzler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Site & Facility Restoration » Deactivation & Services » Site & Facility Restoration » Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D) » D&D Workshops » Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was the first reactor built in the U.S. for peacetime atomic research following World War II. Construction began in 1947 and the reactor started operating in August 1950. In the next 18 years, an estimated 25,000 scientific experiments were carried out at the BGRR using neutrons produced in the facility's 700-ton graphite core, made up of more than 60,000 individual graphite blocks. The BGRR was placed on standby in 1968 and then permanently shut down as the next-generation reactor, the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), was

124

Carbon Characterization Laboratory Readiness to Receive Irradiated Graphite Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research conducted in this laboratory will support the Advanced Graphite Creep experiments—a major series of material irradiation experiments within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, silicon-carbide composite, and ceramic materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials. Major infrastructural modifications were undertaken to support this new radiological facility at Idaho National Laboratory. Facility modifications are complete, equipment has been installed, radiological controls and operating procedures have been established and work management documents have been created to place the CCL in readiness to receive irradiated graphite samples.

Karen A. Moore

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Graphite and its Hidden Superconductivity | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite and its Hidden Superconductivity Graphite and its Hidden Superconductivity Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 2:00pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Pablo Esquinazi, University of Leipzig We review different experimental results that indicate the existence of granular superconductivity at high temperatures at graphite interfaces. In particular we will discuss the following experimental results: The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the electrical resistance of bulk and thin graphite samples and its relation with the existence of two-dimensional (2D) interfaces. The anomalous hysteresis in the magnetoresistance observed in graphite thin samples as well as its enhancement restricting the current path within the sample. The Josephson behavior of the current-voltage characteristics with

126

Artificial Muscle Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Artificial Muscle Inc Artificial Muscle Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Artificial Muscle Inc Place California Zip CA 94085 Product Artificial Muscle develops electroactive polymer technology used for sensing, actuating and electric power generation applications. References Artificial Muscle Inc[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Artificial Muscle Inc is a company located in California . References ↑ "Artificial Muscle Inc" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Artificial_Muscle_Inc&oldid=678882" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

127

Building virtual ecosystems from artificial chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper adopts an interdisciplinary view of the significant elements of ecosystems and the methods by which these might be simulated to explore theoretical issues of relevance to Artificial Life and Ecology. Artificial Life has largely been concerned ...

Alan Dorin; Kevin B. Korb

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Optical interference produced by artificial light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless infrared transmission systems for indoor use are affected by noise and interference induced by natural and artificial ambient light. This paper presents a characterisation (through extensive measurements) of the interference produced by artificial ...

Adriano J. C. Moreira; Rui T. Valadas; A. M. de Oliveira Duarte

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

A BIO-INSPIRED METHODOLOGY FOR ARTIFICIAL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A BIO-INSPIRED METHODOLOGY FOR ARTIFICIAL OLFACTION. Joshua L. Hertz, Baranidharan Raman, Kurt D. Benkstein and Steve Semancik. ...

130

Modeling biochemical pathways using an artificial chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial chemistries are candidates for methodologies that model and design biochemical systems. If artificial chemistries can deal with such systems in beneficial ways, they may facilitate activities in the new area of biomolecular engineering. In ... Keywords: Artificial chemistry, biochemical pathways, biomolecular engineering, modularity, reasoning, scalability

Kazuto Tominaga; Yoshikazu Suzuki; Keiji Kobayashi; Tooru Watanabe; Kazumasa Koizumi; Koji Kishi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Graphite Foam Heat Exchangers for Thermal Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improved thermal management is needed to increase the power density of electronic and more effectively cool electronic enclosures that are envisioned in future aircraft, spacecraft and surface ships. Typically, heat exchanger cores must increase in size to more effectively dissipate increased heat loads, this would be impossible in many cases, thus improved heat exchanger cores will be required. In this Phase I investigation, MRi aimed to demonstrate improved thermal management using graphite foam (Gr-foam) core heat exchangers. The proposed design was to combine Gr-foams from POCO with MRi's innovative low temperature, active metal joining process (S-Bond{trademark}) to bond Gr-foam to aluminum, copper and aluminum/SiC composite faceplates. The results were very favorable, so a Phase II SBIR with the MDA was initiated. This had primarily 5 tasks: (1) bonding, (2) thermal modeling, (3) cooling chip scale packages, (4) evaporative cooling techniques and (5) IGBT cold plate development. The bonding tests showed that the ''reflow'' technique with S-Bond{reg_sign}-220 resulted in the best and most consistent bond. Then, thermal modeling was used to design different chip scale packages and IGBT cold plates. These designs were used to fabricate many finned graphite foam heat sinks specifically for two standard type IC packages, the 423 and 478 pin chips. These results demonstrated several advantages with the foam. First, the heat sinks with the foam were lighter than the copper/aluminum sinks used as standards. The sinks for the 423 design made from foam were not as good as the standard sinks. However, the sinks made from foam for the 478 pin chips were better than the standard heat sinks used today. However, this improvement was marginal (in the 10-20% better regime). However, another important note was that the epoxy bonding technique resulted in heat sinks with similar results as that with the S-bond{reg_sign}, slightly worse than the S-bond{reg_sign}, but still better than the standard heat sinks. Next, work with evaporative cooling techniques, such as heat pipes, demonstrated some unique behavior with the foam that is not seen with standard wick materials. This was that as the thickness of the foam increased, the performance got better, where with standard wick materials, as the thickness increases, the performance decreases. This is yet to be completely explained. Last, the designs from the thermal model were used to fabricate a series of cold plates with the graphite foam and compare them to similar designs using high performance folded fin aluminum sinks (considered standard in the industry). It was shown that by corrugating the foam parallel to fluid flow, the pressure drop can be reduced significantly while maintaining the same heat transfer as that in the folded fin heat sink. In fact, the results show that the graphite foam heat sink can utilized 5% the pumping power as that required with the folded fin aluminum heat sink, yet remove the same amount of heat.

Klett, J.W.

2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

FUEL PROGRAMMING FOR SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of fuel programming, i.e., the scheme used for changing fuel in a core, on the reactivity and specific power of a sodium graphite reactor is discussed Fuel programs considered Include replacing fuel a core-load at a time or a radial zone at a time, replacing fuel to manutain the same average exposure of fuel elements throughout the core, and replacing and transferring fuel elements to maintain more highly exposed fuel in the center or at the periphery of the core. Flux and criticality calculations show the degree of power flattening and the concurrent decrease in effective multiplication which results from maintaining more exposed fuel toward the core center. Corverse effects are shown for the case of maintaining more exposed fuel near the core periphery. The excess reactivity which must be controlled in the various programs is considered. Illustrative schedules for implementing each of these programs in an SGR are presented. (auth)

Connolly, T.J.

1959-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration Projects |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Cleanup Actions - Cleanup Actions Since the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was shut down in 1968, many actions have been taken as part of the complex decommissioning. The actions undertaken throughout the BGRR complex ensure that the structures that remain are in a safe and stable condition and prepared it for long-term surveillance and maintenance. Regulatory Requirements The decommissioning of the BGRR was conducted under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1992, an Interagency Agreement (PDF) among the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) became effective. The IAG provided the overall framework for conducting environmental restoration activities at

134

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Title Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, A. F. Bello, Xiangyun Song, Shidi Xun, Jin Chong, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 5 Pagination A520 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00134651 Abstract Battery grade graphite products from major suppliers to the battery industry were evaluated in 2325 coin cells with lithium counter electrodes. First and ongoing cycle efficiency, total and reversible capacity, cycle life and discharge rate performance were measured to compare these anode materials. We then ranked the graphites using a formula which incorporates these performance measures to estimate the cost of the overall system, relative to the cost of a system using MCMB. This analysis indicates that replacing MCMB with CCP-G8 (Conoco Phillips) would add little to no cost, whereas each of the other graphites would lead to a more costly system. Therefore we chose CCP-G8 as the new baseline graphite for the BATT program.

135

The DOE Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENvisioNiNG siGht for thE BLiND ENvisioNiNG siGht for thE BLiND The DOE Artificial Retina Project Leveraging DOE expertise to enhance the quality of life for millions Major advances achieved by researchers in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Artificial Retina Project are beginning to offer some hope to millions of people blinded by retinal diseases worldwide. In a breakthrough operation performed by project leaders at the Doheny Eye Institute (University of Southern California) in 2002, doctors threaded an electrode-studded array through an incision into the eye of a man who had been blind for 50 years and tacked it onto his damaged retina. Within weeks, the 77-year-old patient could see patterns of light and dark that allowed him to detect motion and locate and differentiate

136

Artificial Retina Implant Patient Stories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interviews with Artificial Retina Recipients Interviews with Artificial Retina Recipients Image of Mr. R Mr. R: Argus II recipient (Italy) You Tube video (2012; 2011 implantee) Image of Mr. F Mr. F: Argus II recipient (Italy) You Tube video (2012; 2011 implantee) Image of Mr. P Mr. P: Argus II recipient (France) You Tube video (2012; 2009 implantee) Image of Mr. K Mr. K: Argus II recipient (England) You Tube video (2012; 2009 implantee) Image promoting Mail Online Article Peter L.: Blind man fitted with 'bionic eye' sees for first time in 30 years Mail Online (UK) (2009) Image promoting Mail Online Article Barbara C .: Blind U.S. woman has experimental electronic eye implant CNN video and article (2009) NDTV video and article (2009) Image promoting BBC story Ron: The man with the bionic eye BBC Video and article (2009)

137

About the Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the Overview of the Artificial Retina Project The DOE Artificial Retina Project was a multi-institutional collaborative effort to develop and implant a device containing an array of microelectrodes into the eyes of people blinded by retinal disease. The ultimate goal was to design a device to help restore limited vision that enables reading, unaided mobility, and facial recognition. The device is intended to bypass the damaged eye structure of those with retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. These diseases destroy the light-sensing cells (photoreceptors, or rods and cones) in the retina, a multilayered membrane located at the back of the eye. For more information, see How the Artificial Retina Works. History The DOE project builds on the foundational work of its leader, Mark Humayun at the Doheny Eye Institute of the University of Southern California. In a breakthrough operation performed in 2002, a team led by Humayun successfully implanted the first device of its kind-an array containing 16 microelectrodes-into the eye of a patient who had been blind for more than 50 years. Since then, more than 30 additional volunteers around the world have had first- or second-generation (60-electrode) devices implanted. These devices enable patients to distinguish light from dark and localize large objects. For more information, read patient stories.

138

Feasibility of monitoring the strength of HTGR core support graphite: Part III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are being developed to monitor, in-situ, the strength changes of graphite core-support components in a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The results reported herein pertain to the development of techniques for monitoring the core-support blocks; the PGX graphite used in these studies is the grade used for the core-support blocks of the Fort St. Vrain HTGR, and is coarser-grained than the grades used in our previous investigations. The through-transmission ultrasonic velocity technique, developed for monitoring strength of the core-support posts, is not suitable for use on the core-support blocks. Eddy-current and ultrasonic backscattering techniques have been shown to be capable of measuring the density-depth profile in oxidized PGX and, combined with a correlation of strength versus density, could yield an estimate of the strength-depth profile of in-service HTGR core support blocks. Correlations of strength versus density and other properties, and progress on the development of the eddy-current and ultrasonic backscattering techniques are reported.

Morgan, W.C.; Davis, T.J.; Thomas, M.T.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The dependence of natural graphite anode performance on electrode density  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of electrode density for lithium intercalation and irreversible capacity loss on the natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries was studied by electrochemical methods. Both the first-cycle reversible and irreversible capacities of the natural graphite anode decreased with an increase in the anode density though compression. The reduction in reversible capacity was attributed to a reduction in the chemical diffusion coefficient for lithium though partially agglomerated particles with a larger stress. For the natural graphite in this study the potentials for Li (de)insertion shifted between the first and second formation cycles and the extent of this shift was dependent on electrode density. The relation between this peak shift and the irreversible capacity loss are probably both due to the decrease in graphite surface area with compression.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Heat conduction in graphite-nanoplatelet-reinforced polymer nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

89, 023117 ?2006? Heat conduction in graphite-nanoplatelet-The resistance to heat conduction across interfaces between?DOI: 10.1063/1.2221874? Heat conduction across surfaces of

Hung, M T; Choi, O; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hahn, H T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Mechanics of fatigue damage in titanium-graphite hybrid laminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Titanium-graphite hybrid laminates are being developed for high-temperature aerospace applications. Experimental observations have indicated that cracks in the titanium facesheets initiate at free edges as well as in areas ...

Burianek, Dennis Arthur

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon,...

144

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

145

Electrical and thermal properties of graphite/polyaniline composites  

SciTech Connect

A composite of a carbon allotrope (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been prepared that exhibits an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. An almost 2-fold increase in the bulk conductivity occurs when only a small mass fraction of polyaniline exists in the composite (91% graphite/ 9% polyaniline, by mass). This increase in dc electrical conductivity is curious since in most cases a composite material will exhibit a conductivity somewhere between the two individual components, unless a modification to the electronic nature of the material occurs. In order to elucidate the fundamental electrical properties of the composite we have performed variable temperature conductivity measurements to better understand the nature of conduction in these materials. The results from these studies suggest a change in the mechanism of conduction as the amount of polyaniline is increased in the composite. Along with superior electrical properties, the composites exhibit an increase in thermal stability as compared to the graphite. - Graphical abstract: (Left) Room temperature electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at different mass ratios. (Right) Electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites of graphite and polyaniline have been synthesized with unique electrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Certain G-PANI composites are more conductive and more thermally stable than graphite alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-PANI composites exhibit a larger conductivity ratio with respect to temperature than graphite alone.

Bourdo, Shawn E., E-mail: sxbourdo@ualr.edu [Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Warford, Brock A.; Viswanathan, Tito [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Artificial Retina Project Spurs New Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy's (DOE) Artificial Retina Project has led to cutting-edge innovations as well as several unanticipated discoveries and spinoffs that are increasing the value of...

147

Carbon Nanofiber Arrays Introduced as Artificial Local ...  

ORNL 2010-G00642/jcn UT-B IDs PFTT-200100978, PFTT-200201199, PFTT-200401482, PFTT-200401483 Carbon Nanofiber Arrays Introduced as Artificial Local ...

148

Artificial Photosynthesis Group | Chemistry Department | Brookhaven...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the Artificial Photosynthesis Group Our Team Etsuko Fujita (Lead PI), James T. Muckerman (PI), Javier J. Concepcion (PI), David C. Grills (PI), Dmitry E. Polyansky (PI). More...

149

Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 Recommendation by the...

150

NANOTUBE COMPOSITE ANODE MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR LITHIUM ION ...  

The present invention provides a composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium ion battery, the composite material comprising a layer of a lithium ...

151

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University..................................................................................................................... 1 2 Solar Resource Assessment ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Solar Radiation

Brownstone, Rob

152

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Evidence of Dirac Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print Wednesday, 27 June 2007 00:00 The recent surge of interest in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon, raising the possibility of high-efficiency, low-power, carbon-based electronics. Scientists attribute graphene's surprising current capacity (as well as a number of even stranger phenomena) to the presence of charge carriers that behave as if they are massless, "relativistic" quasiparticles called Dirac fermions. Harnessing these quasiparticles in real-world carbon-based devices, however, requires a deeper knowledge of their behavior under less-than-ideal circumstances, such as around defects, at edges, or in three dimensions-in other words, in graphite. At the ALS, a team of researchers using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have now produced the first direct evidence of massless Dirac fermions in graphite coexisting with quasiparticles of finite effective mass and defect-induced localized states.

153

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print The recent surge of interest in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon, raising the possibility of high-efficiency, low-power, carbon-based electronics. Scientists attribute graphene's surprising current capacity (as well as a number of even stranger phenomena) to the presence of charge carriers that behave as if they are massless, "relativistic" quasiparticles called Dirac fermions. Harnessing these quasiparticles in real-world carbon-based devices, however, requires a deeper knowledge of their behavior under less-than-ideal circumstances, such as around defects, at edges, or in three dimensions-in other words, in graphite. At the ALS, a team of researchers using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have now produced the first direct evidence of massless Dirac fermions in graphite coexisting with quasiparticles of finite effective mass and defect-induced localized states.

154

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print The recent surge of interest in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon, raising the possibility of high-efficiency, low-power, carbon-based electronics. Scientists attribute graphene's surprising current capacity (as well as a number of even stranger phenomena) to the presence of charge carriers that behave as if they are massless, "relativistic" quasiparticles called Dirac fermions. Harnessing these quasiparticles in real-world carbon-based devices, however, requires a deeper knowledge of their behavior under less-than-ideal circumstances, such as around defects, at edges, or in three dimensions-in other words, in graphite. At the ALS, a team of researchers using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have now produced the first direct evidence of massless Dirac fermions in graphite coexisting with quasiparticles of finite effective mass and defect-induced localized states.

155

Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

Storms, E.K.

1987-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

156

One patient's artificial retina story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helping To Advance the Frontiers of Medical Research Helping To Advance the Frontiers of Medical Research A patient's perspective on what the retinal implant has meant to her Patient following a white line In psychophysical testing, Kathy B. demonstrates how her artificial retina implant allows her to walk along a white line to its termination. A highly functioning person with a job, family, and household to tend to, Kathy B. doesn't feel like she's blind despite the fact that she's had no vision for about 15 years. Nevertheless, she was excited when she recently was able to find the full moon in the dark, nighttime sky. "We were out walking, and I looked upwards, scanning my head back and forth," Kathy B. explains. "All of a sudden, I saw a big flash, and I asked my husband, 'Is that the moon?'" It was, and she began thinking

157

Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids’ property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are discussed in Chapter V, followed by summary and conclusions in Chapter VI.

Pendelton, Alice Mae

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Is Graphite a Diamonds Best Friend? New Information on Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 18th, 2003 November 18th, 2003 Is Graphite a Diamond's Best Friend? New Information on Material Transformation Science has yet to achieve the alchemist's dream of turning lead into gold. But a group of re-searchers using the GeoSoilEn-viroCARS (GSECARS) and High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HP-CAT) facilities at the Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, may have found a way to turn ordinary soft graphite (source of the "lead" found in pencils) into a new, super-hard material that "looks" just like diamond. Using the high-brilliance x-ray beams from the APS, the group discovered that, under extreme pressure, graphite (among the softest of materials and the source of the lead found in pencils) becomes as hard as diamond, the

159

Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150 C and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metallic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; David Harvey; M. Dutta; V. Colbow; S. Wessel

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Theory, Design and Development of Artificial Magnetic Materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Artificial Magnetic Materials (AMMs) are a subgroup of metamaterials which are engineered to provide desirable magnetic properties not seen in natural materials. These artificial structures… (more)

Yousefi, Leila

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Atomic hydrogen adsorption on lithium-doped graphite surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lithium doping of pristine and defective graphite surfaces on hydrogen adsorption are studied by the first-principles Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory. The surface defects are simulated by a single atomic vacancy. The DFT calculation is corrected for long-range effects through semi-empirical London terms for each constituent of the system. The lithium doping of the graphite surfaces notably reinforces hydrogen atom binding. Qualitative comparison with experimental results is given using the lithium 1s energy level shifts induced by the atomic vacancy and/or hydrogen trapping.

Allouche, Alain [CNRS/Univ. de Provence (France); Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

High strength graphite and method for preparing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High strength graphite is manufactured from a mixture of a particulate filler prepared by treating a particulate carbon precursor at a temperature in the range of about 400.degree. to 1000.degree. C., an organic carbonizable binder, and green carbonizable fibers in a concentration of not more than 2 weight per cent of the filler. The use of the relatively small quantity of green fibers provides a substantial increase in the flexural strength of the graphite with only a relatively negligible increase in the modulus of elasticity.

Overholser, Lyle G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Graphit-ceramic RF Faraday-thermal shield and plasma limiter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process of brazing a ceramic mater to graphite. In particular, the brazing procedure is directed to the production of a novel brazed ceramic graphite product useful as a Faraday shield.

Hwang, David L. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Spatializing Growth Suitability for Spring Soybean Cultivation in Northeast China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an integrated indicator-based system is established to map the suitability of spring soybean cultivation in northeast China. The indicator system incorporates both biophysical and socioeconomic factors, including the effects of ...

Yingbin He; Dongmei Liu; Yanmin Yao; Qing Huang; Jianping Li; Youqi Chen; Shuqin Shi; Li Wan; Shikai Yu; Deying Wang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Reanalyses Suitable for Characterizing Long-Term Trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reanalyses are, by a substantial margin, the most utilized climate data products, and they are applied in a myriad of different contexts. Despite their popularity, there are substantial concerns about their suitability for the monitoring of long-...

P. W. Thorne; R. S. Vose

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Self-Assembly and Mass Transport in Membranes for Artificial Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for artificial photosynthesis systems ..6Photosynthesis 7up process of artificial photosynthesis membranes and open

Modestino, Miguel Antonio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Lithium intercalated graphite : experimental Compton profile for stage one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L-301 Lithium intercalated graphite : experimental Compton profile for stage one G. Loupias, J différence des profils Compton est compatible avec un transfert total de l'électron de conduction du lithium électronique due à l'insertion. Abstract. 2014 Electron momentum distribution of the first stage lithium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Superconductivity at 35 K in Graphite-Sulfur Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report magnetization measurements performed on graphite–sulfur composites which demonstrate a clear superconducting behavior below the critical temperature Tc0 = 35 K. The Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect, screening supercurrents, and magnetization hysteresis loops characteristic of type-II superconductors were measured. The results indicate that the superconductivity occurs in a small sample fraction, possibly related to the sample surface.

R. Ricardo Da Silva; J. H. S. Torres; Y. Kopelevich

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Electrochemical measurements on lightweight composite nickel-graphite battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Graphite mat fibers and nickel metal composite electrodes are superior to sintered carbonyl-nickel powder electrodes in nickel-cadmium cells. The composite electrode functions as a thin electrode and can be utilized in nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and nickel-hydrogen electrochemical systems. 4 refs.

Sutula, R.A.; Crowe, C.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Molecular dynamics simulations of ordered alkane chains physisorbed on graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations of ordered alkane chains physisorbed on graphite Reinhard Hentschke molecular axes oriented parallel to the substrate. Here we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain more details on the molecular order and dynamics within the alkane lamellae as a function

Peters, Achim

171

In accounts of seminal neutron research at ORNL's Graphite Reactor,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requested permission to set up an X-ray diffractometer he had brought from the University of Chicago for his of the Graphite Reactor. "I was a student at the University of Chicago in 1942 when Enrico Fermi was doing his. 25 Scrooge (OR Playhouse) Nov. 27 Football: UT vs. Kentucky Dec. 4 Fiddler on the Roof Dec. 11 Best

172

Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The innate capability to perceive 3-dimensional stereo imagery has been exploited to present multidimensional meteorological data fields. Variations on an artificial stereo technique first discussed by Pichel et al (1973) are used to display ...

A. F. Hasler; M. desJardins; A. J. Negri

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

6.034 Artificial Intelligence, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.034 is the header course for the department's "Artificial Intelligence and Applications" concentration. This course introduces students to the basic knowledge representation, problem solving, and learning methods of ...

Winston, Patrick Henry

174

Architecture for an Artificial Immune System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation, and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework ...

Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie A. Forrest

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA); Juntz, Robert S. (Hayward, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Perception modeling for human-like artificial sensor systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we present an approach to the design of human-like artificial systems. It uses a perception model to describe how sensory information is processed for a particular task and to correlate human and artificial perception. Since human-like ... Keywords: Active perception, Artificial hand, Artificial perceptual systems, Dexterous manipulation, Electronic tongue, Human-based sensors, Passive perception

Linn Robertsson; Boyko Iliev; Rainer Palm; Peter Wide

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 December 17, 2008 This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year. In response to significant, continuing security clearance timeliness concerns, Congress called for improvements and established specific timeliness goals as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA). Since the enactment of IRTPA, average timeliness for 90 percent of all clearance determinations reported has been substantially improved, from 265 days (in 2005) to 82 days (4th Quarter,

178

Catalytic graphitization of carbon aerogels by transition metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels and Cr-, Fe-, Co-, and Ni-containing carbon aerogels were obtained by pyrolysis, at temperatures between 500 and 1,800 C, of the corresponding aerogels prepared by the sol-gel method from polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde. All samples were characterized by mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results obtained show that carbon aerogels are, essentially, macroporous materials that maintain large pore volumes even after pyrolysis at 1,800 C. For pyrolysis at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, the presence of the transition metals produced graphitized areas with three-dimensional stacking order, as shown by HRTEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. HRTEM also showed that the metal-carbon containing aerogels were formed by polyhedral structures. Cr and Fe seem to be the best catalysts for graphitization of carbon aerogels.

Maldonado-Hodar, F.J.; Moreno-Castilla, C.; Rivera-Utrilla, J.; Hanzawa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

179

Helium-ion-induced release of hydrogen from graphite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ion-induced release of hydrogen from AXF-5Q graphite was studied for 350-eV helium ions. The hydrogen was implanted into the graphite with a low energy (approx.200 eV) and to a high fluence. This achieved a thin (approx.10-nm), saturated near-surface region. The release of hydrogen was measured as a function of helium fluence. A model that includes ion-induced detrapping, retrapping, and surface recombination was used to analyze the experimental data. A value of (1.65 +- 0.2) x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ was obtained from the detrapping cross section, and a value of (0.5 to 4) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 4//atoms was obtained for the recombination coefficient. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Langley, R.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

Julie Chapman

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Behavior of Chlorine-36 and Tritium in Irradiated Graphite Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the international data on the formation and distribution of 36Cl and 3H in graphite moderators in the context of the treatment and/or disposal of the material upon reactor decommissioning. Organizations in France have made major contributions to work in the field of 36Cl, and the review also considers work from the UK, USA and Ukraine.BackgroundThe Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has conducted a ...

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

VINYL COATING OF GRAPHITE PLATES FOR ULTRASONIC INSPECTION  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed for application of a thin, adherent vinyi plastic coating to graphite plates to prevent absorption of coupling fluids'' used in ultrasonic inspection. The plates are preheated and dipped mechanically in a fluid plastisol, and the resulting coating is fused in an infra-red heater. No significant attenuation of ultrasonic impulse results from presence of the coating. After inspection, the vinyl sheath may be easily stripped from the plate. (auth)

Church, J.S.; Bell, J.H. Jr.; Donahoe, J.K.; Faussone, R.A.; Rogers, G.B.; Rowen, J.T.

1958-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

First-principles study of Se-intercalated graphite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Se-intercalated graphite compounds (Se-GICs) are considered as promising candidates for room-temperature thermoelectric cooling devices. Here the authors analyze the crystallographic structure and electronic properties of these materials within the framework of density-functional theory. First, the Adaptive-Coordinate Real-space Electronic Structure (ACRES) code is used to determine the stable structure of a representative stage-2 Se-GIC by relaxing atomic positions. The stable configuration is found to be a pendant-type structure, in which each selenium is bonded covalently to two atoms within the same carbon layer, causing a local distortion of the in-plane conjugation of the graphite. Then, they use the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to calculate the electronic band structure of the material and discuss its properties. Near the Fermi energy E{sub F}, there are wide bands originating from the host graphitic electronic structure and a few very narrow bands mainly of Se 4p character. The latter bands contribute to high peaks in the density of states close to E{sub F}. They show that this feature, although typical of many good thermoelectrics, does not necessarily imply high thermopower in the case of Se-GICs.

BARTKOWIAK,M.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; SOFO,J.O.; MAHAN,G.D.

2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

184

Graphite having improved thermal stress resistance and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for fabricating a graphite article comprises the steps of impregnating a coke article by first heating the coke article in contact with a thermoplastic pitch at a temperature within the range of 250.degree.-300.degree. C. at a pressure within the range of 200-2000 psig for at least 4-10 hours and then heating said article at a temperature within the range of 450.degree.-485.degree. C. at a pressure of 200-2000 psig for about 16-24 hours to provide an impregnated article; heating the impregnated article for sufficient time to carbonize the impregnant to provide a second coke article, and graphitizing the second coke article. A graphite having improved thermal stress resistance results when the coke to be impregnated contains 1-3 wt.% sulfur and no added puffing inhibitors. An additional improvement in thermal stress resistance is achieved when the second coke article is heated above about 1400.degree. C. at a rate of at least 10.degree. C./minute to a temperature above the puffing temperature.

Kennedy, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Artificial retina: Invention of the year  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1513_retina 1513_retina 11/15/2013 The Argus II artificial retina, in which Lawrence Livermore has played a prominent roll, has enough resolution for people to see the lines of a crosswalk, find objects and read letters a couple of centimeters tall. Image by Dan Foley/Second Sight Argus II. Artificial retina: Invention of the year Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov The artificial retina, in which Lawrence Livermore has played a prominent role, has earned a place in the top 25 best inventions of the year 2013 from Time Magazine. The invention also has garnered a 2013 best innovation designation by Popular Science. This Department of Energy funded project resulted in the creation of the first-ever retinal prosthesis -- or bionic eye -- approved in the United

186

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Steam Generator Modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of different Artificial Intelligence methods to predict the values of several continuous variables from a Steam Generator. The objective was to determine how the different artificial intelligence methods performed in making predictions on the given dataset. The artificial intelligence methods evaluated were Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems. The types of neural networks investigated were Multi-Layer Perceptions, and Radial Basis Function. Bayesian and committee techniques were applied to these neural networks. Each of the AI methods considered was simulated in Matlab. The results of the simulations showed that all the AI methods were capable of predicting the Steam Generator data reasonably accurately. However, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system out performed the other methods in terms of accuracy and ease of implementation, while still achieving a fast execution time as well as a reasonable training time.

Wright, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should be estimated to evaluate its potential suitability for expeditionary forces. The overriding conclusion of this effort is that we feel a suitable prime mover can be found but that the development will be technically challenging and trade-offs will be made before an optimum solution is found.

Theiss, T.J.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

188

Land use suitability screening for power plant sites in Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing an automated procedure for land use suitability screening. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has funded the project to aid in the selection of power plant sites in Maryland. Its purpose is to identify candidate areas from which specific candidate sites can be chosen for detailed analyses. The ORNL approach assures that certain key variables are examined empirically for every cell in the study region before candidate sites are selected. Each variable is assigned an importance weight and compatibility score based upon its effect on the economic, social, or ecologic costs associated with construction in a given cell. The weighted scores for each variable are aggregated and output as a suitability score for each cell. (auth)

Dobson, J.E.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method is disclosed for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite`s high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding. 11 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Ramsey, P.B.; Juntz, R.S.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

190

Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

Chan, Kwai S. (San Antonio, TX); Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry (San Antonio, TX); Liang, Wuwei (Austin, TX)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Rayleigh-Ritz variational method with suitable asymptotic behaviour  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss Rayleigh-Ritz variational calculations with nonorthogonal basis sets that exhibit the correct asymptotic behaviour. We construct the suitable basis sets for general one-dimensional models and illustrate the application of the approach on two double-well oscillators proposed recently by other authors. The rate of convergence of the variational method proves to be considerably greater than the one exhibited by the recently developed orthogonal polynomial projection quantization.

Javier Garcia; Francisco M Fernández

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Cooperation and community structure in artificial ecosystems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review results on the evolution of cooperation based on the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Coevolution of strategies is discussed both in situations where everyone plays against everyone, and for spatial games. Simple artificial ecologies are constructed ... Keywords: Prisoner's Dilemma, community structure, cooperation, evolution, food webs, lattice games

Kristian Lindgren; Mats G. Nordahl

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Emotional body language displayed by artificial agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex and natural social interaction between artificial agents (computer-generated or robotic) and humans necessitates the display of rich emotions in order to be believable, socially relevant, and accepted, and to generate the natural emotional responses ... Keywords: Human computer interactions, emotional body language, human robot interactions

Aryel Beck; Brett Stevens; Kim A. Bard; Lola Cañamero

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Artificial fishes: physics, locomotion, perception, behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a framework for animation that can achieve the intricacy of motion evident in certain natural ecosystems with minimal input from the animator. The realistic appearance, movement, and behavior of individual animals, as well as the ... Keywords: animate vision, artificial life, autonomous agents, behavioral animation, locomotion control, physics-based modeling

Xiaoyuan Tu; Demetri Terzopoulos

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Artificial Intelligence and Environmental Decision Support Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effective protection of our environment is largely dependent on the quality of the available information used to make an appropriate decision. Problems arise when the quantities of available information are huge and nonuniform (i.e., coming from many ... Keywords: artificial intelligence, environmental decision support systems, problem solving

U. Cortés; M. Sànchez-Marrè; L. Ceccaroni; I. R-Roda; M. Poch

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Opposition-based artificial bee colony algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is a relatively new algorithm for function optimization. The algorithm is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. In this work, the performance of ABC is enhanced by introducing the concept of opposition-based ... Keywords: benchmarking, black-box optimization, opposition-based learning, swarm intelligence

Mohammed El-Abd

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Wettability of Liquid Aluminum on Carbon/Graphite/TiB2 Composite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Wettability of Liquid Aluminum on Carbon/Graphite/TiB2 ... The Applicability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Primary Aluminium ...

199

Method of fabricating graphite for use as a skeletal prosthesis and product thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing porous graphite for use as bone replacement with a structure for osteon penetration. Graphite is produced with ordered circular pores of 100 to 1000 microns in diameter covering at least 25% of the exposed surfaces. A cylindrical fiber is coated with a carbon flour-pitch mix and is then wound on a bobbin in a predetermined manner. The product of winding is dried, pressed, carbonized, and then graphitized. The fibers are removed either chemically or by volatilization during carbonization or graphitization.

Eatherly, Walter P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Robbins, J. M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rosson, Sr., David E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Artificial Retina Project Wins 2009 R&D 100 Award  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D 100 logo Breaking News: DOE Artificial Retina Project Takes Top Prize: R&D 100 Editors' Choice Award Nov. 12, 2009 - UPDATE: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Artificial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Game Analysis of the Evolution of Artificial Stock Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we build the participators’ logistic model of the game model in artificial stock market. The participators are three types: flexible agent, semi-flexible agent and rigidity agent. Then, we set up the game model in artificial stock ... Keywords: Artificial stock market, Game model, Agent

She Zhenyu; Yan Bo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Electronic structure of graphite/6H-SiC interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We have studied the electronic structure of the interface between 6H-SiC{0001} and graphite. On n-type and p-type 6H-SiC(0001) we observe Schottky barriers of ?Si b,n = 0.3±0.1 eV and ?Si b,p = 2.7±0.1 eV, respectively. The observed barrier is face specific: on n-type 6H-SiC(0001) we find ?C b,n = 1.3±0.1 eV. The impact of these barriers on the electrical properties of metal/SiC contacts is discussed.

Th. Seyller; K. V. Emtsev; F. Speck; K. -y. Gao; L. Ley

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herman, Herbert (Port Jefferson, NY); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Collisions between Hydrogen and Graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Hydrogen adsorption by graphite is examined by classical molecular dynamics simulation using a modified Brenner REBO potential. Such interactions are typical in chemical sputtering experiments, and knowledge of the fundamental behavior of hydrogen and graphene in collisional conditions is essential for modeling the sputtering mechanism. The hydrogen adsorption rate is found to be dependent on the incident hydrogen energy and not on graphene temperature. Rather than destroying the graphene, hydrogen incidence at energies of less than 100 eV can be classified into three regimes of adsorption, reflection and penetration through one or more graphene layers. Incidence at the lowest energies is shown to distort the graphene structure. 1.

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Optical and electronic properties of two dimensional graphitic silicon carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical and electronic properties of two dimensional few layers graphitic silicon carbide (GSiC), in particular monolayer and bilayer, are investigated by density functional theory and found different from that of graphene and silicene. Monolayer GSiC has direct bandgap while few layers exhibit indirect bandgap. The bandgap of monolayer GSiC can be tuned by an in-plane strain. Properties of bilayer GSiC are extremely sensitive to the interlayer distance. These predictions promise that monolayer GSiC could be a remarkable candidate for novel type of light-emitting diodes utilizing its unique optical properties distinct from graphene, silicene and few layers GSiC.

Lin, Xiao; Lin, Shisheng; Hakro, Ayaz Ali; Cao, Te; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Baile

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Prerequisite requirements for higher graphite temperature limits and/or nitrogen atmosphere at all reactors  

SciTech Connect

The graphite temperature limits specified in the process standards-are being closely approached or have limited power levels at B, D, DR, and reactors. An increase of approximately 50--100 C in graphite temperature limits at these reactors would permit year-around operation on bulk outlet temperature limits. There has been considerable recent interest in extending to all reactors the use of nitrogen as a reactor gas constituent. With present graphite temperature limits, significant benefit from nitrogen usage will not be obtained during the winter months at reactors which are graphite temperature limited with approximately 100 per cent helium. However, during the summer months when bulk outlet temperature limitations result in graphite temperatures considerably below the maximum permissible graphite temperatures, the substitution of nitrogen for carbon dioxide could be of value. Under these circumstances, both a reduction in helium usage and a reduction in enrichment costs could result. With an increase in permissible graphite temperature limits, year-around benefit from reduced helium usage and reduced enrichment costs would be possible. To meet the Pu-240 specification with higher graphite temperatures however, would require a reduction in current goal discharge exposures with resulting increased fuel and burnout costs. Additionally, the incentives for higher graphite temperatures are very sensitive to both the mode of operation and to the assumed product worth. An economic study by the Process Analysis Unit discussing in detail the factors influencing the incentive for higher graphite temperature will be published in the near future. At a meeting among the staff several weeks ago, the prerequisite requirements for permitting higher graphite temperatures and/or nitrogen usage at all reactors were discussed. It is the purpose of this letter to briefly outline the prerequisite steps considered necessary to achieve these goals.

Graves, S.M.

1962-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

Strizak, Joe P [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to form the stable surface film and to further enhance the long-term cycling stability of the graphite anodes of lithium-ion batteries, the surface of graphite powders has been modified by AlF3 coating through chemical precipitation method. The AlF3-coated graphite shows no evident changes in the bulk structure and a thin AlF3-coating layer of about 2 nm thick is found to uniformly cover the graphite particles with 2 wt% AlF3 content. However, it delivers a higher initial discharge capacity and largely improved rate performances compared to the pristine graphite. Remarkably, AlF3 coated graphite demonstrated a much better cycle life. After 300 cycles, AlF3 coated graphite and uncoated graphite show capacity retention of 92% and 81%, respectively. XPS measurement shows that a more conductive solid electrode interface (SEI) layer was formed on AlF3 coated graphite as compared to uncoated graphite. SEM monograph also reveals that the AlF3-coated graphite particles have a much more stable surface morphology after long-term cycling. Therefore, the improved electrochemical performance of AlF3 coated graphite can be attributed to a more stable and conductive SEI formed on coated graphite anode during cycling process.

Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Wei; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Chen, Xilin; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

209

Artificial fishes: Physics, locomotion, perception, behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

physics-based modeling Abstract: This paper proposesa framework for animation that can achieve the intricacy of motion evident in certain natural ecosystems with minimal input from the animator. The realistic appearance, movement, and behavior of individual animals, as well as the patterns of behavior evident in groups of animals fall within the scope of the framework. Our approach to emulating this level of natural complexity is to model each animal holistically as an autonomous agent situated in its physical world. To demonstrate the approach, we develop a physics-based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes that can swim hydrodynamically in simulated water through the motor control of internal muscles that motivate fins. Their repertoire of behaviors relies on their perception of the dynamic environment. As in nature, the detailed motions of artificial fishes in their virtual habitat are not entirely predictable because they are not scripted. 1

Xiaoyuan Tu; Demetri Terzopoulos

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PYROLYTIC GRAPHITE TO 5000 F  

SciTech Connect

Tensile properties of pyrolytic graphite were measured parallel to the basal planes from room temperature to 5000 deg F. The gage section of the test specimen was 0.06 by 0.10 in. in cross section and3/4-in. long. The specimens were heated in a helium atmosphere by an external graphite heater and were tested at a strain rate of approx 2 x 10/sup -//sup 4/ in./in./sec. Tensile strengths at room temperatare varied from 6,000 to 19,000 psi with elongations of less thsn 1%. At 3000 deg F the strength and elongation were approximately the same as at room temperature. At 4000 deg F there was a very slight increase in the strength and elongation. At 4500 deg F tensile strengths to 35,000 psi and elongations up to 3%, and at 5000"F tensile strengths of 64,000 psi and elongations greater than 70% were measured. At 4500 deg F and above load-deformation curves were recorded. Microstructure and x-ray diffraction patterns showed that marked structural changes accompsny deformation at 5000 deg F. Large changes in room-temperature dimensions, parallel and perpendicular to the basal planes, were measured after heating, with no load, to temperatures in this same range. (auth)

Kotlensky, W.V.; Martens, H.E.

1961-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Nanoribbons: Synthesis, Characterization and Transport  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-doped graphitic nanoribbons (Nx-GNRs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using pyrazine as a nitrogen precursor, are reported for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveal that the synthesized materials are formed by multi-layered corrugated graphitic nanoribbons (GNRs) which in most cases exhibit the formation of curved graphene edges (loops). This suggests that during growth, nitrogen atoms promote loop formation; undoped GNRs do not form loops at their edges. Transport measurements on individual pure carbon GNRs exhibit a linear I-V (current-voltage) behavior, whereas Nx-GNRs show reduced current responses following a semiconducting-like behavior, which becomes more prominent for high nitrogen concentrations. To better understand the experimental findings, electron density of states (DOS), quantum conductance for nitrogen doped zigzag and armchair single-layer GNRs are calculated for different N doping concentrations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green functions. These calculations confirm the crucial role of nitrogen atoms in the transport properties, confirming that the nonlinear I-V curves are due to the presence of nitrogen atoms within the Nx-GNRs lattice that act as scattering sites. These characteristic Nx-GNRs transport could be advantageous in the fabrication of electronic devices including sensors in which metal-like undoped GNRs are unsuitable.

Jia, Xiaoting [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Dresselhaus, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Munoz-Sandoval, E [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The Effect of Neutron Irradiation on the Fracture Toughness of Graphite  

SciTech Connect

As part of our irradiated graphite recycle program a small quantity of PCEA grade graphite was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The graphite will provide the raw material for future recycle experiments. The geometry of the irradiated graphite allowed us to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the Critical Stress Intensity Factor, KIc, of graphite. The specimens where irradiated in two groups of 6 at an irradiation temperature of 900 C in rabbit capsules to doses of 6.6 and 10.2 DPA, respectively. Following a full suite of pre-and post-irradiation examination, which included dimensions, mass, electrical resistivity, elastic constants, and thermal expansion (to 800 C) the samples were notched and tested to determine their KIc using the newly approved ATSM test method for SENB fracture toughness of graphite. Here we report the irradiation induced changes in the dimensions, elastic constants, resistivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion of PCEA graphite. Moreover, irradiation induced changes in the Critical Stress Intensity Factor, KIc, or fracture toughness, are reported and discussed. Very little work on the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of graphite has previously be performed or reported.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Strizak, Joe P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Characteristics of graphene FET directly transformed from a resist pattern through interfacial graphitization of liquid gallium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We found that an extremely thin resist pattern on silicon dioxide can be directly transformed into a graphene field effect transistor (FET) channel via interfacial graphitization of liquid gallium. These patterned graphene FETs have p-type characteristics ... Keywords: Conductance, FET, Gallium, Graphene, Graphitization, Resist, Solid phase reaction

Jun-ichi Fujita; Ryuichi Ueki; Takuya Nishijima; Yosuke Miyazawa

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Chemical sputtering of ATJ graphite induced by low-energy D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical sputtering of ATJ graphite induced by low-energy Dþ 2 bombardment L.I. Vergara *, F Received 15 June 2005; accepted 4 August 2005 Abstract Results of chemical sputtering of ATJ graphite thermonuclear fusion reactor devices. Chemical and physical sputtering processes, which occur when thermal

216

Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: {yields} Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. {yields} The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. {yields} A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. {yields} The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

Kamali, Ali Reza, E-mail: ark42@cam.ac.uk; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Pore-width-dependent preferential interaction of sp2carbon atoms in cyclohexene with graphitic slit pores by GCMC simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adsorption of cyclohexene with two sp2 and four sp3 carbon atoms in graphitic slit pores was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The molecular arrangement of the cyclohexene on the graphitic carbon ...

Natsuko Kojima; Tomonori Ohba; Yasuhiko Urabe; Hirofumi Kanoh; Katsumi Kaneko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged… (more)

Nyathi, Mhlwazi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis.

Kangas, Lars J. (Richland, WA); Keller, Paul E. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. 12 figs.

Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

222

Geophysical remote sensing of water reservoirs suitable for desalinization.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many parts of the United States, as well as other regions of the world, competing demands for fresh water or water suitable for desalination are outstripping sustainable supplies. In these areas, new water supplies are necessary to sustain economic development and agricultural uses, as well as support expanding populations, particularly in the Southwestern United States. Increasing the supply of water will more than likely come through desalinization of water reservoirs that are not suitable for present use. Surface-deployed seismic and electromagnetic (EM) methods have the potential for addressing these critical issues within large volumes of an aquifer at a lower cost than drilling and sampling. However, for detailed analysis of the water quality, some sampling utilizing boreholes would be required with geophysical methods being employed to extrapolate these sampled results to non-sampled regions of the aquifer. The research in this report addresses using seismic and EM methods in two complimentary ways to aid in the identification of water reservoirs that are suitable for desalinization. The first method uses the seismic data to constrain the earth structure so that detailed EM modeling can estimate the pore water conductivity, and hence the salinity. The second method utilizes the coupling of seismic and EM waves through the seismo-electric (conversion of seismic energy to electrical energy) and the electro-seismic (conversion of electrical energy to seismic energy) to estimate the salinity of the target aquifer. Analytic 1D solutions to coupled pressure and electric wave propagation demonstrate the types of waves one expects when using a seismic or electric source. A 2D seismo-electric/electro-seismic is developed to demonstrate the coupled seismic and EM system. For finite-difference modeling, the seismic and EM wave propagation algorithms are on different spatial and temporal scales. We present a method to solve multiple, finite-difference physics problems that has application beyond the present use. A limited field experiment was conducted to assess the seismo-electric effect. Due to a variety of problems, the observation of the electric field due to a seismic source is not definitive.

Aldridge, David Franklin; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Bonal, Nedra; Engler, Bruce Phillip

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

STORED ENERGY: GROWTH AND ANNEALING STATUS OF GRAPHITE MODERATOR IN THE BNL RESEARCH REACTOR. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The present sthtus, past annealing procedures and experiences, future annealing procedures, annealing sehedule, revised annealing procedure (1958), procedure for combating a graphite fire in fuel channel, high-temperature stored energy, and graphite burning experiments are reportcd for the BNL Research Reactor. The following subjccts are discussed in the appendixes: control of radiation damage in a graphitc reactor; annealing of graphite moderator structure in the BNL; annealing operation in BNL graphite reactor; effect of pile radiation on mechanical and other properties of graphite; neutron sensing instrumentation; instrumentation for sensing fuel failures; thermocouple pattern for enriched fuel loading; environmental hazard from a molten fuel element; retention of volatile flssion products on filters; retention of volatile fission products on water tube coolers; retention of volatile fission products in molten fuel plates; and release of the lowtemperature stored energy in the BEPO Pile. (W.L.H.)

1959-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Relation between measurable and principal characteristics of radiation-induced shape-change of graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the basis of studies of radiation-induced shape-change of reactor graphite GR-280, through the series of measurements of samples with different orientation of cutting with respect to the direction of extrusion, a conclusion is made about the existence of polycrystal substructural elements - domains. Domains, like graphite as a whole, possess the property of transverse isotropy, but have different amplitudes of shape-change and random orientations of the axes of axial symmetry. The model of graphite, constructed on the basis of the concept of domains allowed to explain from a unified point of view most of existing experimental data. It is shown that the presence of the disoriented domain structure leads to the development of radiation-induced stresses and to the dependence of the shape-change on the size of graphite samples. We derive the relation between the shape-change of finite size samples and the actual shape-change of macro-graphite.

M. V. Arjakov; A. V. Subbotin; S. V. Panyukov; O. V. Ivanov; A. S. Pokrovskii; D. V. Kharkov

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

Decision Matrix Screening Tool to Identify the Best Artificial Lift Method for Liquid-loaded Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid loading is a serious problem in gas wells. Many proven artificial lift methods have been used to alleviate this problem. However, a complete workflow to determine the most suitable artificial lift method for given well conditions does not exist. In 2008, Han Young Park presented his thesis of decision matrix tool using a decision tree technique for data mining that determined the best artificial lift method for liquid loading in gas wells from seven artificial lift methods: plunger lift, gas lift, ESP, PCP, rod pump, jet pump, and piston pump. He determined the technical feasibility and the cost evaluation of these seven techniques. His workflow consisted of three rounds. The first round was the preliminary screening round. By using all input well conditions, the impractical techniques were screened out. In the second round, all the techniques from round one were graded and ranked. In the third round, the economic evaluation was performed by using cost for each artificial lift method and assuming the constant additional gas production per day to determine net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). In this thesis, we propose an extended workflow from the Han-Young’s thesis for the decision matrix tool. We added integrated production simulations (reservoir to wellhead) step with commercial software in between the second and third round. We performed simulations of the various artificial lift methods to see the additional gains from each technique. We used the additional gas production resulted from simulation to calculate economic yardsticks (the third round), NPV and IRR. Moreover, we made the decision matrix more complete by adding three more liquid unloading techniques to the decision matrix: velocity string, foam injection, and heated tubing. We have also updated all screening conditions, the technical scores, and the costs for the decision matrix from the previous study using literature reviews, information from the project’s sponsor, information from service company and our own judgment. The aim of the decision matrix is to allow operators to screen quickly and efficiently for the most suitable artificial lift method to solve the liquid loading problem under given well conditions.

Soponsakulkaew, Nitsupon

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

THE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR POWER PLANT FOR CPPD  

SciTech Connect

The plant arrangement, component design, and the functions of various systems are described and illustrated. Relative estimated costs of the systems and major components are indicated. The reactor core is designed around requiremouts for 254 thermal megawatts, 950 deg F maximum sodium temperature, stainless steel clad graphite moderator blocks, and low enrichment (0.015 to 0.04 U/sup 235/) uranium fuel elements. The fuel cycle is described for the possible fuel elements. The fuel cost factors are discussed. Burn-up limitations encountered for metallic fuel in the SGR temperature range indicate UO/sub 2/ the more desirable choice. The estimated cost of electrical energy associated with the UO/sub 2/ fuel is given. (auth)

Olson, R.L.; Gerber, R.C.; Gordon, R.B.; Ross-Clunis, H.A.; Stolz, J.F.

1958-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

THE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR: TOMMORROW'S POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the Advanced Sodium Graphite Reactor Power Plant, including the reactor, heat transfer systems, generatirg plant, control systems, and the economics of producing 256 Mw(e). The safety of this design is due to its unusually low operating pressure, absence of chemically incompatible materials in the core, and excellent stability under atatic and dynamic conditions. The reactor is being constructed at Hallam, Nebraska, at a probable cost of 0 to 0/kw, exclusive of the first core costs. The 151 fuel elements of uranium carbide are enriched to 2.75 at.% U/sup 235/ and clad in stainless steel. The average thermal neutron flux in the fuel is 8 x 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2/sec. (B.O.G.)

Beeley, R.J.; Lowell, E.G.; Polak, H.; Renard, J.

1960-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

228

CORE PARAMETER STUDY FOR A 300-MW SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A core parameter study of the operating costs was performed for a 300- Mwe sodium graphite reactor, a scale-up of the Hallam Power Reactor. The results of the study indicate that the core design is nsar optimum and that core modifications would reduce the power costs by less than 5%. The lattice spacing, fuel rod diameter, and sodium flow can be varied within a rather broad range without significant changes in power generation costs. The effect of the fuel cladning thickness is more significant; fuel cycle costs can be reduced if stainless steel canning is replaced with zirconium canning. Use of UC in place of uraniummolybdenum fuel would also permit cost reductions. (D.L.C.)

Corcoran, W.P.

1959-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

229

Note on Graphite Oxidation by Oxygen and Moisture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Simplified equations of graphite oxidation are reviewed for semi-infinite slab, finite slab, and cylinder geometries, using the principal assumptions of linearized oxidation kinetics and quasi-steady state oxidation profile. All equations are coupled to a general surface mass transfer boundary condition. The equations include those for oxidant concentration distribution, surface oxidation rate, burnoff profile, and oxidation efficiency. This review also covers some areas that may not be well recognized. The key role of the effective diffusivity is highlighted, with a brief review of measured values. The temperature-dependence of the surface oxidation rate is shown to be more complex than usually shown for the diffusion-affected zone. Assumption of linear kinetics permits ready estimation of equilibration time for development of the quasi-steady burnoff profile. In addition, approximations for the time-steady hydrogen concentration profiles are developed for the case of oxidation by H2O. All cited methods can be readily evaluated by spreadsheet calculation.

Wichner, Robert [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Gaps at the periphery of N Reactor graphite stack: A photographic survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Miniature camera techniques were used to examine regions at the perimeter of the N Reactor graphite stack. Extensive coverage in previously unexplored regions was obtained. Gaps at the top of the unit show no visible evidence of graphite growth related distortion or displacement. Debris apparently associated with leaks in the subcritical monitors is observed but there are no indications that the material adversely affects the functions of safety, cooling, or monitoring systems. Gaps inside the right primary shield reveal graphite cooling tubes and other components in undisturbed condition. The only changes since construction are a thin layer of graphite dust from earlier rod channel renovation and oxide films on steel components. In the steam vent between moderator and reflector graphite, displaced and broken graphite blocks are observed. Again, no functional impairment of rod channels or other systems is observed. There is no evidence of distortion or deterioration of the graphite cooling tubes. The surveillance summarized here explores many previously hidden recesses. Some findings were unpredicted but none have given cause to change the safety status of the ball channel or control rod systems or to initiate any new safety enhancement measures. This report establishes a baseline for visual surveillance in perimeter regions of the N Reactor stack if operations resume. 10 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

Woodruff, E.M.; Weber, J.R.; Sinclair, R.B.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

A safety assessment of the use of graphite in nuclear reactors licensed by the US NRC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report reviews existing literature and knowledge on graphite burning and on stored energy accumulation and releases in order to assess what role, if any, a stored energy release can have in initiating or contributing to hypothetical graphite burning scenarios in research reactors. It also addresses the question of graphite ignition and self-sustained combustion in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The conditions necessary to initiate and maintain graphite burning are summarized and discussed. From analyses of existing information it is concluded that only stored energy accumulations and releases below the burning temperature (650/sup 0/C) are pertinent. After reviewing the existing knowledge on stored energy it is possible to show that stored energy releases do not occur spontaneously, and that the maximum stored energy that can be released from any reactor containing graphite is a very small fraction of the energy produced during the first few minutes of a burning incident. The conclusions from these analyses are that the potential to initiate or maintain a graphite burning incident is essentially independent of the stored energy in the graphite, and depends on other factors that are unique for these reactors, research reactors, and for Fort St. Vrain. In order to have self-sustained rapid graphite oxidation in any of these reactors, certain necessary conditions of geometry, temperature, oxygen supply, reaction product removal, and a favorable heat balance must be maintained. There is no new evidence associated with either the Windscale Accident or the Chernobyl Accident that indicates a credible potential for a graphite burning accident in any of the reactors considered in this review.

Schweitzer, D.G.; Gurinsky, D.H.; Kaplan, E.; Sastre, C.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the actual magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite.

Ohldag, Hendrik

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

233

Graphite-ceramic rf Faraday-thermal shield and plasma limiter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a brazing procedure for joining a ceramic or glass material (e.g., Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or Macor) to graphite. In particular, the present invention is directed to a novel brazing procedure for the production of a brazed ceramic graphite product useful as a Faraday shield. The brazed ceramic graphite Faraday shield of the present invention may be used in Magnetic Fusion Devices (e.g., Princeton Large Torus Tokamak) or other high temperature resistant apparatus.

Hwang, D.L.Q.; Hosea, J.C.

1983-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

234

Exercise protocols during short-radius centrifugation for artificial gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-duration spaceflight results in severe physiological deconditioning, threatening the success of interplanetary travel. Exercise combined with artificial gravity provided by centrifugation may be the comprehensive ...

Edmonds, Jessica Leigh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Claisen Rearrangement of Graphite Oxide: A Route to Covalently Functionalized Graphenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the GO: The basal plane allylic alcohol functionality of graphite oxide (GO) can be converted into N,N-dimethylamide groups through an Eschenmoser–Claisen sigmatropic rearrangement by using N,N-dimethylacetamide dimethyl ...

Collins, William R.

237

F5: Characteristic of Al/Graphite Metal Matrix Composites via Friction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thus, there are some tries to make advanced high-strength materials and the ... and line scanning were conducted to analyze the distribution of the graphite. ... Voltage Controlled Creep of a Nanoporous Gold/Electrolyte Hybrid Material ...

238

F-3: Hydrogen Storage Properties of Graphite-modified Mg–Ni–Ce ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The Mg17Ni1.5Ce0.5 hydrogen storage composites with different contents of graphite were prepared by a new method of mechanical milling ...

239

Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with graphite nanoparticles and carbon nanotube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid media such as oil or water, and a selected effective amount of carbon nanomaterials necessary to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid. One of the preferred carbon nanomaterials is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding that of the neat fluid to be dispersed therein in thermal conductivity, and ground, milled, or naturally prepared with mean particle size less than 500 nm, and preferably less than 200 nm, and most preferably less than 100 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic structure is another preferred source of carbon nanomaterial, although other carbon nanomaterials are acceptable. To confer long term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants is preferred. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without carbon nanomaterial, is proportional to the amount of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and/or graphite) added.

Zhang, Zhiqiang (Lexington, KY); Lockwood, Frances E. (Georgetown, KY)

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

240

The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the average magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite. Also, our findings show that the magnetic properties of graphite surfaces, thin films or two dimensional graphene samples can be reliably studied using soft x-ray dichroism. Fundamental new insight into the magnetic properties of carbon based systems can thus be obtained.

Ohldag, H.; Esquinazi, P.; Arenholz, E.; Spemann, D.; Rothermel, M.; Setzer, A.; Butz, T.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oxidation of hydrocarbons over ordered arrays of heteropolyacids and polyoxoanions on graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized using heteropolyacids or polyoxoanions deposited on a graphite surface. The heteropolyacids and polyoxoanions are framework-substituted with a different metal in place of a metal-oxygen unit.

Shaikh, S.N.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

242

Oxidation of hydrocarbons over ordered arrays of heteropolyacids and polyoxoanions on graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized using heteropolyacids (HPAs) or polyoxoanions (POAs) deposited on a graphite surface. The HPAs and POAs are framework-substituted with a different metal in place of a metal-oxygen unit.

Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV) concepts, such as the NGNP, it is fully expected that the behavior of these graphites will conform to the recognized trends for near isotropic nuclear graphite. Thus, much of the data needed is confirmatory in nature. Theories that can explain graphite behavior have been postulated and, in many cases, shown to represent experimental data well. However, these theories need to be tested against data for the new graphites and extended to higher neutron doses and temperatures pertinent to the new Gen IV reactor concepts. It is anticipated that current and planned future graphite irradiation experiments will provide the data needed to validate many of the currently accepted models, as well as providing the needed data for design confirmation.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Bratton, Rob [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Marsden, Barry [University of Manchester, UK; Srinivasan, Makuteswara [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights; Mitchell, Mark [PBMR (Pty) Ltd.; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hydrogen pumping and release by graphite under high flux plasma bombardment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inert gas (helium or argon) plasma bombardment has been found to increase the surface gas adsorptivity of isotropic graphite (POCO-graphite), which can then getter residual gases in a high vacuum system. The inert gas plasma bombardment was carried out at a flux approx. = 1 x 10/sup 18/ ions s/sup -1/ cm/sup -2/ to a fluence of the order of 10/sup 21/ ions/cm/sup 2/ and at temperatures around 800/sup 0/C. The gettering capability of graphite can be easily recovered by repeating inert gas plasma bombardment. The activated graphite surface exhibits a smooth, sponge-like morphology with significantly increased pore openings, which correlates with the observed increase in the surface gas adsorptivity. The activated graphite surface has been observed to pump hydrogen plasma particles as well. From calibrated H-alpha measurements, the dynamic hydrogen retention capacity is evaluated to be as large as 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C and at a plasma bombarding energy of 300 eV. The graphite temperature was varied between 15 and 480/sup 0/C. Due to the plasma particle pumping capability, hydrogen recycling from the activated graphite surface is significantly reduced, relative to that from a pre-saturated surface. A pre-saturated surface was also observed to reproducibly pump a hydrogen plasma to a concentration of 9.5 x 10/sup 17/ H/cm/sup 2/. The hydrogen retention capacity of graphite is found to decrease with increasing temperature. A transient pumping mechanism associated with the sponge-like surface morphology is conjectured to explain the large hydrogen retention capacity. Hydrogen release behavior under helium and argon plasma bombardment was also investigated, and the result indicated the possibility of some in-pore retrapping effect. 43 refs., 11 figs.

Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; LaBombard, B.; Nygren, R.; Wilson, K.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

DOE O 3731.1 Chg 1, Suitability, Position Sensitivity Designations, and Related Personnel Matters  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order identifies the interrelationships among suitability, security and access authorizations; to establish guidance and policy regarding position ...

1989-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

246

Artificial bee colony algorithm solution for optimal reactive power flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. Optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) based on ABC algorithm to minimize active power loss in power systems is studied in this ... Keywords: Artificial bee colony, Optimal reactive power flow, Penalty function, Power system

Kür?at Ayan; Ula? K?l?ç

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Modeling of tomato drying using artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study involves experimental works on drying of tomatoes in a tray dryer covering different variables like power of heater and air flow velocity. The data are modeled using artificial neural network and empirical mathematical equations. The results ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Curve fitting, Drying, Mathematical model

Kamyar Movagharnejad; Maryam Nikzad

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Artificial neural networks for electricity consumption forecasting considering climatic factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work develops Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models applied to predict the consumption forecasting considering climatic factors. It is intended to verify the influence of climatic factors on the electricity consumption forecasting through the ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, electricity consumption forecasting

Francisco David Moya Chaves

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Prediction of Breast Cancer Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to determine whether patients have breast cancer or not. Whether patients have cancer or not and if they have its type can be determined by using ANN and BI-RADS evaluation and based on ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, BI-RADS, Breast cancer, Breast cancer prediction

Ismail Saritas

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Predicting water saturation using artificial neural networks (ANNS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the petroleum industry is widely increasing after major developments in ANN design. In this study, ANNs were used to develop a model for predicting water saturation in shaly formations using wireline ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, petroleum industry, shaly sandstone formation, water saturation

Nabil Al-Bulushi; Mariela Araujo; Martin Kraaijveld

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Application of Artificial Intelligence Technique in Distributed Generation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper gives a brief description of current situation of distributed generation system, and points out that microgrid can run in two kinds of operation modes. The key problems which need to be cautiously considered exist in each operation mode are ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Distributed generation system, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithm, Multi-agent system

Guoqing Weng; Youbing Zhang; Yi Hu

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Review: a comprehensive overview of the applications of artificial life  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review the applications of artificial life ALife, the creation of synthetic life on computers to study, simulate, and understand living systems. The definition and features of ALife are shown by application studies. ALife application fields treated ... Keywords: Artificial life, evolution, hardware, perspective, simulation, software

Kyung-Joong Kim; Sung-Bae Cho

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Application on lithology recognition with BP artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is established to recognize the drilled formations' lithologies while drilling. The styles of output and input of ANN are designed. The nerve cells in input layer are weight of bit (WOB), speed of rotary (SOR) ... Keywords: artificial neural network, drilling, formation lithology, recognition

Jinhui Zhou; Jienian Yan; Li Pan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Accelerating improvement of fuzzy rules induction with artificial immune systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper introduces an algorithmic improvement to IFRAIS, an existing Artificial Immune System method for fuzzy rule mining. The improvement presented consists of using rule buffering during the computation of fitness of rules. This is achieved using ... Keywords: artificial immune system, data mining, fuzzy rules induction

Edward Mezyk; Olgierd Unold

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Modelling of Turkey's net energy consumption using artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using artificial neural network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of the energy consumption in Turkey. Two different models ... Keywords: Turkey, artificial neural networks, energy forecasting, energy sources, estimation, gross generation, net energy consumption

Adnan Sozen; Erol Arcaklioglu; Mehmet Ozkaymak

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electrical resistivity studies on graphite at high pressure and low temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure is shown to give a valuable insight into the intrinsic c-axis resistivity of Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG). For the purpose of improving the understanding of the fundamental behavior of this technologically important material, additional forms of graphitic material such as Grafoil, Single Crystal Graphite (SCG) and polycrystalline natural graphite were explored for a comparative analysis. A novel technique utilizing a gasketed diamond-anvil cell is described that permits four probe resistivity measurements at pressures of up to 40 kbar and temperatures extending down to 2 K while maintaining the integrity of samples as fragile as graphite. The four-lead arrangement is designed to avoid contact and lead-wire resistances which might otherwise obscure the comparatively small resistance changes of interest typical of highly conductive materials. The data on HOPG can be fitted well to a model describing conduction along the c-axis as composed of two components acting in parallel: an ordinary metallic one and a tunnelling conduction between crystallites. The total conductivity was found to be a superposition of both conductivities, and their respective weights depend on the quality of the graphite material.

Hockey, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Artificial Heart Pump (Additional Endogenous Heat) Program  

SciTech Connect

Three plutonium-238 radioisotope-powered heat sources were developed and fabricated at Mound Laboratory for use by Thermo Electron Engineering Corporation (TEECO) in the Artificial Heart Pump (Additional Endogenous Heat) Program. These sources contained doubly encapsulated plutonum-238 metal; two had a thermal power of 15(+2-0) W and one had 25(+0-2) W. Details of the design, fabrication, and testing of the heat sources are given in this report. Two of the heat sources (one 15-W and one 25-W) were shipped to TEECO for use with special heat exchangers in implantation experiments on dogs at Boston City Hospital. These tests have been under way since July, 1967. The third heat source (15-W) was fabricated for in-house testing at Mound Laboratory.

Davis, N. E.; Davenport, C. H.; Kelly, D. P.

1969-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

MHK Technologies/Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization SRI International Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Description This wave powered generator is unique in that it uses SRI s Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM technology a rubbery material that can generate electricity by simply being stretched and allowed to return to its original shape This artificial muscle technology can generate electricity directly from the motion of waves without the need for complicated and costly hydraulic transmissions that are typically found in other wave power generators

259

AN ADVANCED SODIUM-GRAPHITE REACTOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

An advanced sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated nuclear power plant is described which utilizes high-pressure, high-temperature steam to generate electricity at a high thermal efficiency. Steam is generated at 2400 psig, superheated to 1050 deg F and, after partial expansion in the turbine, reheated to 1000 deg F. Net thermal efficiency of the plant is 42.3%. In a plant sized to produce a net electrical output of 256 Mw, the estimated cost is 8232/kw. Estimated cost of power generation is 6.7 mills/kwh. In a similar plant with a net electrical output of 530 Mw, the estimated power generating cost is 5.4 mills/ kwh. Most of the components of the plant are within the capability of current technology. The major exception is the fuel material, uranium carbide. Preliminary results of the development work now in progress indicate that uranium carbide would be an excellent fuel for high-temperature reactors, but temperature and burnup limitation have yet to be firmly established. Additional development work is also required on the steam generators. These are the single-barrier type similar to those which will be used in the Enrico Fernri Fast Breeder Reactor plant but produce steam at higher pressure and temperature. Questions also remain regarding the use of nitrogen as a cover gas over sodium at 1200 deg F and compatibility of the materials used in the primary neutron shield. All of these questions are currently under investigation. (auth)

Churchill, J.R.; Renard, J.

1960-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

The C1s core line in irradiated graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, plasma deposited amorphous carbon films have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations aimed at correlating their electronic, structural, and mechanical properties to growth parameters. To investigate these properties, different spectral parameters reflecting the electronic structure of carbon-based materials are proposed in literature. The effects of various electronic configurations on the carbon photoelectron spectra are analyzed here with particular attention to C1s core line with the aim to better interpret its structure. The latter is commonly fitted under the assumption that it can be described by using just two spectral components related to sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} hybrids. Their relative intensities are then used to estimate the sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} phases. We show that, in the presence of an amorphous network, the C1s line shape is the result of a more complex mixture of electronic states. Ar{sup +} irradiated graphite and successive oxidation was used to identify spectral features to better describe the C1s line shape.

Speranza, Giorgio; Minati, Luca; Anderle, Mariano [ITC-IRST, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A. [CMAM and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales 'Nicolas Cabrera', Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P. [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Book review: Artificial Intelligence in Perspective by Daniel G. Bobrow (Ed.) (The MIT Press 1993)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The past and present of Artificial Intelligence have been nicely presented in the book, "Artificial Intelligence in Perspective". This book is dedicated to Allen Newell, one of the founders of artificial intelligence (AI). The book looks at the achievements ...

Rajkumar Roy; Raju S. Bapi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Full waveform inversion of a 3-D source inside an artificial rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a 3-D Source Inside an Artificial Rock Albert C. To andof a 3-D source inside an artificial rock plate inof a 3-D source inside an artificial rock plate is

To, A C; Glaser, Steven D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Surface impurity removal from DIII-D graphite tiles by boron carbide grit blasting  

SciTech Connect

During the latter half of 1992, the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics (GA) underwent several modifications of its interior. One of the major tasks involved the removal of accumulated metallic impurities from the surface of the graphite tiles used to line the plasma facing surfaces inside of the tokamak. Approximately 1500 graphite tiles and 100 boron nitride tiles from the tokamak were cleaned to remove the metallic impurities. The cleaning process consisted of several steps: the removed graphite tiles were permanently marked, surface blasted using boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) grit media (approximately 37 {mu}m. diam.), ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol to remove loose dust, and outgassed at 1000{degrees}C. Tests were done using, graphite samples and different grit blaster settings to determine the optimum propellant and abrasive media pressures to remove a graphite layer approximately 40-50 {mu}m deep and yet produce a reasonably smooth finish. EDX measurements revealed that the blasting technique reduced the surface Ni, Cr, and Fe impurity levels to those of virgin graphite. In addition to the surface impurity removal, tritium monitoring was performed throughout the cleaning process. A bubbler system was set up to monitor the tritium level in the exhaust gas from the grit blaster unit. Surface wipes were also performed on over 10% of the tiles. Typical surface tritium concentrations of the tiles were reduced from about 500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} to less than 80 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} following the cleaning. This tile conditioning, and the installation of additional graphite tiles to cover a high fraction of the metallic plasma facing surfaces, has substantially reduced metallic impurities in the plasma discharges which has allowed rapid recovery from a seven-month machine opening and regimes of enhanced plasma energy confinement to be more readily obtained. Safety issues concerning blaster operator exposure to carcinogenic metals and radioactive tritium will also be addressed.

Lee, R.L.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Holtrop, K.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; West, W.P.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Effect of electrode density on cycle performance and irreversible capacity loss for natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of electrode thickness and density for unpressed and pressed natural graphite electrodes were studied using electrochemical characterization. Pressing the graphite electrode decreases the reversible capacity and the irreversible capacity loss during formation. As electrode density increased, the capacity retention at high rate increased until 0.9g/cm{sup 3}, and then decreased. The cycle performances of the pressed graphite electrodes were more stable than the unpressed one. Pressing graphite electrode affected on its electrochemical characterization such as irreversible capacity loss, high rate cycling and cycle performance.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

The effect of compression on natural graphite anode performance and matrix conductivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anodes for lithium-ion cells were constructed from three types of natural graphite, two coated spherical and one flaky. Anode samples were compressed from 0 to 300 kg/cm2 and studied in half-cells to study the relations between anode density, SEI formation and anode cyclability. The C/25 formation of the SEI layer was found to depend on the nature of the graphite and the anode density. Compression of the uncoated graphite lead to an increased conductivity, but only slight improvements in the efficiency of the formation process. Compression of the anodes made from the amorphous-carbon-coated graphites greatly improved both the reversible capacity and first-cycle efficiency. In addition, the fraction of the irreversible charge associated with the surface of the graphite increased with compression, from both an increase in the electrolyte contact as well as compression of the amorphous layer. The cyclability of all of the anodes tended to improve with compression. This suggests that it is the improvement in the conductivity of the anode plays more of a role in the improvement in the cyclability than the formation process.

Striebel, K.A.; Sierra, A.; Shim, J.; Wang, C.-W.; Sastry, A.M.

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Siv Schwink U. Illinois (217) 300-2201 Email "The emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems is a particular case of what physicists call fractionalization, or deconfinement of

268

Collective artificial intelligence : simulated role-playing from crowdsourced data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collective Artificial Intelligence (CAl) simulates human intelligence from data contributed by many humans, mined for inter-related patterns. This thesis applies CAI to social role-playing, introducing an end-to-end process ...

Orkin, Jeffrey David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Boundary Conditions for Artificial Snow Production in the Austrian Alps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess how meteorological conditions favorable for the production of artificial snow vary in time and space, wet-bulb temperatures are calculated using temperature and humidity data of 14 Austrian stations between October and April for 1948–...

Marc Olefs; Andrea Fischer; Josef Lang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

A Comprehensive Overview of the Applications of Artificial Life  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers to study, simulate, and understand living systems. The definition and features of ALife are shown by application studies. ALife application fields treated ...

Kyung-Joong Kim; Sung-Bae Cho

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Perceive this as that – Analogies, artificial perception, and category theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper formalizes and analyzes cognitive transitions between artificial perceptions that consist of an analogical or metaphorical transference of perception. The formalization is performed within a mathematical framework that has been ...

Zippora Arzi-Gonczarowski

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Artificial teeth : dental biofilm analysis on a chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, an "artificial teeth" microfluidic device is developed that provides unprecedented control over the conditions required to simulate the growth of complex dental biofilm. Dental plaque formation is not only ...

Lam, Raymond Hiu-wai

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Data dictionary design with an artificial intelligence model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implementation of an artificial intelligence model using a commercially available system, the IBM data dictionary, is described. The model is supporting knowledge bases built at the medical college for production purposes. 12 references.

Sturdza, P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

A Nonlinear Artificial Intelligence Ensemble Prediction Model for Typhoon Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new nonlinear artificial intelligence ensemble prediction (NAIEP) model has been developed for predicting typhoon intensity based on multiple neural networks with the same expected output and using an evolutionary genetic algorithm (GA). The ...

Long Jin; Cai Yao; Xiao-Yan Huang

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Artificial Bubble Cloud Targets for Underwater Acoustic Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a technique that uses polymer additives to suspend air bubbles to form stable artificial bubble clouds. The results presented include the range of polymer concentrations for an effective bubble suspension; the void fraction,...

Paul A. Hwang; Ronald A. Roy; Lawrence A. Crum

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Application of artificial neural networks to predicate shale content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an Artificial Neural Network approach to the predication problem of shale content in the reservoir. An interval of seismic data representing the zone of interest is extracted from a three-dimensional data volume. Seismic data and ...

Kesheng Wang; Resko Barna; Yi Wang; Maxim Boldin; Ove R. Hjelmervik

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Machine Learning Evaluation of an Artificial Immune System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ARTIS is an artificial immune system framework which contains several adaptive mechanisms. LISYS is a version of ARTIS specialized for the problem of network intrusion detection. The adaptive mechanisms of LISYS are characterized in terms of their machine-learning ...

Matthew Glickman; Justin Balthrop; Stephanie Forrest

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Determining suitable funding for p-12 education in Kansas: superintendents’ opinions and selected cost simulations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to determine what school leaders believe is a suitable funding level for Kansas school districts and to simulate the… (more)

Clark, Rustin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Evaluation of graphite/steam interactions for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report we present the results of an experimental/analytical study designed to determine the quantity of hydrogen generated during a coolant inleakage accident in ITER. This hydrogen could represent a potential explosive hazard, provided the proper conditions exist, causing machine damage and release of radioactive material. We have measured graphite/steam reaction rates for several graphites and carbon-based composites at temperatures between 1000 C and 1700 C. The effects of steam flow rate, and partial pressure were also examined. The measured reaction rates correlated well with two Arrhenius type relationships. We have used the relationships for GraphNOL N3M in a thermal model to determine that for ITER the quantity of hydrogen produced would range between 5 and 35 kg, depending upon how the graphite tiles are attached to the first wall. While 5 kg is not a significant concern, 35 kg presents an explosive hazard. 20 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Smolik, G.R.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.; Holland, D.F.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Report on Thermal Neutron Diffusion Length Measurement in Reactor Grade Graphite Using MCNP and COMSOL Multiphysics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron diffusion length in reactor grade graphite is measured both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work includes Monte Carlo (MC) coding using 'MCNP' and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coding suing 'COMSOL Multiphysics' and Matlab. The MCNP code is adopted to simulate the thermal neutron diffusion length in a reactor moderator of 2m x 2m with slightly enriched uranium ($^{235}U$), accompanied with a model designed for thermal hydraulic analysis using point kinetic equations, based on partial and ordinary differential equation. The theoretical work includes numerical approximation methods including transcendental technique to illustrate the iteration process with the FEA method. Finally collision density of thermal neutron in graphite is measured, also specific heat relation dependability of collision density is also calculated theoretically, the thermal neutron diffusion length in graphite is evaluated at $50.85 \\pm 0.3cm$ using COMSOL Multiphysics and $50.95 \\pm 0.5cm$ using MCNP. Finally ...

Mirfayzi, S R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Coated graphite articles useful in metallurgical processes and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphite articles including crucibles and molds used in metallurgical processes involving the melting and the handling of molten metals and alloys that are reactive with carbon when in a molten state and at process temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are provided with a multiple-layer coating for inhibiting carbon diffusion from the graphite into the molten metal or alloys. The coating is provided by a first coating increment of a carbide-forming metal on selected surfaces of the graphite, a second coating increment of a carbide forming metal and a refractory metal oxide, and a third coating increment of a refractory metal oxide. The second coating increment provides thermal shock absorbing characteristics to prevent delamination of the coating during temperature cycling. A wash coat of unstabilized zirconia or titanium nitride can be applied onto the third coating increment to facilitate release of melts from the coating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Bird, Eugene L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Woven graphite fiber structures for use in ultra-light weigth heat exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of U.S. Department of Energy efforts to find novel approaches for thermal management and heat recovery, work was undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate the use of graphite-based materials for heat exchanger and thermal management devices. From this effort, lightweight, robust woven graphite-fiber structures were developed which provide high conductivity paths along the direction of the graphite fibers. These structures were produced and characterized for air permeability/pressure drop and thermal (heat transfer) performance. Results have been shown to be favorable for using such structures in ultra-light weight heat exchanger applications such as vehicle radiators or other areas where light weight, compact, conformable heat transfer devices are needed.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Loveland, Erick R [ORNL; Sharp, Keith W [ORNL; Schartow, Robert [3TEX Incorporated

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Guest editorial: Artificial intelligence in biomedical engineering and informatics: An introduction and review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Bioinformatics, Biological knowledge discovery, Biomedical engineering, Systems biology

Yonghong Peng; Yufeng Zhang; Lipo Wang

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Artificial intelligence based optimization of fermentation medium for ?-glucosidase production from newly isolated strain tolypocladium cylindrosporum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Tolypocladium cylindrosporum strain was isolated for efficiently produce extracellular thermoacidophilic ?-glucosidase (BGL). This objective of the present paper is to integrate two different artificial intelligence techniques namely artificial ... Keywords: ?-glucosidase(BGL), artificial intelligence(AI), artificial neural network(ANN), fermentation medium, genetic algorithm(GA), tolypocladium cylindrosporum

Yibo Zhang; Lirong Teng; Yutong Quan; Hongru Tian; Yuan Dong; Qingfan Meng; Jiahui Lu; Feng Lin; Xueqing Zheng

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Artificial neural network simulation of battery performance  

SciTech Connect

Although they appear deceptively simple, batteries embody a complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes. While the discrete engineering characteristics of a battery such as the physical dimensions of the individual components, are relatively straightforward to define explicitly, their myriad chemical and physical processes, including interactions, are much more difficult to accurately represent. Within this category are the diffusive and solubility characteristics of individual species, reaction kinetics and mechanisms of primary chemical species as well as intermediates, and growth and morphology characteristics of reaction products as influenced by environmental and operational use profiles. For this reason, development of analytical models that can consistently predict the performance of a battery has only been partially successful, even though significant resources have been applied to this problem. As an alternative approach, the authors have begun development of a non-phenomenological model for battery systems based on artificial neural networks. Both recurrent and non-recurrent forms of these networks have been successfully used to develop accurate representations of battery behavior. The connectionist normalized linear spline (CMLS) network has been implemented with a self-organizing layer to model a battery system with the generalized radial basis function net. Concurrently, efforts are under way to use the feedforward back propagation network to map the {open_quotes}state{close_quotes} of a battery system. Because of the complexity of battery systems, accurate representation of the input and output parameters has proven to be very important. This paper describes these initial feasibility studies as well as the current models and makes comparisons between predicted and actual performance.

O`Gorman, C.C.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; Paez, T.L.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

EVALUATION OF CALANDRIA, THIMBLE, AND CANNED-MODERATOR CONCEPTS FOR SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In efforts to improve the neutron economy and lower the capital costs of sodium graphite reactors, several methods of separating the sodium and graphite were investigated including the calandria, the thimble, and the canned moderator reactors. An analysis including nuclear, heat transfer, and economic comparisons was made of these SGR concepts. Based upon neutron economy and feasibility of core fabrication, the calandria concept appears to offer the greatest potential for improvement in 8GR design. The thimble concept provides some improvement in neutron economy but introduced numerous problems requiring developmental work. (auth)

Reed, G.L.

1960-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Status Update for the Evaluation of Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation System for Detecting and Quantifying Graphitization in High-Energy Piping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project team performed several studies to evaluate the balanced field electromagnetic technique (BFET) for detection, and possibly classification, of graphitization in carbon-molybdenum tubing and piping. Samples of boiler tubes and high-energy pipes suspected to contain graphitization were procured from five power plants in the United ...

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

288

High Frequency Characteristicsof NanocompositeThin Film "Supercapacitors" and their Suitability For EmbeddedDecoupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Frequency Characteristicsof NanocompositeThin Film "Supercapacitors" and their Suitability, the capacitance density would be much lower. Newer capacitor concepts such as supercapacitors can overcome and the suitability of the thin film supercapacitors for high-frequency decoupling applications will be discussed. 1

Swaminathan, Madhavan

289

Land Suitability Evaluation for Sorghum Using GIS: A Case Study of Jiangyang  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to evaluate land suitability for sorghum using geographic information system (GIS). Terrain attributes (slope and aspect) and soil physical and chemical properties (effective soil depth, organic matter, texture, available ... Keywords: Class, Factor, Crop, Suitable, Jiangyang

Qing Peng; Wei Wu; Hong-Bin Liu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Extensional and Flexural Waves in a Thin-Walled Graphite/Epoxy Tube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated acoustic emission signals were induced in a thin-walled graphite/epoxy tube by means of lead breaks (Hsu-Neilsen source). The tube is of similar material and layup to be used by NASA in fabricating the struts of Space Station Freedom. The resulting ...

Prosser William H.; Gorman Michael R.; Dorighi John

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Stable aqueous suspension and self-assembly of graphite nanoplatelets coated with various polyelectrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs) with an average thickness of 1-10 nm present an inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes in many applications. In this paper, stable aqueous suspension of xGnP was achieved by noncovalent functionalization ...

Jue Lu; Inhwan Do; Hiroyuki Fukushima; Ilsoon Lee; Lawrence T. Drzal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

2012 CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF GRAPHITIC CARBON MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17-22, 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This conference will highlight the urgency for research on graphitic carbon materials and gather scientists in physics, chemistry, and engineering to tackle the challenges in this field. The conference will focus on scalable synthesis, characterization, novel physical and electronic properties, structure-properties relationship studies, and new applications of the carbon materials. Contributors

Fertig, Herbert

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

293

Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films Wei Gao1 , Neelam, Bingqing Wei3 and Pulickel M. Ajayan1,2 * Microscale supercapacitors provide an important complement characteristics similar to that observed for Nafion membranes10,11. The result- ing micro-supercapacitor devices

Ajayan, Pulickel M.

294

Field Tests of a New Type of Graphite-Fiber Electrode for Measuring Motionally Induced Voltages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On the basis of a field experiment in a tidal channel, comparisons have been undertaken between a new type of graphite-fiber electrode and conventional Ag/AgCl sensors for measurements of motionally induced voltages. The fiber electrode works ...

Lennart Crona; Tim Fristedt; Peter Lundberg; Peter Sigray

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Jaszczak et al. 1 MICRO-AND NANO-SCALE GRAPHITE CONES AND TUBES FROM HACKMAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@mtu.edu Present address: The Procter and Gamble Company, Corporate Analytical, 11810 E. Miami River Rd., Mailbox are composed of tabular graphite crystals greatly elongated in the direction of the fiber axis, electron microscopy, crystal growth, crystal morphology, Raman spectroscopy, stable carbon isotopes

Jaszczak, John A.

296

E21: Cast Iron Casing Cracking Due to Chunky Graphite Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In the recent years quality inspection of large turbomachinery casings made of ductile cast ... of chunky graphite formation, methods detection and acceptance criteria. ... A2: Fabrication of Bio-Structures Via Microbubbling ..... Cyclic Sintered Nd-Fe-B Magnets by Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis.

297

Analysis of capsule HFR-B1 graphite-corrosion data  

SciTech Connect

The recently completed irradiation of capsule HFR-B1 in the high-flux reactor at the Pitten Establishment in The Netherlands provided some excellent data for fission-product release. The data were obtained under irradiation and temperature conditions close to those expected during normal operation of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). Some of the tests at Petten were designed to measure release of fission gases during hydrolysis of failed fuel. Hydrolysis was initiated by injecting known amounts of water vapor into the capsule sweep gas. The measured concentrations of CO and CO{sub 2} in the capsule sweep gas indicated that a non-negligible amount of graphite corrosion was also occurring during the hydrolysis tests. Hence, these measurements provide some unique data for in-pile corrosion of grade H-4541 graphite by steam. In the present report, an analysis of graphite corrosion during the Petten hydrolysis tests is described. The calculations were performed using the REACT program, which is based on an improved corrosion model. The REACT program was developed as part of a research program at the University of California, San Diego, and is in operational status in the General Atomics (GA) Production Code Library. Predictions obtained with REACT show excellent agreement with the Petten graphite-corrosion data. This good agreement indicates that the currently used correlation for the steam-graphite reaction rate, which was obtained from out-of-pile measurements, may also be used to predict in-pile corrosion with good accuracy. 8 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Richards, M.B.; Gillespie, A.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research This platform provides a model for robust implementation of phospholipid multilayers and a means toward future applications of functional phospholipid supramolecular assemblies in device integration. September 11, 2013 Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane The journal ACS Nano published the research team's findings, and this is the first report of a hybrid and highly ordered phospholipid-based multilayer assembly that maintains its structure and fluid functionality upon incorporation into a synthetic inorganic matrix. Los Alamos researchers and collaborators recently synthesized and characterized highly ordered and stable phospholipid-silica thin films that

299

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research This platform provides a model for robust implementation of phospholipid multilayers and a means toward future applications of functional phospholipid supramolecular assemblies in device integration. September 11, 2013 Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane The journal ACS Nano published the research team's findings, and this is the first report of a hybrid and highly ordered phospholipid-based multilayer assembly that maintains its structure and fluid functionality upon incorporation into a synthetic inorganic matrix. Los Alamos researchers and collaborators recently synthesized and characterized highly ordered and stable phospholipid-silica thin films that

300

Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Rapid DNA Minipreparation Method Suitable for AFLP and Other PCR Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

isolation of rice DNA for PCR. Nucl Acids Res 22: 1917–1918.Suitable for AFLP and Other PCR Applications D. -H. CHEN ??has been proven effective for PCR analysis ? Author for

CHEN, D H

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Biomimetic approach to solar energy conversion: artificial photosynthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of efforts to devise apparatus and systems for using solar energy for chemical purposes by methods that mimic those used by photosynthetic organisms are reported. Sufficient progress has been made in the understanding of plant photosynthesis to make artificial photosynthesis a reasonable goal. Artificial photoreaction centers, the apparatus used by photosynthetic organisms for light energy conversion to chemical oxidizing and reducing capacity, have been made in the laboratory. The synthetic reaction centers mimic with remarkable fidelity the properties of their in vivo prototypes. Some of the formidable problems that must still be solved and the future prospects for biomimetic devices for solar energy conversion are discussed.

Katz, J.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Thermodynamic properties of adsorbed mixtures of benzene and cyclohexane on graphitized carbon and activated charcoal at 30/degree/c  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data at 30/degree/C are reported for the adsorption of mixtures of benzene and cyclohexane on two types of carbon surface: graphitized carbon and activated charcoal. The properties of the adsorbed solution approach those of bulk liquid at vapor saturation for graphitized carbon, but not for activated charcoal. The mixtures adsorbed on graphitized carbon are nonideal, and the deviations from ideality increase with surface coverage. For activated charcoal, the adsorbed mixtures are nearly ideal at all coverages. Mixture behavior for both adsorbents can be predicted without using experimental data for the adsorbed mixtures. 11 refs.

Myers, A.L.; Minka, C.; Ou, D.Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are three main objectives of this monograph: (i) to provide an introduction to geographical information technology along with an historical perspective on the evolving role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in planning, (ii) to overview relevant methods and techniques for GISbased land-use suitability mapping and modeling, and (iii) to identify the trends, challenges and prospects of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis. The monograph focuses on two perspectives of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: the techno-positivist perspective and the socio-political, public participation perspectives. It is organized into six chapters. After an introductory setting chapter, which defines the scope of land-use suitability analysis, an overview of relevant GIS technology is provided in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 offers an historical account of the development of GIS. It also discusses the development of GIS in the context of evolving perspectives of planning. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the methods for GIS-based land-use suitability modeling. The overview provides a background against which selected case studies are discussed in Chapter 5. The concluding chapter summarized the main points of the monographs and discusses problems and prospects for GIS-based land-use suitability analysis.

Jacek Malczewski

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Design of artificial neural networks for distribution feeder loss analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To enhance the efficiency for power loss analysis of voluminous distribution feeders, ANN-based simplified power loss models with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm have been developed for overhead feeders and underground feeders, respectively. The ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Customer information system, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Outage management system

Tsung-En Lee; Chin-Ying Ho; Chia-Hung Lin; Meei-Song Kang

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Coherent resonant tunneling through an artificial molecule C. A. Stafford  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coherent resonant tunneling through an artificial molecule C. A. Stafford Fakulta¨t fu¨r Physik PRB 58C. A. STAFFORD, R. KOTLYAR, AND S. DAS SARMA #12;Coulomb blockade12 for C Cg to a ballistic /e 1 follows from the particle-hole symmetry of Eq. 1 . 7094 PRB 58C. A. STAFFORD, R. KOTLYAR, AND S

Stafford, Charles

307

Artificial neural network in gaseous emissions prediction with bioreactor usage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The artificial neural network is used more and more often for prediction of processes related with the biowaste management. In this area, composting is one of the most important process of biowaste recycling. However, the gaseous emissions from the composted ... Keywords: composting, data acquisition, emissions, multilayer perceptron, neural modeling, prediction

Piotr Boniecki; Jacek Dach; Krzysztof Pilarski; Aleksander J?dru?; Krzysztof Nowakowski; Hanna Piekarska-Boniecka; Jacek Przyby?

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Predict soil texture distributions using an artificial neural network model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution soil maps are important for planning agriculture crop production, forest management, hydrological analysis and environmental protection. However, high-resolution soil maps are generally only available for small areas because obtaining ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Clay, DEM, High-resolution soil map, Sand, Soil texture

Zhengyong Zhao; Thien Lien Chow; Herb W. Rees; Qi Yang; Zisheng Xing; Fan-Rui Meng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Design of an artificial functional nanomaterial with high recognition ability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An artificial macromolecule was designed as a novel nanomaterial with the backbone of phosphodiester and the side chain of functional molecules and nucleobases. The functional molecules tethered on d-threoninol and the nucleosides on d-ribose can be ... Keywords: Hybridization, Nanomaterial, Nucleobase, Photoregulation, Recognition ability

Xingguo Liang; Toshio Mochizuki; Taiga Fujii; Hiromu Kashida; Hiroyuki Asanuma

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Natural Versus Artificial Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Examination of test specimens, placed in eight operating reactors during this study, will provide information on the long-term aging effects of plant environments on cabling and electrical components. Material property data, when compared with measured degradation in artificially aged specimens, will help improve predictions of the safe, useful life of plant equipment.

1986-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Artificial intelligence for monitoring and supervisory control of process systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex processes involve many process variables, and operators faced with the tasks of monitoring, control, and diagnosis of these processes often find it difficult to effectively monitor the process data, analyse current states, detect and diagnose ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence techniques, Framework for intelligent system development, Integrated systems, Monitoring and control, Process industry

Varanon Uraikul; Christine W. Chan; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Potential use of artificial intelligence techniques in air traffic control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A.I., or Artificial Intelligence, is a vast field that includes more than the so-called "Expert Systems" that the public seems to identify with A.I. In particular, research in A.I. has created an entirely new mode of ...

Elias, Antonio L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Performance Prediction of Solar Collectors Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach based on artificial neural network (ANN) was developed in this study to determine the performance of solar collectors. The experiments were performed under the meteorological conditions of Beijing. Performance parameters obtained from ... Keywords: ANN, solar collector, performance prediction

Hui Xie; Li Liu; Fei Ma; Huifang Fan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

An Evolutionary Artificial Neural Network for Medical Pattern Classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel evolutionary artificial neural network based on the integration between Fuzzy ARTMAP (FAM) and a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) is proposed for tackling medical pattern classification tasks. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed ... Keywords: Fuzzy ARTMAP, Hybrid Genetic Algorithms, Medical Decision Support, Pattern Classification

Shing Chiang Tan; Chee Peng Lim; Kay Sin Tan; Jose C. Navarro

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Prediction of surface roughness using artificial neural network in lathe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of tool geometry on surface roughness has been investigated in universal lathe. Machining process has been carried out on AISI 1040 steel in dry cutting condition using various insert geometry at depth of cut off 0.5 mm. At ... Keywords: artificial neural network, surface roughness, tool geometry

?akir Ta?demir; Süleyman Ne?eli; Ismail Sarita?; Süleyman Yaldiz

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Artificial immune strategies improve the security of data storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel artificial immune strategies based data storage model, called AIS-DS, is proposed for dealing with the problem of resources sharing in a storage area network (SAN). Especially for the multi-user's tasks, this technology has some essential ...

Lei Wang; Yinling Nie; Weike Nie; Licheng Jiao

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Biological motifs designed using the principles of artificial life  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Whereas digitalised art plants and animals have been designed using algorithms imitating the natural rules of creating a living being, in interactive media art, their virtual development, growth and death are simulated based on the visitors' interactivity. ... Keywords: GAs, artificial life, biological motifs, genetic algorithms, interactive media art, motif design, virtual worlds

Penesta Dika

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Dynamic Model and Control of an Artificial Muscle Based on Contractile Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamic model and control system of an artificial muscle is presented. The artificial muscle is based on a contractile polymer gel which undergoes abrupt volume changes in response to variations in external conditions. ...

Brock, David L.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Recent advances and future challenges for artificial neural systems in geotechnical engineering applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a form of artificial intelligence that has proved to provide a high level of competency in solving many complex engineering problems that are beyond the computational capability of classicalmathematics and traditional ...

Mohamed A. Shahin; Mark B. Jaksa; Holger R. Maier

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Interplay of oxygen-evolution kinetics and photovoltaic power curves on the construction of artificial leaves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An artificial leaf can perform direct solar-to-fuels conversion. The construction of an efficient artificial leaf or other photovoltaic (PV)-photoelectrochemical device requires that the power curve of the PV material and ...

Surendranath, Yogesh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Real Time Selective Harmonic Minimization for Multilevel Inverters Connected to Solar Panels Using Artificial Neural Network Angle Generation  

SciTech Connect

This work approximates the selective harmonic elimination problem using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to generate the switching angles in an 11-level full-bridge cascade inverter powered by five varying dc input sources. Each of the five full bridges of the cascade inverter was connected to a separate 195-W solar panel. The angles were chosen such that the fundamental was kept constant and the low-order harmonics were minimized or eliminated. A nondeterministic method is used to solve the system for the angles and to obtain the data set for the ANN training. The method also provides a set of acceptable solutions in the space where solutions do not exist by analytical methods. The trained ANN is a suitable tool that brings a small generalization effect on the angles' precision and is able to perform in real time (50-/60-Hz time window).

Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Filho, Faete [ORNL; Cao, Yue [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Bald eagle habitat suitability on Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The area around Melton Hill Reservoir and sections of the Clinch River along the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide suitable habitat for bald eagles for both breeding and wintering activities. Primary limitations on habitat suitability appear to be human activity in aquatic habitats and along shoreline areas, and human development along shoreline areas. ORR provides the majority of the suitable habitat because shoreline development is very limited. Four eagle management strategies discussed for ORR include planning development away from high-quality habitats, allowing forest stands near water to mature, conducting timber stand improvement to foster growth and development in pines and hardwoods, and using introductions to foster the development of a breeding population. The primary objective of this project was to make a qualitative assessment of bald eagle habitat suitability along Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River and in adjacent areas on the ORR, including the proposed Advanced Neutron Source site. This survey`s aim was to provide ORR managers with an indication of whether suitable habitat exists and, if so, where it occurs on ORR. This information should provide the basis for incorporating eagle management into the overall ORR land management plan.

Buehler, D.A. [Univ., of Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

STRESS ANALYSIS OF SPECIMENS FOR IN-PILE CREEP TESTS OF PARABOLIC GRAPHITE BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation-induced creep of graphite is being investigated in experiments that consist of loading parabolically shaped cantilever beams at the free end and measuring the resulting deflections with time. A series of stress analyses was made to verify the applicability of the elementary strength-of- materials approach for obtaining relations between stress and creep strain from the load-deflection data. The results of the analyses, which included a theory- of-elasticity solution, an evaluation of the effect of shear, and a bending analysis using an actual stress-strain diagram for graphite, show that an elementary strength-of-materials approach is adequate to predict the initial or elastic stresses. Preliminary results from the in-pile experiments indicate that the creep strains are linear with stress; thus the initially linear bending stress distribution given by the elementary theory remains unchanged during creep. (auth)

Corum, J.M.

1964-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Examination of the solidification macrostructure of spheroidal and flake graphite cast irons using DAAS and ESBD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This investigation focuses on the study of the solidification macrostructure of sand cast flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons. The macrostructure is revealed by using a special technique developed earlier by the authors, called Direct Austempering After Solidification. The observations make use of conventional metallography and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction. The latter technique allows a more detailed observation of the morphology of the austenite grains and the microstructure of the matrix. The results of Electron Back Scattering Diffraction validate the observations made using the macrographic technique. It is verified that the solidification of both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons is dominated by the growth of large austenite dendrites that form a grain pattern similar to that usually found in most metallic alloys.

Rivera, G. [Metallurgy Division INTEMA, National University of Mar del Plata, CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 (B7608FDQ) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Calvillo, P.R. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Ghent University (Belgium); Boeri, R. [Metallurgy Division INTEMA, National University of Mar del Plata, CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 (B7608FDQ) Mar del Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: boeri@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Houbaert, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Ghent University (Belgium); Sikora, J. [Metallurgy Division INTEMA, National University of Mar del Plata, CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 (B7608FDQ) Mar del Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: jsikora@fi.mdp.edu.ar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Electric conductivity and aggregation of anthracite and graphite particles in concretes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical model of the electric conductivity of a heterogeneous system based on coal and a binding agent is presented. In this system, a conductive phase appears because of particle aggregation. The model was tested in the systems of anthracite and graphite in cement stone. The consistency between the experimental and calculated electric conductivities with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9 was found on a linear interpolation of model parameters. It was found that the presence of a surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride) and a high-molecular-weight compound (polyvinyl acetate) changed the number of particles in anthracite and graphite aggregates to affect the specific conductivity of the heterogeneous system. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

E.A. Fanina; A.N. Lopanov [Belgorod State Technological University, Belgorod (Russian Federation)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Data Relating to Hanford Mined Graphite (2273-D) Samples Annealed at NAA  

SciTech Connect

On 2/8/1950, there was mined from process tube 2273 in D pile at Hanford a quantity of graphite power, which was expected to show the most extensive radiation damage of any graphite available at that time. A series of samples of this powder were annealed in 100 degrees increments from 100 degrees to 2000 degrees C at this labaoratory. There were returned to Hanford and shipped by them to the National Bureau of Standards for total stored energy measurements. The present memorandum is comprised of a description of the annealing procedure used here, curves giving the detailed annealing history of each sample, and various curves derived from data obtained from these samples at Hanford and at the National Bureau of Standards.

Smith, C.A.; Carter, R.L.

1951-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

STABILITY OF METALLIC Si-, Fe-RICH ALLOYS, SiC AND GRAPHITE IN MIXED SUPERNOVA EJECTA.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STABILITY OF METALLIC Si-, Fe-RICH ALLOYS, SiC AND GRAPHITE IN MIXED SUPERNOVA EJECTA. L. Grossman1 the Murchison chondrite contain inclusions of TiC and Si-rich metal alloys but, in most cases, no SiC [1], while of TiC, SiC and a Si-rich metal alloy at a higher temperature than graphite when the expanding gas has

Grossman, Lawrence

328

Experimental Determination of the Effect of Reactor Radiation on the Thermal Conductivity of Uranium-Impregnated Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are described in which the change in thermal conductivity of U-impregnated graphite under neutron irradiation was measured. Thermal resistivities relative to the thermal resistivity of undamaged impregnated graphite are reorted as functions of exposure. From applications of the expermental results to the North American Aviation low-power research reactor the peak tem. of the core is determined for a given reactor power and time of operation.

Hetrick, D.L.; McCarty, W.K.; Steele, G.N.; Brown, M.S.; Clark, E.V.; Holmes, F.R.; Howard, D.F.; McElroy, W.N.; Shields, B.L.

1953-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

329

A framework for developing a mimetic tensor artificial viscosity for Lagrangian hydrocodes on arbitrary polygonal meshes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct a new mimetic tensor artificial viscosity on general polygonal meshes. The tensor artificial viscosity is based on discretization of coordinate invariant operators, divergence of a tensor and gradient of a vector. The focus of this paper ... Keywords: Artificial numerical viscosity, Lagrangian hydrodynamics, Polygonal meshes

K. Lipnikov; M. Shashkov

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Wavelet filter for noise reduction and signal compression in an artificial nose  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents results of the use of a wavelet filter for noise reduction and data compression of signals generated by artificial nose sensors. To verify the performance of the wavelet analysis in the treatment of odor patterns, we compare two widely ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Artificial noses, Wavelet transform

C. Zanchettin; T. B. Ludermir

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Testing of Safety-Critical Software Embedded in an Artificial Heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing of Safety-Critical Software Embedded in an Artificial Heart Sungdeok Cha1 , Sehun Jeong1 frequently to control medical devices such as artificial heart or robotic surgery system. While much (KAOC). It is a state-of-the-art artificial heart which completed animal testing phase. We per- formed

332

Diffusion of uranium in H-451 graphite at 900 to 1400/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the diffusion of uranium (as a stand-in for plutonium) was investigated under conditions approximating those of the primary coolant loop in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Profiles were obtained for uranium penetration in H-451 graphite (from the Great Lakes Carbon Company) at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1400/sup 0/C. Diffusion coefficients are established for UO/sub 2/ and UC/sub 2/.

Tallent, O.K.; Wichner, R.P.; Towns, R.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Design guide for category VI reactors: air-cooled graphite reactors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned air-cooled graphite reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

Brynda, W.J.; Karol, R.; Powell, R.W.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Recapturing Graphite-Based Fuel Element Technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

ORNL is currently recapturing graphite based fuel forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). This effort involves research and development on materials selection, extrusion, and coating processes to produce fuel elements representative of historical ROVER and NERVA fuel. Initially, lab scale specimens were fabricated using surrogate oxides to develop processing parameters that could be applied to full length NTP fuel elements. Progress toward understanding the effect of these processing parameters on surrogate fuel microstructure is presented.

Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

MACHINING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR URANIUM, GRAPHITE, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, TANTALUM, BERYLLIUM, BISMUTH, LITHIUM, AND STELLITE  

SciTech Connect

Techniqnes are presented which are applicable in machining materinls such as U, graphite, Ti, Zr, Th, Ta, Be, Bi, Li, and stellite. Included in the general considerations are factors related to machinability of the materials, operating condition of the machines, and the condition of the cutting tools. In addition, industrial hygtene and safety aspects are examined. The techniques for each material are discussed in detail, the greatest attention being focused on uranium. (J.R.D.)

Davis, C.

1952-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY FOR A SODIUM-GRAPHITE-REACTOR IRRADIATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The results of an investigation to integrate a Na/sup 24/ irradiation processing facility with an operating sodium graphite reactor are presented. An irradiation facility incorporated into a reference SGR (Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska) is described. Development of the facility application, preliminary design criteria and capital and operating costs are discussed. Recommendations for further development of the technology and economics of this type of irradiation facility are included. (auth)

Thompson, D.S.; Benaroya, V.

1959-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

MACHINING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR URANIUM, GRAPHITE, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, TANTALUM, BERYLLIUM, BISMUTH, LITHIUM, AND STELLITE  

SciTech Connect

Techniqnes are presented which are applicable in machining materinls such as U, graphite, Ti, Zr, Th, Ta, Be, Bi, Li, and stellite. Included in the general considerations are factors related to machinability of the materials, operating condition of the machines, and the condition of the cutting tools. In addition, industrial hygtene and safety aspects are examined. The techniques for each material are discussed in detail, the greatest attention being focused on uranium.

Davis, C.

1952-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

338

Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components  

SciTech Connect

This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

Duffy, Stephen

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

339

CRITICAL EXPERIMENTS ON SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS IN GRAPHITE LATTICES  

SciTech Connect

A series of clean critical experiments was performed in the SGR critical facility utilizing 2 wt% enriched, uranium metal, hollow cylinder, fuel elements in AGOT graphite moderator. Six lattice spacings were used, varying from 6.93 to 16.0 in. on a triangular pitch. Critical loadings and fuel element worths were determined and compared to the results of 4-group diffusion theory. Calculations utilized TEMPEST, S/sub 4/, FORM, and AIM-5 programs on the IBM 7090. The calculated K/sub eff/ compared well with experiments over the full range of moderator-to-fuel volume ratios when using a 2200 m/sec graphite absorption cross section of 4.07 mb. The sensitivity of the calculation to variations in the graphite absorption cross section was examined and the experimental error due to inventory uncertainties was assessed. The differential worths of both the central and peripheral fuel elements were obtained and agreed in general with AIM- 5 calculations. The thermal flux traverse of a unit cell was shown to agree best with a Wilkins' spectrum option of TEMPEST. Details of both the experimental and theoretical methods are given. (auth) The work functions of cesiated and cesium- hydridecoated surfaces are studied. A thermionlc cell for performance analyses is described. Design characteristics of water-cooled and liquid-metal-cooled nuclearthermionic generators for naval power applications are compared. (T.F.H.)

Campbell, R.W.; Doyas, R.J.; Field, H.C.; Guderjahn, C.A.; Guenther, R.L.; Hausknecht, D.E.; Mayer, M.S.; Morewitz, H.A.

1963-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

340

Report on Thermal Neutron Diffusion Length Measurement in Reactor Grade Graphite Using MCNP and COMSOL Multiphysics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron diffusion length in reactor grade graphite is measured both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work includes Monte Carlo (MC) coding using 'MCNP' and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coding suing 'COMSOL Multiphysics' and Matlab. The MCNP code is adopted to simulate the thermal neutron diffusion length in a reactor moderator of 2m x 2m with slightly enriched uranium ($^{235}U$), accompanied with a model designed for thermal hydraulic analysis using point kinetic equations, based on partial and ordinary differential equation. The theoretical work includes numerical approximation methods including transcendental technique to illustrate the iteration process with the FEA method. Finally collision density of thermal neutron in graphite is measured, also specific heat relation dependability of collision density is also calculated theoretically, the thermal neutron diffusion length in graphite is evaluated at $50.85 \\pm 0.3cm$ using COMSOL Multiphysics and $50.95 \\pm 0.5cm$ using MCNP. Finally the total neutron cross-section is derived using FEA in an inverse iteration form.

S. R. Mirfayzi

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

New gas mixtures suitable for rare event detection using a Micromegas-TPC detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of the presented work was to develop further techniques based on a Micromegas-TPC, in order to reach a high gas gain with good energy resolution, and to search for gas mixtures suitable for rare event detection. This paper focuses on xenon, which is convenient for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in 136 Xe. Conversely, a small admixture of xenon to CF 4 can reduce attachment in the latter. This gas mixture would be suitable for dark matter searches and the study of solar and reactor neutrinos. Various configurations of the Micromegas plane were investigated and are described.

L. Ounalli; J-L. Vuilleumier; D. Schenker; J-M. Vuilleumier

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

342

Real-Time Wind Turbine Emulator Suitable for Power Quality and Dynamic Control Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Real-Time Wind Turbine Emulator Suitable for Power Quality and Dynamic Control Studies Dale S. L. Dolan, Student Member, IEEE, P. W. Lehn, Member IEEE Abstract-- Wind turbines are increasingly becoming-time Wind Turbine Emulator, which emulates the dynamic torque produced by an actual turbine has been

Lehn, Peter W.

343

A measurement fixture suitable for measuring substrate noise in the UWB frequency band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a measurement fixture suitable for measuring substrate carried noise for lightly doped substrates within the UWB frequency band. Signals coupling through the substrate are usually fairly weak and special precautions are taken to avoid ... Keywords: GSG, Substrate noise, UWB, Wide band measurements

Ming Shen; Tian Tong; Jan H. Mikkelsen; Torben Larsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Objective selection of suitable unit cell size in data-driven modeling of mineral prospectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In GIS-based data-driven modeling of mineral prospectivity, a suitably fine unit cell size is used for spatial representation of known occurrences of mineral deposits of the type sought (D) in a study area (T). However, until now, the unit cell size ... Keywords: Fractal analysis, GIS, Point pattern analysis, Spatial contrast, Weights-of-evidence

Emmanuel John M. Carranza

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Suitability of Tophet C-Alloy 52/Kovar components to hydrogen environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The suitability of Tophet C-Alloy 52/Kovar weldments to hydrogen embrittlement were investigated because of their potential as candidate materials in fabrication of minaturized initiators for pyrotechnics. Cathodic charged samples were statically loaded for extended periods of time resulting in no load failures and in ductile fracture surfaces indicating resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. 20 figures.

Gebhart, J.M.; Kelly, M.D.

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

346

A Master equation approach to modeling an artificial protein motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linear bio-molecular motors move unidirectionally along a track by coordinating several different processes, such as fuel (ATP) capture, hydrolysis, conformational changes, binding and unbinding from a track, and center-of-mass diffusion. A better understanding of the interdependencies between these processes, which take place over a wide range of different time scales, would help elucidate the general operational principles of molecular motors. Artificial molecular motors present a unique opportunity for such a study because motor structure and function are a priori known. Here we describe use of a Master equation approach, integrated with input from Langevin and molecular dynamics modeling, to stochastically model a molecular motor across many time scales. We apply this approach to a specific concept for an artificial protein motor, the Tumbleweed.

Kuwada, Nathan J; Linke, Heiner

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Master equation approach to modeling an artificial protein motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linear bio-molecular motors move unidirectionally along a track by coordinating several different processes, such as fuel (ATP) capture, hydrolysis, conformational changes, binding and unbinding from a track, and center-of-mass diffusion. A better understanding of the interdependencies between these processes, which take place over a wide range of different time scales, would help elucidate the general operational principles of molecular motors. Artificial molecular motors present a unique opportunity for such a study because motor structure and function are a priori known. Here we describe use of a Master equation approach, integrated with input from Langevin and molecular dynamics modeling, to stochastically model a molecular motor across many time scales. We apply this approach to a specific concept for an artificial protein motor, the Tumbleweed.

Nathan J. Kuwada; Gerhard A. Blab; Heiner Linke

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Ultrafast QND measurements based on diamond-shape artificial atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a Quantum Non Demolition (QND) read-out scheme for a superconducting artificial atom coupled to a resonator in a circuit QED architecture, for which we estimate a very high measurement fidelity without Purcell effect limitations. The device consists of two transmons coupled by a large inductance, giving rise to a diamond-shape artificial atom with a logical qubit and an ancilla qubit interacting through a cross-Kerr like term. The ancilla is strongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Depending on the qubit state, the ancilla is resonantly or dispersively coupled to the resonator, leading to a large contrast in the transmitted microwave signal amplitude. This original method can be implemented with state of the art Josephson parametric amplifier, leading to QND measurements in a few tens of nanoseconds with fidelity as large as 99.9 %.

I. Diniz; E. Dumur; O. Buisson; A. Auffèves

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Artificial Skin Ridges Enhance Local Tactile Shape Discrimination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the fundamental requirements for an artificial hand to successfully grasp and manipulate an object is to be able to distinguish different objects' shapes and, more specifically, the objects' surface curvatures. In this study, we investigate the possibility of enhancing the curvature detection of embedded tactile sensors by proposing a ridged fingertip structure, simulating human fingerprints. In addition, a curvature detection approach based on machine learning methods is proposed to provide the embedded sensors with the ability to discriminate the surface curvature of different objects. For this purpose, a set of experiments were carried out to collect tactile signals from a 2 \\times 2 tactile sensor array, then the signals were processed and used for learning algorithms. To achieve the best possible performance for our machine learning approach, three different learning algorithms of Na\\"ive Bayes (NB), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented and compared ...

Salehi, Saba; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; 10.3390/s110908626

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores mimic key features of natural pores By Tona Kunz * July 17, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists have overcome key design hurdles to expand the potential uses of nanopores and nanotubes. The creation of smart nanotubes with selective mass transport opens up a wider range of applications for water purification, chemical separation and fighting disease. Nanopores and their rolled up version, nanotubes, consist of atoms bonded to each other in a hexagonal pattern to create an array of nanometer-scale openings or channels. This structure creates a filter that can be sized to select which molecules and ions pass into drinking water or into a cell. The same filter technique can limit the release of chemical by-products

351

Small Fast Spectrum Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. The recent NASA Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study re-examined mission, payload, and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system. A common nuclear thermal propulsion stage with three 25,000-lbf thrust engines was used for all primary mission maneuvers. Moderately lower thrust engines may also have important roles. In particular, lower thrust engine designs demonstrating the critical technologies that are directly extensible to other thrust levels are attractive from a ground testing perspective. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. Reactors and engines employing graphite based fuels were designed, built and ground tested. A number of fast spectrum reactor and engine designs employing refractory metal alloy fuel types were proposed and designed, but none were built. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art graphite based fuel design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. The SNRE was a nominal 16,000-lbf thrust engine originally intended for unmanned applications with relatively short engine operations and the engine and stage design were constrained to fit within the payload volume of the then planned space shuttle. The SNRE core design utilized hexagonal fuel elements and hexagonal structural support elements. The total number of elements can be varied to achieve engine designs of higher or lower thrust levels. Some variation in the ratio of fuel elements to structural elements is also possible. Options for SNRE-based engine designs in the 25,000-lbf thrust range were described in a recent (2010) Joint Propulsion Conference paper. The reported designs met or exceeded the performance characteristics baselined in the DRA 5.0 Study. Lower thrust SNRE-based designs were also described in a recent (2011) Joint Propulsion Conference paper. Recent activities have included parallel evaluation and design efforts on fast spectrum engines employing refractory metal alloy fuels. These efforts include evaluation of both heritage designs from the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and General Electric Company GE-710 Programs as well as more recent designs. Results are presented for a number of not-yet optimized fast spectrum engine options.

Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in a Quantum Artificial Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chaos and nonlinear economic dynamics are addressed for a quantum coupled map lattice model of an artificial economy, with quantized supply and demand equilibrium conditions. The measure theoretic properties and the patterns that emerge in both the economic business volume dynamics' diagrams as well as in the quantum mean field averages are addressed and conclusions are drawn in regards to the application of quantum chaos theory to address signatures of chaotic dynamics in relevant discrete economic state variables.

Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in a Quantum Artificial Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chaos and nonlinear economic dynamics are addressed for a quantum coupled map lattice model of an artificial economy, with quantized supply and demand equilibrium conditions. The measure theoretic properties and the patterns that emerge in both the economic business volume dynamics' diagrams as well as in the quantum mean field averages are addressed and conclusions are drawn in regards to the application of quantum chaos theory to address signatures of chaotic dynamics in relevant discrete economic state variables.

Carlos Pedro Gonçalves

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electricity price short-term forecasting using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the System Marginal Price (SMP) short-term forecasting implementation using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) computing technique. The described approach uses the three-layered ANN paradigm with back-propagation. The retrospective SMP real-world data, acquired from the deregulated Victorian power system, was used for training and testing the ANN. The results presented in this paper confirm considerable value of the ANN based approach in forecasting the SMP.

Szkuta, B.R.; Sanabria, L.A.; Dillon, T.S. [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne (Australia). Applied Computing Research Inst.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

OBSERVATIONAL SCAN-INDUCED ARTIFICIAL COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY  

SciTech Connect

Reliably detecting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is of great importance in understanding the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the difficulties in CMB experiments is the domination of measured CMB anisotropy maps by the Doppler dipole moment from the motion of the antenna relative to the CMB. For each measured temperature, the expected dipole component has to be calculated separately and then subtracted from the data. A small error in dipole direction, antenna pointing direction, sidelobe pickup contamination, and/or timing synchronism can introduce a significant deviation in the dipole-cleaned CMB temperature. After a full-sky observational scan, the accumulated deviations will be structured with a pattern closely correlated with the observation pattern with artificial anisotropies, including artificial quadrupole, octupole, etc., on large scales in the final CMB map. Such scan-induced anisotropies on large scales can be predicted by the true dipole moment and observational scan scheme. Indeed, the expected scan-induced quadrupole pattern of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission is perfectly in agreement with the published WMAP quadrupole. With the scan strategy of the Planck mission, we predict that scan-induced anisotropies will also produce an artificially aligned quadrupole. The scan-induced anisotropy is a common problem for all sweep missions and, like the foreground emissions, has to be removed from observed maps. Without doing so, CMB maps from COBE, WMAP, and Planck are not reliable for studying the CMB anisotropy.

Liu Hao; Li Tipei, E-mail: liuhao@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: litp@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

356

Three-dimensional evaluation of the compression and recovery behavior in a flexible graphite sheet by synchrotron radiation microtomography  

SciTech Connect

The compression and unloading behavior of flexible graphite sheets was investigated using synchrotron radiation microtomography with 1 {mu}m voxel size. The recovery ratio of the flexible graphite sheet was measured accurately by in-situ observation. The three-dimensional strain distribution in the interior of the specimen was obtained using the microstructural tracking method. The inner strain distribution with micrometer scale indicated inhomogeneous deformation. The microstructural tracking analysis revealed that deformation units exist in the flexible graphite sheet. The units seem to deform, affecting the neighboring units with each other. The units had a similar size and shape with compacted exfoliated graphite worms that constitute the flexible graphite sheet. Microscopic deformations during compression and unloading are surely affected by the microstructure of the sheet. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compression and recovery behavior was investigated using microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tracking analysis revealed that deformation units exist in the specimen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each unit deforms in relation to the neighboring unit.

Kobayashi, M., E-mail: m-kobayashi@me.tut.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, AICHI 441-8580 (Japan); Toda, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, AICHI 441-8580 (Japan); Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-gun, HYOGO 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. ���¢�������¢ Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

Von L. Richards

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Geometric measures of redundance and irrelevance tradeoff exponent to choose suitable delay times for continuous systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the concept of the geometric measures of redundance and irrelevance tradeoff exponent (RITE)}, we present a new method to determine suitable delay times for continuous systems. After applying the RITE algorithm to both simulation and experimental observations, we find the results obtained are close to those obtained from the criterion of the average mutual information (AMI), while the RITE algorithm has the following advantages: simple implementation, reasonable computational cost and robust performance against observational noise.

Xiaodong Luo; Michael Small

2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Development and optimization of porous carbon papers suitable for gas diffusion electrodes. Final report, December 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report details results from the program to optimize porous carbon gas diffusion electrodes for use in fuel cells. Efforts focused on isolating discrete paper properties through a custom-made matrix, then fuel cell testing each variant to correlate properties to performance. Resulting reduced cost material was manufactured on production equipment and made available to DOE industry partners. The resulting product is suitable for continuous production, which will be evaluated in future work.

Fleming, Gerald J.; Fleming, Patrick J.

2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

360

FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN A GRAPHITE MODERATED SLIGHTLY ENRICHED FUSED SALT REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle economic study has been made for a 315Mwe graphite- moderated slightly enriched fused-salt reactor. Fuel cycle costs of less than 1.5 mills may be possible for such reactors operating on a ten-year cycle even when the fuel is discarded at the end of the cycle. Recovery of the uranium and plutonium at the end of the cycle reduces the fuel cycle costs to approximates 1 mill/kwh. Changes in the waste storage cost, reprocessing cost or salt inventory have a relatively minor effect on fuel cycle costs. (auth)

Guthrie, C.E.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Comparison of the electrochemical properties of several commercial graphites with a templated disordered carbon  

SciTech Connect

A templated carbon was prepared by the pyrolysis of pyrene impregnated into pillared clay (PILC). The electrochemical performance of this was evaluated with the goal of using this material as an anode in Li-ion cells. The reversible capacity was measured as a function of C rate and the cycling characteristics were determined for various intercalation protocols. The performance of this material was compared to that of several commercial graphites tested under the same conditions. The PILC carbon shows great promise as a Li-ion anode if the fade and first-cycle losses can be controlled.

Guidotti, R. A.; Reinhardt, F. W.; Sandi, G.

2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

362

Comparison of the electrochemical properties of several commercial graphites with a templated disordered carbon  

SciTech Connect

A templated carbon was prepared by the pyrolysis of pyrene impregnated into pillared clay (PILC). The electrochemical performance of this was evaluated with the goal of using this material as an anode in Li-ion cells. The reversible capacity was measured as a function of C rate and the cycling characteristics were determined for various intercalation protocols. The performance of this material was compared to that of several commercial graphites tested under the same conditions. The PILC carbon shows great promise as a Li-ion anode if the fade and first-cycle losses can be controlled.

GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; SANDI,GISELLE

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

363

Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphites MCMB-2810 and OMAC-15 (made by Osaka Gas Inc.), and SNG12 (Hydro Quebec, Inc.) were evaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) as anode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Though the reversible capacity obtained for SNG was slightly higher than that of OMAC or MCMB, its 1st cycle efficiency was lower. Voltage vs capacity plots of cycling data show that the discharge and charge limits shift to higher capacity values due to continuation of anode side reactions. Varying the cycle charge and discharge limits was found to have no significant effect on fractional capacity shift per cycle.

Ridgway, Paul; Zheng, Honghe; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangun; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Charest, Patrick; Zaghib, Karim; Battaglia, Vincent

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

365

Electroanalytical applications of screen-printable surfactant-induced sol-gel graphite composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing sol-gel graphite composite electrodes is presented. This process preferably uses the surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and eliminates the need for a cosolvent, an acidic catalyst, a cellulose binder and a thermal curing step from prior art processes. Fabrication of screen-printed electrodes by this process provides a simple approach for electroanalytical applications in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Examples of applications for such composite electrodes produced from this process include biochemical sensors such as disposable, single-use glucose sensors and ligand modified composite sensors for metal ion sensitive sensors.

Guadalupe, Ana R. (San Juan, PR); Guo, Yizhu (San Juan, PR)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

100-MW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UTILIZING A SODIUM COOLED, GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of a 100 Mw(e) nuclear power plant is described. The plant utilized a sodium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor with stainless- steel clad. slightiy enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel. The reactor is provided with three main coolant circuits, and the steam cycle has three stages of regenerative heating. The plant control system allows automatic operation over the range of 20 to 100% load, or manual operation at all loads. The site, reactor, sodium systems, reactor auxiliaries, fuel handling, instrumentation, turbine-generator, buildings. and safety measures are described. Engineering drawings are included. (W.D.M.)

1958-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

367

Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we report that poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) acts as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer to prepare soluble graphene nanosheets from graphite oxide. The results of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoeletron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and fourier transform infrared indicated that graphite oxide was successfully reduced to graphene nanosheets which exhibited single-layer structure and high dispersion in various solvents. The reaction mechanism for PDDA-induced reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide was proposed. Furthermore, PDDA facilitated the in-situ growth of highly-dispersed Pt nanoparticles on the surface of graphene nanosheets to form Pt/graphene nanocomposites, which exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards formic acid oxidation. This work presents a facile and environmentally friendly approach to the synthesis of graphene nanosheets, opens up new possibility for preparing graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials for large-scale applications.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liao, Honggang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

Simulations of embodied evolving semiosis: Emergent semantics in artificial environments  

SciTech Connect

As we enter this amazing new world of artificial and virtual systems and environments in the context of human communities, we are interested in the development of systems and environments which have the capacity to grow and evolve their own meanings in the context of this community of interaction. In this paper the authors analyze the necessary conditions to achieve systems and environments with these properties: (1) a coupled interaction between a system and its environment; (2) an environment with sufficient initial richness and structure to allow for; (3) embodied emergent classification of that environment system coupling; and (4) which is subject to pragmatic selection.

Rocha, L.M.; Joslyn, C.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

An artificial neural network application on nuclear charge radii  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have emerged with successful applications in nuclear physics as well as in many fields of science in recent years. In this paper, by using (ANNs), we have constructed a formula for the nuclear charge radii. Statistical modeling of nuclear charge radii by using ANNs has been seen as to be successful. Also, the charge radii, binding energies and two-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes have been calculated by implementing of the new formula in Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations. The results of the study shows that the new formula is useful for describing nuclear charge radii.

S. Akkoyun; T. Bayram; S. O. Kara; A. Sinan

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

370

Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Predictive models for emission of hydrogen powered car using various artificial intelligent tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of artificial intelligent models as virtual sensors to predict relevant emissions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen for a hydrogen powered car. The virtual sensors are ... Keywords: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, Artificial intelligent techniques, Back-propagation neural networks with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, Hydrogen emission prediction, Hydrogen powered car, UTAS artificial neural networks

Vishy Karri; Tien Nhut Ho

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A SODIUM-GRAPHITE REACTOR STEAM-ELECTRIC STATION FOR 75 MEGAWATTS NET GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

The major design features, nuclear characteristics and performance data for a nuclear fueled central station power plant of 75,000 kw net capacity are presented. The heat source is a Na cooled graphite moderated reactor. The design of the reactor takes full advantage of the experience gained to date on the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE); the plant described here is a straightforward extension of the smaller experimental SRE, which is now under construction. The fuel elements are made up of rod clusters and the moderator is in the form of Zr canned graphite elements. The performance of the reactor has been based on conservative temperatures and coolant flow velocities which result in a plant with "built-in reserve." Thus, as experience is gained and anticipated improvements in reactor fuel elements and construction materials are proven, the performance of the plant can be increased accordingly. Two reactor designs are described, one for operation with slightly enriched U fuel elements and the other for operation with Th--U fuel elements. The associated heat exchangers, pumps, steam, and electrical generating equipment are identical for either reactor design. An analysis of turbine cycles describes the particular cycle chosen for initial operation and discusses a method by which modern central station performance can be initially obtained. The design and performance data which are required to enable reliable estimates of the plant construction and operating costs to be made are established. (auth)

Weisner, E.F.; Sybert, W.M.

1955-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

373

A PROPOSAL FOR THE CONTROLLED RELEASE OF STORED ENERGY IN THE MTR REFLECTOR GRAPHITE  

SciTech Connect

A study of the stored energy buildup in the MTR reflector graphite and a program of controlled energy release is presented. Calculations, based on measurements of samples from the pebble zone show that an inadvertent spontaneous stored energy release would cause a temperature rise of 90 deg F in the pebble zone. The maximum transient structure temperatures resulting from a worst credible accidental release of energy would be less than allowable at present (except for possible damage to neutron detector chambers) but could exceed this value in five years. It is proposed that the stored energy be released by thermal annealing. The reflector graphite is heated by reducing the air flow and operating the reactor at low power until a temperature of 500 deg F is reached, at which point the reactor is scrammed. Normal cooling is provlded after 15 minutes at peak anneal temperature or if the temperature rises to 600 deg F. Health physics monitoring includes continuous measurement of particulate and of Ci/sup 4/ activity. Sustained oxidatlon, if it occurs, wlll be detected with a C0/sub 2/ monitor and controlled by smothering. An estimated 2 or 3 days of MTR operating time will be needed of which the anneal itself wlll require about one day. (auth)

Fast, E.; Smith, E.O.; Ford, J.D.

1959-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Graphite and Beryllium Reflector Critical Assemblies of UO2 (Benchmark Experiments 2 and 3)  

SciTech Connect

INTRODUCTION A series of experiments was carried out in 1962-65 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2 wt% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 252 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27-cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 252 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506-cm triangular-pitch array [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods in a 1.506-cm-triangular-pitch configuration and in a 7-tube-cluster configuration [3]. Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. All three experiments in the series have been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5]. The evaluation of the first experiment in the series was discussed at the 2011 ANS Winter meeting [6]. The evaluations of the second and third experiments are discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems [7].

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of the experiment. The final design phase for the first experiment was completed in September 2008, and the fabrication and assembly of the experiment test train as well as installation and testing of the control and support systems that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation are being completed in early calendar 2009. The first experiment is scheduled to be ready for insertion in the ATR by April 30, 2009. This paper will discuss the design of the experiment including the test train and the temperature and compressive load monitoring, control, and data collection systems.

S. Blaine Grover

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Internal Evolution for Agent Cognition - Agent-Based Modelling of an Artificial Stock Market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) is a powerful simulation technique with applications in several fields, in particular social sciences. Artificial Stock Market (ASM), introduced by a group… (more)

Hassanzadeh, Morteza

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Flashes of Genius, Toiled Experimentation, and Now Artificial Creation| A Case for Inventive Process Disclosures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Recent advancements in computing technology have yielded groundbreaking methods of automating invention. Use of this technology, whose implements are known as “artificial creation systems,”… (more)

Wamsley, Cody Scott Dwight

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

CONDUCTING IN-SITU COMBUSTION TUBE EXPERIMENTS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Artificial neural networks (ANNs), also known as expert systems, have become an increasingly important part of the petroleum industry for performance analysis of reservoirs. ANNs… (more)

Bansal, Yogesh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Gallium arsenide thin films on tungsten/graphite substrates. Phase II. Quarterly project report No. 2, December 1, 1977-February 28, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to investigate thin films of gallium arsenide on tungsten/graphite substrates and to prepare solar cells with an AM1 efficiency of 6% or higher by August 1978. Efforts during this quarter have been directed to: (1) the deposition and characterization of gallium arsenide films on tungsten/graphite substrates by the arsenic and arsine processes, (2) the construction and operation of an apparatus for the deposition of titanium dioxide films, and (3) the fabrication and evaluation of MOS solar cells on tungsten/graphite substrates. Gallium arsenide films have been deposited on tungsten/graphite substrates by the reaction of gallium, hydrogen chloride, and arsenic in a hydrogen flow. The structural and electrical properties of these films are very similar to those obtained by the arsine process. The initial stage of the deposition of gallium arsenide films on tungsten/graphite substrates has been investigated by the scanning electron microscopy.

Chu, S.S.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Composition suitable for use as inert electrode having good electrical conductivity and mechanical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metals or metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. 8 figs.

Ray, S.P.; Rapp, R.A.

1984-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Composition suitable for use as inert electrode having good electrical conductivity and mechanical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metals or metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily.

Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Preclosure seismic hazards and their impact on site suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the preclosure seismic hazards and the influence of these hazards on determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a national high-level nuclear-waste repository. Geologic data, engineering analyses, and regulatory guidelines must be examined collectively to assess this suitability. An environmental assessment for Yucca Mountain, written in 1986, compiled and evaluated the existing tectonic data and presented arguments to satisfy, in part, the regulatory requirements that must be met if the Yucca Mountain site is to become a national waste repository. Analyses have been performed in the past five years that better quantify the local seismic hazards and the possibility that these hazards could lead to release of radionuclides to the environment. The results from these analyses increase the confidence in the ability of Yucca Mountain and the facilities that may be built there to function satisfactorily in their role as a waste repository. Uncertainties remain, however, primarily in the input parameters and boundary conditions for the models that were used to complete the analyses. These models must be validated and uncertainties reduced before Yucca Mountain can qualify as a viable high-level nuclear waste repository.

Gibson, J.D.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

Researching Fe catalyst suitable for CO{sub 2}-containing syngas for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a technology to produce liquid fuels from coal, natural gas, and biomass as an alternate to crude oil. However, the quantity of emitted CO{sub 2} from the FT process consisting of syngas preparation, FT synthesis, and product workup is one of the serious disadvantages of FT process. The conversion of CO{sub 2} into hydrocarbons is one of the promising methods to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Effects of promoter addition on the activity of precipitated Fe catalysts for the conversion of CO{sub 2} were studied using pure CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-containing syngas feeds. The results suggested that CO{sub 2} can be activated by suitable promoter(s) for hydrocarbon synthesis at low temperature. Low K content is suitable for increasing hydrocarbon yield. The Fe catalysts promoted by equal Zn and Cu have higher CO and CO{sub 2} conversion and decreased CH{sub 4} selectivity. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Wensheng Ning; Naoto Koizumi; Muneyoshi Yamada [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Round-Robin Study of Methods for Trace Metal Analysis: Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscop-Cadmium, Arsenic and Chromium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighteen utility laboratories evaluated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) methods for measuring cadmium, arsenic and chromium in a variety of utility aqueous streams. This EPRI Tailored Collaboration Project, part of the ongoing Analytical Methods Qualification (AMQ) program, will help utilities define reasonable pollutant discharge limits and effluent monitoring requirements.

1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

387

Modeling lithium diffusion in nickel composite graphite Venkat R. Subramanian, Ping Yu, Branko N. Popov, Ralph E. White*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling lithium diffusion in nickel composite graphite Venkat R. Subramanian, Ping Yu, Branko N. Exchange current and diffusion coef®cient for the lithium-diffusion are predicted. # 2001 Elsevier Science computers, and camcorders. The distinguished feature of lithium-ion batteries is the use of intercalation

Popov, Branko N.

388

Carbyne contamination in carbon-coated TEM microgrids made from vacuum-resistive heating deposition from a graphite rod  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbyne contamination was found to exist on the as-prepared carbon-coated transmission electron microscope (TEM) microgrids made by the method of vacuum-resistive heating deposition from a graphite rod. It is a source to bring mistaken and confusing information to the samples being studied by TEM.

Li Hanying; Sun Jingzhi; Wang Youwen; Chen Hongzheng; Cao Jian; Wang Mang

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbothermal reduction growth of ZnO nanostructures on sapphire-comparisons between graphite and activated charcoal powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown by the vapour phase transport (VPT) method on a-plane sapphire substrates via carbothermal reduction of ZnO powders with various carbon powders. Specifically, graphite powder and activated charcoal powder (of ... Keywords: Growth, Nanostructures, ZnO

M. Biswas; E. McGlynn; M. O. Henry

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Temperature programed desorption of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} from pure and graphite-covered Pt(111)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethylene adsorption on Pt(111) at 95 K was studied by temperature programed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ethylene desorbs reversibly at 112 K and irreversibly at 255 and 280 K. It is generally accepted that annealing of ethylene adsorbed on Pt(111) to 300 K results in a dehydrogenation to ethylidyne through an ethylidene intermediate. This was observed by a hydrogen desorption peak at 300 K. Also, hydrogenation of the adsorbed ethylene was observed by a small ethane desorption peak at 300 K. Upon heating to 700 K, the ethylidyne species will further dehydrogenate to carbidic carbon species with hydrogen desorption peaks at 460 and 640 K. If the carbidic species is heated to higher temperatures (up to 1000 K), it will further dehydrogenate and form graphitic islands which will accumulate by Ostwald ripening in larger islands at the step edges of the surface. After annealing the sample to 1000 K, a statistically distributed 8x8 superstructure of these graphite islands is achieved, as interpreted from A pattern in the LEED data. The TPD results indicate that ethylene adsorption on Pt(111) results in the formation of graphitic islands upon heating to 1000 K, contrary to previous conjectures of formation of a full graphite monolayer.

Vermang, B.; Juel, M.; Raaen, S. [Physics Department, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Virtual assistant: an artificial agent for enhancing content acquisition: how ambient media elicit information from humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a novel framework "Virtual Assistant" for enhancing content potentially procured by ambient media. The Virtual Assistant is an artificial agent simulating a human assistant shown in TV programs and prompts users to provide feedback ... Keywords: ambient media, artificial agent, content acquisition

Motoyuki Ozeki; Shunichi Maeda; Kanako Obata; Yuichi Nakamura

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Non-linear variable selection for artificial neural networks using partial mutual information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to model environmental processes. The ability of ANN models to accurately represent the complex, non-linear behaviour of relatively poorly understood processes makes them highly suited to this task. ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Environmental modelling, Information theory, Input variable selection, Partial mutual information

Robert J. May; Holger R. Maier; Graeme C. Dandy; T.M.K. Gayani Fernando

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

An artificial neural network approach for day-ahead electricity prices forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is about the use of artificial neural networks on day-ahead electricity prices forecasting. In nowadays competitive electricity markets, good forecasting tools hedging against daily price volatility are becoming increasingly important. The ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, electricity markets, prices forecasting

João Catalão; Sílvio Mariano; Victor Mendes; Luís Ferreira

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Prediction of accumulated temperature in vegetation period using artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the theory of artificial neural network with back-propagation algorithm (BPN) is presented, and the BPN model is used to predict the accumulated temperature for Northeast China, North China, and the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. A total of 235 ... Keywords: Accumulated temperature prediction, Artificial neural network, Back-propagation algorithm

Chunqiao Mi; Jianyu Yang; Shaoming Li; Xiaodong Zhang; Dehai Zhu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells by using an artificial neural network approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop a new predictive model for the calculation of static formation temperature (SFT) in geothermal wells. A three-layer ANN architecture was successfully trained using a geothermal borehole ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Borehole drilling, Bottom-hole temperature, Geothermal energy, Horner method, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Shut-in time

A. Bassam; E. Santoyo; J. Andaverde; J. A. Hernández; O. M. Espinoza-Ojeda

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Automatic design of artificial neural networks and associative memories for pattern classification and pattern restoration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this note we present our most recent advances in the automatic design of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and associative memories (AMs) for pattern classification and pattern recall. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, associative memories, evolutionary programming

Humberto Sossa; Beatriz A. Garro; Juan Villegas; Carlos Avilés; Gustavo Olague

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Exploration of artificial neural network to predict morphology of TiO2 nanotube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict the morphology of TiO"2 nanotube prepared by anodization. The collected experimental data was simplified in an innovative approach and used as training and validation data, and the morphology of ... Keywords: Anodization, Artificial neural network, Morphology, Prediction, TiO2 nanotube

Hongyi Zhang; Jianling Zhao; Yuying Jia; Xuewen Xu; Cencun Tang; Yangxian Li

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Petroleum well drilling monitoring through cutting image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum well drilling monitoring has become an important tool for detecting and preventing problems during the well drilling process. In this paper, we propose to assist the drilling process by analyzing the cutting images at the vibrating shake shaker, ... Keywords: Applied artificial intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Optimum-path forest, Petroleum well drilling, Support vector machines

Ivan R. Guilherme; Aparecido N. Marana; João P. Papa; Giovani Chiachia; Luis C. S. Afonso; Kazuo Miura; Marcus V. D. Ferreira; Francisco Torres

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Artificial Intelligence technique for modelling and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been used and applied in different sectors, such as engineering, economic, medicine, military, marine, etc. AI has also been applied for modelling, identification, optimisation, prediction, forecasting, and control ... Keywords: AI, FPGA, GAs, VHDL, artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, hybrid systems, neural networks, photovoltaic systems, solar radiation forecasting, solar radiation modelling, solar radiation prediction

Adel Mellit

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Artificial neural networks for predicting dorsal pressures on the foot surface while walking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are proposed to predict the dorsal pressure over the foot surface exerted by the shoe upper while walking. A model that is based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used since it can provide a single ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Dorsal pressures, Multilayer perceptron, Shoe upper

M. J. Rupérez; J. D. Martín-Guerrero; C. Monserrat; M. Alcañiz

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Superintelligent Will: Motivation and Instrumental Rationality in Advanced Artificial Agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the relation between intelligence and motivation in artificial agents, developing and briefly arguing for two theses. The first, the orthogonality thesis, holds (with some caveats) that intelligence and final ... Keywords: AI, Artificial intelligence, Goal, Instrumental reason, Intelligent agent, Superintelligence

Nick Bostrom

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

QSAR modeling of CCR5 receptor antagonists using artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-silico prediction methods are gaining the popularity in drug discovery processes as they are relatively inexpensive and less time consuming. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on back propagation algorithm (BP algorithm) has been ... Keywords: CCR5, QSAR, artificial intelligence, neural networks

Yogesh D. Aher; Prabha Garg

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Artificial Neural Network estimation of soil erosion and nutrient concentrations in runoff from land application areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of sediment and nutrients from land application areas is an environmental concern. New methods are needed for estimating soil and nutrient concentrations of runoff from cropland areas on which manure is applied. Artificial Neural Networks ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Land application, Manure runoff, Nitrogen, Nutrient losses, Phosphorus, Soil erosion, Water quality

Minyoung Kim; John E. Gilley

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Performance prediction of a ground-coupled heat pump system using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict performance of a horizontal ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system. Performance forecasting is the precondition for the optimal control and energy saving operation ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Coefficient of performance, Ground-coupled heat pump, Horizontal heat exchanger, Learning algorithm

Hikmet Esen; Mustafa Inalli; Abdulkadir Sengur; Mehmet Esen

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Prediction of subsidence due to underground mining by artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternatively to empirical prediction methods, methods based on influential functions and on mechanical model, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used for the surface subsidence prediction. In our case, the multi-layer feed-forward neural network ... Keywords: approximation of functions, artificial neural network, mining damage, multi-layer feed-forward neural network, subsidence prediction

Tomaž Ambroži?; Goran Turk

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

An artificial neural network method for remaining useful life prediction of equipment subject to condition monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate equipment remaining useful life prediction is critical to effective condition based maintenance for improving reliability and reducing overall maintenance cost. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) based method is developed for ... Keywords: Accurate, Artificial neural network, Bearing, Prediction, Remaining useful life

Zhigang Tian

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Artificial neural networks to predict corn yield from Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the light of recent advances in spectral imaging technology, highly flexible modeling methods must be developed to estimate various soil and crop parameters for precision farming from airborne hyperspectral imagery. The potential of artificial neural ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, CASI, Corn, Crop yield, Hyperspectral remote sensing, Precision agriculture

Y. Uno; S. O. Prasher; R. Lacroix; P. K. Goel; Y. Karimi; A. Viau; R. M. Patel

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Enactive artificial intelligence: Investigating the systemic organization of life and mind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The embodied and situated approach to artificial intelligence (AI) has matured and become a viable alternative to traditional computationalist approaches with respect to the practical goal of building artificial agents, which can behave in a robust and ... Keywords: Agency, Autonomy, Cognitive science, Design principles, Embodied, Enactive, Intentionality, Modeling, Natural cognition, Situated

Tom Froese; Tom Ziemke

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

2010 Special Issue: "Artificial humans": Psychology and neuroscience perspectives on embodiment and nonverbal communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

''Artificial humans'', so-called ''Embodied Conversational Agents'' and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. ... Keywords: Artificial humans, Nonverbal communication, Social cognitive neuroscience, Social psychology

Kai Vogeley; Gary Bente

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Model for estimating Venezuelan population with working age using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents the development of an Artificial Neural Networks model for estimating the female and male population with working age in Venezuela. For the creation of the model it is used the previous year values related to the employed, unemployed ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, labor force, regression analysis

Samaria Muñoz-Bravo; Anna Pérez-Méndez; Francklin Rivas-Echeverría

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Estimation of Nitrogen Removal Effect in Groundwater Using Artificial Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Groundwater contamination by nitrate is a globally growing problem. Biological denitrification is a simple and cost effective method. However, this process is non-linear, complex and multivariable. This paper presents the application of artificial neural ... Keywords: artificial neural networks (ANN), groundwater, nitrogen removal

Jinlong Zuo

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Artificial Neural Network to Predict Skeletal Metastasis in Patients with Prostate Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of an artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of outcomes using clinical data is being increasingly used. The aim of this study was to assess whether an ANN model is a useful tool for predicting skeletal metastasis in patients with ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Bone metastasis, Computer assisted, Image interpretation, Prostatic neoplasm, Radionuclide imaging

Jainn-Shiun Chiu; Yuh-Feng Wang; Yu-Cheih Su; Ling-Huei Wei; Jian-Guo Liao; Yu-Chuan Li

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Combining artificial neural networks and heuristic rules in a hybrid intelligent load forecast system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is combined to Heuristic Rules producing a powerful hybrid intelligent system for short and mid-term electric load forecasting. The Heuristic Rules are used to adjust the ANN output to improve the system ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, electric load forecast, heuristic rules, hybrid system

Ronaldo R. B. de Aquino; Aida A. Ferreira; Manoel A. Carvalho, Jr.; Milde M. S. Lira; Geane B. Silva; Otoni Nóbrega Neto

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Environmental Impact Assessment of Artificial Aggregate Systems Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aggregates are food for construction industry and hydraulic and hydropower engineering, account for 80% of concrete. Now the number of artificial aggregate systems of being used and preparing to put into use is considerable, which calls for an efficient ... Keywords: Artificial Aggregate System, Environment Impact Assessment, Fuzzy Comprehensive evaluation

Qin Hongling; Meng Suimin; Zhou Xincong

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Application of artificial neural network for predicting weld quality in laser transmission welding of thermoplastics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work establishes a correlation between the laser transmission welding parameters and output variables though a nonlinear model, developed by applying artificial neural network (ANN). The process parameters of the model include laser power, ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Laser transmission welding, Regression analysis, Sensitivity analysis, Thermoplastics

Bappa Acherjee; Subrata Mondal; Bipan Tudu; Dipten Misra

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Analysis of a variable speed vapor compression system using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An artificial neural network (ANN) is a mathematical model that is inspired by the operation of biological neural networks. However, this is typically considered a computational model. An ANN can easily adapt to multiple situations and extract information ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Energetic performance, Hidden neurons, Mapping configuration, Simulated annealing, Vapor compression system

J. M. Belman-Flores; S. E. Ledesma; M. G. Garcia; J. Ruiz; J. L. RodríGuez-MuñOz

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Modeling net ecosystem metabolism with an artificial neural network and Bayesian belief network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) utilizing select environmental variables were developed and evaluated, with the intent to model net ecosystem metabolism (a proxy for system trophic state) within a freshwater wetland. ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Bayesian belief networks, Knowledge extraction, Net ecosystem metabolism

William A. Young, II; David F. Millie; Gary R. Weckman; Jerone S. Anderson; David M. Klarer; Gary L. Fahnenstiel

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

MPPT of Solar Energy Generating System with Fuzzy Control and Artificial Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to achieve maximum power of solar cell, we focus on the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm forming based on fuzzy control. The fuzzy control rules are adopted using artificial neural network with measured data. Compared the fuzzy ... Keywords: Maximum power point tracking, Fuzzy control, artificial neural network, simulation

Keya Huang; Wenshi Li; Xiaoyang Huang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Graphite Modular Reactor with Cooled Metal Core Outlet End Support Plate  

SciTech Connect

The modular designs appear attractive in that the reactor core lateral support is provided by the modules themselves rather than externally as with a bundled core. Types B and C provide a means of reducing the inter-element and intermodular leakage flow. This tends to enhance the reliability of the reactor core by decreasing the probability of a progressive overall failure of the core initiated by a mid-core rupture of one of the fuel elements. The graphite inner reflector and lateral support mechnism are eliminated in this design. The assembly of the modular core design is probably simplified by the smaller number of modular elements to be handled and by the elimination of the lateral support mechanism. The modular core has several potential problem areas which will be examined by further analysis and testing.

Jackson, L.

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evaluation of the graphite electrode arc melter for processing heterogeneous waste  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted a series of 4 demonstration melting tests in a 3-phase AC graphite electrode arc furnace at its Albany Research Center (ALRC) thermal treatment facility in Albany, Oregon (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE). The scope of these tests provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a single melting technology regarding its applicability to the treatment of several different heterogeneous mixed wastes. The current system can continuously process combustible-bearing wastes at feedrates to 682 kg/h (1,500 lb/h), continuously tap slag or glass, and intermittently tap metal products, and includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer and air pollution control system (APCS). The 4 demonstration melting tests were conducted in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC).

O' Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Soelberg, N.R. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory); Anderson, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A new diamond biosensor with integrated graphitic microchannels for detecting quantal exocytic events from chromaffin cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantal release of catecholamines from neuroendocrine cells is a key mechanism which has been investigated with a broad range of materials and devices, among which carbon-based materials such as carbon fibers, diamond-like carbon, carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline diamond. In the present work we demonstrate that a MeV-ion-microbeam lithographic technique can be successfully employed for the fabrication of an all-carbon miniaturized cellular bio-sensor based on graphitic micro-channels embedded in a single-crystal diamond matrix. The device was functionally characterized for the in vitro recording of quantal exocytic events from single chromaffin cells, with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio, opening promising perspectives for the realization of monolithic all-carbon cellular biosensors.

Picollo, Federico; Vittone, Ettore; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Crystal structure of graphite under room-temperature compression and decompression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, sophisticated theoretical computational studies have proposed several new crystal structures of carbon (e.g., bct-C{sub 4}, H-, M-, R-, S-, W-, and Z-carbon). However, until now, there lacked experimental evidence to verify the predicted high-pressure structures for cold-compressed elemental carbon at least up to 50 GPa. Here we present direct experimental evidence that this enigmatic high-pressure structure is currently only consistent with M-carbon, one of the proposed carbon structures. Furthermore, we show that this phase transition is extremely sluggish, which led to the observed broad x-ray diffraction peaks in previous studies and hindered the proper identification of the post-graphite phase in cold-compressed carbon.

Wang, Yuejian; Panzik, Joseph E.; Kiefer, Boris; Lee, Kanani K.M. (Yale); (New Mexico State)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

423

A SODIUM COOLED, GRAPHITE MODERATED, LOW ENRICHMENT URANIUM REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF USEFUL POWER  

SciTech Connect

A design study is presented for a sodium cooled, graphite moderated power reactor utilizing low enrichment uranium fuel. The design is characterized by dependence on existing technology and the use of standard, or nearly standard, components. The reactor has a nominal rating of 167 thermal megawatts, and a plant comprising three such reactors for a total output of 500 thermal megawatts is described. Sodium in a secondary, non-radioactive, circulation system carries the heat to a steam generator at 910 deg F and is returned at 420 deg F. Steam conditions at the turbine throttle are 600 psig and 825 deg F. Cost of the complete reactor power plant, consisting of the three reactors and one 150- megawatt turbogenerator, is estimated to be approximately ,165,000. (auth)

Weisner, E.F. ed.

1954-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

Ardary, Zane L. (Lenoir City, TN); Benton, Samuel T. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

1987-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

426

Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

1988-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

427

LiFePO{sub 4}/gel/natural graphite cells for the BATT program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LiFePO{sub 4}/gel/natural graphite (NG) cells have been prepared and cycled under a fixed protocol for cycle and calendar life determination. Cell compression of 10 psi was found to represent an optimal balance between cell impedance and the first cycle losses on the individual electrodes with the gel electrolyte. Cells with a Li anode showed capacities of 160 and 78 mAh/g-LiFePO{sub 4} for C/25 and 2C discharge rates, respectively. Rapid capacity and power fade were observed in the LiFePO{sub 4}/gel/NG cells during cycling and calendar life studies. Diagnostic evaluations point to the consumption of cycleable Li though a side reaction as the reason for performance fade with minimal degradation of the individual electrodes.

Striebel, K.; Guerfi, A.; Shim, J.; Armand, M.; Gauthier, M.; Zaghib, K.

2002-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

428

Application Of An Artificial Neural Network Model To A Na-K Geothermometer  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Application Of An Artificial Neural Network Model To A Na-K Geothermometer Application Of An Artificial Neural Network Model To A Na-K Geothermometer Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Application Of An Artificial Neural Network Model To A Na-K Geothermometer Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: A new geothermometer model is proposed by applying data obtained from a known Na-K geothermometer to an artificial neural network. In this model, Na and K values were implemented as input signals and geothermometers as the output signal. Multi-layer perceptrons and back propagation were used as training algorithms for the artificial neural network. Reservoir temperatures of some geothermal fields in Turkey determined by this method are in accord with those determined from other methods.

429

Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.

Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

Pinto, A.P.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

SAFEGUARD REPORT ON THE PROPOSED METHOD OF ANNEALING GRAPHITE IN THE X-10 REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

gone approximately 16 years of almost continuous irradiation. Throughout this time stored energy has accumulated at a slow rate to the present maximum value of about 35 cal/gm releasable to 250 deg C. A small portion of the moderator (approximately 4%) contains stored energy which under adiabatic conditions may be released spontaneously (at approximately 165 deg C) to produce a maximum temperature of 270 deg C. Careful analysis has shown that the presert condition is not hazardous; however, it appears wise at this time to initiate some corrective action (thermal annealing) to prevent the continued buildup of stored energy to a dangerously high value. Several methode of obtaining effective annealing in the OGR were investigated. The proposed method was selected upon the basis of convenience, over-all safety, effectiveness, and cost. The proposed method involves the alteration of the present coolant flow system to permit reversal of air flow through the fuel channels. This will result in a reversed temperature distribution wherein the maximum graphite temperature will occur in the normally cold, maximum-stored-energy region of the moderator, Such an arrangement permits an annealing operation to be performed under conditions very similar to those of the normal safe operation. The proposed procedure re quires a slow heatup of the moderator under full reversed, air-flow conditions. This can be accomplished by slowly raising the reactor nuclear power level until the desired graphite temperature is attained. During the initial stages of the operation the stored energy will be reduced to a sufficiently low value that spontaneous energy release is no longer possible. This can be accomplished at temperatures (less than 140 deg C) well below the minimum (165 deg C) required for spontaneous energy release. Subsequent higher temperature may then be employed to further reduce the stored energy. Recurrence of stored energy which may be released spontaneously can be prevented by periodic annealing at rather infrequent intervals. (auth)

Stanford, L.E.; Wittels, M.C.; Ramsey, M.E.; Cagle, C.D.

1960-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

432

Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

IRIS Reactor a Suitable Option to Provide Energy and Water Desalination for the Mexican Northwest Region  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity. The IRIS reactor offers a very suitable source of energy given its modular size of 300 MWe and it can be coupled with a desalination plant to provide the potable water for human consumption, agriculture and industry. The present paper assess the water and energy requirements for the Northwest region of Mexico and how the deployment of the IRIS reactor can satisfy those necessities. The possible sites for deployment of Nuclear Reactors are considered given the seismic constraints and the closeness of the sea for external cooling. And in the other hand, the size of the desalination plant and the type of desalination process are assessed accordingly with the water deficit of the region.

Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, C.; Viais, J.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

434

A new void fraction correlation inferred from artificial neural networks for modeling two-phase flows in geothermal wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new empirical void fraction correlation was developed using artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. The artificial networks were trained using the backpropagation algorithm and production data obtained from a worldwide database of geothermal wells. ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Geothermal energy, Liquid holdup, Pressure gradients, Simulation, Statistics

A. Álvarez del Castillo; E. Santoyo; O. Garcí a-Valladares

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Using an Integrated Response-Function Method to Explore Agro-Climatic Suitability for Spring Soybean Growth in North China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand agro-climatic suitability for spring soybean growth in north China, an integrated crop-response-function method was developed. This method includes crop-response functions for temperature, precipitation, and sunshine and is assessed ...

Yingbin He; Yanmin Yao; Huajun Tang; Youqi Chen; Jianping Li; Peng Yang; Zhongxin Chen; Xiaoping Xin; Limin Wang; Dandan Li; Hui Deng

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

1978-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

1978-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Solar Energy to Drive Absorption Cooling Systems Suitable for Small Building Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air conditioning systems have a major impact on energy demand. With fossil fuels fast depleting, it is imperative to look for cooling systems that require less high-grade energy for their operation. In this context, absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoints of energy and environment. Two types of the absorption chillers, the single effect and the half-effect systems, can operate using low temperature hot water. This paper presents the simulation results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors. The complete systems (solar collectors and absorption cooling system) were simulated using a developed software program. The energy and exergy analysis is carried out for each component of the two systems. When evaporator temperature is maintained constant at 5 C and the condenser temperature is fixed at 28 C, 32 C and 36 C respectively the percentage of the used energy covered by solar collectors and the percentage of auxiliary heating load were calculated versus time of day.

Gomri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1955. SECTION A. SECTION B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analysis was made of the nuclear parameters for sodium graphite reactor lattices. These parameters include thermal utilization, macroscopic cross sections, thermal diffusion length, and neutron absorption. Results of all calculations are given in graphical form. Test fuel slugs for the SRE were cycled up to 500 times between 100 and 500 deg C at the rate of 2 cycles/hr. Results are tabulated. The centrifugal casting of U alloy fuel slugs is briefly evaluated. Results of the microscopic examination of the extruded ThU breeder fuels are shown. The percent elongation of graphite due to the presence of Na is shown for various temperatures. Results of wear tests on graphite are also tabulated. The behavior of Zr in liquid Na was studied, and weight gains in Zr are summarized. Analog computer studies were continued, and data are included on the temperature effects of the response time of coolant channel Na outlet temperature thermocouples, the effects of continuous rod motion and pump speed changes on the outlet Na temperature and power, and the outlet temperature as a function of scram time. The critical evaluation of B--Ni rods is tabulated. The fuel rod assembly apparatus is described. Fuel rod development is discussed. Cyclograph traces of rods bonded with various Na--K alloys were recorded for rods at room temperature and heated to 450 and 600 deg F. The traces are indicative of uniform bonding. The moderator can fabrication and testing is also discussed. Tests were completed on Freeze Seal No. 2 for the 6-in. oval port Wedgeplug test valve at 450, 850, and 1250 deg F. The temperature gradients from the hot flange face to the end of the seal mechanism for various valve temperature conditions are shown. Sodium leak rates through the valve are tabulated. Progress in the development of a liquid Na level gage is briefly reported. The tubular heater experiment was completed, and the times to raise pipe temperatures from ambient to 350 deg F are tabulated. Designs for a 6-in. Na pump loop are described briefly. A one to 3.5 scale model of a SRE fuel element was constructed to study the effect of side drag on the element during insertion operations at those fuel channels located near the outlet of the upper plenum chamber. The calibration of the SRE fuel element orifices was studied. Control rod lead screw development is discussed. Development of the safety rod system is described. Core tank galling tests are summarized. Experiments to determine the effects of radiation on MoS/ sub 2/ are described. Dose buildup factors for the concretes to be used in the reactor top shield are tabulated. Constants for the quadratic representation of the dose buildup factor and the capture gamma rays from heavy concrete are also tabulated. The sodium pumps and service system are described. The rated cooling capacity of the SRE tetralin evaporative cooler was checked. Results of a study on the effects of NaK temperature on the H content of He are tabulated. (D.E.B.)

Martin, A.B.; Cochran, J.C. ed.

1956-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR  

SciTech Connect

Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Final Report: Use of Graphite Foam as a Thermal Performance Enhancement of Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's graphite foam has the potential to be used as a heat exchanger for the Army's Future Combat System Manned Ground Vehicle and thus has the potential to improve its thermal performance. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLOW3D was used to develop a new CFD model for the graphite foam to be used in the development of a proper heat exchanger. The program was calibrated by first measuring the properties of the solid foams and determining the parameters to be used in the CFD model. Then the model was used to predict within 5% error the performance of finned foam heat sinks. In addition, the f factors and j factors commonly used to predict pressure drop and heat transfer were calculated for both the solid and finned structures. There was some evidence that corrugating the foams would yield higher j/f ratios than state of the art heat exchangers, confirming previously measured data. Because the results show that the CFD model was validated, it is recommended that the funding for Phases 2 through 5 be approved for the design of both the finned heat exchanger using tubes and round fin structures and the solid foam design using corrugated foams. It was found that the new CFD model using FLOW3D can predict both solid foam heat transfer and finned foam heat transfer with the validated model parameters. In addition, it was found that the finned foam structures exhibited j/f ratios that indicate that significant heat transfer is occurring within the fin structures due to aerodynamically induced flow, which is not present in solid aluminum fin structures. It is possible that the foam surfaces can act as turbulators that increase heat transfer without affecting pressure drop, like the vortex generators seen in state of the art heat exchangers. These numbers indicate that the foam can be engineered into an excellent heat exchanger. It was also found that corrugating the solid foams would increase the j/f ratio dramatically, allowing the solid foams to compete directly with standard heat exchangers. Although corrugated L1 foam samples have not been produced (attempts are under way), it is possible that their j/f ratio can be even higher than those of the finned structures.

Klett, James William [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results  

SciTech Connect

Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Salles, Christian [INRA, UMR FLAVIC, 17 rue Sully, 21065 Dijon (France); Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joeel; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc [Plateform'3D, I.U.T Le Creusot, 12 rue de la fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France)

2009-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

445

Forecasting Financial Time-Series using Artificial Market Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the theoretical machinery involved in predicting financial market movements using an artificial market model which has been trained on real financial data. This approach to market prediction - in particular, forecasting financial time-series by training a third-party or 'black box' game on the financial data itself -- was discussed by Johnson et al. in cond-mat/0105303 and cond-mat/0105258 and was based on some encouraging preliminary investigations of the dollar-yen exchange rate, various individual stocks, and stock market indices. However, the initial attempts lacked a clear formal methodology. Here we present a detailed methodology, using optimization techniques to build an estimate of the strategy distribution across the multi-trader population. In contrast to earlier attempts, we are able to present a systematic method for identifying 'pockets of predictability' in real-world markets. We find that as each pocket closes up, the black-box system needs to be 'reset' - which is equivalent to sayi...

Gupta, N; Johnson, N F; Gupta, Nachi; Hauser, Raphael; Johnson, Neil F.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Graphite curtain vacuum outgassing and heat transfer. Quarterly progress report No. 2, 1 April 1976--30 June 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A sodium filled heat pipe was tested in a magnetic field of up to 1 Tesla. An analysis of the heat pipe operation is given. The MHD pressure drop is calculated as a function of the Hartmann number, which includes effects of the magnetic field strength and a characteristic flow area dimension parallel to the lines of magnetic flux. Some vacuum outgassing and atomic hydrogen and helium sticking probability measurements are given for graphite fibers. (MOW)

Fivel, H.J.; Lang, G.P.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

A one-group parametric sensitivity analysis for the graphite isotope ratio method and other related techniques using ORIGEN 2.2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several methods have been developed previously for estimating cumulative energy production and plutonium production from graphite-moderated reactors. The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is one well-known technique. This method is based on the measurement of trace isotopes in the reactor’s graphite matrix to determine the change in their isotopic ratios due to burnup. These measurements are then coupled with reactor calculations to determine the total plutonium and energy production of the reactor. To facilitate sensitivity analysis of these methods, a one-group cross section and fission product yield library for the fuel and graphite activation products has been developed for MAGNOX-style reactors. This library is intended for use in the ORIGEN computer code, which calculates the buildup, decay, and processing of radioactive materials. The library was developed using a fuel cell model in Monteburns. This model consisted of a single fuel rod including natural uranium metal fuel, magnesium cladding, carbon dioxide coolant, and Grade A United Kingdom (UK) graphite. Using this library a complete sensitivity analysis can be performed for GIRM and other techniques. The sensitivity analysis conducted in this study assessed various input parameters including 235U and 238U cross section values, aluminum alloy concentration in the fuel, and initial concentrations of trace elements in the graphite moderator. The results of the analysis yield insight into the GIRM method and the isotopic ratios the method uses as well as the level of uncertainty that may be found in the system results.

Chesson, Kristin Elaine

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Geographic market suitability analysis for low- and intermediate-temperature solar IPH systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous studies of the industrial market for solar energy systems have considered the level of solar radiation as the main determinant of geographic markets in the US. This study evaluates geographical markets extensively based on such criteria as output of different types of low- and intermediate-temperature solar thermal collectors, air quality constraints for competitive fuels, state solar tax incentives, fuel costs, low industrial use of coal, high industrial growth areas, and industry energy consumption in different parts of the US. Market suitability analysis and mapping techniques, refined in the past 20 years by land use planners, were used to evaluate geographical markets. A computer-aided system, Generalized Map Analysis Planning System (GMAPS), performed interactive, cellular, computer mapping, and composite mapping. Results indicate that the US Southwest and West are the most attractive geographical markets for solar IPH, based on an equal weighting of the evaluation criteria. The West North-Central and East South-Central regions appear to have the least attractive markets. Specific areas within states where solar IPH systems have distinct marketing advantages also are apparent from the composite maps. However, when different weights are assigned to the various criteria, the results change significantly for some regions of the country, such as the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and West South-Central 2 regions. The results of this work will become less valid in the future as state incentives for solar IPH, air quality regulations, and the status of competitive fuels all change. Volume I contains study results and maps.

Turner, A.K.; Weber, J.C.; DeAngelis, M.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Studies of mechanical properties and irradiation damage nucleation of HTGR graphites. Progress report, June 1, 1975--January 31, 1976  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus has been constructed for the examination of the effect of compressive stress on the reaction of graphite with a gaseous mixture of helium, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The system alloyws for the concentration of each constituent to be independently varied and continuously monitored. Concentrations of CO and CO/sub 2/ are measured using infrared gas analyzers and the H/sub 2/O content by means of a trace moisture analyzer. The graphite specimen is 1-1/2'' long x 3/4'' diameter and is stressed by dead weight loading between an alumina hammer and anvil. The load is applied by a simple lever arm arrangement through a metal bellows on top of a mullite lined furnace. The reaction rate is determined via the concentrations of CO and CO/sub 2/ in the effluent gas. Initial set up and testing of the apparatus is almost completed and initial experience is that the apparatus meets the requirements of the proposed research. Samples of two pyrolytic graphites have been doped with boron to concentrations of 30 and 400 ppM for irradiation at 1300/sup 0/C later in the year in order to determine the possible effect of boron on vacancy nucleation at such high temperatures.

Thrower, P.A.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A New Improved Na-K Geothermometer By Artificial Neural Networks | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improved Na-K Geothermometer By Artificial Neural Networks Improved Na-K Geothermometer By Artificial Neural Networks Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A New Improved Na-K Geothermometer By Artificial Neural Networks Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A new Na/K geothermometer equation has been developed. The temperature function is:Concentrations are in mg/kg. The new improved geothermometer equation was developed by artificial neural networks. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) used in the new improved Na/K equation for temperatures ranging from 94 to 345°C is 0.179, which is lower than the corresponding NMSE 0.226, 0.598, 0.656, 0.268, 0.328 and 0.225 for the equations of Arnorsson et al. (1983; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 567-577), Truesdell (1975; Proc. 2nd UN Symposium), Tonani (1980; Proc. Adv. Eur.

451

Modeling the Thermal Effects of Artificial Turf on the Urban Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of artificial turf (AT) on the urban canopy layer energy balance, air and surface temperatures, and building cooling loads are compared to those of other common ground surface materials (asphalt, concrete, and grass) through heat ...

Neda Yaghoobian; Jan Kleissl; E. Scott Krayenhoff

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Artificial molecules that switch "handedness" at light-speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial molecules that switch "handedness" Artificial molecules that switch "handedness" Artificial molecules that switch "handedness" at light-speed Researchers create the first artificial molecules whose chirality can be rapidly switched from a right-handed to a left-handed orientation with a beam of light. July 10, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy

453

Artificial Neural Networks and Long-Range Precipitation Prediction in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are modeled on the operating behavior of the brain, are tolerant of some imprecision and are especially useful for classification and function approximation/mapping problems, to which hard and fast rules ...

David Silverman; John A. Dracup

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Recognizing Low-Altitude Wind Shear Hazards from Doppler Weather Radar: An Artificial Intelligence Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an artificial intelligence-based approach for automated recognition of wind shear hazards. The design of a prototype system for recognizing low-attitude wind shear events from Doppler radar displays is presented. This system, ...

Steven D. Campbell; Stephen H. Olson

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

An Artificial Neural Network Approach to Multispectral Rainfall Estimation over Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multispectral Spinning Enhanced Visible and IR Interferometer (SEVIRI) data, calibrated with daily rain gauge estimates, were used to produce daily high-resolution rainfall estimates over Africa. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was ...

Robin Chadwick; David Grimes

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Design and validation of a compact radius centrifuge artificial gravity test platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intermittent exposure to artificial gravity on a short radius centrifuge (SRC) with exercise is a promising, comprehensive countermeasure to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning that occurs as a result of ...

Trigg, Chris

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Performance comparison of meta-heuristic algorithms for training artificial neural networks in modelling laser cutting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of artificial neural networks ANNs for modelling laser cutting is broad and ever increasing. The practical application of ANNs is mostly dependent on the success of the training process which is a complex task. Considering the disadvantages ...

Miloš Madi?; Danijel Markovi?; Miroslav Radovanovi?

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Solving job-shop scheduling problems by a novel artificial immune system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optimization of job-shop scheduling is very important because of its theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes an efficient scheduling method based on artificial immune systems. In the proposed method, the initial population is ...

Hong-Wei Ge; Liang Sun; Yan-Chun Liang

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Combining artificial neural networks and statistics for stock-market forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a stock-market forecasting system based on artificial neural networks. The system has been trained with the Standard & Poor 500 composite indexes of past twenty years. Meanwhile, the system produces the forecasts and adjusts ...

Shaun-Inn Wu; Ruey-Pyng Lu

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Analysis and forecast of the capesize bulk carriers shipping market using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investing in the bulk carrier market constitutes a rather risky investment due to the volatility of the bulk carrier freight rates. In this study it is attempted to uncover the benefits of using Artificial Neural Networks ...

Voudris, Athanasios V

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Synchrotron SAXS of Reverted Al-4wt.%Cu during In Situ Artificial ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cu, which is a more stable than the as-quenched condition, was artificially aged in situ while probing with SAXS configured at beam-line X27C at NSLS. Results ...

462

Genetic algorithm based k-means fast learning artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The K-means Fast Learning Artificial Neural Network (KFLANN) is a small neural network bearing two types of parameters, the tolerance, ? and the vigilance, ? In previous papers, it was shown that the KFLANN was capable of fast ...

Yin Xiang; Alex Tay Leng Phuan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Introduction & overview of “artificial life”—evolving intelligent agents for modeling & simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Artificial Life," despite its biological analogy and the hyperbole that its name implies, is really a collection of methods for building discrete event simulations with evolving multiple agents. It consists mainly of representing parts of systems or ...

A. Martin Wildberger

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Insulating fault diagnosis of XLPE power cables using multi-parameter based on artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An online monitoring system of XLPE power cables was introduced in the research at first. It could detect the parameters, including partial discharge, dielectric loss, and central insulation resistance and sheathing resistance. The BP artificial neural ...

Xiaolin Chen; Yonghong Cheng; Zhelei Zhu; Bo Yue; Xiaojun Xie

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

The application of spectral analysis and artificial intelligence methods to weather radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power spectral density (PSD) of reflectivity and polarimetric variables have the potential to provide the linkage between the dynamics and the microphysical properties of scatterers within the radar resolution volume. The artificial intelligence ...

Yadong Wang / Tian-You Yu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Boron carbide-based coatings on graphite for plasma facing components  

SciTech Connect

In the effort to evaluate boron-rich coatings as plasma facing surfaces in fusion devices, a new process for applying boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) coatings to graphite was developed. The process entails eutectic melting of the carbon (C) substrate surface with a precursor layer of B{sub 4}C particles. Adherent coatings were achieved which consisted of two layers: a surface layer and a graded penetration zone in the outer portion of the substrate. The surface-layer microstructure was multiphase and ranged from reaction-sintered structures of sintered B{sub 4}C particles in an eutectic-formed matrix to that of hypereutectic carbon particles in a B{sub 4}C-C eutectic matrix. Because of high surface energy, the coating generally developed a nonuniform thickness. Quantitative evaluations of the coating were performed with limiters in the TEXTOR fusion device and with coupons in electron beam tests. Test results revealed the following: good adherence of the coating even after remelting; and, during remelting, diagnostics detected a corresponding interaction of boron with the plasma.

Valentine, P.G.; Trester, P.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Winter, J.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Wallura, E.; Philipps, V. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 {mu}m and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 {mu}m, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 {mu}m to 0.74 at 8.45 {mu}m. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 {mu}m to 7.84 at 8.45 {mu}m. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range.

Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

A graphite-moderated pulsed spallation ultra-cold neutron source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposals exist and efforts are under way to construct pulsed spallation ultra-cold neutron (UCN) sources at accelerator laboratories around the world. At the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), U.S.A., it is planned to use solid deuterium (SD_2) for the UCN production from cold neutrons. The philosophies about how the cold neutrons are obtained are quite different, though. The present proposal describes a third approach which applies a temperature optimized graphite moderator in combination with the SD_2 and qualitatively combines advantages of the different schemes. The scheme described here allows to build a powerful UCN source. Assuming a pulsed 2 mA, 590 MeV proton beam with an average current of 10 microA, one obtains UCN densities in excess of 2000 cm^{-3}, UCN fluxes of about 10^6 cm^{-2} s^{-1}, and total numbers of UCN in excess of 2*10^9 every 800 s.

Klaus Kirch

2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

469

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Round-robin artificial contamination test on high voltage dc insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a worldwide round-robin test of high voltage dc (HVDC) insulators, which was carried out in six laboratories aiming at standardization of the method for artificial contamination tests on HVDC insulators. Flashover characteristics of three kinds of specimens were evaluated by the clean fog and the salt fog procedures. Sufficient information is now available to allow the preparation of provisional international specifications for artificial contamination testing of HVDC insulators.

Naito, K.; Schneider, H.M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Artificial intelligence in genomic sequence, protein structure function prediction and DNA microarrays: a survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioinformatics is conceptualising biology in terms of molecules (in the sense of physical chemistry) and applying 'informatics techniques' (derived from disciplines such as applied mathematics, computer science and statistics) ... Keywords: AI, ANNs, DNA microarrays, K-nearest neighbour, SVM, artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks, bioinformatics, data mining, decision trees, ensemble learning, genomic sequences, hidden Markov modelling, protein function prediction, protein structure, rough sets, support vector machine

Athanasios V. Vasilakos; Bing Niu; Liang Liu; Wencong Lu

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

An artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tank`s AGT-1500 gas turbine engine. This paper describes the design and prototype development of the ANN component of the diagnostic system, which we refer to as ``TEDANN`` for Turbine Engine Diagnostic Artificial Neural Networks.

Illi, O.J. Jr. [Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Knowledge Engineering Group (KEG); Greitzer, F.L.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Reeve, T. [Expert Solutions, Stratford, CT (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

The application of neural networks with artificial intelligence technique in the modeling of industrial processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neural networks are a relatively new artificial intelligence technique that emulates the behavior of biological neural systems in digital software or hardware. These networks can 'learn', automatically, complex relationships among data. This feature makes the technique very useful in modeling processes for which mathematical modeling is difficult or impossible. The work described here outlines some examples of the application of neural networks with artificial intelligence technique in the modeling of industrial processes.

Saini, K. K.; Saini, Sanju [CDLM engg. College Panniwala Mota, Sirsa and Murthal, Sonipat, Haryana (India)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

475

Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Complex Groundwater Management Problems  

SciTech Connect

As water quantity and quality problems become increasingly severe, accurate prediction and effective management of scarcer water resources will become critical. In this paper, the successful application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology is described for three types of groundwater prediction and management problems. In the first example, an ANN was trained with simulation data from a physically based numerical model to predict head (groundwater elevation) at locations of interest under variable pumping and climate conditions. The ANN achieved a high degree of predictive accuracy, and its derived state-transition equations were embedded into a multiobjective optimization formulation and solved to generate a trade-off curve depicting water supply in relation to contamination risk. In the second and third examples, ANNs were developed with real-world hydrologic and climate data for different hydrogeologic environments. For the second problem, an ANN was developed using data collected for a 5-year, 8-month period to predict heads in a multilayered surficial and limestone aquifer system under variable pumping, state, and climate conditions. Using weekly stress periods, the ANN substantially outperformed a well-calibrated numerical flow model for the 71-day validation period, and provided insights into the effects of climate and pumping on water levels. For the third problem, an ANN was developed with data collected automatically over a 6-week period to predict hourly heads in 11 high-capacity public supply wells tapping a semiconfined bedrock aquifer and subject to large well-interference effects. Using hourly stress periods, the ANN accurately predicted heads for 24-hour periods in all public supply wells. These test cases demonstrate that the ANN technology can solve a variety of complex groundwater management problems and overcome many of the problems and limitations associated with traditional physically based flow models.

Coppola, Emery [NOAH LLC. (United States)], E-mail: noah.llc@mail.com; Poulton, Mary [University of Arizona, Department of Mining and Geological Engineering (United States); Charles, Emmanuel [U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Dustman, John [Summit EnviroSolutions (United States); Szidarovszky, Ferenc [University of Arizona, Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering (United States)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

S. Levy

2000-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

477

Structural Impairment Detection Using Arrays of Competitive Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aging railroad bridge infrastructure is subject to increasingly higher demands such as heavier loads, increased speed, and increased frequency of traffic. The challenges facing railroad bridge infrastructure provide an opportunity to develop improved systems of monitoring railroad bridges. This dissertation outlines the development and implementation of a Structural Impairment Detection System (SIDS) that incorporates finite element modeling and instrumentation of a testbed structure, neural algorithm development, and the integration of data acquisition and impairment detection tools. Ultimately, data streams from the Salmon Bay Bridge are autonomously recorded and interrogated by competitive arrays of artificial neural networks for patterns indicative of specific structural impairments. Heel trunnion bascule bridges experience significant stress ranges in critical truss members. Finite element modeling of the Salmon Bay Bridge testbed provided an estimate of nominal structural behavior and indicated types and locations of possible impairments. Analytical modeling was initially performed in SAP2000 and then refined with ABAQUS. Modeling results from the Salmon Bay Bridge were used to determine measureable quantities sensitive to modeled impairments. An instrumentation scheme was designed and installed on the testbed to record these diagnostically significant data streams. Analytical results revealed that main chord members and bracing members of the counterweight truss are sensitive to modeled structural impairments. Finite element models and experimental observations indicated maximum stress ranges of approximately 22 ksi on main chord members of the counterweight truss. A competitive neural algorithm was developed to examine analytical and experimental data streams. Analytical data streams served as training vectors for training arrays of competitive neural networks. A quasi static array of neural networks was developed to provide an indication of the operating condition at specific intervals of the bridge's operation. Competitive neural algorithms correctly classified 94% of simulated data streams. Finally, a stand-alone application was integrated with the Salmon Bay Bridge data acquisition system to autonomously analyze recorded data streams and produce bridge condition reports. Based on neural algorithms trained on modeled impairments, the Salmon Bay Bridge operates in a manner most resembling one of two operating conditions: 1) unimpaired, or 2) impaired embedded member at the southeast corner of the counterweight.

Story, Brett

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Evolutionary programming versus artificial immune system in evolving neural network for grid-connected photovoltaic system output prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the evolutionary neural networks for the prediction of energy output from a grid-connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system. Two evolutionary neural network (ENN) models have been proposed using evolutionary programming and artificial immune ... Keywords: artificial immune system (AIS) and prediction, artificial neural network (ANN), correlation coefficient (R), evolutionary programming (EP), grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPV), multi-layer feedforward neural network (MLFNN), photovoltaic (PV)

Shahril Irwan Sulaiman; Titik Khawa Abdul Rahman; Ismail Musirin; Sulaiman Shaari

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Estimation procedures and error analysis for inferring the total plutonium (Pu) produced by a graphite-moderated reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite isotope ratio method (GIRM) is a technique that uses measurements and computer models to estimate total plutonium (Pu) production in a graphite-moderated reactor. First, isotopic ratios of trace elements in extracted graphite samples from the target reactor are measured. Then, computer models of the reactor relate those ratios to Pu production. Because Pu is controlled under nonproliferation agreements, an estimate of total Pu production is often required, and a declaration of total Pu might need to be verified through GIRM. In some cases, reactor information (such as core dimensions, coolant details, and operating history) are so well documented that computer models can predict total Pu production without the need for measurements. However, in most cases, reactor information is imperfectly known, so a measurement and model-based method such as GIRM is essential. Here, we focus on GIRM’s estimation procedure and its associated uncertainty. We illustrate a simulation strategy for a specific reactor that estimates GIRM’s uncertainty and determines which inputs contribute most to GIRM’s uncertainty, including inputs to the computer models. These models include a ‘‘local’’ code that relates isotopic ratios to the local Pu production, and a ‘‘global’’ code that predicts the Pu production shape over the entire reactor. This predicted shape is included with other 3D basis functions to provide a ‘‘hybrid basis set’’ that is used to fit the local Pu production estimates. The fitted shape can then be integrated over the entire reactor to estimate total Pu production. This GIRM evaluation provides a good example of several techniques of uncertainty analysis and introduces new reasons to fit a function using basis functions in the evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in the true 3D shape.

Heasler, Patrick G.; Burr, Tom; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Bayne, Charles K.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z