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1

Suitability of artificial neural networks for designing LoC circuits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simulation of complex LoC (Lab-on-a-Chip) devices is a process that requires solving computationally expensive partial differential equations. An interesting alternative uses artificial neural networks for creating computationally feasible models ... Keywords: LoC, MOR, artificial neural networks, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, nanofluidic devices

David Moreno; Sandra Gůmez; Juan Castellanos

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

A hybrid power series artificial bee colony algorithm to obtain a solution for buckling of multiwall carbon nanotube cantilevers near small layers of graphite sheets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hybrid power series and artificial bee colony algorithm (PS-ABC) method is applied to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations arising from the distributed parameter model of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) cantilevers in the vicinity ...

Aminreza Noghrehabadi, Mohammad Ghalambaz, Mehdi Ghalambaz, Afshin Ghanbarzadeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WORK Identify suitable graphite materials for anodes that meet the requirement for low cost and long cycle life. Fabricate half cells (Ligraphite) and Li-ion (graphiteolivine)...

4

Chapter 20: Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Electric Resistivity of Interstitial Compounds of Graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assuming that the formation of interstitial compounds is accompanied by creation of excess holes in the otherwise full band of graphite it is shown that a linear energy?momentum relation at the Brillouin zone corners is incapable of explaining the decrease of the electric resistance with oxidation. It appears that for a more general model the decrease in relative resistance should be independent of temperature for large oxidations if suitable corrections for the initial conditions are made. Data for polycrystallinegraphite corrected for the existence of an energy gap and of excess holes in the untreated material give curves which converge for higher oxidation with the curve for natural graphite. Discussion of the low temperature properties of graphite leads to the conclusion that large graphite crystals possess slightly overlapping zones.

S. Mrozowski

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740įC at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible capacity in lithium-ion cells. Title An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on irreversible capacity in lithium-ion cells. Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Hardwick, Laurence J., Marek Marcinek, Leanne Beer, John B. Kerr, and Robert Kostecki Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 155 Start Page A442 Issue 6 Pagination A442-A447 Keywords chromatography, electrochemical electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectra, graphite, infrared spectra, lithium, mass spectra, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, secondary cells, sputtering, surface structure Abstract The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display a similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle compared to fresh unaltered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on surface-modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with Mw on the order of 1600gmol-1 for the surface-modified electrode with no evidence of elevated Mw species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling may be responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

8

JAPAN: Investment in Graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

JAPAN: Investment in Graphite ... Union Carbide, attempting entry into Japan's graphite electrode industry, has just had one obstacle removed from its path by the Fair Trade Commission in Tokyo. ... In deciding that the company's proposed joint venture with Nippon Carbon Co. conforms with provision's of Japan's antimonopoly law, FTC has improved the prospects for a new tactic in the often difficult process of foreign direct investment in Japanese production firms. ...

1969-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

9

Graphite Gamma Scan Results  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the measurement and data analysis of the radio isotopic content for a series of graphite specimens irradiated in the first Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, AGC-1. This is the first of a series of six capsules planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphites. The AGC-1 capsule was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL at approximately 700 degrees C and to a peak dose of 7 dpa (displacements per atom). Details of the irradiation conditions and other characterization measurements performed on specimens in the AGC-1 capsule can be found in ďAGC-1 Specimen Post Irradiation Data ReportĒ ORNL/TM 2013/242. Two specimens from six different graphite types are analyzed here. Each specimen is 12.7 mm in diameter by 25.4 mm long. The isotope with the highest activity was 60Co. Graphite type NBG-18 had the highest content of 60Co with an activity of 142.89 ĶCi at a measurement distance of 47 cm.

Mark W. Drigert

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Diamond-graphite field emitters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Artificial Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I Artificial Photosynthesis I - Design Principles for Light Harvesting FlemingSmall.png Key Challenges: Researchers measure a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic...

14

Graphite-based photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

15

Raman spectroscopy of graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...G for graphite. The other modes are either observed only on defective samples or are very weak in intensity like the G peak that was...al. 2001); a similar behaviour is also observed in other car- bon materials (Ferrari & Robertson 2001; Maultzsch et al...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Structural graphitic carbon foams  

SciTech Connect

Graphitic carbon foams are a unique material form with very high structural and thermal properties at a light weight. A process has been developed to produce microcellular, open-celled graphitic foams. The process includes heating a mesophase pitch preform above the pitch melting temperature in a pressurized reactor. At the appropriate time, the pressure is released, the gas nucleates bubbles, and these bubbles grow forming the pitch into the foam structure. The resultant foamed pitch is then stabilized in an oxygen environment. At this point a rigid structure exists with some mechanical integrity. The foam is then carbonized to 800 C followed by a graphitization to 2700 C. The shear action from the growing bubbles aligns the graphitic planes along the foam struts to provide the ideal structure for good mechanical properties. Some of these properties have been characterized for some of the foam materials. It is known that variations of the blowing temperature, blowing pressure and saturation time result in foams of variously sized with mostly open pores; however, the mechanism of bubble nucleation is not known. Therefore foams were blown with various gases to begin to determine the nucleation method. These gases are comprised of a variety of molecular weights as well as a range of various solubility levels. By examining the resultant structures of the foam, differences were noted to develop an explanation of the foaming mechanism.

Kearns, K.M.; Anderson, H.J. [Air Force Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Materials and Mfg. Directorate

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Artificial insemination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial insemination Artificial insemination Name: Allison K Mocko Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is it true that when undergoing artificial insemination there is a greater chance of conceiving a boy? Why? Replies: I believe so. Normally the semen is centrifuged and the top fraction picked off for insemination. Sperm swim up by instinct, naturally, and so those that make it to the top in the artificially high gravity are the fittest of the bunch, to be preferred for insemination success. They also happen more often to be sperm carrying Y sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome is half the size of the X chromosome, so the sperm carrying it are lighter and tend to be able to swim faster. The same effect may operate in the natural process: the percentage of newborns that are boys is slightly higher than 50. The imbalance is corrected by the higher death rate of baby boys.

18

Applications of artificial neural networks predicting macroinvertebrates in freshwaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applications of artificial neural networks predicting macroinvertebrates in freshwaters Peter L. M Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are non-linear mapping structures that can be applied for predictive P. L suitability models can be very valuable. Data driven methods such as artificial neural net- works (ANNs

Lek, Sovan

19

Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldberger, W.M. [Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL (United States); Kinoshita, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

20

Atomic Heat of Graphite between 1 and 20įK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atomic heat of pure artificial polycrystalline graphite has been measured between 1 and 4įK and 10 and 20įK. Precautions were taken to ensure that no error was introduced by gas adsorbed on the graphite. Below 2įK the atomic heat can be represented as the sum of a term proportional to T3 arising from lowfrequency lattice waves and a term proportional to T due to electrons: C=0.0325T3+0.031T millijoules/mole degree. Between 2.25įK and 4.5įK, C=0.115T2+0.031T-0.237 millijoules/mole degree; between 10 20įK, C=0.208T2-6.8 millijoules/mole degree.

P. H. Keesom and N. Pearlman

1955-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Using Graphite to view network data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite Graphite to Visualize Network Data Jon Dugan Summer ESCC 2010, Columbus, OH Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science ESnet Statistics Overview ESxSNMP (Data Collection) ESxSNMP (Data Collection) Graphite (Visualization) Graphite (Visualization) Analytics (Custom Reports) Analytics (Custom Reports) Net Almanac (Metadata) Net Almanac (Metadata) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science What is Graphite? "Enterprise scalable realtime graphing" * Developed by Orbitz for visualizing internal performance data * Open source: https://launchpad.net/graphite * Has own RRD like database called Carbon * RRD Compatible ESxSNMP Integration * via REST interface * Easy integration, Graphite is well written

22

Artificial insemination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial insemination Artificial insemination Name: Sandy C. and Becca S. and Jessica M. Grade 7 Glen Crest Jr. High Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Would it ever be possible for an animal to have another animals baby? For example, women can be impregnated without having intercourse now because of modern technology. So, could a cow for example carry an endangered species' offspring? Replies: Sandy, Becca, and Jessica, Is suspect that you have not received an answer to this question yet because there is not a definite answer. In order to bear offspring there are many factors that must be met. Primarily, the father and mother must be of the same species or at least very similar. There are so many new developments in the area of artificial insemination that it is hard to say no, a cow can not carry and endangered species, it is highly unlikely at this time. Keep up your curiosity, it is a characteristic of all scientists! (By the way I teach 6th grade science and am currently teaching a human growth and development unit in which the students have been asking questions very similar to yours).

23

Hydrogen Storage in Graphite Nanofibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage in Graphite Nanofibers ... Subsequent lowering of the pressure to nearly atmospheric conditions results in the release of a major fraction of the stored hydrogen at room temperature. ...

Alan Chambers; Colin Park; R. Terry K. Baker; Nelly M. Rodriguez

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

24

Realizing artificial photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Realizing artificial photosynthesis Authors: Gust, D., Moore, T. A., Moore, A. L. Title: Realizing artificial photosynthesis Source: Faraday Discussions Year: 2012 Volume: 155...

25

Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package  

SciTech Connect

The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Graphite Reactor | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite Reactor Graphite Reactor 'In the early, desperate days of World War II, the United States launched the top-secret, top-priority Manhattan Project...' In the early, desperate days of U.S. involvement in World War II, American scientists began to fear that the German discovery of uranium fission in 1939 might enable the Nazis to develop a super bomb. Afraid of losing this crucial race, the United States launched the top-secret, top-priority Manhattan Project. The plan was to create two atomic weapons-one fueled by plutonium, the other by enriched uranium. Hanford, Washington, was selected as the site for plutonium production, but before large reactors could be built there, a pilot plant was necessary to prove the feasibility of scaling up from laboratory experiments. A secluded, rural area near Clinton, Tennessee, was

28

Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets  

SciTech Connect

A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

29

X-10 Graphite Reactor | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor When President Roosevelt in December 1942 authorized the Manhattan Project, the Oak Ridge site in eastern Tennessee had already been obtained and plans laid for an air-cooled experimental pile, a pilot chemical separation plant, and support facilities. The X-10 Graphite Reactor, designed and built in ten months, went into operation on November 4, 1943. The X-10 used neutrons emitted in the fission of uranium-235 to convert uranium-238 into a new element, plutonium-239. The reactor consists of a huge block of graphite, measuring 24 feet on each side, surrounded by several feet of high-density concrete as a radiation shield. The block is pierced by 1,248 horizontal diamond-shaped channels in

30

Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactorís lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

31

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a central role in Robotics if the connection is to be intelligent. Artificial Intelligence addresses ...

Brady, Michael

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Identification of process suitable diluent  

SciTech Connect

The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

Dean R. Peterman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

34

Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

35

PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting registration web site PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting registration web site PIA - 10th...

36

Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900įC. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Impact of high energy ball milling on the nanostructure of magnetiteĖgraphite and magnetiteĖgraphiteĖmolybdenum disulphide blends  

SciTech Connect

Different, partly complementary and partly redundant characterization methods were applied to study the transition of magnetite, graphite and MoS{sub 2} powders to mechanically alloyed nanostructures. The applied methods were: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), MŲssbauer spectroscopy (MS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The main objective was to prepare a model material providing the essential features of a typical tribofilm forming during automotive braking, and to assess the impact of different constituents on sliding behaviour and friction level. Irrespective of the initial grain size, the raw materials were transferred to a nanocrystalline structure and mixed on a nanoscopic scale during high energy ball milling. Whereas magnetite remained almost unchanged, graphite and molybdenum disulphide were transformed to a nanocrystalline and highly disordered structure. The observed increase of the coefficient of friction was attributed to a loss of lubricity of the latter ingredient due to this transformation and subsequent oxidation. - Highlights: ē Characterization of microstructural changes induced by high energy ball milling ē Assessment of the potential of different characterization methods ē Impact of mechanical alloying on tribological performance revealed by tests ē Preparation of an artificial third body resembling the one formed during braking.

÷sterle, W., E-mail: Werner.oesterle@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Orts-Gil, G.; Gross, T.; Deutsch, C. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Hinrichs, R. [Instituto de GeociÍncias, UFRGS, P.O. Box 15001, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Instituto de FŪsica, UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Zoz, H.; Yigit, D.; Sun, X. [Zoz Group, 57482 Wenden (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites  

SciTech Connect

This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

Karthik Chinnathambi; Joshua Kane; Darryl P. Butt; William E. Windes; Rick Ubic

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products on each type of graphite site. The model will include multiple simultaneous adsorbing species, which will allow for competitive adsorption effects between different fission product species and O and OH (for modeling accident conditions).

Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study.

Propp, W.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Marchington, David [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Strength scaling of brittle graphitic foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...many different type of open- and closed-cell solids such as aerogels (Pekala et al. 1991), graphitic foams (Brezny & Green...mechanical properties and scaling law relationships for silica aerogels and their organic counterparts. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue  

SciTech Connect

The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

44

Pyrolytic graphite production : automation of material placement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research examines the process and challenges associated with the addition of an autonomous transfer robot to a manufacturing line for AvCarb Material Solutions for use in production of pyrolytic graphite. Development ...

Olle, Chase R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

46

Removal of {sup 14}C from Irradiated Graphite for Graphite Recycle and Waste Volume Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the research presented here was to identify the checmical from of {sup 14}C inirradiated graphite. A greater understanding of the chemical form of this longest-lived isotope in irradiated graphite will inform not only management of legacy waste, but also development of next generation gas-cooled reactors. Approimately 250,000 metric tons of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide, with the largest single quantity originating in the Magnox and AGR reactors of UK. The waste quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation I gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. Of greatest concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 ({sup 14}C), with a half-life of 5730 years.

Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Windes, Will; Marsden, Barry

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

Hybrid artificial neural network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or simply neural networks (NNs) are now a consolidated technique ... , and simulate the behavior of the biological neural network in a human brain. For that purpose ... use a sta...

Nadia Nedjah; Ajith Abraham; Luiza M. Mourelle

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Artificial Neural Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An artificial neural network (with acronym ANN), usually addressed as neural network (with acronym NN), is a model ... the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks or human brain. A neural

Dr. Gůmez GonzŠlez Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration Projects |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Documents Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Documents Feasibility Study (PDF) Proposed Remedial Action Plan (PDF) Record of Decision (PDF) RD/RA Work Plan for the BGRR Pile (PDF) RD/RA Work Plan for the Bioshield (PDF) RD/RA Work Plan for the BGRR Cap (PDF) Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Explanation of Significant Differences (PDF) (4/12) NYSDEC Approval Letter for BGRR ESD (PDF) (5/12) USEPA Approval Letter for BGRR ESD (PDF) (6/12) DOE BGRR ESD Transmittal Letter (PDF) (7/12) Remedial Design Implementation Report (PDF) (12/11) Completion Reports Removal of the Above-Ground Ducts and Preparation of the Instrument House (708) for Removal (PDF) - April 2002 Below-Ground Duct Outlet Air Coolers, Filters and Primary Liner Removal (PDF) - April 2005 Canal and Deep Soil Pockets Excavation and Removal (PDF) - August

50

Aerosol and graphitic carbon content of snow  

SciTech Connect

Snow samples from southern New Mexico, west Texas, Antarctica, and Greenland were analyzed for aerosol and graphitic carbon. Graphitic carbon contents were found to be between 2.2 and 25 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ of snow meltwater; water-insoluble aerosol content varied between 0.62 and 8.5 mg L/sup -1/. For comparison, two samples of Camp Century, Greenland, ice core, having approximate ages of 4,000 and 6,000 years, were also analyzed. Ice core graphitic carbon contents were found to be 2.5 and 1.1 ..mu..g L/sup -1/. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

Chy-acute-accentlek, P.; Srivastava, V.; Cahenzli, L.; Pinnick, R.G.; Dod, R.L.; Novakov, T.; Cook, T.L.; Hinds, B.D.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

51

Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification ... The research results could open avenues for developing low-cost water purification materials for the developing economies. ... water purification; graphite oxide; mercury removal; diazonium chemistry; Rhodamine B; sand coating ...

Wei Gao; Mainak Majumder; Lawrence B. Alemany; Tharangattu N. Narayanan; Miguel A. Ibarra; Bhabendra K. Pradhan; Pulickel M. Ajayan

2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

52

Characterization of exfoliated graphite for heavy oil sorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper are reported some experimental data related to the influence of preparation regimes and characteristics of exfoliated graphite based sorbents produced by thermal expansion of H2SO4-graphite intercal...

Gabriela Hristea; P. Budrugeac

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Some optical properties of graphite from IR to millimetric wavelengths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......powder obtained by striking an electric arc from graphitic electrodes in an...the material from the exciting electric field and more energy is scattered...graphitic material from electrical discharges in various gases, TH, BE, XY......

Robert J. Papoular; Renaud Papoular

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products  

SciTech Connect

A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Generation of genuine $?$-type four-particle entangled state of superconducting artificial atoms with broken symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for generating a genuine $\\chi$-type four-particle entangled state of superconducting artificial atoms with broken symmetry by using one-dimensional transmission line resonator as a data bus. The $\\Delta$-type three-level artificial atom we use in the scheme is different from natural atom and has cyclic transitions. After suitable interaction time and simple operations, the desired entangled state can be obtained. Since artificial atomic excited states and photonic states are adiabatically eliminated, our scheme is robust against the spontaneous emissions of artificial atoms and the decays of transmission line resonator.

Chun-Ling Leng; Qi Guo; Xin Ji; Shou Zhang

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface. 2 figures.

McKernan, M.A.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Chen, C.W.

1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

57

Artificial Retina Implant Eligibility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CRADA Established October 14, 2004 CRADA Established October 14, 2004 A Joint Research Partnership Between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Laboratories, Universities, and a Private Company On October 14, 2004, the Department of Energy and Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. of Sylmar, California, held a press conference to announce the formal signing of a CRADA* for the Artificial Retina Project. This press conference included a speech by Energy Secretary Abraham, five minute video presentation, and multiple press releases. The press releases and video are listed below. Video A video explaining the artificial retina project and retinitis pigmentosa was shown during the press conference. This video is available on the video page. "See Artificial Retina Project Overview."

58

Composite Artificial Neural Network for Controlling Artificial Flying Creature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a composite artificial neural network (CANN). The CANN is a method that contains concepts of an evolutionary artificial neural network, a neural network ensemble and subsumption architecture, ...

Ryosuke Ooe; Ikuo Suzuki; Masahito YamamotoÖ

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

An artificial neural network representation for artificial organisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce an artificial neural network (ANN) representation that supports the evolution of complex behaviors in artificial organisms. The strength and location of each connection in the network is specified by...

Robert J. Collins; David R. Jefferson

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Environmental Management Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-out report · Transition to long-term surveillance and maintenance · Office of Environmental ManagementEnvironmental Management Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Project Completion John Sattler Federal Project Director Office of Environmental Management U.S. Department of Energy BNL

Homes, Christopher C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NOVEL GRAPHITE SALTS OF HIGH OXIDIZING POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hr volatiles none AsFS AsFS > CF4 AsFS AsFS AsFS C13.l AsF 6C16.l AsF 6 C24.3AsF6∑l/2 F2 > CF4> CF4 > CF4 Table VI-7. Graphite hexafluoroarsenate salts +

McCarron III, Eugene Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Phonon dispersion of graphite J. Maultzsch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the acoustic branches below 400 cm-1 were measured by inelastic neutron scattering [1]. The optical phonons. The phonon dispersion of graphite was determined by inelastic X-ray scattering along the -K, K-M, and -K. This coupling dominates the scattering mechanism in both electronic transport and Raman scattering. Many

Nabben, Reinhard

63

Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900įC or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

Mohamed El-Genk

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction

Provancher, William

65

Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Kenton Kirkpatrick , Jim May Jr Artificial Neural Network System Identification, has the advantages of being straightforward with low for aircraft using an artificial neural network (ANN). Artificial neural networks are useful for creating

Valasek, John

66

4, 11371165, 2007 Suitability QCL for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 4, 1137­1165, 2007 Suitability QCL for eddy covariance P. S. Kroon et al. Title Page Abstract Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Netherlands 2 TU Delft, Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Research group Clouds, Climate and Air Quality, Netherlands 3 Aerodyne

Boyer, Edmond

67

Department of Physics Artificial Life  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;2 The second kind of artificial life is hardware-based (Hard ALife). 1 It produces hardware implementations of life-like systems. Examples of hardware based artificial life are autonomous robots. In this seminar weDepartment of Physics Artificial Life: Vesicles and Synthesis of a Minimal Cell Seminar Marusa

¬?umer, Slobodan

68

Artificial Photosynthesis and Solar Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Artificial Photosynthesis and Solar Fuels ... This special issue collects Accounts on natural photosynthetic principles, as well as biomimetic and artificial photosynthetic systems. ... Research directed toward understanding molecular mechanisms of photosynthetic energy conversion and biomimetic systems, which may provide strategies for artificial photosynthesis, is presented. ...

Leif HammarstrŲm; Sharon Hammes-Schiffer

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

69

Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to ?16% and then bombarded with deuterium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

Taylor, C. N. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States) [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States) [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); TheoretiK, Knoxville, Tennessee 379XX (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration Projects |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Was the BGRR Decommissioned? Why Was the BGRR Decommissioned? BGRR The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned to ensure the complex is in a safe and stable condition and to reduce sources of groundwater contamination. The BGRR contained over 8,000 Curies of radioactive contaminants from past operations consisting of primarily nuclear activation products such as hydrogen-3 (tritium) and carbon-14 and fission products cesium-137 and strontium-90. The nature and extent of contamination varied by location depending on historic uses of the systems and components and releases, however, the majority of the contamination (over 99 percent) was bound within the graphite pile and biological shield. Radioactive contamination was identified in the fuel handling system deep

71

Coal precursors for production of carbon and graphite products. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this program was to demonstrate the utility of coal extracts from the West Virginia University (WVU) extraction process as suitable base raw materials for the carbon products encompassed by the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) team. These include binder and impregnation pitches, Coke for graphite electrodes, Cokes for anodes and specialty graphite, matrices for C/C composites and raw material for mesophase pitch fibers. Previous work in this program has shown that the WVU coal extraction process coupled with hydrotreatment, does have the potential for achieving this objective. The current effort involved screening and evaluation of extracts produced by the WVU Group and recommending appropriate materials for scaleup for subsequent evaluation by Consortium Team members. The program involved an initial characterization of small-scale extracts using standard analytical methods and mesophase formation studies. This was followed by feedback to the WVU Group and to the CPC partners with recommendation of material for scaleup. Similar analytical and mesophase studies on some of the scaled-up extracts was performed. The activation of the coal extraction residues for the purpose of producing a useful active carbon was investigated. A further task was to fabricate a small graphite artifact using Coke derived from coal extract as the filler and the coal extract itself as a binder. The results of the studies are summarized in this report.

Lewis, I.C.; Lewis, R.T.; Mayer, H.K. [Ucar Carbon Co., Inc., Parma, OH (United States)

1996-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

72

Byland's artificial retina story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vision Quest Pioneer: Artificial Retina Recipient Sees Brighter Future Vision Quest Pioneer: Artificial Retina Recipient Sees Brighter Future Byland and Humayun Terry Byland and Dr. Mark Humayun at a 2006 Council for Competitiveness event. When Terry Byland began having trouble seeing in the dim light of dark restaurants and nightclubs, he wasn't overly concerned. Soon after, however, the problem began to affect his night driving. A year later, he went to an ophthalmologist to have his eyes checked. He wasn't prepared for the grave diagnosis: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP). "What's going to happen to me?" Byland asked his doctor, who told him that eventually he could go blind. RP is a group of relatively rare inherited eye diseases that attack the photoreceptor cells in the retina, affecting about 1 in 4,000 people. Symptoms begin with night blindness, generally progressing to tunnel vision

73

Artificial Retina Project Collaborators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collaborators map Map of project collaborators and descriptions of their primary contributions. Click on map for larger image. Artificial Retina Project Collaborators An effort spanning 6 DOE national laboratories, 4 universities, and private industry Multidisciplinary groups across the United States are using a highly focused and coordinated approach to develop a dramatically improved retinal prosthetic device to restore sight to the blind. The Doheny Eye Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Second Sight(tm) Medical Products, Inc., lead the collaborative effort through an executive committee. Meet the Team Doheny logo Doheny Eye Institute at the University of Southern California Provided medical direction and performs preclinical and clinical testing of the electrode array implants. Leads the Artificial Retina Project.

74

Facile Sonochemical Synthesis of Graphite Intercalation Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 ... Similar intercalation of layered inorganic solids has been previously observed using high-intensity ultrasound as the energy source. ... Sonication for a longer period of time produces a blue-black material, which may either be due to partial deintercalation or to the destruction of the intercalated material to reform graphite and potassium. ...

Jess E. Jones; Michael C. Cheshire; Dominick J. Casadonte, Jr.; Carol C. Phifer

2004-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

75

Atomic resolution images of graphite in air  

SciTech Connect

One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Reactor:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Reactor: Reactor core and associated structures successfully removed; waste shipped offsite for disposal Brookhaven Lab Completes Decommissioning of Graphite Research Reactor: Reactor core and associated structures successfully removed; waste shipped offsite for disposal September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor√ʬĬôs bioshield, which contains the 700-ton reactor core, is shown prior to decommissioning. The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor's bioshield, which contains the 700-ton reactor core, is shown prior to decommissioning. Pictured here is the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, where major decommissioning milestones were recently reached after the remaining radioactive materials from the facility√ʬĬôs bioshield were shipped to a licensed offsite disposal facility.

78

Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

Rudisill, T. S.

1998-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

79

Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics...

80

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sotowa (Showa-Denko) Objective Synthesize and evaluate doped manganese phosphate as low cost cathode material Replace graphite anode with an alternative material that meets the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replace graphite anode with an alternative material that meets the requirement for low cost and high energy. Continue development of binders for the cathode and alternative anode...

82

Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

83

Binding and Diffusion of Lithium in Graphite: Quantum Monte Carlo...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Binding and Diffusion of Lithium in Graphite: Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks and Validation of van der Waals Density Functional Methods P. Ganesh,* , Jeongnim Kim, Changwon...

84

Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940ís and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bisfuel Picture Gallery Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle 18 Feb 2014 by Jenny Green: In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, ASU scientists, along with...

86

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

implementation of an integrated solar-fuels generator based on artificial photosynthesis. Current development work in the program is focused on the design of prototype...

87

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

associates. Research Interests Dr. Lewis's research interests include artificial photosynthesis and electronic noses. Technical details of these research topics focus on...

88

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North JCAP Headquarters Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis California Institute of Technology Jorgensen Laboratory, Mail Code 132-80 1200 East California Boulevard...

89

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks #12;Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2

Kjellström, Hedvig

90

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2 Single Layer

Kjellström, Hedvig

91

Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Abstract: Low-cost...

92

Evaluation of the Transient Thermal Performance of a Graphite Foam/Phase Change Material Composite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The thermal transient response of graphite foam infiltrated with paraffin wax as a thermal protection composite was investigated. Graphite foam is a rigid open-celledÖ (more)

Trammell, Michael Paul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Solar Fuels via Artificial Photosynthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar Fuels via Artificial Photosynthesis ... Indeed, all of the fossil-fuel-based energy consumed today derives from sunlight harvested by photosynthetic organisms. ... One is artificial photosynthesis, the use of the fundamental science underlying photosynthetic energy conversion to design synthetic systems for converting light into stored chemical energy. ...

Devens Gust; Thomas A. Moore; Ana L. Moore

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

94

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

Popovic, Zoya

95

Chemical kinetics parameters of nuclear graphite gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides chemical kinetics parameters for the gasification of nuclear graphite grades of IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18 and NBG-25 and presents empirical correlations for their surface areas of free active sites as a function of mass. The kinetics parameters for the four elementary chemical reactions of gasification of these grades of nuclear graphite include the values and Gaussian distributions of the specific activation energies and the values of the pre-exponential rate coefficients for the adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO and CO2 gases. The values of these parameters and the surface area of free active sites for IG-110 and NB-25, with fine and medium petroleum coke filler particles, are nearly the same, but slightly different from those of NBG-18 and IG-430, with medium and fine coal tar pitch coke filler particles. Recommended parameters are applicable to future safety analysis of high and very high temperature gas cooled reactors in the unlikely event of a massive air ingress accident.

Mohamed S. El-Genk; Jean-Michel P. Tournier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services ¬Ľ Site & Facility Restoration ¬Ľ Deactivation & Services ¬Ľ Site & Facility Restoration ¬Ľ Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D) ¬Ľ D&D Workshops ¬Ľ Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was the first reactor built in the U.S. for peacetime atomic research following World War II. Construction began in 1947 and the reactor started operating in August 1950. In the next 18 years, an estimated 25,000 scientific experiments were carried out at the BGRR using neutrons produced in the facility's 700-ton graphite core, made up of more than 60,000 individual graphite blocks. The BGRR was placed on standby in 1968 and then permanently shut down as the next-generation reactor, the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), was

97

Oxidation of graphite surface: the role of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on density functional calculations, we demonstrate a significant difference in oxidation patterns between graphene and graphite and the formation of defects after oxidation. Step-by-step modeling demonstrates that oxidation of 80% of the graphite surface is favorable. Oxidation above half of the graphite surface significantly decreases the energy costs of vacancy formation with CO2 production. The presence of water is crucial in the transformation of epoxy groups to hydroxyl, the intercalation with further bundle and exfoliation. In water-rich conditions, water intercalates graphite at the initial stages of oxidation and oxidation, which is similar to the oxidation process of free-standing graphene; in contrast, in water-free conditions, large molecules intercalate graphite only after oxidation occurs on more than half of the surface.

Boukhvalov, D W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Graphite and its Hidden Superconductivity | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphite and its Hidden Superconductivity Graphite and its Hidden Superconductivity Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 2:00pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Pablo Esquinazi, University of Leipzig We review different experimental results that indicate the existence of granular superconductivity at high temperatures at graphite interfaces. In particular we will discuss the following experimental results: The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the electrical resistance of bulk and thin graphite samples and its relation with the existence of two-dimensional (2D) interfaces. The anomalous hysteresis in the magnetoresistance observed in graphite thin samples as well as its enhancement restricting the current path within the sample. The Josephson behavior of the current-voltage characteristics with

99

Artificial Production of Neutrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A porcelain vacuum tube capable of producing currents of positive ions up to 30 microamperes and with energies up to 106 electron-volts has been constructed and used for artificial disintegration experiments. Neutrons have been produced by bombarding beryllium with helium ions, and by bombarding lithium and beryllium with the ions of the heavy isotope of hydrogen. The curve obtained for the efficiency of production of neutrons by helium ions as a function of voltage is in agreement with the curve obtained by a downward extrapolation of curves known from work with polonium ?-particles. The present paper is mainly a discussion of the apparatus and methods of measurement, since brief reports of the results have already been presented.

H. R. Crane; C. C. Lauritsen; A. Soltan

1934-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation Authors: Moore, T.A., Moore, A.L., and Gust, D. Title: Artificial photosynthesis...

102

Microsoft Word - ArtificialPhotosynthesis bh  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrochemical cell setup for ambient- pressure XPS investigations of artificial photosynthesis process In Situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial...

103

(Fuel, fission product, and graphite technology)  

SciTech Connect

Travel to the Forschungszentrum (KFA) -- Juelich described in this report was for the purpose of participating in the annual meeting of subprogram managers for the US/DOE Umbrella Agreement for Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Technology. At this meeting the highlights of the cooperative exchange were reviewed for the time period June 1989 through June 1990. The program continues to contribute technology in an effective way for both countries. Revision 15 of the Subprogram Plan will be issued as a result of the meeting. There was interest expressed by KFA management in the level of support received from the NPR program and in potential participation in the COMEDIE loop experiment being conducted at the CEA.

Stansfield, O.M.

1990-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

104

Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Environmental Restoration Projects |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Cleanup Actions - Cleanup Actions Since the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was shut down in 1968, many actions have been taken as part of the complex decommissioning. The actions undertaken throughout the BGRR complex ensure that the structures that remain are in a safe and stable condition and prepared it for long-term surveillance and maintenance. Regulatory Requirements The decommissioning of the BGRR was conducted under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1992, an Interagency Agreement (PDF) among the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) became effective. The IAG provided the overall framework for conducting environmental restoration activities at

105

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Title Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, A. F. Bello, Xiangyun Song, Shidi Xun, Jin Chong, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 5 Pagination A520 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00134651 Abstract Battery grade graphite products from major suppliers to the battery industry were evaluated in 2325 coin cells with lithium counter electrodes. First and ongoing cycle efficiency, total and reversible capacity, cycle life and discharge rate performance were measured to compare these anode materials. We then ranked the graphites using a formula which incorporates these performance measures to estimate the cost of the overall system, relative to the cost of a system using MCMB. This analysis indicates that replacing MCMB with CCP-G8 (Conoco Phillips) would add little to no cost, whereas each of the other graphites would lead to a more costly system. Therefore we chose CCP-G8 as the new baseline graphite for the BATT program.

106

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

Brownstone, Rob

107

Classifying Artificial Neural Network Architecture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most Artificial Neural Network architecture appears to be heuristic in conception; ... be preferable to develop a formal taxonomy for Neural Networks in order that network size and designs may be matched more ......

Dr J. P. Evans

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The AMPTE artificial comet experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... camera installed and run by a team from the MPE aboard an Argentinean Air Force Boeing 707 which was cruising 2,000 km south of Tahiti11. The observer's line- ... of the first artificial comet.

A. Valenzuela; G. Haerendel; H. FŲppl; F. Melzner; H. Neuss; E. Rieger; J. StŲcker; O. Bauer; H. HŲfner; J. Loidl

1986-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

One approach to artificial photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

One approach to artificial photosynthesis Authors: Llansola-Portols, M.J., Palacios, R.E., Kodis, G., Megiatto, J.D., Moore, A.L., Moore, T. A., and Gust, D. Title: One approach...

110

Solar Fuels via Artificial Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Fuels via Artificial Photosynthesis 24 Aug 2010 Devens Gust, Thomas Moore and Ana Moore are the authors of one of 10 Most-Accessed Articles from one of the Highest Impact...

111

Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Sk+3000,000) EU(decline bet) = U(S k+1000,000) not that different Bottom Line: the utility U of money Intellige Decision: What Door to Open? Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 Bottom Line Clear: decision about preference by a numerical utility function U. For outcomes A, B U(A) > U(B) A B U(A) = U(B) A B Artificial

Polani, Daniel

112

Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę How much could these areas produce sustainably? √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬

Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Experimental thermal conductivity and contact conductance of graphite composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphite fiber organic matrix composites were reviewed ics. for potential heat sink applications in the electronics packaging determined the effective transverse and longitudinal thermal industry. This experimental investigation conductivity...

Jackson, Marian Christine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

114

GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Compression induced delamination in a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

December 1981 Major Subject: Civil Engineering COMPRESSION INDUCED DELAMINATION IN A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by JOHN W. EARLEY Approved as to style and content by: (K. L. Jerina, Chairman) (R, A. Schape y', MemP ) W. L.... Bradley, Me er Il. 8 0 1d, O. pa t~tH d December 1981 ABSTRACT Compression Induced Delamination in a Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composite (December 1981) John William Earley, B. S. Aeronautical Engineering California Polytechnic State University...

Earley, John W.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

116

An investigation of damage accumulation in graphite/epoxy laminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by ROBERT GERALD NORVELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by ROBERT GERALD NORVELL Approved as to style and content by: David H. Allen (Co-Chair of C mmitt. ) Richard A. Schap...

Norvell, Robert Gerald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

Slow, stable delamination in graphite/epoxy composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SLOB, STABLE DELAFIINATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES A Thesis by HAMID RA2I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reouirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering SLOW, STABLE DELAMINATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES A Thesis by HAMID RAZI Approved as to style and content by: (R. A. Schapery, hair (J. R. Wa ton, Member) (W. L. Bradley, Membe . R. Hopkins, ead of Department...

Razi, Hamid

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Determination of boron isotope ratios by Zeeman effect background correction-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method for the determination of isotopic ratio of boron using Zeeman effect background correction-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with conventional atomizer and natural-boron hollow cathode source is described. The isotope-shift Zeeman effect at 208.9†nm is utilized for isotopic ratio determination. At a given concentration of total boron, the net absorbance decreases linearly with increasing 10B/11B ratio. The absorbances are recorded at the field strength of 1.0†T. The isotope ratios measured by the proposed method were in good agreement with the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma-quadruple mass spectrometry or thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The present method is fairly fast and less expensive compared to the above techniques and is quite suitable for plant environments.

S. Thangavel; S.V. Rao; K. Dash; J. Arunachalam

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

120

How the Artificial Retina Works  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Artificial Retina Works the Artificial Retina Works Artificial Retina Diagram Normal vision begins when light enters and moves through the eye to strike specialized photoreceptor (light-receiving) cells in the retina called rods and cones. These cells convert light signals to electric impulses that are sent to the optic nerve and the brain. Retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa destroy vision by annihilating these cells. With the artificial retina device, a miniature camera mounted in eyeglasses captures images and wirelessly sends the information to a microprocessor (worn on a belt) that converts the data to an electronic signal and transmits it to a receiver on the eye. The receiver sends the signals through a tiny, thin cable to the microelectrode array, stimulating it to emit pulses. The artificial retina device thus bypasses defunct photoreceptor cells and transmits electrical signals directly to the retina's remaining viable cells. The pulses travel to the optic nerve and, ultimately, to the brain, which perceives patterns of light and dark spots corresponding to the electrodes stimulated. Patients learn to interpret these visual patterns.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Artificial Retina In the News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Press Releases Press Releases News Articles Press Releases Mark Humayun Inducted into Institute of Medicine Institute of Medicine press release, 10/12/2009 Artificial Retina Project Wins Prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Award Article and multiple press releases, 07/20/2009 Second Sight to Double Patient Enrollment for Argus(tm) II Retinal Implant U.S. Clinical Trial Second Sight press release, 05/04/09 See more releases in Press Release Archive Recent Articles Bionic eye opens new world of sight for blind National Public Radio, October 20, 2009 Burst of technology helps blind to see New York Times, September 26, 2009 Artificial retina project has ORNL roots ORNL Reporter, August 28, 2009 The "holy grail" of ophthalmic devices Assembly Magazine, August 20, 2009 Artificial-retina project designed to restore sight to the blind

122

Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 Recommendation by the...

123

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

124

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

125

Treatment of Irradiated Graphite from French Bugey Reactor - 13424  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 2009, in order to determine an alternative to direct disposal for decommissioned irradiated graphite from EDF's Bugey NPP, Studsvik and EDF began a test program to determine if graphite decontamination and destruction were practicable using Studsvik's thermal organic reduction (THOR) technology. The testing program focused primarily on the release of C-14, H-3, and Cl-36 and also monitored graphite mass loss. For said testing, a bench-scale steam reformer (BSSR) was constructed with the capability of flowing various compositions of gases at temperatures up to 1300 deg. C over uniformly sized particles of graphite for fixed amounts of time. The BSSR was followed by a condenser, thermal oxidizer, and NaOH bubbler system designed to capture H-3 and C-14. Also, in a separate series of testing, high concentration acid and peroxide solutions were used to soak the graphite and leach out and measure Cl-36. A series of gasification tests were performed to scope gas compositions and temperatures for graphite gasification using steam and oxygen. Results suggested higher temperature steam (1100 deg. C vs. 900 deg. C) yielded a practicable gasification rate but that lower temperature (900 deg. C) gasification was also a practicable treatment alternative if oxygen is fed into the process. A series of decontamination tests were performed to determine the release behavior of and extent to which C-14 and H-3 were released from graphite in a high temperature (900-1300 deg. C), low flow roasting gas environment. In general, testing determined that higher temperatures and longer roasting times were efficacious for releasing H-3 completely and the majority (80%) of C-14. Manipulating oxidizing and reducing gas environments was also found to limit graphite mass loss. A series of soaking tests was performed to measure the amount of Cl-36 in the samples of graphite before and after roasting in the BSSR. Similar to C-14 release, these soaking tests revealed that 70-80% Cl-36 is released during roasting tests. (authors)

Brown, Thomas [Studsvik, Inc., 5605 Glenridge Drive NE, Suite 705, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Studsvik, Inc., 5605 Glenridge Drive NE, Suite 705, Atlanta, GA (United States); Poncet, Bernard [electricite de France, 154 Avenue Thiers, CS 60018, 69458 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)] [electricite de France, 154 Avenue Thiers, CS 60018, 69458 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Artificial Muscle Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Artificial Muscle Inc Artificial Muscle Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Artificial Muscle Inc Place California Zip CA 94085 Product Artificial Muscle develops electroactive polymer technology used for sensing, actuating and electric power generation applications. References Artificial Muscle Inc[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Artificial Muscle Inc is a company located in California . References ‚ÜĎ "Artificial Muscle Inc" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Artificial_Muscle_Inc&oldid=678882" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

127

A VALIDATION INDEX FOR ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A VALIDATION INDEX FOR ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS Stephen Roberts, Lionel Tarassenko, James Pardey and estimation properties of artificial neural networks. Like many `traditional' statistical techniques & David Siegwart Neural Network Research Group Department of Engineering Science University of Oxford, UK

Roberts, Stephen

128

Artificial Neural Network Resistance to Incomplete Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents results obtained in experiments related to artificial neural networks. Artificial neural networks have been trained with delta-bar-delta ... the experiment was to observe how long will neural

Magdalena Alicja Tkacz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks o Require minimal user input o Easily implemented o Robust to noise o Fast #12 interactions between neurons that pass electrochemical signals between each other Artificial neural networks

Valasek, John

130

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print The recent surge of interest in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon, raising the possibility of high-efficiency, low-power, carbon-based electronics. Scientists attribute graphene's surprising current capacity (as well as a number of even stranger phenomena) to the presence of charge carriers that behave as if they are massless, "relativistic" quasiparticles called Dirac fermions. Harnessing these quasiparticles in real-world carbon-based devices, however, requires a deeper knowledge of their behavior under less-than-ideal circumstances, such as around defects, at edges, or in three dimensions-in other words, in graphite. At the ALS, a team of researchers using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have now produced the first direct evidence of massless Dirac fermions in graphite coexisting with quasiparticles of finite effective mass and defect-induced localized states.

131

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print The recent surge of interest in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon, raising the possibility of high-efficiency, low-power, carbon-based electronics. Scientists attribute graphene's surprising current capacity (as well as a number of even stranger phenomena) to the presence of charge carriers that behave as if they are massless, "relativistic" quasiparticles called Dirac fermions. Harnessing these quasiparticles in real-world carbon-based devices, however, requires a deeper knowledge of their behavior under less-than-ideal circumstances, such as around defects, at edges, or in three dimensions-in other words, in graphite. At the ALS, a team of researchers using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have now produced the first direct evidence of massless Dirac fermions in graphite coexisting with quasiparticles of finite effective mass and defect-induced localized states.

132

First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Evidence of Dirac Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite First Direct Evidence of Dirac Fermions in Graphite Print Wednesday, 27 June 2007 00:00 The recent surge of interest in the electronic properties of graphene-that is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by the discovery that electron mobility in graphene is ten times higher than in commercial-grade silicon, raising the possibility of high-efficiency, low-power, carbon-based electronics. Scientists attribute graphene's surprising current capacity (as well as a number of even stranger phenomena) to the presence of charge carriers that behave as if they are massless, "relativistic" quasiparticles called Dirac fermions. Harnessing these quasiparticles in real-world carbon-based devices, however, requires a deeper knowledge of their behavior under less-than-ideal circumstances, such as around defects, at edges, or in three dimensions-in other words, in graphite. At the ALS, a team of researchers using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have now produced the first direct evidence of massless Dirac fermions in graphite coexisting with quasiparticles of finite effective mass and defect-induced localized states.

133

Effect of microstructure on air oxidation resistance of nuclear graphite  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation resistance in air of three grades of nuclear graphite with different structures was compared using a standard thermogravimetric method. Differences in the oxidation behavior have been identified with respect to both (i) the rate of oxidation in identical conditions and the derived apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor and (ii) the penetration depth of the oxidant and the development of the oxidized layer. These differences were ascribed to structural differences between the three graphite grades, in particular the grain size and shape of the graphite filler, and the associated textural properties, such as total BET surface area and porosity distribution in the un-oxidized material. It was also found that the amount of strongly bonded surface oxygen complexes measured by thermodesorption significantly exceeds the amount afforded by the low BET surface area, and therefore low temperature oxygen chemisorption is not a reliable method for determining the amount of surface sites (re)active during air oxidation. The relationship between nuclear graphite microstructure and its oxidation resistance demonstrated in this work underlines the importance of performing comprehensive oxidation characterization studies of the new grades of nuclear graphite considered as candidates for very high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Guldan, Tyler R [ORNL; Wang, Peng [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Suitability, Position Sensitivity Designations, and Related Personnel Matters  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order identifies the interrelationships among suitability, security and access authorizations; to establish guidance and policy regarding position sensitivity designations, certain background investigations, and suitability determinations; and to establish the policies and procedures regarding waivers of pre-employment investigations. Chg 1, dated 7-8-92.

1989-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

135

Efficient Production of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from d-Fructose and Inulin with Graphite Derivatives as the Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The selective conversion of d-fructose and inulin to produce 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) is achieved in the presence of a catalytic amount of graphite derivatives such as graphite oxide (GO), reduced graphite ...

Guangxia Nie; Xinli Tong; Yangyang Zhang; Song Xue

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations environments. It is used to examine how different designs for the ants' Artificial Neural Network (ANN) brains aspects of the simulations was to test different artificial neural network structures as the controlling

G√ľng√∂r, Tunga

137

Artificial Neural Network Applied to Prediction of Fluorquinolone Antibacterial Activity by Topological Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This method uses neural networks in which training algorithms are used as well as different concepts and methods of artificial intelligence with a suitable set of topological descriptors. ... The artificial neural network seeks to capitalize upon this design by providing a network of neurons, arranged in layers, which all contribute in some measure to complex decisions. ... In the typical neural net every connection between two neurons is associated with a weight, a positive or negative real number which multiplies the signal from the preceding neuron. ...

Josť Jaťn-Oltra; Ma Teresa Salabert-Salvador; Francisco J. GarcŪa-March; Facundo Pťrez-Gimťnez; Francisco TomŠs-Vert

2000-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

138

Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata And an Application to Digital Image neural networks and weighted automata. For this task, we introduce semiring artificial neural networks, that is, artificial neural networks which implement the addition and the multiplication of semirings. We

Hoelldobler, Steffen

139

Object Oriented Artificial Neural Network Implementations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Object Oriented Artificial Neural Network Implementations W. Curt Lefebvre Jose C. Principe Neuro artificial neural networks (ANNs). The conven- tion for ANN simulation has been a direct implementation to develop a graphical artificial neural network simulation environment motivated towards the pro- cessing

Slatton, Clint

140

Online learning processes artificial neural networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On­line learning processes in artificial neural networks Tom M. Heskes Bert Kappen Department, The Netherlands. Abstract We study on­line learning processes in artificial neural networks from a general point. Elsevier, pages 199-- 233. #12; On­line learning processes in artificial neural networks 1 1 Introduction 1

Heskes, Tom

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (G51IAI) Dr Rong Qu Neural Networks #12;G51IAI ­ Introduction to AI Neural Networks Chapter 20 ­ Artificial Intelligence : A Modern Approach (AIMA) Russell ­ Introduction to AI Neural Networks More precisely: Artificial Neural Networks Simulating, on a computer, what

Qu, Rong

142

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Neural Networks Building Artificial Brains #12;Background of observed examples (training data). #12;Neural Networks Objectives Show how the human brain works Introduction The Human Brain (How a neuron works) Building Artificial Neurons Network Architecture and Learning

Qu, Rong

143

Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos the approach, we develop a physics­based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes. As in nature, the detailed motions of artificial fishes in their vir­ tual habitat are not entirely predictable

Toronto, University of

144

Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos-based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes that can swim hydrodynamically of artificial fishes in their virtual habitat are not entirely predictable because they are not scripted. 1

Terzopoulos, Demetri

145

Is Graphite a Diamonds Best Friend? New Information on Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 18th, 2003 November 18th, 2003 Is Graphite a Diamond's Best Friend? New Information on Material Transformation Science has yet to achieve the alchemist's dream of turning lead into gold. But a group of re-searchers using the GeoSoilEn-viroCARS (GSECARS) and High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HP-CAT) facilities at the Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, may have found a way to turn ordinary soft graphite (source of the "lead" found in pencils) into a new, super-hard material that "looks" just like diamond. Using the high-brilliance x-ray beams from the APS, the group discovered that, under extreme pressure, graphite (among the softest of materials and the source of the lead found in pencils) becomes as hard as diamond, the

146

Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect

The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150oC and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metalic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Harvey, David; Dutta, Monica; Colbow, Vesna

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect

The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150 C and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metallic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; David Harvey; M. Dutta; V. Colbow; S. Wessel

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

149

Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

150

Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries....

151

Delamination fracture toughness of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOS ITE A Thesis by ROY CHARLES HULSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DELAMINA. ION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by ROY CHARLES HULSEY Approved as to sty1e and content by: +alter L. Brad1ey, C airman TR. A. S p...

Hulsey, Roy Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

152

Electronic properties of graphite in tilted magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The minimal nearest-neighbor tight-binding model with the Peierls substitution is employed to describe the electronic structure of Bernal-stacked graphite subject to tilted magnetic fields. We show that while the presence of the in-plane component of the magnetic field has a negligible effect on the Landau level structure at the K point of the graphite Brillouin zone, at the H point it leads to the experimentally observable splitting of Landau levels which grows approximately linearly with the in-plane field intensity.

Goncharuk, Nataliya A.; Smr?ka, LudvŪk [Institute of Physics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., CukrovarnickŠ 10, 162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Preparation and thermal properties of expanded graphite/paraffin/organic montmorillonite composite phase change material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Expanded graphite (EG)/paraffin/organic montmorillonite (OMMT) composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by using melt...

Hongtao Kao; Min Li; Xuewen Lv; Jinmiao Tan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The dependence on excitation energy of the D-mode in graphite and carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence on excitation energy of the D-mode in graphite and carbon nanotubes C. Thomsen, S of carbon nanotubes as well. The corresponding calculated D-mode shift is shown explicitely in the nanotube is seven times narrower than in graphite as agrees with experiment. Graphite was first

Nabben, Reinhard

155

Suitability of Non-Energy Greenhouse Gases for Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is sui...

Erik Haites; Angelo Proestos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The DOE Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENvisioNiNG siGht for thE BLiND ENvisioNiNG siGht for thE BLiND The DOE Artificial Retina Project Leveraging DOE expertise to enhance the quality of life for millions Major advances achieved by researchers in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Artificial Retina Project are beginning to offer some hope to millions of people blinded by retinal diseases worldwide. In a breakthrough operation performed by project leaders at the Doheny Eye Institute (University of Southern California) in 2002, doctors threaded an electrode-studded array through an incision into the eye of a man who had been blind for 50 years and tacked it onto his damaged retina. Within weeks, the 77-year-old patient could see patterns of light and dark that allowed him to detect motion and locate and differentiate

157

Artificial Retina Implant Patient Stories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interviews with Artificial Retina Recipients Interviews with Artificial Retina Recipients Image of Mr. R Mr. R: Argus II recipient (Italy) You Tube video (2012; 2011 implantee) Image of Mr. F Mr. F: Argus II recipient (Italy) You Tube video (2012; 2011 implantee) Image of Mr. P Mr. P: Argus II recipient (France) You Tube video (2012; 2009 implantee) Image of Mr. K Mr. K: Argus II recipient (England) You Tube video (2012; 2009 implantee) Image promoting Mail Online Article Peter L.: Blind man fitted with 'bionic eye' sees for first time in 30 years Mail Online (UK) (2009) Image promoting Mail Online Article Barbara C .: Blind U.S. woman has experimental electronic eye implant CNN video and article (2009) NDTV video and article (2009) Image promoting BBC story Ron: The man with the bionic eye BBC Video and article (2009)

158

About the Artificial Retina Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the Overview of the Artificial Retina Project The DOE Artificial Retina Project was a multi-institutional collaborative effort to develop and implant a device containing an array of microelectrodes into the eyes of people blinded by retinal disease. The ultimate goal was to design a device to help restore limited vision that enables reading, unaided mobility, and facial recognition. The device is intended to bypass the damaged eye structure of those with retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. These diseases destroy the light-sensing cells (photoreceptors, or rods and cones) in the retina, a multilayered membrane located at the back of the eye. For more information, see How the Artificial Retina Works. History The DOE project builds on the foundational work of its leader, Mark Humayun at the Doheny Eye Institute of the University of Southern California. In a breakthrough operation performed in 2002, a team led by Humayun successfully implanted the first device of its kind-an array containing 16 microelectrodes-into the eye of a patient who had been blind for more than 50 years. Since then, more than 30 additional volunteers around the world have had first- or second-generation (60-electrode) devices implanted. These devices enable patients to distinguish light from dark and localize large objects. For more information, read patient stories.

159

Corrosion quantification test for flanges with graphite-based gaskets  

SciTech Connect

The substitution of asbestos with nonasbestos fiber-reinforced materials in some industrial plants has caused corrosion problems in flanges and valves. A novel corrosion apparatus, the Corrosion Qualification Test, quantified corrosion and gives preliminary results of tests on flexible graphite-based gasket products.

Mameri, N.; Piron, D.L.; Bouzid, A.; Derenne, M.; Marchand, L.; Birembaut, Y.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Tuning electrical properties of graphite oxide by plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Tuning electrical properties of graphite oxide by plasma Hongfei Zhu Deyang Ji Lang Jiang Huanli Dong Wenping...consecutively by treating samples with ammonia and hydrogen plasma. When altering ammonia plasma time from 10 to 4.5min, large area (greater...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Lithium intercalated graphite : experimental Compton profile for stage one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L-301 Lithium intercalated graphite : experimental Compton profile for stage one G. Loupias, J différence des profils Compton est compatible avec un transfert total de l'électron de conduction du lithium électronique due à l'insertion. Abstract. 2014 Electron momentum distribution of the first stage lithium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Calculation of transmission system losses for the Taiwan Power Company by the artificial neural network with time decayed weight  

SciTech Connect

For energy conservation and improvement of power system operation efficiency, how to reduce the transmission system losses becomes an important topic of grave concern. To understand the cause, and to evaluate the amount, of the losses are the prior steps to diminish them. To simplify the evaluation procedure without losing too much accuracy, this paper adopts the artificial neural network, which is a model free network, to analyze the transmission system losses. As the artificial neural network with time decayed weight has the capability of learning, memorizing, and forgetting, it is more suitable for a power system with gradually changing characteristics. By using this artificial neural network, the estimation of transmission system losses will be more precise. In this paper, comparison will be made between the results of artificial neural network analysis and polynomial loss equations analysis.

Chu, W.C.; Chen, B.K.; Mo, P.C. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Oxygen reduction on a graphite paste and a catalyst loaded graphite paste electrode  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction was studied in basic solution at a graphite paste electrode (GPE). The GPE was used as the disk of a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) and experiments were done using the voltage scan technique. The enhancements afforded by catalysts applied to the GPE were also studied. Oxygen reduction on a GPE was shown to be a two-electron process resulting in the formation of peroxide. The Tafel slope (plotted as potential versus log(i/sub l/ x i/(i/sub l/ - i))) was 180 mV. The presence of gold, silver, or platinum on the GPE shifted the oxygen reduction wave approximately 800 mV in the anodic direction. Comparison of the data on a metal catalyzed GPE to the solid metal electrode showed that the former electrode produced a greater fraction of peroxide as product than did the latter. Silver and gold catalyzed GPEs gave Tagel slopes of about 120 mV. The intermediate catalysis of iron and cobalt porphyrin was also examined. While the cobalt porphyrin catalyzed oxygen reduction at a more anodic potential than the iron porphyrin, the latter appeared more active in reacting the peroxide formed as the product of the disk reaction.

DiMarco, D.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 December 17, 2008 This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year. In response to significant, continuing security clearance timeliness concerns, Congress called for improvements and established specific timeliness goals as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA). Since the enactment of IRTPA, average timeliness for 90 percent of all clearance determinations reported has been substantially improved, from 265 days (in 2005) to 82 days (4th Quarter,

165

Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Stuart C. Shapiro, ``Artificial Intelligence.'' In A. Ralston, E. D. Reilly and D. Hemmendinger, Eds is a revised version of Shapiro, S. C. ``Artificial Intelligence,'' in S. C. Shapiro, Ed. Encyclopedia

Shapiro, Stuart C.

166

Calibrating Artificial Neural Networks by Global Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 21, 2010 ... Abstract: An artificial neural network (ANN) is a computational model - implemented as a computer program - that is aimed at emulating the key†...

Janos D. Pinter

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

167

"Artificial" brains, electrical grids, and disease modeling:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science discoveries unveiled "Artificial" brains, electrical grids, and disease modeling: Los Alamos science discoveries unveiled September 15 The event is an opportunity for...

168

Towards Artificial Photosynthesis and Alternative Energy | Center...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Towards Artificial Photosynthesis and Alternative Energy 9 Apr 2013 On Tuesday April 9th, 2013, Professor Devens Gust, Director of the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel...

169

Regulatory Dynamics of Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The research presented in this dissertation focuses on understanding the regulation of excited states, both in natural photosynthesis and in artificial systems.Chapters 1, 2, andÖ (more)

Zaks, Julia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

From Artificial Atoms to Nanocrystal Molecules: Preparation and Properties of More Complex Nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from ďartificial atomsĒ to ďartificial moleculesĒ. Angew.quantum dot as an artificial atom. (a) Density of states inFrom Artificial Atoms to Nanocrystal Molecules: Preparation

Choi, Charina L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;neural network [neural network] Artificial neural networks try to simulate biological neural networks interface to a neural net simulator. artificial intelligence [artificial intelligence] (AI) is a field and on the inputs they receive via the connections. A neural network can either be an algorithm, or be realized

Knill, Oliver

172

Web Page Classification on Child Suitability Carsten Eickhoff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Web Page Classification on Child Suitability Carsten Eickhoff Delft University of Technology Delft, Netherlands c.eickhoff@tudelft.nl Pavel Serdyukov Delft University of Technology Delft, Netherlands p.serdyukov@tudelft.nl Arjen P. de Vries Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica Amsterdam, Netherlands arjen@acm.org ABSTRACT Children

173

Graphite dust resuspension in an HTR-10 steam generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Graphite dust has an important effect on the safety of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR). The flow field in the steam generator was studied by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, with the results indicating that the friction velocity in the windward and the leeward of the heat transfer tubes is relatively low and is higher at the sides. Further analysis of the resuspension of graphite dust indicates that the resuspension fraction reaches nearly zero for particles with a diameter less than 1†?m, whereas it will increases as the helium velocity in the steam generator increases for particle size larger than 1†?m. Moreover, the resuspension fraction increases as the particle size increases. The results also indicate that resuspension of the particles with sizes larger than 1†?m exhibited obvious differences in different parts of the steam generator.

Wei Peng; Tianqi Zhang; Yanan Zhen; Suyuan Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Rotational Transition of Incommensurate Kr Monolayers on Graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of the orientational epitaxy of krypton on single-crystal graphite are reported. The system displays a continuous transition from an aligned to a rotated orientation with increasing mean misfit in a manner predicted by a hexagonal-domain-wall model of the weakly incommensurate phase. A hysteresis at the critical misfit is observed. The results are discussed in light of current views of the structure of the incommensurate phase.

K. L. D'Amico; D. E. Moncton; E. D. Specht; R. J. Birgeneau; S. E. Nagler; P. M. Horn

1984-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

X-ray diffraction data for graphite to 20 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction data have been obtained on polycrystalline graphite at pressures up to 20 GPa. A phase transition is observed at ?11 GPa, as evidenced by softening in the interlayer spacing and the observation of new diffraction lines. Below this pressure the variation of the lattice parameters a and c are compared with elastic stiffnesses obtained from ultrasonic measurements. A new value for C13 is proposed. The variation c(P) is compared to the recently proposed universal isotherm equation.

You Xiang Zhao and Ian L. Spain

1989-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ethylene on graphite: Heats of adsorption and phase diagram  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Isosteric heats of adsorption (qst) of ethylene on Grafoil MAT have been measured calorimetrically in the region 98ethylene-graphite interaction potential, a value is obtained for the heat of adsorption at zero coverage, qst(0)=20.4Ī0.2 kJ?l-1, at T=120 K. At this temperature, the effects of surface heterogeneity and of clustering of the adsorbed molecules are clearly delineated and thus permit an extrapolation to be made with reasonable certainty.

A. Inaba and J. A. Morrison

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Structure of the solid D2 bilayer on graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-energy electron-diffraction (LEED) measurements for a solid D2 bilayer physisorbed on graphite are used to investigate the bilayer structure and its azimuthal orientation relative to the substrate. The LEED spot positions are consistent with the mutually commensurate oblique unit cell inferred from neutron-diffraction measurement. Given the azimuthal orientation of the bilayer LEED spots, the possibility of a bilayer composed of two incommensurate layers with mutually modulated triangular lattices is ruled out.

Wei Liu and S. C. Fain; Jr.

1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

MICROMECHANICS IN CONTINOUS GRAPHITE FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES DURING CREEP  

SciTech Connect

Micro Raman spectroscopy and classic composite shear-lag models were used to analyze the evolution with time of fiber and matrix strain/stress around fiber breaks in planar model graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites. Impressive agreements were found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The local matrix creep leads to an increase in the load transfer length around the break under a constant load. This increases the chance of fiber breakage in the neighboring intact fibers.

C. ZHOU; ET AL

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Catalytic Graphitization of Carbon Aerogels by Transition Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic Graphitization of Carbon Aerogels by Transition Metals ... Carbon aerogels and Cr-, Fe-, Co-, and Ni-containing carbon aerogels were obtained by pyrolysis, at temperatures between 500 and 1800 įC, of the corresponding aerogels prepared by the sol?gel method from polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde. ... Results obtained show that carbon aerogels are, essentially, macroporous materials that maintain large pore volumes even after pyrolysis at 1800 įC. ...

F. J. Maldonado-Hůdar; C. Moreno-Castilla; J. Rivera-Utrilla; Y. Hanzawa; Y. Yamada

2000-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

180

Strategies for Spectral Profile Inversion using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores three different strategies for the inversion of spectral lines (and their Stokes profiles) using artificial neural networks. It is shown that a straightforward approach in which the network is trained with synthetic spectra from a simplified model leads to considerable errors in the inversion of real observations. This problem can be overcome in at least two different ways that are studied here in detail. The first method makes use of an additional pre-processing auto-associative neural network to project the observed profile into the theoretical model subspace. The second method considers a suitable regularization of the neural network used for the inversion. These new techniques are shown to be robust and reliable when applied to the inversion of both synthetic and observed data, with errors typically below $\\sim$100 G.

H. Socas-Navarro

2004-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Graphite having improved thermal stress resistance and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for fabricating a graphite article comprises the steps of impregnating a coke article by first heating the coke article in contact with a thermoplastic pitch at a temperature within the range of 250.degree.-300.degree. C. at a pressure within the range of 200-2000 psig for at least 4-10 hours and then heating said article at a temperature within the range of 450.degree.-485.degree. C. at a pressure of 200-2000 psig for about 16-24 hours to provide an impregnated article; heating the impregnated article for sufficient time to carbonize the impregnant to provide a second coke article, and graphitizing the second coke article. A graphite having improved thermal stress resistance results when the coke to be impregnated contains 1-3 wt.% sulfur and no added puffing inhibitors. An additional improvement in thermal stress resistance is achieved when the second coke article is heated above about 1400.degree. C. at a rate of at least 10.degree. C./minute to a temperature above the puffing temperature.

Kennedy, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Artificial Neural Network Portion of Coil Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Network Portion of Coil Study LTC William M. Crocoll School of Systems TO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS A neural network is a massively parallel system comprised of many highly of the brain (Dayhoff, 1990). A major task for a neural network is to learn and maintain a model of the world

Putten, Peter van der

183

Artificial Bee Colony Training of Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Bee Colony Training of Neural Networks John A. Bullinaria and Khulood AlYahya School of artificial Neural Networks (NNs). Of course, there already exist many hybrid neural network learning for optimization, that has previously been applied successfully to the training of neural networks. This paper ex

Bullinaria, John

184

Algorithms and Hardware for Implementing Artificial Neural Networks Nathan Hower  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Algorithms and Hardware for Implementing Artificial Neural Networks Nathan Hower Abstract Complex problems require sophisticated processing techniques. Artificial neural networks are based require a parallel processing approach to be computed at practical speeds. Artificial neural networks

185

Artificial Fishes: Autonomous Locomotion, Perception, Behavior, and Learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Artificial Fishes: Autonomous Locomotion, Perception, Behavior, and Learning in a Simulated inhabited by realistic artificial fishes. Our algorithms emulate not only the appearance, movement model each animal holistically. An artificial fish is an autonomous agent situated in a simulated

Toronto, University of

186

One patient's artificial retina story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helping To Advance the Frontiers of Medical Research Helping To Advance the Frontiers of Medical Research A patient's perspective on what the retinal implant has meant to her Patient following a white line In psychophysical testing, Kathy B. demonstrates how her artificial retina implant allows her to walk along a white line to its termination. A highly functioning person with a job, family, and household to tend to, Kathy B. doesn't feel like she's blind despite the fact that she's had no vision for about 15 years. Nevertheless, she was excited when she recently was able to find the full moon in the dark, nighttime sky. "We were out walking, and I looked upwards, scanning my head back and forth," Kathy B. explains. "All of a sudden, I saw a big flash, and I asked my husband, 'Is that the moon?'" It was, and she began thinking

187

Artificial neural networks in models of specialization, guild evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks in models of specialization, guild evolution and sympatric speciation on host choice, employing artificial neural networks as models for the host recognition system

Getz, Wayne M.

188

Artificial Production Review Report and Recommendations of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.......................................................................................................... 21 III. Implementing Reform in Artificial Production Policy and Practices. The Council's recommendations A. Implementing artificial production reform policies The region needs action

189

Artificial molecules that switch "handedness" at light-speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

molecules that switch "handedness" Artificial molecules that switch "handedness" at light-speed Researchers create the first artificial molecules whose chirality can be...

190

Wind farm land suitability indexing using multi-criteria analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wind farm siting can be considered as Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem that consists of set of alternative locations and set of selection criteria. This study applied multi-criteria decision making approach using Analytical Hierarchy Process with Ordered Weigh Averaging AHP-OWA aggregation function to derive wind farm land suitability index and classification under Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. Linguistic quantifierís version of AHP-OWA aggregation function was used to classify lands based on their suitability for wind farm installation. Different selection criteria were considered including economical (distance to road, terrain slope), social (urban area), environmental (historical locations, wildlife and natural reserves) and technical (wind power density, energy demand matching, percentage of sustainable wind, turbulence intensity, sand dunes). A case study of the proposed approach is implemented and presented for Oman.

Sultan Al-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli; Abdullah Al-Badi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

Chan, Kwai S. (San Antonio, TX); Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry (San Antonio, TX); Liang, Wuwei (Austin, TX)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Electron spin resonance study of proton-irradiation-induced defects in graphite  

SciTech Connect

Electron spin resonance measurements of proton-irradiated graphite have revealed detailed nature of proton-irradiation-induced defects. Our results indicate that proton-irradiation creates confined defect regions of a metallic island surrounded by an insulating magnetic region which ''isolates'' the metallic island inside from the metallic graphite background outside. We have thus come up with a picture of phase separation in proton-irradiated graphite comprising three regions of distinct electrical and magnetic properties.

Won Lee, Kyu; Kweon, H.; Kweon, J. J.; Lee, Cheol Eui [Department of Physics and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Laser-induced dehydration of graphite oxide coatings on polymer substrates  

SciTech Connect

Nanosized graphite has been oxidized by the Hummers method to give high quality graphite oxide. This reaction is characterized by a very fast kinetic behavior and a high yield. The produced graphite oxide has been conveniently used to pattern graphene by using a standard photolithographic method, and the resulting systems have been characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Visible-Near Infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIR)

Longo, Angela, E-mail: angela.longo@cnr.it; Palomba, Mariano; Carotenuto, Gianfranco; Nicolais, Luigi [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Viale Kennedy, 54, Mostra d'Oltremare Padiglione 20, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Orabona, Emanuele; Maddalena, Pasqualino [Department of Physics, University of Naples, Federico II, via cintia, 80126, Naples, Italy and SPIN Institute, National Research Council, UOS Naples, via cintia, 80126, Naples (Italy); Ambrosio, Antonio [SPIN Institute, National Research Council, UOS Naples, via cintia, 80126, Naples (Italy)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Understanding Creep Mechanisms in Graphite with Experiments, Multiscale Simulations, and Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Disordering mechanisms in graphite have a long history with conflicting viewpoints. Using Raman and x-ray photon spectroscoy, electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction experiments and atomistic modeling and simulations, the current project has developed a fundamental understanding of early-to-late state radiation damage mechanisms in nuclear reactor grade graphite (NBG-18 and PCEA). We show that the topological defects in graphite play an important role under neutron and ion irradiation.

Eapen, Jacob; Murty, Korukonda; Burchell, Timothy

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

195

From ĎGreení Aerogels to Porous Graphite by Emulsion Gelation of Acrylonitrile  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From ĎGreení Aerogels to Porous Graphite by Emulsion Gelation of Acrylonitrile ... Ambient pressure drying of wet-gels from copolymeri-zation of acrylonitrile and bifunctional cross-linkers either in toluene or in H2O-based emulsions yields structurally similar PAN aerogels, which are converted to monolithic porous carbons and graphite. ... Porous carbons, including carbon (C-) aerogels, are technologically important materials, while polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the main industrial source of graphite fiber. ...

Anand G. Sadekar; Shruti S. Mahadik; Abhishek N. Bang; Zachary J. Larimore; Clarissa A. Wisner; Massimo F. Bertino; A. Kaan Kalkan; Joseph T. Mang; Chariklia Sotiriou-Leventis; Nicholas Leventis

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

196

Mind Uploading: Artificial neural network, Artificial intelligence, Neuroinformatics, Computational neuroscience, Transhumanism, Douglas Hofstadter, Jeff ... Mind transfer in fiction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mind uploading - Artificial neural network, Artificial intelligence, Neuroinformatics, Computational neuroscience, Transhumanism, Douglas Hofstadter, Jeff Hawkins, Marvin Minsky, Rodolfo Llins, Moore's law, Magnetoencephalography, Mind transfer in fiction, ...

John McBrewster; Frederic P. Miller; Agnes F. Vandome

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Properties of copper/graphite/carbon nanotubes composite reinforced by carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electroless Cu plating was used for flake G powder and CNTs, CuĖGĖCNTs (copper/graphite/carbon nanotubes) composites were manufactured by means of powder...

Xin-Ying Liu; Xiong-Zhi Xiang; Fei Niu; Xiao-Jun Bai

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermal Characterization of Graphitic Carbon Foams for Use in Thermal Storage Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Highly conductive graphitic foams are currently being studied for use as thermal conductivity enhancers (TCEs) in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. TES systems storeÖ (more)

Drummond, Kevin P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Inelastic Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Sections for Reactor-grade Graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Current calculations of the inelastic thermal neutron scattering cross sections of graphite are based on representing the material using ideal single crystal models. However, the density of reactor-grade graphite is usually in the range of 1.5 g/cm3 to approximately 1.8 g/cm3, while ideal graphite is characterized by a density of nearly 2.25 g/cm3. This difference in density is manifested as a significant fraction of porosity in the structure of reactor-grade graphite. To account for the porosity effect on the cross sections, classical molecular dynamics (MD) techniques were employed to simulate graphite structures with porosity concentrations of 10% and 30%, which are taken to be representative of reactor-grade graphite. The phonon density of states for the porous systems were generated as the power spectrum of the MD velocity autocorrelation functions. The analysis revealed that for porous graphite the phonon density of states exhibit a rise in the lower frequency region that is relevant to neutron thermalization. Using the generated phonon density of states, the inelastic thermal neutron scattering cross sections were calculated using the NJOY code system. While marked discrepancies exist between measurements and calculations based on ideal graphite models, favorable agreement is found between the calculations based on the porous graphite models and measured data.

A.I. Hawari; V.H. Gillete

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - ams graphite target Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

F. J Appl Phys Lett 1976;29:118-20. Improving colloidal graphite for electromagnetic interference... January 2003; received in revised form 30 January 2003; accepted 30...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Microsoft Word - 911136_0 SSC-4b Reactor Graphite Test Plan_rel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Services for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) with Hydrogen Production Test Plan for Reactor Graphite Elements Prepared by General Atomics for the Battelle Energy...

202

Graphitic Electrical Contacts to Metallic Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Pt Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NANO LETTERS Graphitic Electrical Contacts to Metallicof the interfacial electrical resistance between nano- tubesprovide excellent electrical contacts to many types of

Collins, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Artificial Neural Network modelling of sorption chillers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar cooling is still a young and small but growing market with a large potential. An increasing market development of solar cooling and so-called SolarCombiPlus systems (solar thermal systems providing domestic hot water, space heating and space cooling) can help to reduce primary energy demand and hence emissions of greenhouse gases. To support the market entry and to enhance the market penetration it is important to strengthen consumersí confidence in these systems. An important aspect for achieving this goal is a standardised method to predict the performance of the complete solar cooling system under real operating conditions. Nonetheless, objective performance test methods are not yet common standard. In this context a performance test method for solar cooling and SolarCombiPlus systems based on the CTSS method (Component Testing Ė System Simulation) has been developed by the Research and Testing Centre for Thermal Solar Systems (TZS) of the Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW) at the University of Stuttgart within the project ďSolTransĒ. For the proposed extended CTSS method numerical models are required in order to describe the thermal behaviour of sorption chillers. The main target of the work presented in this paper is dedicated to the development of appropriate models for sorption chillers which can be used for the extended CTSS method. The approach used is the experimental system identification1 In the field of the experimental system identification a mathematical model of a dynamical system (e.g. sorption chiller) is derived from measurements. 1 based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In this approach experimentally measured data are used to derive an ANN model which is able to predict the outlet temperatures of a sorption chiller. In the work presented, measured data of an adsorption chiller were used to develop such an ANN model which is suitable to predict the outlet temperatures of the three hydraulic loops of adsorption chillers. The model was validated with measured data obtained under real operating conditions. The simulated output temperatures show a very good agreement with the measured temperatures.

Patrick Frey; Stephan Fischer; Harald DrŁck

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Structural study of monolayer cobalt phthalocyanine adsorbed on graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present microscopic investigations on the two-dimensional arrangement of cobalt phthalocyanine molecules on a graphite (HOPG) substrate in the low coverage regime. The initial growth and ordering of molecular layers is revealed in high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). On low coverages single molecules orient mostly along one of the substrate lattice directions, while they form chains at slightly higher coverage. Structures with two different unit cells can be found from the first monolayer on. A theoretical model based on potential energy calculations is presented, which relates the two phases to the driving ordering forces.

Scheffler, M; Baumann, D; Schlegel, R; Hšnke, T; Toader, M; BŁchner, B; Hietschold, M; Hess, C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Interaction of graphite with a hot, dense deuterium plasma  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of ATJ-S graphite caused by a hot, dense deuterium plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma was produced in an electromagnetic shock tube. Plasma characteristics were typically: ion temperature approx. = 800 eV (approx. 1 x 10/sup 7/ /sup 0/K), number density approx. = 10/sup 16//cm/sup 3/, and transverse magnetic field approx. = 1 tesla. The energetic ion flux, phi, to the sample surfaces was approx. 10/sup 23/ ions/cm/sup 2/-sec for a single pulse duration of approx. 0.1 usec. Sample surfaces were metallographically prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope before and after exposure.

Desko, J.C. Jr.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herman, Herbert (Port Jefferson, NY); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

6.034 Artificial Intelligence, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.034 is the header course for the department's "Artificial Intelligence and Applications" concentration. This course introduces students to the basic knowledge representation, problem solving, and learning methods of ...

Winston, Patrick Henry

209

Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

Negi, Pallav

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

210

Artificial Vision A vital component of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Vision A vital component of transhumanism #12;Machinehead · Merger of human and machine. · Transhumanism ­ Our design is flawed. · Blind spot · Blinking #12;Beyond the blind spot · Eventually plug

La Rosa, Andres H.

211

Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damagedÖ (more)

Nyathi, Mhlwazi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Theoretical Description of the STM Images of Alkanes and Substituted Alkanes Adsorbed on Graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical Description of the STM Images of Alkanes and Substituted Alkanes Adsorbed on Graphite the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of molecules adsorbed on graphite. The model is applicable diffuse virtual orbitals of the adsorbed molecules, despite being much farther in energy from the Fermi

Goddard III, William A.

213

A first order two-dimensional melting transition : methane adsorbed on (0001) graphite (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L-543 A first order two-dimensional melting transition : methane adsorbed on (0001) graphite (*) A. Abstract. 2014 The variation of long range order of a registered solid submonolayer of methane adsorbed for various solid mono- layers adsorbed on graphite indicates that solid- fluid phase transitions are more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Emission characteristics and dynamics of C2 from laser produced graphite plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission characteristics and dynamics of C2 from laser produced graphite plasma S. S. Harilal, Riju 1996; accepted for publication 20 December 1996 The emission features of laser ablated graphite plume diagnostic technique. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to reveal the velocity

Harilal, S. S.

215

Adsorption of the first layer of argon on graphite (*) Laboratoire des Composs non St0153chiomtriques,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. The cooling bath is solid nitrogen obtained by pumping. The adsorption cell, enclosed in an aluminium blockL-9 Adsorption of the first layer of argon on graphite (*) F. Millot Laboratoire des Composés non déterminé des isothermes d'adsorption d'argon sur le graphite entre 55 et 62 K. Nous proposons une

Boyer, Edmond

216

Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Late-time particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma S. S. Harilal,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-produced carbon plasma. Furthermore, in the design of Tokamaks for nuclear fusion, graphite has been proposedLate-time particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma S. S. Harilal,a) A. Hassanein online 6 September 2011) We report a late-time "fireworks-like" particle emission from laser

Harilal, S. S.

218

Generation of graphitic soot by an urban fire storm  

SciTech Connect

The authors have obtained samples of aerosols deposited during the Hiroshima fire storm that was initiated by the atomic bomb detonated on August 6, 1945. These particles, which we extracted from streaks of black rain found on a plaster wall, are being studied. Initial studies show that the artifact appears to contain aerosol particles that may be representative of the aerosols that may lead to a nuclear winter. Aerosol generation in urban fire storms have been considered by studying these particles. The presence of graphite as a component of these particles is suggested by electron photomicrographs and has been confirmed using Raman spectroscopy, surface ionization mass spectroscopy, and electron scattering for chemical analysis. Several hypotheses are being considered to explain the presence of this form of carbon. Among these are generation in sooty clouds, in raindrops, in the interior of the first storm, and on the wall surface itself. The distribution of particle sizes suggests that the residence time of particles in the atmosphere would be long if they were not removed by rainout. An experimental and theoretical examination of the conditions necessary to produce graphitic soot is in progress.

Fields, D.E.; Cole, L.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

Gubin, K V; Bak, P A; Kot, N K; Logatchev, P V

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Effects of Stone-Wales and vacancy defects in atomic-scale friction on defective graphite  

SciTech Connect

Graphite is an excellent solid lubricant for surface coating, but its performance is significantly weakened by the vacancy or Stone-Wales (SW) defect. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to explore the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite which contains a single defect or stacked defects. Our results suggest that the friction on defective graphite shows a strong dependence on defect location and type. The 5-7-7-5 structure of SW defect results in an effectively negative slope of friction. For defective graphite containing a defect in the surface, adding a single vacancy in the interior layer will decrease the friction coefficients, while setting a SW defect in the interior layer may increase the friction coefficients. Our obtained results may provide useful information for understanding the atomic-scale friction properties of defective graphite.

Sun, Xiao-Yu [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Water Jet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, RunNi; Xia, Re [Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Water Jet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chu, Xi-Hua; Xu, Yuan-Jie, E-mail: yj-xu@whu.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

222

Preliminary analysis of graphite dust releasing behavior in accident for HTR  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of the graphite dust is important to the safety of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors. This study investigated the flow of graphite dust in helium mainstream. The analysis of the stresses acting on the graphite dust indicated that gas drag played the absolute leading role. Based on the understanding of the importance of gas drag, an experimental system is set up for the research of dust releasing behavior in accident. Air driven by centrifugal fan is used as the working fluid instead of helium because helium is expensive, easy to leak which make it difficult to seal. The graphite particles, with the size distribution same as in HTR, are added to the experiment loop. The graphite dust releasing behavior at the loss-of-coolant accident will be investigated by a sonic nozzle. (authors)

Peng, W.; Yang, X. Y.; Yu, S. Y.; Wang, J. [Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing100084 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Artificial neural network ensemble approach for creating a negotiation model with ethical artificial agents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Negotiation is one of the most prevalent methods that agents, in a multi-agent system, use to reach agreements. Nowadays, one important aspect of negotiation is moral behaviors of agents that involve in negotiation. For this reason, we propose an ethical ... Keywords: artificial neural network, artificial neural networks ensemble, ensemble method, ethical agent, ethical reasoning, intelligent agent, negotiation

Banafsheh Rekabdar; Mahmood Joorabian; Bita Shadgar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Chemical Characterization and Removal of Carbon-14 from Irradiated Graphite II - 13023  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. Of greatest concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (C-14), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates C-14 is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented last year and updated here is to identify the chemical form of C-14 in irradiated graphite and develop a practical method by which C-14 can be removed. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam{sup R}, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of C-14 precursor) and neutron-irradiated (10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s). Finer grained NBG-25 was not exposed to liquid nitrogen prior to irradiation at a neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 14} /cm{sup 2}/s. Characterization of pre- and post-irradiation graphite was conducted to determine the chemical environment and quantity of C-14 and its precursors via the use of surface sensitive characterization techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological features of graphite samples. The concentration, chemical composition, and bonding characteristics of C-14 and its precursors were determined through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis Spectroscopy (EDX). Results of post-irradiation characterization of these materials indicate a variety of surface functional groups containing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. During thermal treatment, irradiated graphite samples are heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon were performed at 900 deg. C and 1400 deg. C to evaluate the selective removal of C-14. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 volume % oxygen at temperatures 700 deg. C and 1400 deg. C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of C-14. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient C-14 removal. (authors)

Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Cleaver, James; LaBrier, Daniel; McCrory, Shilo; Smith, Tara E. [Idaho State University: 1776 Science Center Dr., Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States)] [Idaho State University: 1776 Science Center Dr., Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

226

Artificial retina: Invention of the year  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1513_retina 1513_retina 11/15/2013 The Argus II artificial retina, in which Lawrence Livermore has played a prominent roll, has enough resolution for people to see the lines of a crosswalk, find objects and read letters a couple of centimeters tall. Image by Dan Foley/Second Sight Argus II. Artificial retina: Invention of the year Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov The artificial retina, in which Lawrence Livermore has played a prominent role, has earned a place in the top 25 best inventions of the year 2013 from Time Magazine. The invention also has garnered a 2013 best innovation designation by Popular Science. This Department of Energy funded project resulted in the creation of the first-ever retinal prosthesis -- or bionic eye -- approved in the United

227

SUITABILITY OF MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS A VISAR WINDOW  

SciTech Connect

Impedance matching of a velocity interferometer for any reflector (VISAR) window to a material under study helps simplify a shock experiment by effectively allowing one to measure an in situ particle velocity. The shock impedance of magnesium oxide (MgO) falls roughly midway between those of sapphire and LiF, two of the most frequently used VISAR window materials. A series of symmetric impact experiments was performed to characterize the suitability of single crystal, (100) oriented magnesium oxide as a VISAR window material. These experiments yielded good results and show the viability of MgO as a VISAR window up to 23 GPa. Results were used to determine window correction factors and, subsequently, to estimate the pressure induced change in index of refraction. In many of the shots in this work we exceeded the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of MgO, and both elastic and plastic waves are evident in the velocity profiles. The presence of both waves within the VISAR window complicates the typical VISAR window correction analysis. Preliminary analysis of the elastic and plastic contributions to the window correction is presented.

G. D. Stevens; L. R. Veeser; P. A. Rigg; R. S. Hixson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Motion detector suitable for detecting earthquakes and the like  

SciTech Connect

A motion detector device is described suitable for detecting vibrational tremors such as earthquakes comprising: an inertial mass, spring means comprising a spring barb oriented principally for motion along a horizontal axis and a coil spring oriented principally for motion along a vertical axis, means for resiliently supporting the inertial mass on the spring means for resilient motion along both the horizontal and vertical axes comprising means for anchoring the spring barb at one end thereof and means for connecting the coil spring between the other end of the spring barb and the inertial mass, the mass and spring means forming a resonant mechanical vibration circuit at a predetermined vibrational frequency corresponding to that of the vibrational tremor to be detected, spaced apart oppositely positioned electrical switching contact means connected to the spring means and the inertial mass respectively, the contact means being brought into switching contact with each other when the vibrational circuit is excited at the predetermined vibrational frequency, and alarm means connected to the switching means for providing an alarm signal when the contact means are brought into switching contact.

Windisch, D.E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Estimation of graphite density and mechanical strength variation of VHTR during air-ingress accident  

SciTech Connect

An air-ingress accident in a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is anticipated to cause severe changes to graphite density and mechanical strength by an oxidation process that has many side effects. However, quantitative estimations have not yet been performed. This study focuses on predicting the changes in graphite density and mechanical strength via thermal hydraulic system analysis code. In order to analyze the change in graphite density, a simple graphite burn-off model was developed. The model is based on the similarities between a parallel electrical circuit and graphite oxidation. It was used to determine overall changes in the graphiteís geometry and density. The model was validated by comparing its results to experimental data that was obtained for several temperatures. In the experiment, cylindrically shaped graphite specimens were oxidized in an electrical furnace and the variations of its mass were measured against time. The experimentís range covered temperatures between 6000C and 9000 C. Experimental data validated the modelís accuracy. Finally, the developed model along with other comprehensive graphite oxidation models was integrated into the VHTR system analysis code, GAMMA. GT-MHR 600 MWt reactor was selected as a reference reactor. Based on the calculation, the main oxidation process was observed 5.5 days after the accident when followed by natural convection. The core maximum temperature reached 16000 C, but never exceeded the maximum temperature criteria, 18000 C. However, the oxidation process did significantly decrease the density of bottom reflector, making it vulnerable to mechanical stress. The stress on the bottom reflector is greatly increased because it sustains the reactor core. The calculation proceeded until 11 days after the accident, resulting in an observed 4.5% decrease in density and a 25% reduction of mechanical strength.

Eung Soo Kim

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Stability and adaptation in artificial neural systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model of an artificial neural network for pattern association is discussed, which is dynamically stable and employs a weight matrix with asymmetric connections of a specific kind. The relationship to earlier stable models making use of symmetric connection matrices is established. A Lyapunov function for the system is explicitly specified. It is argued that its behavior as a function of time during the learning phase indicates the quality of the networkís performance regarding pattern association. This view is supported by a numerical example, which, in addition, serves to demonstrate the virtues of this model in comparison to others. The crucial role of the constants entering artificial neural systems is emphasized.

Bernd SchŁrmann

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Graphite-ceramic rf Faraday-thermal shield and plasma limiter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a brazing procedure for joining a ceramic or glass material (e.g., Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or Macor) to graphite. In particular, the present invention is directed to a novel brazing procedure for the production of a brazed ceramic graphite product useful as a Faraday shield. The brazed ceramic graphite Faraday shield of the present invention may be used in Magnetic Fusion Devices (e.g., Princeton Large Torus Tokamak) or other high temperature resistant apparatus.

Hwang, D.L.Q.; Hosea, J.C.

1983-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

232

The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the actual magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite.

Ohldag, Hendrik

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effect of oxidizing environment on the strength and oxidation kinetics of HTGR graphites. Part I. Reactivity and strength loss of H451, PGX and IG-11 graphites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oxidizing atmosphere and temperature on the reactivities and strengths of PGX, H451, and IG-11 were examined. Preliminary measurements of the oxidation kinetics of these graphites in H/sub 2/O-, CO/sub 2/- and O/sub 2/-containing atmospheres indicated that the reactivities of H451 graphite toward O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O are quite similar to those of IG-11 graphite. The apparent activation energy for oxidation of these in O/sub 2/ were estimated to be approx. 175 kJ/mol while that in H/sub 2/O is probably approx. 200 kJ/mol. The apparent activation energy of IG-11 graphite oxidized in CO/sub 2/ is 255 +- 18 kJ/mol. PGX graphite was found to be quite variable in its reactivity toward H/sub 2/O. A linear dependence with (Fe) was determined, but other intrinsic properties were found to affect its absolute reactivity by as much as a factor of X50.

Eto, M.; Growcock, F.B.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 įC, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

235

An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Set Covering Problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a new Artificial Bee Colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost Set Covering Problem. The Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is ... solution quality with other metaheuristic approaches for t...

Rodrigo Cuesta; Broderick CrawfordÖ

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

DNA-Directed Artificial Light-Harvesting Antenna  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA-Directed Artificial Light-Harvesting Antenna Authors: Dutta, P. K., Varghese, R., Nangreave, J., Lin, S., Yan, H., and Liu, Y. Title: DNA-Directed Artificial Light-Harvesting...

237

Unifying Artificial Intelligence Robotics: An Undergraduate Textbook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unifying Artificial Intelligence Robotics: An Undergraduate Textbook Introduction to AI Robotics United States Naval Academy Robotics as a discipline has been active for more than 40 years in robotics, history has checked the development of texts appropriate for an undergraduate course from

Crabbe, Frederick

238

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-threshold mode estimate the response at lower doses. · The Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing RadiationModule 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background radiation · various risk models. · estimating risk and on the sources of background radiation, both

Massey, Thomas N.

239

On a Form of Artificial Submarine Cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , Mr. C. F. Varley, about the year 1860, devised an artificial submarine cable equivalent in its action to a real ... equivalent in its action to a real cable long enough to reach from England to Australia. For obvious reasons such a device ...

A. TROWBRIDGE

1901-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles  

SciTech Connect

Low-cost graphite submicronparticles (GSP) are employed as a possible catalyst support for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Platinum nanoparticles are deposited on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (XC-72), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and GSP via ethylene glycol (EG) reduction method. The morphologies and the crystallinity of Pt/XC-72, Pt/CNT, and Pt/GSP are characterized with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, which shows that Pt nanoparticles (~ 3.5 nm) are uniformly dispersed on GSP support. Pt/GSP exhibits the highest activity towards oxygen reduction reactions. The durability study indicates that Pt/GSP is 2 ~ 3 times durable than Pt/CNT and Pt/XC-72. The enhanced durability of Pt/GSP catalyst is attributed to the higher corrosion resistance of graphite submicronparticles, which results from higher graphitization degree of GSP support. Considering its low production cost, graphite submicronparticles are promising electrocatalyst support for fuel cells.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaohong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The addition of a calender machine to a pyrolytic graphite sheet production plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis documents the process and challenges of adding a new calender machine to AvCarb Material Solutions' pyrolytic graphite production plant. Before the machine could be used for mass production, several experiments ...

Svenson, Ernest Knute

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with graphite nanoparticles and carbon nanotube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid media such as oil or water, and a selected effective amount of carbon nanomaterials necessary to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid. One of the preferred carbon nanomaterials is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding that of the neat fluid to be dispersed therein in thermal conductivity, and ground, milled, or naturally prepared with mean particle size less than 500 nm, and preferably less than 200 nm, and most preferably less than 100 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic structure is another preferred source of carbon nanomaterial, although other carbon nanomaterials are acceptable. To confer long term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants is preferred. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without carbon nanomaterial, is proportional to the amount of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and/or graphite) added.

Zhang, Zhiqiang (Lexington, KY); Lockwood, Frances E. (Georgetown, KY)

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

243

Induced crystallization of single-chain polyethylene on a graphite surface: Molecular dynamics simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out on the crystallization of single-chain polyethylene (PE) which was adsorbed on a graphite (001) surface on one side and exposed to vacuum on the other at different temperatures. The MD simulation data have been analyzed to provide information about the crystallization process of polymer adsorbed on the solid substrate. The isothermal crystallization of PE proceeds in two steps: (1) adsorption and (2) orientation. The results detail the radial density distribution function, ordered parameters, local bond-orientational order parameters, and the local properties displayed in layers of the polymer parallel to the graphite and vacuum interfaces. It was also shown that the film thickness affected the critical crystallization temperature of the adsorbed polymer on the substrate surface. Furthermore, the influence of the graphite surface area on the crystallization of PE is discussed by comparing the crystallinity evolution of PE on graphite with different coverage.

Hua Yang (??); Xiao Jun Zhao (???); Miao Sun (??)

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

244

Loop formation in graphitic nanoribbon edges using furnace heating or Joule heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here the authors report the use of either furnace heating or Joule heating to pacify the exposed graphene edges by loop formation in a novel graphitic nanoribbonmaterial, grown by chemical vapor deposition. The edge energy ...

Jia, Xiaoting

245

The effects of marine microorganisms on the mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with two different lay-ups were conditioned in natural seawater and then tensile tested while simultaneously monitored for acoustic emission activity. Graphite/epoxy composite specimens were fabricated from prepreg tape and then conditioned for 4 and I I...

Puh, John Shui-Ming

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

246

Identification of structural defects in graphitic materials by gas-phase anisotropic etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identification of structural defects in graphitic materials by gas-phase anisotropic etching Shuang interest but also industrial importance, as the existence of surface and bulk defects inevitably influences

Zhang, Guangyu

247

Electrochromic polyaniline/graphite oxide nanocomposites with endured electrochemical energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochromic polyaniline/graphite oxide nanocomposites with endured electrochemical energy February 2013 Keywords: Polyaniline nanocomposite film Electropolymerization Electrochromism a b s t r a c films for electrochromic displays and electrochemical energy storage devices applications were

Guo, John Zhanhu

248

Partially graphitic, high-surface-area mesoporous carbons from polyacrylonitrile templated by ordered and disordered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and manufacturing of electrochemical dou- ble-layer capacitors and Li-ion batteries. Graphitic carbons exhibit structures with an appreciable degree of ordering of graphene sheets typi- cally form as a result of a heat

249

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION DAMAGE AND FLUX MONITOR. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS TO THE GENERAL THEORY OF RADIATION DAMAGE Re-direct...

250

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and High Voltage Spinel Cathode | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Cathode Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and High Voltage Spinel Cathode 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

251

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. es19zaghib.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials Phase Behavior and Solid State Chemistry in Olivines...

252

Oxidation of hydrocarbons over ordered arrays of heteropolyacids and polyoxoanions on graphite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized using heteropolyacids (HPAs) or polyoxoanions (POAs) deposited on a graphite surface. The HPAs and POAs are framework-substituted with a different metal in place of a metal-oxygen unit.

Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs  

SciTech Connect

Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV) concepts, such as the NGNP, it is fully expected that the behavior of these graphites will conform to the recognized trends for near isotropic nuclear graphite. Thus, much of the data needed is confirmatory in nature. Theories that can explain graphite behavior have been postulated and, in many cases, shown to represent experimental data well. However, these theories need to be tested against data for the new graphites and extended to higher neutron doses and temperatures pertinent to the new Gen IV reactor concepts. It is anticipated that current and planned future graphite irradiation experiments will provide the data needed to validate many of the currently accepted models, as well as providing the needed data for design confirmation.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Bratton, Rob [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Marsden, Barry [University of Manchester, UK; Srinivasan, Makuteswara [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights; Mitchell, Mark [PBMR (Pty) Ltd.; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Using Artificial Neural Networks to Play Pong Luis E. Ramirez  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Artificial Neural Networks to Play Pong Luis E. Ramirez May 9th, 2014 Abstract This paper examines the possibility of using Artificial Neural Networks to control AI for simple computer games Stanley that evolves artificial neural network topologies simultane- ously with the edge weights[3

Meeden, Lisa A.

255

REGULARIZATION OF A PROGRAMMED RECURRENT ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGULARIZATION OF A PROGRAMMED RECURRENT ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK Andrew J. Meade, Jr. Department ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK Andrew J. Meade, Jr. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science into an artificial neural network architecture. GTR provides a rational means of combining theoretical models

Meade, Andrew J.

256

Characterization of Shape Memory Alloys Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Characterization of Shape Memory Alloys Using Artificial Neural Networks Jim Henrickson, Kenton ÔŅĹ Shape Memory Alloys ÔŅĹ Artificial Neural Networks Process ÔŅĹ Implement Shape Memory Alloy Model ÔŅĹ Generate Training Data ÔŅĹ Train Artificial Neural Network Results Conclusion Characterization of Shape

Valasek, John

257

Devices and Circuits for Nanoelectronic Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Devices and Circuits for Nanoelectronic Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks A Dissertation Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks by ¨Ozg¨ur T¨urel Doctor of Philosophy in Physics and Astronomy. Unfortunately, most artificial neural networks, either software or hardware, do not provide either the speed

258

Parametric Optimization of Artificial Neural Networks for Signal Approximation Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parametric Optimization of Artificial Neural Networks for Signal Approximation Applications J. Lane.thames@gatech.edu randal.abler@gatech.edu dirk.schaefer@me.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Artificial neural networks are used to solve set of configuration parameters for artificial neural networks such that the network's approximation

259

Developmental Plasticity in Cartesian Genetic Programming Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developmental Plasticity in Cartesian Genetic Programming Artificial Neural Networks Maryam Mahsal developmental plasticity in Artificial Neural Networks using Carte- sian Genetic Programming. This is inspired a trained artificial neural network loses its accuracy when the network is trained again on a different

Fernandez, Thomas

260

Extracting Provably Correct Rules from Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extracting Provably Correct Rules from Artificial Neural Networks Sebastian B. Thrun University procedures have been applied successfully to a variety of real­world scenarios, artificial neural networks for extracting symbolic knowledge from Backpropagation­style artificial neural networks. It does

Clausen, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Comprehensive Overview of the Applications of Artificial Life  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@cs.yonsei.ac.kr sbcho@cs.yonsei.ac.kr Keywords Artificial life, perspective, simulation, software, hardware, evolutionA Comprehensive Overview of the Applications of Artificial Life Kyung-Joong Kim Sung-Bae Cho Abstract We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers

Kim, Kyung-Joong

262

Assessing the Suitability of Recycled Plastics Used as Agricultural Soil Covers:? Migration Study and Experimental Harvest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work is focused on evaluating the suitability of recycling postconsumer agricultural plastic films again for the same use. The criteria to assess the suitability was based on migration study. Both overall and specific migration tests were ...

C. NerŪn; R. Batlle

1998-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

263

Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

Residual thermal stresses in an unsymmetrical cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES IN AN UNSYMMETRICAL CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATE A Thesis by BRIAN DOUGLAS HARPER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in parrial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES IN AN UNSYMMETRICAL CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATE A Thesis by BRIAN DOUGLAS HARPER Approved as to style and content by: r. Y. N itsman (Chair of Committee) Dr...

Harper, Brian Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

265

First-order wetting transition in CF4 solid films adsorbed on the (0001) graphite surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1497 First-order wetting transition in CF4 solid films adsorbed on the (0001) graphite surface J. M films de CF4 condensÔŅĹs sur la face de clivage d'un monocristal de graphite a ÔŅĹtÔŅĹ observÔŅĹe par transition de mouillage du premier ordre ÔŅĹ 37 K, une tempÔŅĹrature bien en dessous du point triple de CF4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Effect of resin toughness on fracture behavior of graphite/epoxy composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECT OF RESIN TOUGHNESS ON FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES A Thesis Dy RONALD NELSON COHEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1982 Mlajor Subject: Interdisciplinary Enqi neeri ng EFFECT OF RESIN TOUGHNESS ON FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES A Thesis by RONALD NELSON COHEN Approved as to style and content by: (N. L. Bradley, Cha man) (R. A...

Cohen, Ronald Nelson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of AS-3502 graphite/epoxy composite material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AS-3502 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATERIAL A Thesis MICHAEL SCOTT KERSTETTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AS-3502 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATERIAL A Thesis by MICHAEL SCOTT KERSTETTER Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Kenneth L...

Kerstetter, Michael Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

268

Nondestructive evaluation of distributed damage in graphite/epoxy beams using modal parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATIOV OF DISTRIBUTED DAMAGE IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY BEAMS USING MODAL PARAMETERS A Thesis YOUNG IK KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of ItIASTER OF SCIEVCE August 1989 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering NONDESTRI. 'CTIVE EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTED DAMAGE IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY BEAMS USING MODAL PARAMETERS A Thesis by YOUNG IK KIM Approved as to style and content by: Duane R...

Kim, Young Ik

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

269

Measurements of the diffusion coefficient of silver 110-m in a nuclear grade graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEASUREMENTS OF TEE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF SILVER 110-m IN A NUCLEAR GRADE. GRAPHITE A Thesis by THAD CALHOUN MCMILLAN, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF SILVER 110-m IN A NUCLEAR GRADE GRAPHITE A Thesis by THAD CALHOUN MCMILLAN, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

McMillan, Thad Calhoun

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

The effect of graphite nodules on fracture behavior of ductile iron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE NODULES ON FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF DUCTILE IRON A Thesis By GLENN NARK TANNER Suhmitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of RASTER OF SCIENCE Nay... 1986 Kajor Subject: Nechanical Engineering THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE NODULES ON FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF DUCTILE IRON A Thesis by GLENN MARK TANNER Approved as to style and content by: Halter L. Bradley (Chairman of Committee) pl...

Tanner, Glenn Mark

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Mode II delamination fracture toughness of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODE II DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES A Thesis by CARLOS ROBERTO CORLETO MENA Submitted to the Graduate College of TEXAS ASM UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MODE II DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES A Thesis by CARLOS ROBERTO CORLETO MENA Approved as to style and content by: Walter L. Bra...

Corleto Mena, Carlos Roberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

272

Mode I - mode II delamination fractrue toughness of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODE I - MODE II DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by PETER STEPHEN VANDERKLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Demember 1981 Najor Subject: Mechanical Engineering MODE I - MODE II DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by PETER STEPHEN VANDERKLEY Approved as to style and content by...

Vanderkley, Peter Stephen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorption as a detector for High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION AS A DETECTOR FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHy A Thesis by HUSTON EDWARD HOWELL, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College oi' Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Chemistry GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION AS A DETECTOR FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis by HUSTON EDWARD HOWELL, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Howell, Huston Edward

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Statistical Comparison of the Baseline Mechanical Properties of NBG-18 and PCEA Graphite  

SciTech Connect

High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled design that is capable of producing process heat for power generation and for industrial process that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a comprehensive comparison between these values in different nuclear grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons and variations between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between the two grades of graphite that were initially favored in the two main VHTR designs. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration, while PCEA, a smaller grain, petroleum coke, extruded graphite from GrafTech was favored for the prismatic configuration. An analysis of the comparison between these two grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

Mark C. Carroll; David T. Rohrbaugh

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing donor suitability Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

guidelines for potential renal transplant recipients prior to initiating evaluation process. Summary: to determine patient's transplant suitability. These patients are...

276

Graphite Materials Testing in the ATR for Lifetime Management of Magnox Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on the ir graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment.

Grover, S.B. (INEEL); Metcalfe, M.P. (BNFL, United Kingdom)

2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Graphite Materials Testing in the ATR for Lifetime Management of Magnox Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on their graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment.

Grover, Stanley Blaine; Metcalfe, M. P.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Photonically excited electron emission from modified graphitic nanopetal arrays  

SciTech Connect

Efficient electron emission for energy conversion requires a low work function and a stable emitter material. The work function of graphene-based carbon materials can decrease significantly by intercalation with alkali metals, thus increasing their emission current. In this work, electron emission from potassium-intercalated carbon nanosheet extensions grown on electrode graphite is investigated. These petal-like structures, composed of 5-25 layers of graphene, are synthesized using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Samples are intercalated with potassium, and a hemispherical energy analyzer is used to measure the emission intensity caused by both thermal and photonic excitation. The emission from the potassium-intercalated structures is found to consistently decrease the work function by 2.4 to 2.8 eV relative to non-intercalated samples. High emission intensity induced by photonic excitation from a solar simulator, with a narrow electron energy distribution relative to established theory, suggests that electron scattering decreases emitted electron energy as compared to surface photoemission. A modified photoemission theory is applied to account for electron scattering, and the sample work function and mean number of scattering events are used as parameters to fit theory to experimental data. The thermal stability of the intercalated nanopetals is investigated, and after an initial heating and cooling cycle, the samples are stable at low temperatures.

McCarthy, Patrick T.; Fisher, Timothy S. [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Vander Laan, Scott J.; Janes, David B. [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Dept. of Energy Artificial Retina project  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

LLNL has assisted in the development of the first long-term retinal prosthesis - called an artificial retina - that can function for years inside the harsh biological environment of the eye. This work has been done in collaboration with four national laboratories (Argonne, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge and Sandia), four universities (the California Institute of Technology, the Doheny Eye Institute at USC, North Carolina State University and the University of California, Santa Cruz), an industrial partner (Second Sightģ Medical Products Inc. of Sylmar, Calif.) and the U.S. Department of Energy. With this device, application-specific integrated circuits transform digital images from a camera into electric signals in the eye that the brain uses to create a visual image. In clinical trials, patients with vision loss were able to successfully identify objects, increase mobility and detect movement using the artificial retina.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Colloquium: Artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms  

SciTech Connect

When a neutral atom moves in a properly designed laser field, its center-of-mass motion may mimic the dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field, with the emergence of a Lorentz-like force. In this Colloquium the physical principles at the basis of this artificial (synthetic) magnetism are presented. The corresponding Aharonov-Bohm phase is related to the Berry's phase that emerges when the atom adiabatically follows one of the dressed states of the atom-laser interaction. Some manifestations of artificial magnetism for a cold quantum gas, in particular, in terms of vortex nucleation are discussed. The analysis is then generalized to the simulation of non-Abelian gauge potentials and some striking consequences are presented, such as the emergence of an effective spin-orbit coupling. Both the cases of bulk gases and discrete systems, where atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, are addressed.

Dalibard, Jean; Gerbier, Fabrice; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Oehberg, Patrik [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS, UPMC, Ecole normale superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005, Paris (France); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); SUPA, Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Patch antennas with new artificial magnetic layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of high-impedance surfaces (HIS) has been introduced by C.R. Simovski et al. recently. In this paper, we propose to use such layers as artificial magnetic materials in the design of patch antennas. The new HIS is simulated and patch antennas partially filled by these composite layers are measured in order to test how much the antenna dimensions can be reduced. In order to experimentally investigate the frequency behavior of the material, different sizes of the patches are designed and tested with the same material layer. Also the height of the patch is changed in order to find the best possible position for minimizing the antenna size. This composite layer of an artificial magnetic material has made the antenna smaller while keeping the bandwidth characteristics of the antenna about the same. About 40% of size reduction has been achieved.

M. Ermutlu; C. R. Simovski; M. Karkainen; P. Ikonen; A. A. Sochava; S. A. Tretyakov

2005-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Solar fuels production by artificial photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

A practical method to use sunlight to generate storable chemical energy could dramatically change the landscape of global energy generation. One of the fundamental requirements of such an ďartificial photosynthesisĒ scheme is a light capture and conversion approach capable of generating the required chemical potentials (e.g. >1.23 V for splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}). An approach based on inorganic light absorbers coupled directly to oxidation and reduction catalysts is being developed in the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP). P-type III-V semiconductors with a high surface area can be used as high current density photocathodes. The longevity under operation of these photocathodes can be improved by the use of conformal metal oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition.

Ager, Joel W., E-mail: JWAger@lbl.gov [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Min-Hyung [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University (Korea, Republic of); Javey, Ali [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States)

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

Evidence of Graphitic AB Stacking Order of Graphite Oxides Hae-Kyung Jeong,*, Yun Pyo Lee, Rob J. W. E. Lahaye, Min-Ho Park,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Machinery Research Center, Jeonju 561-844, Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research this simplified Brodie method is further discussed. I. Introduction Graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic of polymer-coated graphene-based sheets have been prepared via exfoliation of graphite oxide (GO) in water

284

Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

Coated graphite articles useful in metallurgical processes and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphite articles including crucibles and molds used in metallurgical processes involving the melting and the handling of molten metals and alloys that are reactive with carbon when in a molten state and at process temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are provided with a multiple-layer coating for inhibiting carbon diffusion from the graphite into the molten metal or alloys. The coating is provided by a first coating increment of a carbide-forming metal on selected surfaces of the graphite, a second coating increment of a carbide forming metal and a refractory metal oxide, and a third coating increment of a refractory metal oxide. The second coating increment provides thermal shock absorbing characteristics to prevent delamination of the coating during temperature cycling. A wash coat of unstabilized zirconia or titanium nitride can be applied onto the third coating increment to facilitate release of melts from the coating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Bird, Eugene L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite  

SciTech Connect

We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d?>?1.4?nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0?eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d???1.4?nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Institute of Alternate Energy, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Shen, Yaogen [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Sanwu, E-mail: sanwu-wang@utulsa.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Institute of Alternate Energy, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon nanomaterial produced by microwave exfoliation of graphite oxide: new insights.  

SciTech Connect

We present detailed characterization of graphene-like material obtained through microwave stimulated exfoliation of graphite oxide (GO). Properties of this material were studied by multiple techniques including, among others, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, mass-spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Specific surface area and volume of microwave exfoliated graphite oxide reached 600 m2 g1 and 6 cm3 g1, respectively. It is shown that during such an explosive reduction process the sample emits CO2, CO and H2O and, in some cases, SO2 gases. The resulting reduced material exhibits IR spectra similar to that of graphite and a dc-conductivity of 0.12 S cm1.

Shulga, Y.M. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Baskakov, S.A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Knerelman, E.I. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Davidova, G.I. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Badamshina, E.R. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Shulga, N. Yu. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia] [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia; Skryleva, E.A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia] [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Voylov, Dmitry N [ORNL] [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Martynenko, V.M. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible  

SciTech Connect

A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode.

Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

1993-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling of interface cracking in copperĖgraphite composites by MD and CFE method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to study mechanical properties of copperĖgraphite composite interface. Mode I fracture of the interface of copperĖgraphite composite was modeled by considering fixed and free boundary conditions, which means slipping constraint conditions for atomic layers in the composite. The stress near crack tip and the energy changes of the system are obtained. Then a cohesive tractionĖseparation law of copperĖgraphite interface can also be obtained by using the MD simulation. For the purpose of comparisons, a modeling of interfacial fracture of the composite by using a zero-thickness cohesive finite element (CFE) was carried out. It is found that there is a stress concentration but no singularity for the normal stress at the crack tip in interface obtained by using the present MD simulation and CFE method. While in the interface away from the crack tip, the obtained stress is consistent with the solution of classical interfacial fracture mechanics.

Shi-Jun Guo; Qing-Sheng Yang; X.Q. He; K.M. Liew

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Intelligent Servant Robot with Artificial Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This work aims at proposing a design of a self learning intelligent porter robot that is constructed with ANN. The basic functionality of the robot includes obstacle avoidance and path learning through its codes as well as ANN. The robot is expected to work in an industrial or domestic environment, where it port objects from one place to another provided place is being instructed to it. The robot is fed with blue print of its working environment. The robot has a skid wheels and an arm of 3 degrees of freedom. Key Words: Robot, Artificial neural network and obstacle I.

Prof Hari; Ram Vishwakarma; M S Ishwarya

292

Artificial Retina Project: Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects  

SciTech Connect

This award supported the investigation on electromagnetic and thermal effects associated with the artificial retina, designed in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, and private companies. Our work over the two years of support under this award has focused mainly on 1) Design of new telemetry coils for optimal power and data transfer between the implant and the external device while achieving a significant size reduction with respect to currently used coils; 2) feasibility study of the virtual electrode configuration 3) study the effect of pulse shape and duration on the stimulation efficacy.

Lazzi, Gianluca

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

Artificial Neural Networks-Based Diffuse Optical Tomography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is developed by applying the artificial neural networks techniques for the reconstruction of optical-property images instead of using forward and inverse procedures. The...

Pan, Min-Chun; Hong, Hsian-An; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng

294

Artificial Photosynthesis: Saving Solar Energy for a Rainy Day  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an effort to keep up with the worldís growing energy needs, researchers consider a production method that is billions of years oldóphotosynthesis. Artificial...

Savage, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores mimic key features of natural pores By Tona Kunz * July 17, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists have overcome...

296

Designing artificial metal binding peptides | Center for Bio...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing artificial metal binding peptides 24 Oct 2012 Dong Wang is a graduate student in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Arizona State University. He is working...

297

Optimization Online - Varying the Population Size of Artificial ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 2, 2005 ... Varying the Population Size of Artificial Foraging Swarms on Time Varying ... Abstract: Swarm Intelligence (SI) is the property of a system†...

Carlos Fernandes

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

Subtask 4: Artificial reaction center-antenna complex | Center...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

online) Gust, D., Moore, T.A., and Moore, A.L.(2013)Artificial photosynthesis,Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology,25,182-185(Read online) Romero,...

299

IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON ARTIFICIAL LIFE 1 Using Artificial Organisms To Study The Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Fish C.W. Liew Dept of Computer Science Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 liew methodology for studying how some features evolved in swimming fish. Experiments with the artificial organisms allow us to evaluate the hypothesis that backbones evolved in fish in part because they result in higher

Liew, Chun Wai

300

A one-group parametric sensitivity analysis for the graphite isotope ratio method and other related techniques using ORIGEN 2.2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several methods have been developed previously for estimating cumulative energy production and plutonium production from graphite-moderated reactors. The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is one well-known technique. This method is based...

Chesson, Kristin Elaine

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Diffusive motions in 2D phases of ethane adsorbed on graphite J. P. Coulomb and M. Bienfait  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

89 Diffusive motions in 2D phases of ethane adsorbed on graphite J. P. Coulomb and M. Bienfait and translational mobility of a simple rod-like molecule, i.e. ethane (C2H6) adsorbed on graphite (0001), has been is made of molecules standing up on the adsorbing surface. With increasing temperature, a rotational

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

Improved Lithium Ion Behavior Properties of TiO2@Graphitic-like Carbon Core@Shell Nanostructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved Lithium Ion Behavior Properties of TiO2@Graphitic-like Carbon Core@Shell Nanostructure Min Intercalation Electrochemistry Capacitance Lithium Ion batteries A B S T R A C T We demonstrate TiO2@graphitic on the electrode surface and enhanced lithium ion intercalation, leading to lower charge transfer resistance

Cao, Guozhong

303

A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas*[e] and Thomas Schleid[f] Abstract: A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from

Schmidt, Volker

304

Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ... Employing electrolytes containing Bi3+, bismuth nanoparticles are synchronously electrodeposited onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode during operation of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). ... Energy storage; redox flow battery; electrode; catalyst; vanadium ...

Bin Li; Meng Gu; Zimin Nie; Yuyan Shao; Qingtao Luo; Xiaoliang Wei; Xiaolin Li; Jie Xiao; Chongmin Wang; Vincent Sprenkle; Wei Wang

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Elasticity of single-crystalline graphite: Inelastic x-ray scattering study Alexey Bosak and Michael Krisch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. IXS overcomes the intrinsic difficulties of inelastic neutron scattering INS -- namely, sample sizeElasticity of single-crystalline graphite: Inelastic x-ray scattering study Alexey Bosak of the five independent elastic moduli of single-crystalline graphite, using inelastic x-ray scattering IXS

Nabben, Reinhard

307

Molecular models for the intercalation of hydrogen molecules into modified graphites  

SciTech Connect

Carbonized aerogels have been proposed as a medium for the storage of H{sub 2} gas. Quantum chemical calculations were performed on a series of substituted polyaromatic ring compounds. Parallel ``sandwiches`` of these compounds were used as a model of graphite. Hydrogen was introduced between the compounds as a model of H{sub 2} intercalated into graphite. It was found that it required work to insert the H{sub 2} into most of the compounds, except when the presence of the hydrogen allowed the compound to find a new configuration with a lower energy.

Calef, D.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Analysis of the effect of matrix degradation on fatigue behavior of a graphite/epoxy laminate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF MATRIX DEGRADATION ON FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF A GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATE A Thesis by ROBERT THOMAS ARENBURG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ANALYSiS OF THE EFFECT OF MATRIX DEGRAOATION ON FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF A GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATE A Thesis by ROBERT THOMAS ARENBURG Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Arenburg, Robert Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hygrothermal effects in an anti-symmetric cross-ply graphite/epoxy material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS IN AN ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY MATERIAL A Thesis STEVEN PAUL JACKSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SC...'IENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering HYGROTHERMAL ~S IN AN ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATE A Thesis STEVE? PAUL JACKSON Approved as to style and content by: (Y. eitsman, Charrman) (W. L. Bradley, M (W. E. Haisler...

Jackson, Steven Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Near-field thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials: Graphite and carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

The near-field radiative heat transfer for two hyperbolic metamaterials, namely, graphite and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is investigated. Graphite is a naturally existing uniaxial medium, while CNT arrays can be modeled as an effective anisotropic medium. Different hyperbolic modes can be separately supported by these materials in certain infrared regions, resulting in a strong enhancement in near-field heat transfer. It is predicted that the heat flux between two CNT arrays can exceed that between SiC plates at any vacuum gap distance and is about 10 times higher with a 10?nm gap.

Liu, X. L.; Zhang, R. Z.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Laser-processed three dimensional graphitic electrodes for diamond radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

We have used an original approach for diamond detectors where three dimensional buried graphitic electrodes are processed in the bulk of a diamond substrate via laser-induced graphitization. Prototype made of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond was fabricated using a nanosecond UV laser. Its charge collection efficiency was evaluated using ?-particles emitted by a 241-Americium source. An improved charge collection efficiency was measured proving that laser micro-machining of diamond is a valid option for the future fabrication of three dimensional diamond detectors.

Caylar, Beno?-carett; Pomorski, Michal; Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

312

Assessing certainty and uncertainty in riparian habitat suitability models by identifying parameters with extreme outputs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to introduce a computationally efficient uncertainty assessment approach using an index-based habitat suitability model. The approach focuses on uncertainty in ecological knowledge regarding parameters of index curves and weights. ... Keywords: Habitat model, Riparian vegetation, Suitability index, Uncertainty

Baihua Fu, Joseph H. A. Guillaume

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Variation in habitat suitability does not always relate to variation in species' plant functional traits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Variation in habitat suitability does not always relate to variation...this positive relationship does not hold for some species...Cornelissen, J. H. C. , 2003 A handbook of protocols for standardised...Variation in habitat suitability does not always relate to variation...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Quantum artificial neural networks with applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Since simulations of classical artificial neural networks (CANNs) run on classical computers, the massive parallel processing speed advantage of a neural network is lost. A quantum computer is a computation device that makes direct use of quantumĖmechanical phenomena while large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much quicker than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms. Combining the advantages of quantum computers and the idea of CANNs, we propose in this paper a new type of neural networks, named a quantum artificial neural network (QANN), which is presented as a system of interconnected ďquantum neuronsĒ which can compute quantum states from input-quantum states by feeding information through the network and can be simulated on quantum computers. To show the ability of approximation of a QANN, we prove a universal approximation theorem (UAT) which reads every continuous mapping that transforms n quantum states as a non-normalized quantum state can be uniformly approximated by a QANN. The UAT implies that \\{QANNs\\} would suggest a potential computing tool for dealing with quantum information. For instance, we prove that the state of a quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian can be approximated uniformly by a QANN. This provides a possible way for finding approximate solution to a SchrŲdinger equation with a time-dependent Hamiltonian.

Huaixin Cao; Feilong Cao; Dianhui Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Applications of Artificial Neural Network for the Prediction of Pool Boiling Curves  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural network (ANN) has the advantage that the best-fit correlations of experimental data will no longer be necessary for predicting unknowns from the known parameters. The ANN was applied to predict the pool boiling curves in this paper. The database of experimental data presented by Berenson, Dhuga et al., and Bui and Dhir etc. were used in the analysis. The database is subdivided in two subsets. The first subset is used to train the network and the second one is used to test the network after the training process. The input parameters of the ANN are: wall superheat {delta}T{sub w}, surface roughness, steady/transient heating/transient cooling, subcooling, Surface inclination and pressure. The output parameter is heat flux q. The proposed methodology allows us to achieve the accuracy that satisfies the user's convergence criterion and it is suitable for pool boiling curve data processing. (authors)

Su, Guanghui; Fukuda, K.; Morita, K. [Kyushu University, 6-10-1, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-81 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Artificial Neural Networks for Recognition of Electrocardiographic Lead Reversal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Networks for Recognition of Electrocardiographic Lead Reversal Bo Heden, Iv, which are rule-based,is a diffi- cult task, even for the expert. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have lack of prop- 100%). The neural networks performed better *an `the er treatment. The pur r se

Peterson, Carsten

317

Combinatorial Optimization with Feedback Artificial Neural Networks \\Lambda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combinatorial Optimization with Feedback Artificial Neural Networks \\Lambda Carsten Peterson@thep.lu.se Abstract A brief review is given for using feedback artificial neural networks (ANN) to obtain good Neural Networks, Oc­ tober 1995, Paris, France , eds. F. Fogelman­Soulie and P. Gallinari, EC2 & Cie

Peterson, Carsten

318

Novel Artificial Neural Networks For Remote-Sensing Data Classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Novel Artificial Neural Networks For Remote-Sensing Data Classification Xiaoli Tao* and Howard E artificial neural network architectures applied to multi-class classification problems of remote-sensing data. These approaches are 1) a spiking-neural-network model for the partitioning of data into clusters, and 2) a neuron

Michel, Howard E.

319

Artificial Life Models in Hardware Andrew Adamatzky Maciej Komosinski  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Life Models in Hardware #12;Andrew Adamatzky · Maciej Komosinski Editors Artificial Life Models in Hardware ABC #12;Editors Andrew Adamatzky University of the West of England Bristol UK Maciej of Congress Control Number: 2009926294 #12;#12;vi Preface Hardware designs of swimming and walking robots

Conrad, James M.

320

Artificial Neural Nets and Cylinder Pressures in Diesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Nets and Cylinder Pressures in Diesel Engine Fault Diagnosis * Gopi O diagnosis system for a diesel engine, which uses artificial neural nets to identify faults on the basis­temporal representation of cylinder pressures. Draw cards and power cards are regularly assessed for the condition

Sharkey, Amanda

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modeling of solar energy for Malaysia using artificial neural networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a solar energy prediction method using artificial neural networks (ANNs). An ANN predicts a clearness index that is used to calculate global solar irradiation. The ANN model is based on the feed forward multilayer perception model ... Keywords: Malaysia, artificial neural network, solar energy, solar energy prediction

Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; K. Sopian; M. Mahmoud

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Apple Defect Segmentation by Artificial Neural Networks Devrim Unay a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apple Defect Segmentation by Artificial Neural Networks Devrim Unay a Bernard Gosselin a a TCTS Lab-colored apple fruits performed by several artificial neural networks. Pixel-wise classification approach apple defects. 1 Introduction Quality of apple fruits depends on size, color, shape and presence

Dupont, Stéphane

323

Acta Physicae Superficierum Vol VII 2004 EXPLORING ARTIFICIAL MAGNETISM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acta Physicae Superficierum · Vol VII · 2004 EXPLORING ARTIFICIAL MAGNETISM FROM THIN FILMS of artificially structured, new magnetic materials play a fundamental role in modern science and technology. From thin films to patterned magnetic nano-structures, these magnetic materials and systems can be utilized

Rau, Carl

324

Ecological Modelling 120 (1999) 313324 Microsatellites and artificial neural networks: tools for the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecological Modelling 120 (1999) 313¬≠324 Microsatellites and artificial neural networks: tools¬īrigueux Cedex, France Abstract Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were applied to microsatellite data (highly rights reserved. Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Classification; Microsatellites; Stocking; Brown

Lek, Sovan

325

An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks using simulated data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks, Joy and Death: Assessing variable contributions in neural networks 2 Abstract Artificial neural elements called artificial neural networks (ANNs). Although ANNs were initially developed to better

Joy, Mike

326

A COMPARISON OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR TYPING BIOMETRICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A COMPARISON OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR TYPING BIOMETRICS biometrics, artificial neural networks, cluster analysis, Multi Layer Perceptrons, K- means clustering are clustering techniques and Artificial Neural Networks , in conjunction with data processing to improve

327

Recognizing targets from infrared intensity scan patterns using artificial neural networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recognizing targets from infrared intensity scan patterns using artificial neural networks Tayfun complicating the localization and recognition process. We employ artificial neural networks to deter- mine differentiation; artificial neural networks; optimal brain surgeon; pattern recognition. Paper 080450R received

Barshan, Billur

328

Constraints on adaptation: explaining deviation from optimal sex ratio using artificial neural networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y Keywords: adaptation; artificial neural networks; evolutionary constraints; parasitoid; sex ratio by modelling information acquisition and processing using artificial neural networks (ANNs) evolving accordingConstraints on adaptation: explaining deviation from optimal sex ratio using artificial neural

West, Stuart

329

Experimental and artificial neural network modeling study on soot formation in premixed hydrocarbon flamesq  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental and artificial neural network modeling study on soot formation in premixed hydrocarbon after the methane flames, respectively. Three-layer, feed- forward type artificial neural networks rights reserved. Keywords: Soot; Hydrocarbon flames; Artificial neural networks 1. Introduction

Senkan, Selim M.

330

Automated Interpretation of Myocardial SPECT Perfusion Images Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automated Interpretation of Myocardial SPECT Perfusion Images Using Artificial Neural Networks Dan as inputs to multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. The networks were trained to detect coronary% and not statistically significant. Conclusions: Artificial neural networks can detect coronary artery disease

Peterson, Carsten

331

Artificial Neural Networks In Electric Power Industry Technical Report of the ISIS Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Networks In Electric Power Industry Technical Report of the ISIS Group Systems R. E. Bourguet, P. J. Antsaklis, "Artificial Neural Networks in Electric Power Industry. Bourguet, P. J. Antsaklis, "Artificial Neural Networks in Electric Power Industry," Technical Report

Antsaklis, Panos

332

Excimer laser reduction and patterning of graphite oxide Denis A. Sokolov a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 901 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400, USA b Georgia Institute graphene include exfoliation of graphite [1], epitaxial growth on silicon carbide via silicon sublimation author: Fax: +1 404 3856057. E-mail address: Thomas.Orlando@chemistry.gatech.edu (T.M. Orlando). C A R B

Geohegan, David B.

333

Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace with an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace with an optical parametric oscillator laser for sequential multi-element determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead, manganese and thallium, for the ¬ģ rst time, that solid-state lasers required for analysis (ml or mg) and the technique has direct based

Michel, Robert G.

334

Comparison of gasification kinetics parameters of different types of nuclear graphite  

SciTech Connect

A chemical-reaction kinetics model of nuclear graphite gasification has recently been developed and successfully validated with gasification rate measurements for nuclear graphite grades of IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18 and NBG-25. The model employs 4 elementary chemical reactions with applicable parameters, including the values and Gaussian-like distributions of the specific activation energies, the pre-exponential coefficients for adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO and CO{sub 2} gases, and the surface area of free active sites. These parameters are determined from the reported measurements of the total gasification and transient weight loss using a multi-parameter optimization algorithm. The determined chemical kinetics parameters for IG-100 and NB-25 are nearly the same, but slightly different from those for NBG-18 and IG-430. The initial specific area of free active sites is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass or volume of the graphite specimens used in experiments. The recommended chemical kinetics parameters in this paper for these grades of nuclear graphite should be applicable to future safety analysis of high-temperature gas cooled reactors in the unlikely event of a massive air ingress accident. (authors)

El-Genk, M. S. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tournier, J. M. P. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Commensurate-incommensurate transition of Kr-Xe mixtures on graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report high-resolution x-ray scattering measurements of the commensurate-incommensurate transition of Kr on graphite which has been preplated with 0.1 monolayer of Xe. The Xe raises transition pressure, and produces a 31% range of pressures over which composite lineshapes are observed. These results are discussed in terms of a solubility gap between commensurate and incommensurate phases.

Peter W. Stephens; Alan I. Goldman; Paul A. Heiney; Peter A. Bancel

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Graphite and Hexagonal Boron-Nitride have the Same Interlayer Distance. Why?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

serves as a building block for few-layered graphene and graphite as well as for single- and multi prominent members of the family of layered materials possessing a hexagonal lattice structure. While-8 In recent years, the most prominent member of the family of layered materials has been graphene,9-12 which

Hod, Oded

337

Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL] [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Tetrafluoromethane monolayer physisorbed on graphite : its orientational walls and its complex phase diagram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

par diffraction de neutrons de la structure de la monocouche de CF4 physisorbée sur diffé- rents ce système complexe. Abstract. 2014 Neutron diffraction results for a monolayer of CF4 physisorbed studies of a physi- sorbed monolayer on graphite. It was thought that CF4, a very nearly spherical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Adsorption and catalyzed reactions of CO and CO/sub 2/ on graphite surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This work is a study of catalytic reactions of graphite with CO and CO/sub 2/. The experimental probes that are brought to bear on this problem are Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) for elemental analysis of the surface, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) to examine thermal decomposition of adsorbate species and, finally, x-ray photoelectron specroscopy (XPS) in order to identify surface entities.

Tysoe, W.T.; Carrazza, J.; Somorjai, G.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Relative and kinetic properties of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on a graphite surface  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results after chemisorption of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) on polycrystalline graphite are presented. CO adsorbs onto graphite with a very low sticking coefficient. After CO chemisorption CO (mass 28 amu) desorbs in two temperature regions, between 400 and 700 K and between 1000 and 1300 K, and CO/sub 2/ (mass 44 amu) desorbs below 950 K. The intensity of the CO/sub 2/ signal is less than 1 order of magnitude lower than the CO intensity. After CO/sub 2/ adsorption the major desorption product is CO at high temperatures (1000 < T (K) < 1300), whereas a small amount of CO/sub 2/ desorbs around 450 K. The adsorption of C/sup 16/O/sub 2/ and C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ mixture leads to a nearly total oxygen scrambling of the CO/sub 2/ desorbed. A mechanism for CO and CO/sub 2/ interconversion on the graphite surface is presented in terms of surface oxide species, mainly lactones and semiquinones, and their relative stability. Assignments of the TPD features are proposed accordingly. Reaction studies on the CO/sub 2/ gasification of clean graphite and the CO disproportionation (Boudouard reaction) have been performed. A good agreement is found between the activation energies obtained and the desorption energies calculated from the analysis of the TPD results.

Marchon, B.; Tysoe, W.T.; Carrazza, J.; Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1988-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Single Sheet Functionalized Graphene by Oxidation and Thermal Expansion of Graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,X,O Margarita Herrera-Alonso, David L. Milius, Roberto Car,,§ Robert K. Prud'homme, and Ilhan A. Aksay, the functionalized and defective graphene sheets do not collapse back to graphite oxide but are highly agglomerated and Roberto Car (Princeton University) showed that the stress-strain behaviors of graphene sheets and SWCNTs

Aksay, Ilhan A.

342

Polymer-Graphite Nanocomposites: Effective Dispersion and Major Property Enhancement via  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/kinetic limitations associated with con- ventional processes. With SSSP, a modified twin-screw extruder applies shear-44 provide details on the SSSP process and equipment; parameters (screw design, barrel size, feed rate, etc with similar filler content was fabricated via single-screw melt extrusion (Randcastle RCP-0625). Graphite

343

Stable aqueous suspension and self-assembly of graphite nanoplatelets coated with various polyelectrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs) with an average thickness of 1-10 nm present an inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes in many applications. In this paper, stable aqueous suspension of xGnP was achieved by noncovalent functionalization ...

Jue Lu; Inhwan Do; Hiroyuki Fukushima; Ilsoon Lee; Lawrence T. Drzal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nucleation and growth in electrodeposition of thin copper films on pyrolytic graphite  

SciTech Connect

Electrodeposition of Cu on graphite electrodes was studied, with emphasis on nucleation. Various ex-situ and in-situ methods were investigated for determining the number density of nuclei. Two direct methods were studied (scanning electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy); indirect determinations included Raman spectroscopy and analysis of potentiostatic current transients. Though some of the techniques correctly predicted the nucleation densities under special conditions, SEM was the most reliable tool. The large scatter in the data necessitated steps to minimize this effect. To electrodeposit Cu on graphite, a nucleation overpotential of 250 mV was measured with cyclic voltammetry; such a large overpotential does not occur on a Pt or on a Cu-covered graphite electrode. The deposition potential is the dominant parameter governing nucleation density. There is a sharp increase in the nucleation density with applied potential. Cu can be deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite only between the nucleation overpotential and the hydrogen evolution potential. To increase the Cu nucleation density, while avoiding excessive H evolution, a double pulse potential technique was used; nucleation densities on the order of 10{sup 10} nuclei/cm{sup 2} were achieved. The use of inhibitors (PVA, benzotriazole) was also investigated. Deposition on conducting polymer electrodes was also studied; initial results with polyaniline show promise. 57 figs, 6 tabs, refs. (DLC)

Kinaci, F.S.; Muller, R.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Diffusion Of Hydrophobin Proteins In Solution And Interactions With A Graphite Surface  

SciTech Connect

Background Hydrophobins are small proteins produced by filamentous fungi that have a variety of biological functions including coating of spores and surface adhesion. To accomplish these functions, they rely on unique interface-binding properties. Using atomic-detail implicit solvent rigid-body Brownian dynamics simulations, we studied the diffusion of HFBI, a class II hydrophobin from Trichoderma reesei, in aqueous solution in the presence and absence of a graphite surface. Results In the simulations, HFBI exists in solution as a mixture of monomers in equilibrium with different types of oligomers. The oligomerization state depends on the conformation of HFBI. When a Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) layer is present in the simulated system, HFBI tends to interact with the HOPG layer through a hydrophobic patch on the protein. Conclusions From the simulations of HFBI solutions, we identify a tetrameric encounter complex stabilized by non-polar interactions between the aliphatic residues in the hydrophobic patch on HFBI. After the formation of the encounter complex, a local structural rearrangement at the protein interfaces is required to obtain the tetrameric arrangement seen in HFBI crystals. Simulations performed with the graphite surface show that, due to a combination of a geometric hindrance and the interaction of the aliphatic sidechains with the graphite layer, HFBI proteins tend to accumulate close to the hydrophobic surface.

Mereghetti, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C.

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

Dynamic Monte-Carlo modeling of hydrogen isotope reactivediffusive transport in porous graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by voids which are typically a fraction of a microm- eter. The granules consist of graphitic micro-crystal- lites of size 10­100 nm separated by micro-voids which are typically 1 nm (Fig. 1) [1­4]. These sub chemical reactions to form hydrocarbons or recombine to form hydro- gen molecules which can then diffuse

Nordlund, Kai

347

An electrochemically reduced graphite-cobalt compound : synthesis and magnetic study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

direct intercalation of transition metals into graphite. One of the reasons could be the very high to metal- carbides formation than G.I.C.'s. Only indirect pre- paration methods have been described by many authors mostly consisting on a chemical [2-7] or electrochemical [8-10] reduction of the transition metal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

MHK Technologies/Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization SRI International Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Description This wave powered generator is unique in that it uses SRI s Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle EPAM technology a rubbery material that can generate electricity by simply being stretched and allowed to return to its original shape This artificial muscle technology can generate electricity directly from the motion of waves without the need for complicated and costly hydraulic transmissions that are typically found in other wave power generators

349

Galaxies, Human Eyes and Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative morphological classification of galaxies is important for understanding the origin of type frequency and correlations with environment. But galaxy morphological classification is still mainly done visually by dedicated individuals, in the spirit of Hubble's original scheme, and its modifications. The rapid increase in data on galaxy images at low and high redshift calls for re-examination of the classification schemes and for new automatic methods. Here we show results from the first systematic comparison of the dispersion among human experts classifying a uniformly selected sample of over 800 digitised galaxy images. These galaxy images were then classified by six of the authors independently. The human classifications are compared with each other, and with an automatic classification by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). It is shown that the ANNs can replicate the classification by a human expert to the same degree of agreement as that between two human experts.

O. Lahav; A. Naim; R. J. Buta; H. G. Corwin; G. de Vaucouleurs; A. Dressler; J. P. Huchra; S. van den Bergh; S. Raychaudhury; L. Sodre Jr.; M. C. Storrie-Lombardi

1994-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

350

Estimating photometric redshifts with artificial neural networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new approach to estimating photometric redshifts - using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) - is investigated. Unlike the standard template-fitting photometric redshift technique, a large spectroscopically-identified training set is required but, where one is available, ANNs produce photometric redshift accuracies at least as good as and often better than the template-fitting method. The Bayesian priors on the underlying redshift distribution are automatically taken into account. Furthermore, inputs other than galaxy colours - such as morphology, angular size and surface brightness - may be easily incorporated, and their utility assessed. Different ANN architectures are tested on a semi-analytic model galaxy catalogue and the results are compared with the template-fitting method. Finally the method is tested on a sample of ~ 20000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The r.m.s. redshift error in the range z < 0.35 is ~ 0.021.

Andrew E. Firth; Ofer Lahav; Rachel S. Somerville

2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

An Artificial Neural Network Based on the Architecture of the Cerebellum for Behavior Learning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last decade, artificial intelligence (AI) pervades every aspect of ... and generalize sensory information. We propose an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model based on that architecture....

Kenji Iwadate; Ikuo Suzuki; Michiko WatanabeÖ

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Exploring Fractional Order Calculus as an Artificial Neural Network Augmentation Samuel Alan Gardner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exploring Fractional Order Calculus as an Artificial Neural Network Augmentation by Samuel Alan....................................................................................... 4 Artificial Neural Networks DESCRIPTION......................................................................... 22 Neural Network

Dyer, Bill

353

Artificial neural networks in models of specialization, guild evolution and sympatric speciation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks in models of specialization, guild evolution and sympatric speciation artificial neural networks (ANN) as models for the host recognition system in exploiters, illustrate how

Getz, Wayne M.

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial vision technique Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: artificial vision technique Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Department of computer Summary: of advanced computing issues, as they are, techniques of Artificial...

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial internal organ Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

artificial internal organ Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Yuanlin ZHANG Department of Computer Science, Summary: journal or conferences: Artificial Intelligence, International...

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial techniques controlling Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

researchers... an artificial neural network between the low-level sensors and the fuzzy logic controller. Artificial neural... To Appear in the Proceedings of the 1997 Meeting of...

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial por irradiacao Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL GMV, empresa lider en proveer soluciones tecnolgicas seguras en TICs para mejorar Summary: BECA INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL GMV, empresa lider en proveer...

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial gravity countermeasure Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the benefits of an artificial gravity countermeasure coupled with exercise and vibration Summary: Modeling the benefits of an artificial gravity countermeasure coupled with...

359

Solar Energy to Drive Absorption Cooling Systems Suitable for Small Building Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors...

Gomri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Mapping red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) habitat suitability using GIS and remote sensing techniques†  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The British red squirrel population has dramatically declined in the last years. The survival of the species in the UK may depend on the careful selection and management of suitable habitats. A deep understanding of its habitat requirements...

de Lamo, Xavier

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A mixed-solvent strategy for facile and green preparation of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A versatile and scalable mixed-solvent strategy, by which two mediocre solvents could be combined into good solvents for exfoliating graphite, is demonstrated for facile and green preparation of graphene by liqui...

Min Yi; Zhigang Shen; Shulin Ma; Xiaojing Zhang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vanadium redox flow battery; nitrogen doping; carbon nanotubes; graphite felt ... Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ... Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ...

Shuangyin Wang; Xinsheng Zhao; Thomas Cochell; Arumugam Manthiram

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

363

Improved thermal stability of graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries using 4-isopropyl phenyl diphenyl phosphate as an additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To enhance the thermal stability of graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, 4-isopropyl phenyl diphenyl phosphate (IPPP)...6...in ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate (1:1 in weight). The electrochemic...

Qingsong Wang; Jinhua Sun; Chunhua Chen

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Artificial Neural Network Methods in Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a previous article we have shown how one can employ Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in order to solve non-homogeneous ordinary and partial differential equations. In the present work we consider the solution of eigenvalue problems for differential and integrodifferential operators, using ANNs. We start by considering the Schr\\"odinger equation for the Morse potential that has an analytically known solution, to test the accuracy of the method. We then proceed with the Schr\\"odinger and the Dirac equations for a muonic atom, as well as with a non-local Schr\\"odinger integrodifferential equation that models the $n+\\alpha$ system in the framework of the resonating group method. In two dimensions we consider the well studied Henon-Heiles Hamiltonian and in three dimensions the model problem of three coupled anharmonic oscillators. The method in all of the treated cases proved to be highly accurate, robust and efficient. Hence it is a promising tool for tackling problems of higher complexity and dimensionality.

I. E. Lagaris; A. Likas; D. I. Fotiadis

1997-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Making Solar Fuels by Artificial Photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

In order for solar energy to serve as a primary energy source, it must be paired with energy storage on a massive scale. At this scale, solar fuels and energy storage in chemical bonds is the only practical approach. Solar fuels are produced in massive amounts by photosynthesis with the reduction of CO{sub 2} by water to give carbohydrates but efficiencies are low. In photosystem II (PSII), the oxygen-producing site for photosynthesis, light absorption and sensitization trigger a cascade of coupled electron-proton transfer events with time scales ranging from picoseconds to microseconds. Oxidative equivalents are built up at the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) for water oxidation by the Kok cycle. A systematic approach to artificial photo-synthesis is available based on a ďmodular approachĒ in which the separate functions of a final device are studied separately, maximized for rates and stability, and used as modules in constructing integrated devices based on molecular assemblies, nanoscale arrays, self-assembled monolayers, etc. Considerable simplification is available by adopting a ďdye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cellĒ (DSPEC) approach inspired by dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Water oxidation catalysis is a key feature, and significant progress has been made in developing a single-site solution and surface catalysts based on polypyridyl complexes of Ru. In this series, ligand variations can be used to tune redox potentials and reactivity over a wide range. Water oxidation electrocatalysis has been extended to chromophore-catalyst assemblies for both water oxidation and DSPEC applications.

Song, Wenjing; Chen, Zuofeng; Brennaman, Kyle M; Concepcion, Javier J; Patrocinio, Antonio O T; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y; Meyer, Thomas J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Siv Schwink U. Illinois (217) 300-2201 Email "The emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems is a particular case of what physicists call fractionalization, or deconfinement of

367

Artificial Neural Network Predictive System for Oxygen Steelmaking Converter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of the paper is the presentation of the static control model of steelmaking converter process based on the artificial neural network approach. The results of classical mass and ... regression m...

Jan Falkus; Piotr Pietrzkiewicz; Wojciech PietrzykÖ

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Artificial neural network model for material characterization by indentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytical methods to interpret the indentation loadĖdisplacement curves are difficult to formulate and solve due to material and geometric nonlinearities as well as complex contact interactions. In this study, large strainĖlarge deformation finite element analyses were carried out to simulate indentation experiments. An artificial neural network model was constructed for the interpretation of indentation loadĖdisplacement curves. The data from finite element analyses were used to train and validate the artificial neural network model. The artificial neural network model was able to accurately determine the material properties when presented with the loadĖdisplacement curves that were not used in the training process. The proposed artificial neural network model is robust and directly relates the characteristics of the indentation loadĖdisplacement curve to the elasto-plastic material properties.

K K Tho; S Swaddiwudhipong; Z S Liu; J Hua

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Artificial Neural Network on a Massively Parallel Associative Architecture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An implementation of a fully connected artificial neural network using the multi-layered perceptron model is described. The neural network is implemented on the ASP (Associative String ... Microsystems Ltd., base...

A. Krikelis

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

CNCR Talk on AI and Philosophy ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PHILOSOPHY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CNCR Talk on AI and Philosophy ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PHILOSOPHY How AI (including robotics) relates to philosophy and in some ways Improves on Philosophy Aaron Sloman http are also relevant) Also relevant · The Computer Revolution in Philosophy (1978) http

Sloman, Aaron

371

Evolution of Memory in Reactive Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the context of evolution: how reactive agents could have evolved into cognitive ones with internalized memory? This study strives to find an answer to the question by simulating neuroevolution on artificial neural networks, with the hypothesis...

Chung, Ji Ryang

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

372

Stochastic artificial retinas: algorithm, optoelectronic circuits, and implementation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic artificial retinas: algorithm, optoelectronic circuits, and implementation Philippe tasks in the presence of discontinuities, dedicated optoelectronic hardware to implement thermal motion by photodetection of speckles, and hybrid architectures that combine optoelectronic, asynchronous

Boyer, Edmond

373

Artificial teeth : dental biofilm analysis on a chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, an "artificial teeth" microfluidic device is developed that provides unprecedented control over the conditions required to simulate the growth of complex dental biofilm. Dental plaque formation is not only ...

Lam, Raymond Hiu-wai

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Prolog Notes 1996. Page 1 Artificial Intelligence 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, rather than, as in the previous set of notes, a form of automated logic. The two sets of notes may of automated logic. Section 5 covers the subject of search which is important in Artificial Intelligence

Huntbach, Matthew

375

Rational Design of Artificial Metal-Based Enzymes | Center for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rational Design of Artificial Metal-Based Enzymes 17 Mar 2014 Giovanna Ghirlanda is one of the EFRC Principal Investigators. She is an Associate Professor at the Department of...

376

Artificial Bubble Cloud Targets for Underwater Acoustic Remote Sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes a technique that uses polymer additives to suspend air bubbles to form stable artificial bubble clouds. The results presented include the range of polymer concentrations for an effective bubble suspension; the void fraction,...

Paul A. Hwang; Ronald A. Roy; Lawrence A. Crum

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Moisture and temperature effects on curvature of anti-symmetric cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Approved as to style and content...

Lott, Randall Stephen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

378

Experimental investigation of moisture and temperature conditioning of C600/5208 graphite/epoxy composite material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I XPERIMENTAI INVESTIGATION OF MOI TURE AND TE11PERATURF CONDITIONING OF CGOO/5208 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATL'RIAL KENNETH AILEN GRIFGFR Su5&ritted to the Graduate College of Texa. s AQh University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFNCE December 1979 Majo, Subject: Ae&ospace Engineering EXPERINENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MOISTURE AND TENPERATURE CONDITIONING OF C600/5208 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE HATERIAL A Thesis by -KENNETH ALLEN GRIEGER Approved...

Grieger, Kenneth Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

379

The determination of some anions using ion chromatography and ion chromatography-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE DETERMINATION OF SOME ANIONS USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY-GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by DANIEL C. J. HILLMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry THE DETERMINATION OF SOME ANIONS USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY-GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by DANIEL C. J. HILLMAN...

Hillman, Daniel C

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Identification of Argentinian saline drylands suitable for growing Salicornia bigelovii for bioenergy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Salicornia bigelovii is an oilseed halophyte species that can be grown using saltwater in saline and coastal areas where conventional crops cannot be grown. Due to its high oil content, comparable with commercial crops, is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. To determine the agroclimatic zoning of S. bigelovii in Argentina, thermal and rainfall indexes from its center of origin were taken into account and plotted for the period 1981Ė2010. The overlapping of the temperature and rainfall maps defined the agroclimatic zoning which determined optimal, very suitable, suitable, marginal and non-suitable areas for cultivation of S. bigelovii in Argentina. Subsequently, the Dryland Salinity classification of FAO was used to identify putative sites of implantation of S. bigelovii in moderately and strongly saline phases where soil electrical conductivity ranges from 12.4 to 22.1†mmhos/cm. Finally, the overlapping of both the agroclimatic suitability and Dryland Salinity maps afforded the agro-ecological suitability map, which showed the same five fitness classes defined in the agroclimatic zoning.

S.L. Falasca; A. Ulberich; A. Acevedo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial chromosome library Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

library Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: artificial chromosome library...

382

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial oxygen carrier Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carrier Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: artificial oxygen carrier...

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial oxygen carriers Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carriers Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: artificial oxygen carriers...

384

Continious production of exfoliated graphite composite compositions and flow field plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of continuously producing a more isotropic, electrically conductive composite composition is provided. The process comprises: (a) continuously supplying a compressible mixture comprising exfoliated graphite worms and a binder or matrix material, wherein the binder or matrix material is in an amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the mixture; (b) continuously compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi or 0.035 MPa to about 50,000 psi or 350 MPa in at least a first direction into a cohered graphite composite compact; and (c) continuously compressing the composite compact in a second direction, different from the first direction, to form the composite composition in a sheet or plate form. The process leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ?2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Zhangxiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Chemistry Department and The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zhao, Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Phase diagram and phase transitions of monolayer and bilayer CF4 on graphite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The phase diagram of CF4 adsorbed on graphite in the monolayer and bilayer region is mapped out in an ac heat-capacity study. In the monolayer region, the resultant phase diagram shows the existence of five different solid phases. The melting transition can proceed from the (2◊2) commensurate, I(S) (an incommensurate phase), and the hexagonal incommensurate (HI) phases. Strongly-first-order melting is found from the (2◊2) and the I(S) phases. In contrast, a sharp and small heat-capacity peak followed by a broad anomaly, similar to the melting of Ar on graphite in the submonolayer region, is observed at the melting of the HI phase. In the bilayer region, four different regions of coexisting solid phases are found. The melting of the bilayer solid occurs at a triple point at 89.05 K. Our data also suggest a bilayer critical point at 93 K.

Q. M. Zhang; H. K. Kim; M. H. W. Chan

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ethylene on graphite: A low-energy electron-diffraction study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several phases of monolayer ethylene on single-crystal graphite have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction. We have determined the unit cell and orientation with respect to the graphite substrate of the orientationally ordered and disordered low-density phases (OLD and DLD), in which molecules are believed to lie with the C?C bond parallel to the surface. Based on published neutron-scattering results, we propose a basis for the OLD phase. The low-coverage DLD phase, believed to undergo a continuous melting transition at 70 K, appears to be a higher-order commensurate structure at this transition. We also report observations of ordered and disordered high-density phases in which molecules stand on end, in both commensurate and incommensurate epitaxies.

V. L. Eden and S. C. Fain; Jr.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

Romano, T.

1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

389

Method to Assess the Radionuclide Inventory of Irradiated Graphite from Gas-Cooled Reactors - 13072  

SciTech Connect

About 17,000 t of irradiated graphite waste will be produced from the decommissioning of the six French gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Determining the radionuclide (RN) content of this waste is of relevant importance for safety reasons and in order to determine the best way to manage them. For many reasons the impurity content that gave rise to the RNs in irradiated graphite by neutron activation during operation is not always well known and sometimes actually unknown. So, assessing the RN content by the use of traditional calculation activation, starting from assumed impurity content, leads to a false assessment. Moreover, radiochemical measurements exhibit very wide discrepancies especially on RN corresponding to precursor at the trace level such as natural chlorine corresponding to chlorine 36. This wide discrepancy is unavoidable and is due to very simple reasons. The level of impurity is very low because the uranium fuel used at that very moment was not enriched, so it was a necessity to have very pure nuclear grade graphite and the very low size of radiochemical sample is a simple technical constraint because device size used to get mineralization product for measurement purpose is limited. The assessment of a radionuclide inventory only based on few number of radiochemical measurements lead in most cases, to a gross over or under-estimation that is detrimental for graphite waste management. A method using an identification calculation-measurement process is proposed in order to assess a radiological inventory for disposal sizing purpose as precise as possible while guaranteeing its upper character. This method present a closer approach to the reality of the main phenomenon at the origin of RNs in a reactor, while also incorporating the secondary effects that can alter this result such as RN (or its precursor) release during reactor operation. (authors)

Poncet, Bernard [EDF-CIDEN, 154 Avenue Thiers, CS 60018, F-69458 LYON cedex 06 (France)] [EDF-CIDEN, 154 Avenue Thiers, CS 60018, F-69458 LYON cedex 06 (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Oscillatory Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance, and Magnetic Susceptibility of a Graphite Single Crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance, and magnetic susceptibility of a graphite single crystal have been measured at liquid helium temperatures and in magnetic fields up to 25 kilogauss. All three phenomena are periodic functions of reciprocal field and exhibit the same period for like orientations of the crystal axes with respect to the magnetic field. The phases however are different. Where possible, experiment and theory have been compared.

Ted G. Berlincourt and M. C. Steele

1955-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime.

Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

An artificial neural network based groundwater flow and transport simulator  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural networks are investigated as a tool for the simulation of contaminant loss and recovery in three-dimensional heterogeneous groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling. These methods have useful applications in expert system development, knowledge base development and optimization of groundwater pollution remediation. The numerical model runs used to develop the artificial neural networks can be re-used to develop artificial neural networks to address alternative optimization problems or changed formulations of the constraints and or objective function under optimization. Artificial neural networks have been analyzed with the goal of estimating objectives which normally require the use of traditional flow and transport codes: such as contaminant recovery, contaminant loss (unrecovered) and remediation failure. The inputs to the artificial neutral networks are variable pumping withdrawal rates at fairly unconstrained 3-D locations. A forward-feed backwards error propagation artificial neural network architecture is used. The significance of the size of the training set, network architecture, and network weight optimization algorithm with respect to the estimation accuracy and objective are shown to be important. Finally, the quality of the weight optimization is studied via cross-validation techniques. This is demonstrated to be a useful method for judging training performance for strongly under-described systems.

Krom, T.D.; Rosbjerg, D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Diffusion velocity correlation for nuclear graphite gasification at high temperature and low Reynolds numbers  

SciTech Connect

The safety analysis of High-Temperature and Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors requires reliable estimates of nuclear graphite gasification as a function of temperature, among other parameters, in the unlikely event of an air ingress accident. Although the rates of the prevailing chemical reactions increase exponentially with temperature, graphite gasification at high temperatures is limited by the oxygen diffusion through the boundary layer. The effective diffusion velocity depends on the total flow rate and pressure of the bulk air-gas mixture. This paper develops a semi-empirical Sherwood number correlation for calculating the oxygen diffusion velocity. The correlation is based on a compiled database of the results of convective heat transfer experiments with wires and cylinders of different diameters in air, water and paraffin oil at 0.006 {<=} Re {<=} 1,604 and 0.068 {<=} Sc {<=} 35.2, and of mass transfer experiments at 4.8 {<=} Re {<=} 77 and 1,300 {<=} Sc {<=} 2,000. The developed correlation is within {+-} 8% of the compiled database of 567 data points and consistent with reported gasification rate measurements at higher temperatures in experiments using different size specimens of nuclear graphite grades of NBG-18 and NB-25, IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 in atmospheric air at 0.08 {<=} Re {<=} 30. Unlike the Graetz solution that gives a constant Sh of 3.66 at Re {<=} 1.0, the present correlation shows Sh decreases monotonically to much lower values with decreasing Re. (authors)

El-Genk, M. S. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tournier, J. M. P. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries  

SciTech Connect

e investigated the long-term cycling performance of large format 20Ah LiFePO4/graphite batteries when they are cycled in various state-of-charge (SOC) ranges. It is found that batteries cycled in the medium SOC range (ca. 20~80% SOC) exhibit superior cycling stability than batteries cycled at both ends (0-20% or 80-100%) of the SOC even though the capcity utilized in the medium SOC range is three times as large as those cycled at both ends of the SOC. Several non-destructive techniques, including a voltage interruption approach, model-based parameter identification, electrode impedance spectra analysis, ?Q/?V analysis, and entropy change test, were used to investigate the performance of LiFePO4/graphite batteries within different SOC ranges. The results reveal that batteries at the ends of SOC exhibit much higher polarization impedance than those at the medium SOC range. These results can be attributed to the significant structural change of cathode and anode materials as revealed by the large entropy change within these ranges. The direct correlation between the polarization impedance and the cycle life of the batteries provides an effective methodology for battery management systems to control and prolong the cycle life of LiFePO4/graphite and other batteries.

Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zuo, Pengjian; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components  

SciTech Connect

This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

Duffy, Stephen

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

396

Production yields of noble-gas isotopes from ISOLDE UC$_{x}$/graphite targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yields of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe isotopic chains were measured from UC$_{x}$/graphite and ThC$_{x}$/graphite targets at the PSB-ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity achieved by the combination of a plasma-discharge ion source with a water-cooled transfer line. %The measured half-lives allowed %to calculate the decay losses of neutron-rich isotopes in the %target and ion-source system, and thus to obtain information on the in-target %productions from the measured yields. The delay times measured for a UC$_x$/graphite target allow for an extrapolation to the expected yields of very neutron-rich noble gas isotopes, in particular for the ``NuPECC reference elements'' Ar and Kr, at the next-generation radioactive ion-beam facility EURISOL. \\end{abstract} \\begin{keyword} % keywords here, in the form: keyword \\sep keyword radioactive ion beams \\sep release \\sep ion yields \\sep ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) \\sep uranium and thorium carbide targets. % PACS codes here, in the form: \\PACS code \\sep code...

Bergmann, U C; Catherall, R; Cederkšll, J; Diget, C A; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Gausemel, H; Georg, U; Giles, T; HagebÝ, E; Jeppesen, H B; Jonsson, O C; KŲster, U; Lettry, Jacques; Nilsson, T; Peršjšrvi, K; Ravn, H L; Riisager, K; Weissman, L; ńystŲ, J

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

New gas mixtures suitable for rare event detection using a Micromegas-TPC detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of the presented work was to develop further techniques based on a Micromegas-TPC, in order to reach a high gas gain with good energy resolution, and to search for gas mixtures suitable for rare event detection. This paper focuses on xenon, which is convenient for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in 136 Xe. Conversely, a small admixture of xenon to CF 4 can reduce attachment in the latter. This gas mixture would be suitable for dark matter searches and the study of solar and reactor neutrinos. Various configurations of the Micromegas plane were investigated and are described.

L. Ounalli; J-L. Vuilleumier; D. Schenker; J-M. Vuilleumier

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

398

Wood Gas Processing To Generate Pure Hydrogen Suitable for PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wood Gas Processing To Generate Pure Hydrogen Suitable for PEM Fuel Cells ... A temperature profile along the three reactors was set, attempting to optimize the overall CO conversion rate. ... Low GHSV, low sulfur loads in the feed gas (see Table 7), and the approach of temperature optimization enabled high overall conversion rates. ...

Silvester Fail; Nicolas Diaz; Florian Benedikt; Michael Kraussler; Julian Hinteregger; Klaus Bosch; Marius Hackel; Reinhard Rauch; Hermann Hofbauer

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Temperature-controlled neutron reflectometry sample cell suitable for study of photoactive thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature-controlled neutron reflectometry sample cell suitable for study of photoactive thin design intended for the study of photoactive materials using neutron reflectometry. The cell can maintain of that atom. More details on the technique of neutron reflectometry can be found elsewhere.2 Neutron

Barrett, Christopher

400

Antipatharian Diversity and Habitat Suitability Mapping in the Mesophotic Zone of the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Habitat suitability models for the distribution of black coral species at selected banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico were generated. Presence-only models made using the MaxEnt modeling program were compared to presence-absence models made using...

Nuttall, Marissa F

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets? The University will receive 20 weeks residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks in Year 1 and also experienced oil and gas industry professionals. The supervisors at Oxford and Exeter have

Henderson, Gideon

402

Application of artificial neural networks for damage indices classification with the use of Lamb waves for the aerospace structures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of artificial neural networks for damage indices classification with the use of Lamb of view. Artificial neural network has been used for the classification of fatigue cracks and artificial@agh.edu.pl, *corresponding author Keywords: NDT, Ultrasonic testing, Lamb waves, Artificial intelligence, Artificial Neural

403

Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal: A New IAEA Collaborative Research Program - 12443  

SciTech Connect

World-wide, more than 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite have arisen through commercial nuclear-power operations and from military production reactors. Whilst most nations responsible for the generation of this material have in mind repository disposal alongside other radwaste, the lack of progress in this regard has led in some cases to difficulties where, for example, the site of an existing graphite-moderated reactor is required for re-utilisation. In any case, graphite as a radwaste stream has unique chemical and physical properties which may lend itself to more radical and innovative treatment and disposal options, including the recovery of useful isotopes and also recycling within the nuclear industry. Such aspects are important in making the case for future graphite-moderated reactor options (for example, High-Temperature Reactors planned for simultaneous power production and high-grade heat sources for such applications as hydrogen production for road fuel). A number of initiatives have taken place since the mid 1990s aimed at exploring such alternative strategies and, more recently, improving technology offers new options at all stages of the dismantling and disposal process. A new IAEA Collaborative Research Program aims to build upon the work already done and the knowledge achieved, in order to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with alternative options for graphite disposal, along with cost comparisons, thus enabling individual Member States to have the best-available information at their disposal to configure their own programs. (authors)

Wickham, A.J. [Nuclear Technology Consultancy, PO Box 50, Builth Wells, Powys LD2 3XA (United Kingdom); Drace, Z. [Waste Technology Section, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research This platform provides a model for robust implementation of phospholipid multilayers and a means toward future applications of functional phospholipid supramolecular assemblies in device integration. September 11, 2013 Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane The journal ACS Nano published the research team's findings, and this is the first report of a hybrid and highly ordered phospholipid-based multilayer assembly that maintains its structure and fluid functionality upon incorporation into a synthetic inorganic matrix. Los Alamos researchers and collaborators recently synthesized and characterized highly ordered and stable phospholipid-silica thin films that

405

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research Artificial films mimic myelin sheath in new research This platform provides a model for robust implementation of phospholipid multilayers and a means toward future applications of functional phospholipid supramolecular assemblies in device integration. September 11, 2013 Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane Schematic of robust hybrid model membrane The journal ACS Nano published the research team's findings, and this is the first report of a hybrid and highly ordered phospholipid-based multilayer assembly that maintains its structure and fluid functionality upon incorporation into a synthetic inorganic matrix. Los Alamos researchers and collaborators recently synthesized and characterized highly ordered and stable phospholipid-silica thin films that

406

Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Estimating Rooftop Suitability for PV: A Review of Methods, Patents, and Validation Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A number of methods have been developed using remote sensing data to estimate rooftop area suitable for the installation of photovoltaics (PV) at various geospatial resolutions. This report reviews the literature and patents on methods for estimating rooftop-area appropriate for PV, including constant-value methods, manual selection methods, and GIS-based methods. This report also presents NREL's proposed method for estimating suitable rooftop area for PV using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in conjunction with a GIS model to predict areas with appropriate slope, orientation, and sunlight. NREL's method is validated against solar installation data from New Jersey, Colorado, and California to compare modeled results to actual on-the-ground measurements.

Melius, J.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Presentation of a Suitable Model for Creating Knowledge Management in Educational Institutes (Higher Education)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the status of higher education to establish knowledge management. The present study, with its descriptive model, investigates the situation in Islamic Azad University regarding organizational culture, information technology, organizational structure and human resources in order to establish a suitable model for knowledge management. The statistical population of this study includes all members of the board of education and the staff of the Islamic Azad University Tehran Central Branch. In order to analyze the research questions, the researcher made use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the research indicated that in the above-mentioned university, the situation of human resources is suitable, the status of organizational structure and culture is average and it is poor for that of information technology for the application of knowledge management. Finally, based on the research results, the executive model and the stages and steps of implementation of knowledge have been presented.

Seyeed farhad Eftekharzade; Batool mohammadi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Suitability of Shape Memory Alloys for vibration isolation with application to launch vehicle payloads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2001 Major Subject; Aerospace Engineering SUITABILITY OF SHAPE iVIEMORY ALLOYS FOR VIBRATION ISOLA'I ION IVITH APPLICATION TO LAUNCH VEHICLE PAYLOADS A Thesis JOHN JERAMY MAYES Submitted to Texas... CHAPTER I IiUTRODUCTIOX Technology has advanced significantly in recent years, enabling significant increases in the performance of many types of devices while also allowing those devices to become smaller in size and mass. The advances in the dcsigri...

Mayes, John Jeramy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

410

Determining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper  

SciTech Connect

We observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.

Appy, David [Ames Laboratory; Lei, Huaping [Ames Laboratory; Han, Yong [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Tringides, Michael C [Ames Laboratory; Shao, Dahai [Ames Laboratory; Kwolek, Emma J [Iowa State University; Evans, J W [Ames Laboratory; Thiel, P A [Ames Laboratory

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization  

SciTech Connect

Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10?nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050?įC was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V?s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

Murakami, Katsuhisa, E-mail: k.murakami@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya; Takahashi, Teppei; Fujita, Jun-ichi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hiyama, Takaki; Takai, Eisuke; Ohashi, Gai; Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

412

Comparison of the electrochemical properties of several commercial graphites with a templated disordered carbon  

SciTech Connect

A templated carbon was prepared by the pyrolysis of pyrene impregnated into pillared clay (PILC). The electrochemical performance of this was evaluated with the goal of using this material as an anode in Li-ion cells. The reversible capacity was measured as a function of C rate and the cycling characteristics were determined for various intercalation protocols. The performance of this material was compared to that of several commercial graphites tested under the same conditions. The PILC carbon shows great promise as a Li-ion anode if the fade and first-cycle losses can be controlled.

GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; SANDI,GISELLE

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

413

Comparison of the electrochemical properties of several commercial graphites with a templated disordered carbon  

SciTech Connect

A templated carbon was prepared by the pyrolysis of pyrene impregnated into pillared clay (PILC). The electrochemical performance of this was evaluated with the goal of using this material as an anode in Li-ion cells. The reversible capacity was measured as a function of C rate and the cycling characteristics were determined for various intercalation protocols. The performance of this material was compared to that of several commercial graphites tested under the same conditions. The PILC carbon shows great promise as a Li-ion anode if the fade and first-cycle losses can be controlled.

Guidotti, R. A.; Reinhardt, F. W.; Sandi, G.

2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electroanalytical applications of screen-printable surfactant-induced sol-gel graphite composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing sol-gel graphite composite electrodes is presented. This process preferably uses the surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and eliminates the need for a cosolvent, an acidic catalyst, a cellulose binder and a thermal curing step from prior art processes. Fabrication of screen-printed electrodes by this process provides a simple approach for electroanalytical applications in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Examples of applications for such composite electrodes produced from this process include biochemical sensors such as disposable, single-use glucose sensors and ligand modified composite sensors for metal ion sensitive sensors.

Guadalupe, Ana R. (San Juan, PR); Guo, Yizhu (San Juan, PR)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Real Time Selective Harmonic Minimization for Multilevel Inverters Connected to Solar Panels Using Artificial Neural Network Angle Generation  

SciTech Connect

This work approximates the selective harmonic elimination problem using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to generate the switching angles in an 11-level full-bridge cascade inverter powered by five varying dc input sources. Each of the five full bridges of the cascade inverter was connected to a separate 195-W solar panel. The angles were chosen such that the fundamental was kept constant and the low-order harmonics were minimized or eliminated. A nondeterministic method is used to solve the system for the angles and to obtain the data set for the ANN training. The method also provides a set of acceptable solutions in the space where solutions do not exist by analytical methods. The trained ANN is a suitable tool that brings a small generalization effect on the angles' precision and is able to perform in real time (50-/60-Hz time window).

Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Filho, Faete [ORNL; Cao, Yue [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Exploration of coal-based pitch precursors for ultra-high thermal conductivity graphite fibers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Goal was to explore the utility of coal-based pitch precursors for use in ultra high thermal conductivity carbon (graphite) fibers. From graphite electrode experience, it was established that coal-based pitches tend to form more highly crystalline graphite at lower temperatures. Since the funding was limited to year 1 effort of the 3 year program, the goal was only partially achieved. The coal-base pitches can form large domain mesophase in spite of high N and O contents. The mesophase reactivity test performed on one of the variants of coal-based pitch (DO84) showed that it was not a good candidate for carbon fiber processing. Optimization of WVU`s isotropic pitch process is required to tailor the pitch for carbon fiber processing. The hetero atoms in the coal pitch need to be reduced to improve mesophase formation.

Deshpande, G.V. [Amoco Performance Products, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

1996-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

On Teaching Quality Improvement of a Mathematical Topic Using Artificial Neural Networks Modeling (With a Case Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

431 On Teaching Quality Improvement of a Mathematical Topic Using Artificial Neural Networks inspired by simulation by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) applied recently for evaluation of phonics performance. Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Learning Performance Evaluation, Computer Aided Learning

Spagnolo, Filippo

418

Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energyís Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Evolving artificial neural network structure using grammar encoding and colonial competitive algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evolving artificial neural network usually refers to network structure evolution leaving the networkís parameters to be trained using conventional ... paper, we present a new method for artificial neural network ...

Maryam Tayefeh Mahmoudi; Fattaneh TaghiyarehÖ

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS Rezaul to allocate transmission loss to respective transactions. An artificial neural network based transmission loss technique. Keywords: Neural network; transmission loss; loss allocation; bilateral contracts. 1

Saskatchewan, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Artificial Neural Network-Based Lot Number Recognition for Cadastral Map  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the implementation of an artificial neural network in detecting lot numbers in a cadastral ... image resizing. A feed-forward with backpropagation artificial neural network was then implement...

Dave E. Marcial; Ed Darcy DyÖ

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Interplay of oxygen-evolution kinetics and photovoltaic power curves on the construction of artificial leaves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An artificial leaf can perform direct solar-to-fuels conversion. The construction of an efficient artificial leaf or other photovoltaic (PV)-photoelectrochemical device requires that the power curve of the PV material and ...

Surendranath, Yogesh

423

Artificial Intelligence 170 (2006) 835871 www.elsevier.com/locate/artint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Intelligence 170 (2006) 835­871 www.elsevier.com/locate/artint On the computational / Artificial Intelligence 170 (2006) 835­871 desires to achieve one of a set of goals, and every coalition has

Woolridge, Mike

424

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n 12, Tome 37, dcembre 1976, page C6-53 MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF MOLECULES ADSORBED ON GRAPHITE (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STUDIES OF MOLECULES ADSORBED ON GRAPHITE (*) S. BUKSHPAN and T. SONNINO Soreq Nuclear Research Center obtained on Nuclear Gamma Resonance studies of molecules adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite. In all [1]. The obtained results supply information on the dynamical properties of the adsorbed molecules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Non Destructive Thermal Analysis and In Situ Investigation of Creep Mechanism of Graphite and Ceramic Composites using Phase-sensitive THz Imaging & Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasonic Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we conducted a comprehensive study on nuclear graphite properties with terahertz (THz) imaging. Graphite samples from Idaho National Laboratory were carefully imaged by continuous wave (CW) THz. The CW THz imaging of graphite shows that the samples from different billet with different fabricating conditions have different pore size and structure. Based on this result, we then used a phase sensitive THz system to study the graphite properties. In this exploration, various graphite were studied. By imaging nuclear graphite samples in reflection mode at nine different incident polarization angles using THz timedomain- spectroscopy, we find that different domain distributions and levels of porosity will introduce polarization dependence in THz reflectivity. Sample with higher density is less porous and has a smaller average domain distribution. As a consequence, it is less polarization-dependent and the polarizationdependent frequency is higher. The results also show that samples oxidized at higher temperatures tend to be more polarization dependent. The graphite from the external billet is more polarization dependent compared to that from the center billet. In addition, we performed laser-based ultrasonic measurements on these graphite samples. The denser, unoxidized samples allow surface acoustic waves to propagate more rapidly than in the samples that had already undergone oxidation. Therefore, for the oxidized samples, the denser samples show less polarization-dependence, higher polarization-dependent frequency, and allow the surface acoustic waves propagate faster.

XI-Cheng Zhang; David Hurley; Albert Redo-sanchez

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

426

Is linear response to x-rays suitable for digital dental x-ray imaging systems? óTheoretical and experimental considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to consider theoretically and experimentally the suitability of linear response to x-rays for digital dental x-ray imaging systems.

Keiichi Nishikawa PhD; Mamoru Wakoh DDS; PhD; Kinya Kuroyanagi DDS; PhD

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Preparations and characterizations of novel graphite-like materials and some high oxidation state fluorine chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Novel graphite-like materials, BC{sub x} (6>x{ge}3), have been prepared using BCl{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 6} at 800--1000C, and C{sub x}N (14>x{ge}5) have been synthesized using C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N and Cl{sub 2} at 680C--986C. Bulk and thin film characterization were used to study the structure and bonding in these solids. C{sub 8}K(NH{sub 3}){sub 1.1} was prepared by reacting C{sub 8}K with gaseous NH{sub 3}. The carbon sub-lattice is hexagonal: a = 2.47 {Angstrom}, c = 6.47 {Angstrom}. The smaller a parameter and lower conductivity are attributed to smaller electron transfer from K to the conduction band solvation of K by NH{sub 3}. A simplified liquid phase method for synthesizing Li-graphite intercalation compounds has been developed; synthesis of a lamellar mixed conductor, C{sub x}{sup +}Li{sub 2}N{sup {minus}}, has been attempted. Stability and conductivity of (BN){sub 3}SO{sub 3}F have been studied; it was shown to be metallic with a specific conductivity of 1.5 S{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}1}. Its low conductivity is attributed to the low mobility of holes in BN sheets.

Shen, Ciping

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Calculated criticality for sup 235 U/graphite systems using the VIM Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

Calculations for highly enriched uranium and graphite systems gained renewed interest recently for the new production modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). Experiments to validate the physics calculations for these systems are being prepared for the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-West) and in the Compact Nuclear Power Source facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The continuous-energy Monte Carlo code VIM, or equivalently the MCNP code, can utilize fully detailed models of the MHTGR and serve as benchmarks for the approximate multigroup methods necessary in full reactor calculations. Validation of these codes and their associated nuclear data did not exist for highly enriched {sup 235}U/graphite systems. Experimental data, used in development of more approximate methods, dates back to the 1960s. The authors have selected two independent sets of experiments for calculation with the VIM code. The carbon-to-uranium (C/U) ratios encompass the range of 2,000, representative of the new production MHTGR, to the ratio of 10,000 in the fuel of TREAT. Calculations used the ENDF/B-V data.

Collins, P.J.; Grasseschi, G.L.; Olsen, D.N. (Argonne National Lab.-West, Idaho Falls (United States)); Finck, P.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

431

Artificial neural networks in bias dependant noise modeling of MESFETs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An efficient procedure for accurate noise parameter prediction of microwave MESFETs / HEMTs for various bias conditions is proposed in this paper. It is based on an improved Pospieszalski's noise model. The bias dependences of the noise model elements ... Keywords: MESFET, artificial neural network, bias, noise modeling

Zlatica Marinkovic; Olivera Pronic-Ran?ic; Vera Markovic

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Graphene and artificial graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Graphene 43 Graphene and artificial graphene T his area-layer graphene behave like massless fermions. Graphene is a first remarkable and clean example of the impact of a potential with honeycomb structure on the electronic states and dynamics. In graphene the crystalline

Abbondandolo, Alberto

433

Editorial Note The role of Artificial Intelligence in Knowledge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Editorial Note The role of Artificial Intelligence in Knowledge Management E. Tsui1 , B.J. Garner2 and S. Staab3 1. General Ambit of KnowledgeManagement Knowledge Managementhas emerged as a predominantly of business strategies and the appointment of Chief Knowledge Officers to better focus on the exploitation

Staab, Steffen

434

NUTRIENT LIMITATION AND PHOSPHATE REGENERATION IN ARTIFICIAL CUTAWAY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flooded to create a linked network of lakes and wetlands designed for conservation and amenity purposes. The current study examined water quality in four artificial cutaway peatland lakes over three years (2001√Ā2004 phosphorus pool via biotic and abiotic processes. The cutaway lakes contrasted strongly in both their physico

McCarthy, T.K.

435

Safety Criteria and Safety Lifecycle for Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety Criteria and Safety Lifecycle for Artificial Neural Networks Zeshan Kurd, Tim Kelly and Jim performance based techniques that aim to improve the safety of neural networks for safety critical applications. However, many of these techniques provide inadequate forms of safety arguments required

Kelly, Tim

436

Safety Lifecycle for Developing Safety Critical Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety Lifecycle for Developing Safety Critical Artificial Neural Networks Zeshan Kurd, Tim Kelly. There are many techniques that aim to improve the performance of neural networks for safety-critical systems. Consequently, their role in safety-critical applications, if any, is typically restricted to advisory systems

Kelly, Tim

437

Self-assembling DNA templates for programmed artificial biomineralization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-assembling DNA templates for programmed artificial biomineralization Enrique C. Samano created via engineered DNA self-assembly represent an important new class of soft matter. These assemblies nanostructures Our current ability to create complex DNA nanostructures via designed self- assembly owes much

Finkelstein, Gleb

438

Artificial Life, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Kolmogorov Complexity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial Life, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Kolmogorov Complexity John R. Woodward, Amin parasitic behavior. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system. In section III we examine entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. In section IV we examine

Woodward, John

439

Growth Properties of Artificial Heterogeneous Human Colon Tumors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...AHT, artificial heterogeneous tumor; CFE, colony-forming efficiency; CC, carrying...counted by eye for estimation of the overall CFE from each sample. Each colony was visually...confident that not only could the overall CFE from each tumor be measured, but that we...

John T. Leith; Seth Michelson; Lynn E. Faulkner; Sarah F. Bliven

1987-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial intelligence expert Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1956 Dartmouth meeting: "Artificial Intelligence... Inference: Expert systems, Fuzzy Logic, Bayesian Nets Intelligent Control Tools: State Machines, Fuzzy... (048717):...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Artificial Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models for Predicting the Protein Structures: The Secondary Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Artificial Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models for Predicting the Protein Structures advice on the development of this project #12;2 Artificial Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models learning methods: artificial neural networks (ANN) and hidden Markov models (HMM) (Rost 2002; Karplus et al

442

Using an artificial neural network to classify black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call note types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using an artificial neural network to classify black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call each described as a set of 9 summary features. An artificial neural network was trained to identify, a nonlinear statistical method artificial neural net- work and a linear statistical method linear discriminant

Dawson, Michael

443

The Holocene 9,5 (1999) pp. 521529 Artificial neural networks and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Holocene 9,5 (1999) pp. 521­529 Artificial neural networks and dendroclimatic reconstructions Platte River basin from tree- ring chronologies using artificial neural networks is explored. The use of artificial neural networks allows a comparison of reconstructions resulting from both linear and nonlinear

Woodhouse, Connie

444

Dynamic Pattern Recognition in Sport by Means of Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Pattern Recognition in Sport by Means of Artificial Neural Networks J√ľrgen Perl, Peter to store these data but to transform them into useful information. Artificial Neural Networks turn out the data. This is the point where Artificial Neural Networks can become extremely helpful: They are able

Perl, J√ľrgen

445

1 Introduction The artificial neural network discussed in this paper is unlike most other neural network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 1 Introduction The artificial neural network discussed in this paper is unlike most other neural practically all types of artificial neural network architectures were modeled, with varying levels of Connection Patterns for a Dynamic Artificial Neural Network Proceedings of the Combinations of Genetic

Delaware, University of

446

Review and comparison of methods to study the contribution of variables in artificial neural network models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Greece Abstract Convinced by the predictive quality of artificial neural network (ANN) models in ecology. # 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. Keywords: Artificial neural networks; Backpropagation; NonReview and comparison of methods to study the contribution of variables in artificial neural

Lek, Sovan

447

Comparative application of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms for multivariate time-series modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparative application of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms for multivariate time of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms in terms of forecasting and understanding of algal blooms-a, Microcystis, short-term prediction, artificial neural network model, genetic algorithm model, rule sets

Fernandez, Thomas

448

Michel Verleysen Altran 18/11/2002 -1 Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Michel Verleysen Altran 18/11/2002 - 1 Artificial Neural Networks: general overview and specific: Introduction pwhy "artificial neural networks" (ANN) ? pwhat are ANNs useful for? ? plearning ­ generalization Verleysen Altran 18/11/2002 - 3 Content p Part I: Introduction pwhy "artificial neural networks" (ANN

Verleysen, Michel

449

Prediction of Protein Functional Domains from Sequences Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prediction of Protein Functional Domains from Sequences Using Artificial Neural Networks J√°nos Ltd., Budapest 1121, Hungary An artificial neural network (ANN) solution is described, are forwarded to feed-forward artificial neural networks with six input and six hidden units with sigmoidal

Szepesvari, Csaba

450

May 24, 2012 18:36 manuscript Data Processing using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 24, 2012 18:36 manuscript Data Processing using Artificial Neural Networks to Improve uncertainties introduced by the 4D-CT scan, we conveniently treated data using artificial neural networks. More step are then used to build a training set for another artificial neural network that learns the lung

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

A simplified approach to quantifying predictive and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural network hydrologic models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

considerable interest in developing methods for uncertainty analysis of artificial neural network (ANN) models and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural network hydrologic models, Water Resour. Res., 43, W10407, doi:10A simplified approach to quantifying predictive and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural

Chaubey, Indrajeet

452

Automatic classification of Sleep Stages on a EEG signal by Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automatic classification of Sleep Stages on a EEG signal by Artificial Neural Networks Nizar of modeling and design to improve the performances of our tool. Key-Words: - Artificial Neural Networks data analysis tools. Concerning this latter point, we have proposed that Artificial Neural Networks

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Ecological Modelling 120 (1999) 6573 Artificial neural networks as a tool in ecological modelling,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecological Modelling 120 (1999) 65­73 Artificial neural networks as a tool in ecological modelling-34032 Montpellier cedex 1, France Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are non-linear mapping), genetic algorithms (d'Angelo et al., 1995; Golikov et al., 1995) and artificial neural networks, i.e. ANN

Roche, Benjamin

454

Ecological Modelling 120 (1999) 349358 Use of artificial neural networks for predicting rice crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecological Modelling 120 (1999) 349­358 Use of artificial neural networks for predicting rice crop of artificial neural networks (ANN) in predicting presence or absence of flamingo damages from 11 variables B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flamingos; Rice; Damage; Artificial neural networks; Prediction

Lek, Sovan

455

Artificial neural networks in models of specialisation, guild evolution and sympatric speciation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11 Artificial neural networks in models of specialisation, guild evolution and sympatric speciation 1/12/10 6:05:26pm page 236 Modelling Perception in Artificial Neural Networks, ed. C. R. Tosh and G artificial neural networks as models for the plant recognition mechanism in insects (Holmgren & Getz,

Getz, Wayne M.

456

Advances in ungauged streamflow prediction using artificial neural networks Lance E. Besaw a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advances in ungauged streamflow prediction using artificial neural networks Lance E. Besaw-John Chang, Associate Editor Keywords: Ungauged streamflow prediction Artificial neural networks Time and test two artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast streamflow in unga- uged basins. The model

Vermont, University of

457

Combining Q-Learning with Artificial Neural Networks in an Adaptive Light Seeking Robot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining Q-Learning with Artificial Neural Networks in an Adaptive Light Seeking Robot Steve Dini an artificial neural network as a function approximator and eliminate the need for an explicit table. 1 limitations of using tables as well as the viability of using artificial neural networks to approximate

Meeden, Lisa A.

458

Automated Interpretation of Myocardial SPECT Perfusion Images Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automated Interpretation of Myocardial SPECT Perfusion Images Using Artificial Neural Networks Dan. Conclusion: Artificial neural networks can detect CAD in myocardial bull's-eye scintigrams with such a high significant potential. Key Words: diagnosis; computer-assisted; artificial intelligence; neural networks

Peterson, Carsten

459

Fluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

marine waters with fluorescence spectroscopy and of using artificial neural networks for data interpre with an artificial neural network. The results demonstrate the possibility of estimating oil concentrationsFluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural

Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

460

Zhang, Wang, and Wei 1 An Artificial Neural Network Method for Length-based  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zhang, Wang, and Wei 1 An Artificial Neural Network Method for Length-based Vehicle Classification this problem, we develop an artificial neural network method to estimate classified vehicle volumes directly stations on I-5 over a long duration. The results show that the proposed artificial neural network model

Wang, Yinhai

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "artificial graphite suitable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Artificial neural network discrimination of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call notes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Artificial neural network discrimination of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call; revised 11 April 2006; accepted 12 May 2006 Artificial neural networks were trained to discriminate number s : 43.80Ka., 43.80.Lb, 43.80.Jz JAS Pages: 1111­1117 I. INTRODUCTION An artificial neural network

Dawson, Michael

462

Artificial Neural Network Analysis for Evaluation of Peptide MS/MS Spectra in Proteomics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An artificial neural network, based on multilayer perceptron and comprising 10 artificial neurons in the input layer, 23, 10, and 7 neurons in three consecutive hidden layers, and a single neuron in the output layer, was used. ... Use of artificial neural networks for the accurate prediction of peptide liquid chromatography elution times in proteome analyses ...

Tomasz Ba?czek; Adam Buci?ski; Alexander R. Ivanov; Roman Kaliszan

2004-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

463

SEQUENTIAL IMPORTANCE SAMPLING BASED ON A COMMITTEE OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR POSTERIOR HEALTH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEQUENTIAL IMPORTANCE SAMPLING BASED ON A COMMITTEE OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR POSTERIOR) is used in this study to filter the output distribution from a committee of Artificial Neural Networks at discrete time steps. KEYWORDS : model identification, artificial neural network, committee, sequential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Stream classification using hierarchical artificial neural networks: A fluvial hazard management tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stream classification using hierarchical artificial neural networks: A fluvial hazard management-in-Chief Keywords: Stream classification Artificial neural networks Kohonen self-organizing maps Counterpropagation. In this research, we apply non-parametric, clus- tering and classification artificial neural networks to assimilate

Vermont, University of

465

in: Third German Workshop on Artificial Life C. Wilke and S. Altmeyer and T. Martinetz, Editors,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in: Third German Workshop on Artificial Life C. Wilke and S. Altmeyer and T. Martinetz, Editors, pp chemistry provides an abstract model for a complex chemical system which consists of a potentially infinite is an artificial system, which is similar to a chemical system. Bagley and Farmer write in [1]: An artificial

Dittrich, Peter

466

Testing of Safety-Critical Software Embedded in an Artificial Heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing of Safety-Critical Software Embedded in an Artificial Heart Sungdeok Cha1 , Sehun Jeong1 frequently to control medical devices such as artificial heart or robotic surgery system. While much (KAOC). It is a state-of-the-art artificial heart which completed animal testing phase. We per- formed

467

Chemical sputtering of ATJ graphite induced by low-energy D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of hydro- gen atoms or ions is essential to assess the suitability of these materials for use in large preparation and thermal heat treatment (hysteresis effects) [1]; results may be affected as well by micro

468

Development of a Habitat Suitability Index Model for the Sage Sparrow on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Mitigation threshold guidelines for the Hanford Site are based on habitat requirements of the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli) and only apply to areas with a mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) overstory and a native understory. The sage sparrow habitat requirements are based on literature values and are not specific to the Hanford Site. To refine these guidelines for the Site, a multi-year study was undertaken to quantify habitat characteristics of sage sparrow territories. These characteristics were then used to develop a habitat suitability index (HSI) model which can be used to estimate the habitat value of specific locations on the Site.

Duberstein, Corey A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

GPS Visitor Tracking and Recreation Suitability Mapping: Tools for understanding and managing visitor use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Understanding space in parks and protected areas is becoming more important as recreation and other uses in these areas change and increase. Spatial demand and space utility are of particular importance to multiple-use forests, which may have competing demands and limited acreage. For managers to balance the demands of society, maintain healthy ecosystems, and generate revenue these demands must be integrated on some level. Spatial data and analysis can help with integration; however, social science data can be difficult to integrate into spatial modeling and analysis. This study examined the integration of two mapping methods that can assist in the incorporation of social science data into spatial models: Recreation Suitability Mapping (RSM) and GPS Visitor Tracking (GVT). Visitor use preferences were spatially mapped to create recreation suitability models for competing recreation activity groups, and GPS tracking of visitor use was used to compare and contrast actual user patterns with mapped preferences. Combining RSM and GVT proved useful for informing visitor management in a small acreage, multi-use public forest experiencing high spatial demand. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications are discussed.

J. Adam Beeco; Jeffrey C. Hallo; Matthew T.J. Brownlee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

An electrochemical method suitable for preparing nine metal-nitride powders  

SciTech Connect

We present an electrochemical method that is suitable for the preparation of metal-nitride ceramic materials that is both simple and general. We begin with a single-compartment electrochemical cell containing suitable metal (M) anodes and cathodes (M=Al, Mo, Nb, Ni, Ti, V, W, Zn, or Zr) and a NH{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X (X=Br or Cl) electrolyte solution. Application of a sufficiently high voltage results in oxidation and dissolution of M to M{sup n+} at the anode and reduction of NH{sub 3} to NH{sub 2}- at the cathode. When M=Al, this results in formation of an insoluble inorganic polymer, which can subsequently be calcined above 600{degrees}C to yield phase-pure AlN. For some of the other metals, a simple ammoniated metal ion is formed at the anode, but calcination of this material also leads to the corresponding metal nitride. The phases and morphologies of the powders depends strongly on the calcining conditions. The important point is that this method is general for the preparation of metal-nitride powders even though the pathway that leads to the powders is metal-dependent. This talk will focus primarily on the preparation of AlN, which is an important packaging material for the electronics industry, and NbN, which is a superconductor (T{sub c}{approximately}17 K) with important technological applications.

Wade, T.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Growth of SiC thin films on graphite for oxidation-protective coating J.-H. Boo,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, it is necessary to improve its resistance to oxidation. SiC is used as a semiconductor material for high of the SiC layers compared to those grown by thermal MOCVD. The mechanical and oxidation-resistant-2101 00 18204-1 I. INTRODUCTION Graphite, with its advantages of high thermal conductiv- ity, low-thermal

Boo, Jin-Hyo

472

Monash researchers led by Dr. Dan Li have developed a novel method for converting natural graphite into highly porous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gel-Form Graphene Monash researchers led by Dr. Dan Li have developed a novel method for converting natural graphite into highly porous graphene film for advanced applications. Figure 1: illustrates (eg capacitors, batteries and fuel cells) n LCD displays and photovoltaic devices n Composites

Albrecht, David

473

Surface Self-Diffusion and Mean Displacement of Hydrogen on Graphite and a PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Support  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Self-Diffusion and Mean Displacement of Hydrogen on Graphite and a PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst molecules and a carbon material commonly used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), called XC coefficient at each temperature. At 350 K, a typical fuel cell temperature, the temperature function

Kjelstrup, Signe

474

Predicting the Voltage Dependence of Interfacial Electrochemical Processes at Lithium-Intercalated Graphite Edge Planes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The applied potential governs lithium-intercalation and electrode passivation reactions in lithium ion batteries, but are challenging to calibrate in condensed phase DFT calculations. In this work, the "anode potential" of charge-neutral lithium-intercalated graphite (LiC(6)) with oxidized edge planes is computed as a function of Li-content n(Li)) at edge planes, using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), a previously introduced Li+ transfer free energy method, and the experimental Li+/Li(s) value as reference. The voltage assignments are corroborated using explicit electron transfer from fluoroethylene carbonate radical anion markers. PF6- is shown to decompose electrochemically (i.e., not just thermally) at low potentials imposed by our voltage calibration technique. We demonstrate that excess electrons reside in localized states-in-the-gap in the organic carbonate liquid region, which is not semiconductor-like (band-state-like) as widely assumed in the literature.

Leung, Kevin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Proceedings of the conference on electrochemistry of carbon allotropes: Graphite, fullerenes and diamond  

SciTech Connect

This conference provided an opportunity for electrochemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers to meet and exchange information on different carbon allotropes. The presentations and discussion among the participants provided a forum to develop recommendations on research and development which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes. The following topics which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes were addressed: Graphitized and disordered carbons, as Li-ion intercalation anodes for high-energy-density, high-power-density Li-based secondary batteries; Carbons as substrate materials for catalysis and electrocatalysis; Boron-doped diamond film electrodes; and Electrochemical characterization and electrosynthesis of fullerenes and fullerene-type materials. Abstracts of the presentations are presented.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Scherson, D. [ed.] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

1987-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

Hydrogen-induced magnetization and tunable hydrogen storage in graphitic structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen interactions with undefective and defective graphitic structures were investigated by first-principles simulations. Structural vacancies were identified to promote the dissociation of molecular hydrogen with a reduced activation barrier of 0.63eV, compared to 2.38eV for a perfect graphene. However, the vacancies bind the hydrogen too strongly for spill-over mechanisms to be effective. An isolated vacancy in a graphene can bind four hydrogen atoms, but a metastable and magnetic structure binds six hydrogen atoms at the vacancy site at room temperature. The thermodynamics, magnetic properties, and hydrogen binding energies vary with graphene layer spacing. A metastable structure becomes energetically favorable for a layer spacing of 3.19Ň, while the binding of hydrogen becomes exothermic at a layer spacing of 2.72Ň. This phenomenon suggests the possibility of using hydrogen-rich carbon structures for reversible magnetic and hydrogen storage applications.

Yang Lei; Stephen A. Shevlin; Wenguang Zhu; Zheng Xiao Guo

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

478

Synthesis of few layer graphene by direct exfoliation of graphite and a Raman spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect

The exfoliation of graphene from pristine graphite in a liquid phase was achieved successfully via sonication followed by centrifugation method. UltravioletĖvisible (UVĖvis) spectra of the obtained graphene dispersions at different exfoliation time indicated that the concentration of graphene dispersion increased markedly with increasing exfoliation time. The sheet-like morphology of the exfoliated graphene was revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image. Further, the morphological change in different exfoliation time was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A complete structural and defect characterization was probed using micro-Raman spectroscopic technique. The shape and position of the 2D band of Raman spectra revealed the formation of bilayer to few layer graphene. Also, Raman mapping confirmed the presence of uniformly distributed bilayer graphene sheets on the substrate.

Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V., E-mail: vr.optics1@gmail.com [Department of Laser Studies, School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, India. (India); Kottaisamy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai-625015, India. (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai-625015, India. (India)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores mimic key features of natural pores By Tona Kunz * July 17, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists have overcome key design hurdles to expand the potential uses of nanopores and nanotubes. The creation of smart nanotubes with selective mass transport opens up a wider range of applications for water purification, chemical separation and fighting disease. Nanopores and their rolled up version, nanotubes, consist of atoms bonded to each other in a hexagonal pattern to create an array of nanometer-scale openings or channels. This structure creates a filter that can be sized to select which molecules and ions pass into drinking water or into a cell. The same filter technique can limit the release of chemical by-products

480

Phonon lifetime in SiSn and its suitability for hot-carrier solar cells  

SciTech Connect

We present a phononic and electronic study of SiSn in the zinc-blende phase. A detailed description of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon decay in a three-phonon process is presented together with the corresponding lifetime. The necessity to go beyond the zone center phonon approximation in this case is highlighted as it reveals a steep dependence of the lifetime on the initial phonon wavenumber, which differs from usual semiconductors. The electronic band structure is calculated within the GW formalism and shows a small direct band gap. It is shown that the LO-phonon resulting from electron cooling has a lifetime four to eight orders of magnitude above all the known value in semiconductors for this process. We finally show the suitability of SiSn for hot-carrier solar cells, as it is endowed with ultra-slow cooling of hot carriers.

Levard, Hugo; Laribi, Sana; Guillemoles, Jean-FranÁois [Institute for Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), UMR 7174, EDF R and D/CNRS/Chimie ParisTech, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Agrochemicals suitable for downy mildew control in New Zealand boysenberry production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effectiveness of different agrochemical treatments for downy mildew control in boysenberry was evaluated in situ during the 2000/01 and 2001/02 growing seasons in New Zealand. Agrochemicals tested were azoxystrobin, dichlofluanid, phosphorus acid, metalaxyl-M (metalaxyl-M+dithianon and/or metalaxyl-M+mancozeb). Agrochemical treatments consisted of single or multiple applications integrated into a commercial spray programme. Downy mildew was assessed for primocane, leaf and/or berry infections (Ďdryberryí). Disease pressure was very different in the two seasons, with growers experiencing small losses (agrochemicals suitable for downy mildew control during low and high disease pressure, but also opened questions with regard to our current understanding of the disease cycle and pathways of infection.

M. Walter; P. Harris-Virgin; W. Thomas; G. Tate; N.W. Waipara; G. Langford

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

A Proposed Artificial Neural Network Classifier to Identify Tumor Metastases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a classification scheme to isolate truly benign tumors from those that initially start off as benign but subsequently show metastases. A non-parametric artificial neural network methodology has been chosen because of the analytical difficulties associated with extraction of closed-form stochastic-likelihood parameters given the extremely complicated and possibly non-linear behavior of the state variables.

M. Khoshnevisan; Sukanto Bhattacharya; Florentin Smarandache

2002-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

483

AUTOMATED DEFECT CLASSIFICATION USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK  

SciTech Connect

The automated defect classification algorithm based on artificial neural network with multilayer backpropagation structure was utilized. The selected features of flaws were used as input data. In order to train the neural network it is necessary to prepare learning data which is representative database of defects. Database preparation requires the following steps: image acquisition and pre-processing, image enhancement, defect detection and feature extraction. The real digital radiographs of welded parts of a ship were used for this purpose.

Chady, T.; Caryk, M. [Szczecin University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering (Poland); Piekarczyk, B. [Technic-Control, Szczecin (Poland)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

484

Intentionality, Artificial Intelligence and the Causal Powers of the Brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intentionality, Artificial Intelligence and the Causal Powers of the Brain Jeffrey M. Whitmer Northern Illinois University It seems to be a common belief that in the future, if not in the present, digital computers are going to be capable... of cognitive states, experiences, and con≠ sciousness equal in every respect to that which exists in human beings. 1 Not everyone, however, is so optimistic. One such skeptic is John Searle and his "Minds, Brains, and Programs" 2 represents a direct con...

Whitmer, Jeffrey M.

485

Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.  

SciTech Connect

This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

A study of transportation factors affecting the suitability of Houston, Texas, as a wool scouring plant site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUITABILITY OF HOUSTON, TEXAS AS A WOOL SCOURING PLANT SITE A Thesis By Hoy A. Richards Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1961 Ma)or Sub)ect Economi. cs A STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUITABILITY OF HOUSTON, TEXAS AS A WOOL SCOURING PLANT SITE A Thesis By Hoy A. Richards Approved...

Richards, Hoy Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

487

GIS-based study of the spatial distribution suitability of livestock and poultry farming: The case of Putian, Fujian, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Spatial distribution, based on which the spatial layout and scale for regional livestock and poultry farming are determined, is critical to planning. At present, quantitative research on this topic is rare in China and even elsewhere. To assist in rational planning as well as in the scientific layout of the spatial distribution of livestock and poultry farms, this study establishes an evaluation index system for the spatial distribution suitability of the livestock and poultry sector and adopts Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to standardize each evaluation factor that affects the suitable spatial layout of livestock and poultry farming and consequently, to assign weights. The system is based on theory of land suitability; the organic combination of social, economic, and environmental factors; and geographic information system technology. GIS software is employed to generate the thematic maps of a single evaluation factor. The score of each block of livestock farming land suitability evaluation is then generated based on the results of the suitability analysis for a single factor along with the weighted calculation result of the weight of each evaluation factor and the application of the GIS overlay function. Results show that regardless of the size or proportion of areas suitable for livestock and poultry farming, Xianyou County and Hanjiang District remain suitable for livestock and poultry breeding layout; quantity distribution should give priority to these two areas as well. Recommendations to adjust spatial layout planning for livestock and poultry farming in Putian, Xianyou County, must be improved. The north and northwest areas should be considered in the layout for livestock and poultry farming. Planning for Hanjiang District should be readjusted, and priority should be given to Zhuangbian Town, Dayang Village, Xinxian Town, and Jiangkou Town. Chengxiang and Licheng Districts are relatively ideal and require only appropriate fine tuning. Planning for Xiuyu District should be readjusted, and priority should be given to suitable villages and towns, such as Dongqiao Town, Hushi Town, and Dongzhuang Town.

Lihong Peng; Wenwen Chen; Ming Li; Yu Bai; Yipeng Pan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward ... and pH. We found that f...

Madeline Shuhua Goh; Martin Pumera

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Graphite-moderated, gas-cooled, and water-moderated, water-cooled reactors as power units in nuclearelectric power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present article reviews a number of papers submitted at the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy bearing on water-cooled, water-moderated, graphite-moderated, and gas-coole...

Yu. I. Koryakin

1960-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Restoration of the graphite memory of a reactor in the third power-generating unit of the Leningrad nuclear power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The restoration of the graphite masonry of cell 52-16 in the reactor in the third power-generating unit of the Leningrad nuclear power plant is described. The process reduces to moving...

V. I. Lebedev; Yu. V. Garusov; M. A. Pavlov; A. N. Peunov; E. P. Kozlov

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Electrochemical cell studies on fluorinated natural graphite in propylene carbonate electrolyte with difluoromethyl acetate (MFA) additive for low temperature lithium battery application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrochemical cell performances of fluorinated natural graphite (abbreviated as FNG) electrode material was studied by using 1M of LiClO4? EC: DEC: PC (1: 1: 1 v%) electrolyte solution with and without 0∑15% v/...

R. Chandrasekaran; M. Koh; Y. Ozhawa; H. AoyomaÖ

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

A web-based participatory GIS (PGIS) for offshore wind farm suitability within Lake Erie, Ohio  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study presents the design and implementation of a web-based Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) framework intended for offshore wind suitability analysis. The PGIS prototype presented here integrates GIS and decision-making tools that are intended to involve different stakeholders and the public for solving complex planning problems and building consensus. Public involvement from the early planning stage of projects with a spatial nature is very important for future legitimacy and acceptance of these projects. Therefore, developing and executing a system that facilitates effective public involvement for resolving contentious issues can help in fostering long-lasting agreements. The prototype here is a distributed and asynchronous PGIS that combines a discussion forum, a mapping tool and a decision tool. The potential strengths and benefits of this PGIS are demonstrated in a hypothetical case study in Lake Erie, northern Ohio. In the hypothetical case study, participants evaluate the importance of three decision alternatives using different evaluation criteria for expressing their individual preferences. The individual preferences are aggregated by Borda Count (BC) method for generating the group solution, which is used for synthesizing the different evaluation aspects such as the importance of criteria, ranking of the decision alternatives and planning issues related to environmental and socio-economic concerns from the participants.

Addisu D. Mekonnen; Pece V. Gorsevski

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Search for Suitable ICRF Operation Window for the Shaped H-mode Operation of KSTAR  

SciTech Connect

KSTAR will try to achieve its 1st shaped H-mode plasma in 2010 campaign. The available power is limited by our plan for auxiliary heating system. Up to 2010, NBI with 1 MW, LHCD 0.5 MW, and ECH with 0.5 MW power will be prepared. To accomplish high beta plasma, TF magnetic field will be reduced to 2 T from rated field of 3.5 T. In this case the ECH contribution to H-mode power threshold requirement is ignorant because the 84 GHz frequency does not meet neither fundamental nor second harmonic resonance in the discharge area. Therefore the ICRF heating should carry out important roll to reach power threshold. The ICRF system of tunable frequency from 30 to 60 MHz will come with 1 MW power in 2010. To maximize the ICRF heating efficiency for H-mode purpose, we try to find suitable condition of ICRF heating parameters through the simulation using by TORIC code. Optimizations of RF frequency, toroidal modes controllable by 4 current straps, and the minority concentration are performed. Possibilities of second harmonic heating of minority and the mode converted heating near resonance layer are also studied.

Park, B. H.; Kim, J. Y. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

494

Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II  

SciTech Connect

This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Suitability of Tedlarģ gas sampling bags for siloxane quantification in landfill gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Landfill or digester gas can contain man-made volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS), usually in the range of a few milligrams per normal cubic metre (Nm3). Until now, no standard method for siloxane quantification exists and there is controversy with respect to which sampling procedure is most suitable. This paper presents an analytical and a sampling procedure for the quantification of common VMS in biogas via GCĖMS and polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlarģ) bags. Two commercially available Tedlar bag models are studied. One is equipped with a polypropylene valve with integrated septum, the other with a dual port fitting made from stainless steel. Siloxane recovery in landfill gas samples is investigated as a function of storage time, temperature, surface-to-volume ratio and background gas. Recovery was found to depend on the type of fitting employed. The siloxanes sampled in the bag with the polypropylene valve show high and stable recovery, even after more than 30 days. Sufficiently low detection limits below 10†?g†Nm?3 and good reproducibility can be achieved. The method is therefore well applicable to biogas, greatly facilitating sampling in comparison with other common techniques involving siloxane enrichment using sorption media.

M. Ajhar; B. Wens; K.H. Stollenwerk; G. Spalding; S. YŁce; T. Melin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Strategic selection of suitable projects for hybrid solar-wind power generation systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the pressing need for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable costs, China is moving toward the trend for generating electricity from renewable resources. Both solar energy and wind power have received a tremendous attention from private associations, political groups, and electric power companies to generate power on a large scale. A drawback is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather. Fortunately, the problems can be partially tackled by using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. Especially, a large fraction of the solar resource is available at times of peak electrical load. However, the complexity of using two different resources together makes the hybrid solar-wind generation systems more difficult to analyze. Accordingly, this paper first briefly introduces the solar-wind generation system and next develops its critical success criteria. Then, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process associated with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, is proposed to help select a suitable solar-wind power generation project.

Hsing Hung Chen; He-Yau Kang; Amy H.I. Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

Wickstrom, Steven Norman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

498

Functionalization/passivation of porous graphitic carbon with di-tert-amylperoxide  

SciTech Connect

Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) particles were functionalized/passivated in situ in packed beds at elevated temperature with neat di-tert-amylperoxide (DTAP) in a column oven. The performance of these particles for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was assayed before and after this chemistry with the following analytes: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, n-propyl benzene, n-butyl benzene, p-xylene, phenol, 4-methylphenol, phenetole, 3,5-xylenol, and anisole. After the first functionalization/passivation, the retention factors, k, of these compounds decreased by about 5% and the number of theoretical plates (N) increased by ca. 15%. These values of k then remained roughly constant after a second functionalization/ passivation but a further increase in N was noticed. In addition, after each of the reactions, the peak asymmetries decreased by ca. 15%, for a total of ca. 30%. The columns were then subjected twice to methanol at 100 C for 5 h at 1 mL/min. After these stability tests, the values of k remained roughly constant, the number of plates increased, which is favorable, and the asymmetries rose and then declined, where they remained below the initial values for the unfunctionalized columns. Functionalized and unfunctionalized particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and BET measurements, which showed no difference between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), where ToF-SIMS suggested some chemical differences between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials. In particular ToF-SIMS suggested that the expected five-carbon fragments from DTAP exist at higher concentrations on DTAP-functionalized PGC. First principle calculations on model graphitic surfaces suggest that the first addition of a DTAP radical to the surface proceeds in an approximately isothermal or slightly favorable fashion, but that subsequent DTAP additions are then increasingly thermodynamically favorable. Thus, this analysis suggests that the direct functionalization/passivation of PGC with DTAP is plausible. Chemometric analyses of the chromatographic and ToF-SIMS data are also presented.

Jensen, David S.; Gupta, Vipul; Olsen, Rebecca E.; Miller, Alex T.; Davis, Robert C.; Ess, Daniel; Zhu, Zihua; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R.

2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

499

EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR  

SciTech Connect

Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Final Report: Use of Graphite Foam as a Thermal Performance Enhancement of Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's graphite foam has the potential to be used as a heat exchanger for the Army's Future Combat System Manned Ground Vehicle and thus has the potential to improve its thermal performance. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLOW3D was used to develop a new CFD model for the graphite foam to be used in the development of a proper heat exchanger. The program was calibrated by first measuring the properties of the solid foams and determining the parameters to be used in the CFD model. Then the model was used to predict within 5% error the performance of finned foam heat sinks. In addition, the f factors and j factors commonly used to predict pressure drop and heat transfer were calculated for both the solid and finned structures. There was some evidence that corrugating the foams would yield higher j/f ratios than state of the art heat exchangers, confirming previously measured data. Because the results show that the CFD model was validated, it is recommended that the funding for Phases 2 through 5 be approved for the design of both the finned heat exchanger using tubes and round fin structures and the solid foam design using corrugated foams. It was found that the new CFD model using FLOW3D can predict both solid foam heat transfer and finned foam heat transfer with the validated model parameters. In addition, it was found that the finned foam structures exhibited j/f ratios that indicate that significant heat transfer is occurring within the fin structures due to aerodynamically induced flow, which is not present in solid aluminum fin structures. It is possible that the foam surfaces can act as turbulators that increase heat transfer without affecting pressure drop, like the vortex generators seen in state of the art heat exchangers. These numbers indicate that the foam can be engineered into an excellent heat exchanger. It was also found that corrugating the solid foams would increase the j/f ratio dramatically, allowing the solid foams to compete directly with standard heat exchangers. Although corrugated L1 foam samples have not been produced (attempts are under way), it is possible that their j/f ratio can be even higher than those of the finned structures.

Klett, James William [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z