Sample records for arrays measurement methods

  1. Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Haiyan

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The case-hardening process modifies the near-surface permeability and conductivity of steel, as can be observed through changes in alternating current potential drop (ACPD) along a rod. In order to evaluate case depth of case hardened steel rods, analytical expressions are derived for the alternating current potential drop on the surface of a homogeneous rod, a two-layered and a three-layered rod. The case-hardened rod is first modeled by a two-layer rod that has a homogeneous substrate with a single, uniformly thick, homogeneous surface layer, in which the conductivity and permeability values differ from those in the substrate. By fitting model results to multi-frequency ACPD experimental data, estimates of conductivity, permeability and case depth are found. Although the estimated case depth by the two-layer model is in reasonable agreement with the effective case depth from the hardness profile, it is consistently higher than the effective case depth. This led to the development of the three-layer model. It is anticipated that the new three-layered model will improve the results and thus makes the ACPD method a novel technique in nondestructive measurement of case depth. Another way to evaluate case depth of a case hardened steel rod is to use induction coils. Integral form solutions for an infinite rod encircled by a coaxial coil are well known, but for a finite length conductor, additional boundary conditions must be satisfied at the ends. In this work, calculations of eddy currents are performed for a two-layer conducting rod of finite length excited by a coaxial circular coil carrying an alternating current. The solution is found using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. By truncating the solution region to a finite length in the axial direction, the magnetic vector potential can be expressed as a series expansion of orthogonal eigenfunctions instead of as a Fourier integral. Closed-form expressions are derived for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a finite a two-layer rod and a conductive tube. The results are in very good agreement with those obtained by using a 2D finite element code. In the third part, a new probe technology with enhanced flaw detection capability is described. The new probe can reduce inspection time through the use of multiple Hall sensors. A prototype Hall array probe has been built and tested with eight individual Hall sensor ICs and a racetrack coil. Electronic hardware was developed to interface the probes to an oscilloscope or an eddy current instrument. To achieve high spatial resolution and to limit the overall probe size, high-sensitivity Hall sensor arrays were fabricated directly on a wafer using photolithographic techniques and then mounted in their unencapsulated form. The electronic hardware was then updated to interface the new probes to a laptop computer.

  2. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Schmidt, Carrie (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  3. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  4. Method of fabricating a solar cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazzery, Angelo G. (Oaklyn, NJ); Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

  5. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  6. Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Rudnick, Thomas Jeffery

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor array is configured based upon capacitive sensor techniques to measure stresses at various positions in a sheet simultaneously and allow a stress map to be obtained in near real-time. The device consists of single capacitive elements applied in a one or two dimensional array to measure the distribution of stresses across a mat surface in real-time as a function of position for manufacturing and test applications. In-plane and normal stresses in rolling bodies such as tires may thus be monitored.

  7. Methods for validating the presence of and characterizing proteins deposited onto an array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabacker, Daniel S. (Naperville, IL)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining if proteins have been transferred from liquid-phase protein fractions to an array comprising staining the array with a total protein stain and imaging the array, optionally comparing the staining with a standard curve generated by staining known amounts of a known protein on the same or a similar array; a method of characterizing proteins transferred from liquid-phase protein fractions to an array including staining the array with a post-translational modification-specific (PTM-specific) stain and imaging the array and, optionally, after staining the array with a PTM-specific stain and imaging the array, washing the array, re-staining the array with a total protein stain, imaging the array, and comparing the imaging with the PTM-specific stain with the imaging with the total protein stain; stained arrays; and images of stained arrays.

  8. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  9. Investigating the point seismic array concept with seismic rotation measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Robert E.; Aldridge, David Franklin

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially-distributed arrays of seismometers are often utilized to infer the speed and direction of incident seismic waves. Conventionally, individual seismometers of the array measure one or more orthogonal components of rectilinear particle motion (displacement, velocity, or acceleration). The present work demonstrates that measure of both the particle velocity vector and the particle rotation vector at a single point receiver yields sufficient information to discern the type (compressional or shear), speed, and direction of an incident plane seismic wave. Hence, the approach offers the intriguing possibility of dispensing with spatially-extended received arrays, with their many problematic deployment, maintenance, relocation, and post-acquisition data processing issues. This study outlines straightforward mathematical theory underlying the point seismic array concept, and implements a simple cross-correlation scanning algorithm for determining the azimuth of incident seismic waves from measured acceleration and rotation rate data. The algorithm is successfully applied to synthetic seismic data generated by an advanced finite-difference seismic wave propagation modeling algorithm. Application of the same azimuth scanning approach to data acquired at a site near Yucca Mountain, Nevada yields ambiguous, albeit encouraging, results. Practical issues associated with rotational seismometry are recognized as important, but are not addressed in this investigation.

  10. Method for resonant measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, George W. (5201 Rio Grande Blvd., N.W., Albuquerque, NM 87107); Migliori, Albert (Rte. 4, Box 258 Tano Rd., Sante Fe, NM 87501); Dixon, Raymond D. (396 Connie Ave., White Rock, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  11. Method and system for homogenizing diode laser pump arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andy J

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical amplifier system includes a diode pump array including a plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars disposed in an array configuration and characterized by a periodic distance between adjacent semiconductor diode laser bars. The periodic distance is measured in a first direction perpendicular to each of the plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars. The diode pump array provides a pump output propagating along an optical path and characterized by a first intensity profile measured as a function of the first direction and having a variation greater than 10%. The optical amplifier system also includes a diffractive optic disposed along the optical path. The diffractive optic includes a photo-thermo-refractive glass member. The optical amplifier system further includes an amplifier slab having an input face and position along the optical path and separated from the diffractive optic by a predetermined distance. A second intensity profile measured at the input face of the amplifier slab as a function of the first direction has a variation less than 10%.

  12. Methods for measuring turbine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Kelly, F.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the most common methods used for measuring hydro turbine efficiency. These methods are the acoustic flowmeter method, the Gibson (pressure-time) method, pressure drop across a flow restriction, propeller-driven flowmeters, the volumetric method, Winter-Kennedy taps, and the thermodynamic method. A new computerized variation of the Gibson method is also described.

  13. Nuclear structure through moment measurements: Exploiting ?-ray detector arrays with ancillary detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuchbery, Andrew E. [Department of Nuclear Physics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental methods to measure the magnetic moments of short-lived excited states in beams of rare isotopes are outlined. The emphasis is on the so-called High-Velocity Transient-Field (HVTF) and the Recoil in Vacuum (RIV) methods, and the role of ?-ray detector arrays with ancillary detectors. Insights into the structure of neutron-rich nuclei through such measurements on radioactive beams are discussed. Opportunities for the future development of these techniques, for applications to both stable and radioactive beams, are explored.

  14. Measured Performance Signature Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.

    information for adaptive on-line optimum dispatch, equipment performance monitoring, or for conducting system "what if' scenarios. The MPS is a very useful technique which may be applied to Acceptance Testing Monitoring and Operations Optimization... performance signature, may be determined from on-line measurements, and corrected to a specified reference. This procedure also provides information for adaptive on-line optimum dispatch, incremental plant heat rate data for centralized system dispatch...

  15. Air Shower Measurements with the LOPES Radio Antenna Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Haungs; for the LOPES collaboration

    2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to measure and investigate radio pulses from Extensive Air Showers. Since radio waves suffer very little attenuation, radio measurements allow the detection of very distant or highly inclined showers. These waves can be recorded day and night, and provide a bolometric measure of the leptonic shower component. LOPES is designed as a digital radio interferometer using high bandwidths and fast data processing and profits from the reconstructed air shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. The LOPES antennas are absolutely amplitude calibrated allowing to reconstruct the electric field strength which can be compared with predictions from detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We report about the analysis of correlations present in the radio signals measured by the LOPES 30 antenna array. Additionally, LOPES operates antennas of a different type (LOPES-STAR) which are optimized for an application at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Status, recent results of the data analysis and further perspectives of LOPES and the possible large scale application of this new detection technique are discussed.

  16. Multiple oligo nucleotide arrays: Methods to reduce manufacture time and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning, Kang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The customized multiple arrays are becoming vastly used in microarray experiments for varies purposes, mainly for its ability to handle a large quantity of data and output high quality results. However, experimenters who use customized multiple arrays still face many problems, such as the cost and time to manufacture the masks, and the cost for production of the multiple arrays by costly machines. Although there is some research on the multiple arrays, there is little concern on the manufacture time and cost, which is actually important to experimenters. In this paper, we have proposed methods to reduce the time and cost for the manufacture of the customized multiple arrays. We have first introduced a heuristic algorithm for the mask decomposition problem for multiple arrays. Then a streamline method is proposed for the integration of different steps of manufacture on a higher level. Experiments show that our methods are very effective in reduction of the time and cost of manufacture of multiple arrays.

  17. Apparatus and method for polymer synthesis using arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer synthesis apparatus (20) for building a polymer chain including a head assembly (21) having an array of nozzles (22) with each nozzle coupled to a reservoir (23) of liquid reagent (24), and a base assembly (25) having an array of reaction wells (26). A transport mechanism (27) aligns the reaction wells (26) and selected nozzles (22) for deposition of the liquid reagent (24) into selected reaction wells (26). A sliding seal (30) is positioned between the head assembly (21) and the base assembly (25) to form a common chamber (31) enclosing both the reaction well (26) and the nozzles (22) therein. A gas inlet (70) into the common chamber (31), upstream from the nozzles (22), and a gas outlet (71) out of the common chamber (31), downstream from the nozzles (22), sweeps the common chamber (31) of toxic fumes emitted by the reagents. Each reaction well ( 26) includes an orifice (74) extending into the well (26) which is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution (76) in the well (26) for polymer chain growth therein. A pressure regulating device (82 ) is provided for controlling a pressure differential, between a first gas pressure exerted on the reaction well (26) and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit (80) of the orifice, such that upon the pressure differential exceeding a predetermined amount, the reagent solution (76) is expelled from the well (26) through the orifice (74). A method of synthesis of a polymer chain in a synthesis apparatus (20) is also included.

  18. Apparatus and method for polymer synthesis using arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer synthesis apparatus (20) for building a polymer chain including a head assembly (21) having an array of nozzles (22) with each nozzle coupled to a reservoir (23) of liquid reagent (24) , and a base assembly (25) having an array of reaction wells (26). A transport mechanism (27) aligns the reaction wells (26) and selected nozzles (22) for deposition of the liquid reagent (24) into selected reaction wells (26). A sliding seal (30) is positioned between the head assembly (21) and the base assembly (25) to form a common chamber (31) enclosing both the reaction well (26) and the nozzles (22) therein. A gas inlet (70) into the common chamber (31), upstream from the nozzles (22), and a gas outlet (71) out of the common chamber (31) , downstream from the nozzles (22) , sweeps the common chamber ( 31 ) of toxic fumes emitted by the reagents. Each reaction well (26) includes an orifice (74) extending into the well (26) which is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution (76) in the well (26) for polymer chain growth therein. A pressure regulating device (82) is provided for controlling a pressure differential, between a first gas pressure exerted on the reaction well (26) and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit (80) of the orifice, such that upon the pressure differential exceeding a predetermined amount, the reagent solution (76) is expelled from the well (26) through the orifice (74). A method of synthesis of a polymer chain in a synthesis apparatus (20) is also included.

  19. Array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes and method of producing the array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Simpson, John T; Hendricks, Troy R

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes includes an elongate drawn body including a plurality of channels extending therethrough from a first end to a second end of the body, where the channels have a number density of at least about 100,000 channels/mm.sup.2 over a transverse cross-section of the body. A plurality of carbon nanotubes are disposed in each channel, and the carbon nanotubes are sufficiently dispersed and aligned along a length of the channels for the array to comprise an average resistivity per channel of about 9700 .OMEGA.m or less.

  20. Array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes and method of producing the array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN); Hendricks, Troy R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes includes an elongate drawn body including a plurality of channels extending therethrough from a first end to a second end of the body, where the channels have a number density of at least about 100,000 channels/mm.sup.2 over a transverse cross-section of the body. A plurality of carbon nanotubes are disposed in each channel, and the carbon nanotubes are sufficiently dispersed and aligned along a length of the channels for the array to comprise an average resistivity per channel of about 9700 .OMEGA.m or less.

  1. Dielectrophoresis device and method having nonuniform arrays for manipulating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Simmons, Blake A.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidic devices according to embodiments of the present invention include an inlet port, an outlet port, and a channel or chamber having a non-uniform array of insulating features on one or more surfaces. Electrodes are provided for generation of a spatially non-uniform electric field across the array. A voltage source, which may be an A.C. and/or a D.C. voltage source may be coupled to the electrodes for the generation of the electric field.

  2. Stability Measurements for Alignment of the NIF Neutron Imaging System Pinhole Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fittinghoff, D N; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Frank, M; Buckles, R A; Munson, C; Wilde, C H

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The alignment system for the National Ignition Facility's neutron imaging system has been commissioned and measurements of the relative stability of the 90-315 DIM, the front and the back of the neutron imaging pinhole array and an exploding pusher target have been made using the 90-135 and the 90-258 opposite port alignment systems. Additionally, a laser beam shot from the neutron-imaging Annex and reflected from a mirror at the back of the pinhole array was used to monitor the pointing of the pinhole. Over a twelve hour period, the relative stability of these parts was found to be within {approx} {+-}18 {micro}m rms even when using manual methods for tracking the position of the objects. For highly visible features, use of basic particle tracking techniques found that the front of the pinhole array was stable relative to the 90-135 opposite port alignment camera to within {+-}3.4 {micro}m rms. Reregistration, however, of the opposite port alignment systems themselves using the target alignment sensor was found to change the expected position of target chamber center by up to 194 {micro}m.

  3. Method and apparatus for synthesis of arrays of DNA probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cerrina, Francesco (Madison, WI); Sussman, Michael R. (Madison, WI); Blattner, Frederick R. (Madison, WI); Singh-Gasson, Sangeet (Madison, WI); Green, Roland (Madison, WI)

    2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of arrays of DNA probes sequences, polypeptides, and the like is carried out using a patterning process on an active surface of a substrate. An image is projected onto the active surface of the substrate utilizing an image former that includes a light source that provides light to a micromirror device comprising an array of electronically addressable micromirrors, each of which can be selectively tilted between one of at least two positions. Projection optics receives the light reflected from the micromirrors along an optical axis and precisely images the micromirrors onto the active surface of the substrate, which may be used to activate the surface of the substrate. The first level of bases may then be applied to the substrate, followed by development steps, and subsequent exposure of the substrate utilizing a different pattern of micromirrors, with further repeats until the elements of a two dimensional array on the substrate surface have an appropriate base bound thereto. The micromirror array can be controlled in conjunction with a DNA synthesizer supplying appropriate reagents to a flow cell containing the active substrate to control the sequencing of images presented by the micromirror array in coordination of the reagents provided to the substrate.

  4. Simulation of the ultrasonic array response from real branched cracks using an efficient finite element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, Maria V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, United Kingdom and Rolls-Royce plc., Bristol BS34 7QE (United Kingdom); Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Barden, Tim J.; Dunhill, Tony K. [Rolls-Royce plc., Bristol BS34 7QE (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid model to simulate the ultrasonic array response from stress corrosion cracks is presented. These cracks are branched and difficult to detect so the model is required to enable optimization of an array design. An efficient frequency-domain finite element method is described and selected to simulate the ultrasonic scattering. Experimental validation results are presented, followed by an example of the simulated ultrasonic array response from a real stress corrosion crack whose geometry is obtained from an X-ray Computed Tomography image. A simulation-assisted array design methodology, which includes the model and use of real crack geometries, is proposed.

  5. Methods for determining infrasound phase velocity direction with an array of line sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vernon, Frank

    Methods for determining infrasound phase velocity direction with an array of line sensors to the number of these point sensors; additional sensors help attenuate noise and improve direction resolution. An alternative approach is to form an array of directional line sensors, each of which emulates a line of many

  6. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO); Taylor, Roger W. (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

  7. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

  8. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marciante, John R. (Webster, NY); Donaldson, William R. (Pittsford, NY); Roides, Richard G. (Scottsville, NY)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  9. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

  10. Assessment of Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Methods...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Methods - 2014 BTO Peer Review Assessment of Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Methods - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

  11. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  12. Growth of large patterned arrays of neurons using plasma methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODS* I.G. Brown, K.A. Bjornstad, E.A. Blakely, J.E.METHODS I.G. Brown, K.A. Bjornstad, E.A. Blakely, J.E.

  13. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  14. A large area plastic scintillator detector array for fast neutron measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. Rout; D. R. Chakrabarty; V. M. Datar; Suresh Kumar; E. T. Mirgule; A. Mitra; V. Nanal; R. Kujur

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A large area plastic scintillator detector array(~ 1 m x1m) has been set up for fast neutron spectroscopy at the BARC-TIFR Pelletron laboratory, Mumbai. The energy, time and position response has been measured for electrons using radioactive sources and for mono-energetic neutrons using the 7Li(p,n1)7Be*(0.429 MeV) reaction at proton energies between 6.3 and 19 MeV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the energy dependent efficiency of the array for neutron detection is in agreement with the 7Li(p,n1) measurements. The array has been used to measure the neutron spectrum, in the energy range of 4-12 MeV, in the reaction 12C+ 93Nb at E(12C)= 40 MeV. This is in reasonable agreement with a statistical model calculation.

  15. Television interference measurements near the MOD-2 WT array at Goodnoe Hills, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, D L; Senior, T B.A.; Ferris, J E

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by the MOD-2 wind turbine (WT) array at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, was studied by means of detailed measurements at a number of test sites in the vicinity of the WT array. The commercial television signals available in the area were used as the radio frequency sources during the measurements. The dynamic measurements indicated that varying amounts of TVI were produced at all sites and on some or all of the available TV channels; with the directional antenna in use, most of the backward region interference produced video distortion that was judged to be acceptable; at one test location about 1-1/2 miles from the WT array site, forward region interference was observed; when the blades of the WTs rotate in synchronism, they tend to increase the amplitude of the interference pulses, thereby producing more TVI effects; and when the blades do not rotate in synchronism, each WT produces interference effects individually.

  16. LORA: A scintillator array for LOFAR to measure extensive air showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Thoudam; S. Buitink; A. Corstanje; J. E. Enriquez; H. Falcke; W. Frieswijk; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; M. Krause; A. Nelles; P. Schellart; O. Scholten; S. ter Veen; M. van den Akker

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the radio emission from extensive air showers, induced by high-energy cosmic rays is one of the key science projects of the LOFAR radio telescope. The LOfar Radboud air shower Array (LORA) has been installed in the core of LOFAR in the Netherlands. The main purpose of LORA is to measure the properties of air showers and to trigger the read-out of the LOFAR radio antennas to register extensive air showers. The experimental set-up of the array of scintillation detectors and its performance are described.

  17. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieradka, K.; MaloziePc, G.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroclaw 50-372 (Poland); Grabiec, P.; Janus, P.; Sierakowski, A. [Division of Silicon Microsystem and Nanostructure Technology, Institute of Electron Technology, Lotnikow 32/46, Warsaw 02-668 (Poland)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  18. Apparatus and method for imaging metallic objects using an array of giant magnetoresistive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, low-power, metallic object detector and method for providing an image of a detected metallic object. In one embodiment, the present portable low-power metallic object detector an array of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. The array of GMR sensors is adapted for detecting the presence of and compiling image data of a metallic object. In the embodiment, the array of GMR sensors is arranged in a checkerboard configuration such that axes of sensitivity of alternate GMR sensors are orthogonally oriented. An electronics portion is coupled to the array of GMR sensors. The electronics portion is adapted to receive and process the image data of the metallic object compiled by the array of GMR sensors. The embodiment also includes a display unit which is coupled to the electronics portion. The display unit is adapted to display a graphical representation of the metallic object detected by the array of GMR sensors. In so doing, a graphical representation of the detected metallic object is provided.

  19. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    array (MPA). The earliest work on an MPA related device for measuring diffuse sky radiation was performed in Finland by M. H2milllien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries including the United States where...

  20. Methods for the Precise Locating and Forming of Arrays of Curved Features into a Workpiece

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gill, David Dennis (Albuquerque, NM); Keeler, Gordon A. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Mukherjee, Sayan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for manufacturing high precision arrays of curved features (e.g. lenses) in the surface of a workpiece are described utilizing orthogonal sets of inter-fitting locating grooves to mate a workpiece to a workpiece holder mounted to the spindle face of a rotating machine tool. The matching inter-fitting groove sets in the workpiece and the chuck allow precisely and non-kinematically indexing the workpiece to locations defined in two orthogonal directions perpendicular to the turning axis of the machine tool. At each location on the workpiece a curved feature can then be on-center machined to create arrays of curved features on the workpiece. The averaging effect of the corresponding sets of inter-fitting grooves provide for precise repeatability in determining, the relative locations of the centers of each of the curved features in an array of curved features.

  1. Method and system for gathering a library of response patterns for sensor arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of gathering a library of response patterns for one or more sensor arrays used in the detection and identification of chemical components in a fluid includes the steps of feeding samples of fluid with time-spaced separation of known components to the sensor arrays arranged in parallel or series configurations. Modifying elements such as heating filaments of differing materials operated at differing temperatures are included in the configurations to duplicate operational modes designed into the portable detection systems with which the calibrated sensor arrays are to be used. The response patterns from the known components are collected into a library held in the memory of a microprocessor for comparison with the response patterns of unknown components.

  2. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, R.B.; Smith, J.F.; Lee, S.S.; Taejon Ch'ungmam; Yan Li.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet. 9 figures.

  3. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, R. Bruce (Ames, IA); Smith, John F. (Ames, IA); Lee, Seung S. (Taejon Ch'ungmam, KR); Li, Yan (Ames, IA)

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet.

  4. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    ESL-PA-13-11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal... Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract...

  5. Radial arrays of nano-electrospray ionization emitters and methods of forming electrosprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan T [West Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrospray ionization emitter arrays, as well as methods for forming electrosprays, are described. The arrays are characterized by a radial configuration of three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters without an extractor electrode. The methods are characterized by distributing fluid flow of the liquid sample among three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters, forming an electrospray at outlets of the emitters without utilizing an extractor electrode, and directing the electrosprays into an entrance to a mass spectrometry device. Each of the nano-electrospray ionization emitters can have a discrete channel for fluid flow. The nano-electrospray ionization emitters are circularly arranged such that each is shielded substantially equally from an electrospray-inducing electric field.

  6. Random Fractal Measures via the Contraction Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rüschendorf, Ludger

    Random Fractal Measures via the Contraction Method John E. Hutchinson Australian National mapping method to prove various existence and uniqueness properties of (self­similar) random fractal in order to establish a.s. exponential convergence to the unique random fractal measure. The arguments used

  7. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuominen, Mark (Shutesbury, MA); Schotter, Joerg (Bielefeld, DE); Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas (Freiburg, DE); Russell, Thomas P. (Amherst, MA)

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - array fabrication method Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analyte concentrations. We fabricated a non-close- packed sensing array... -containing hydro- gel-film-embedded 2-D array was ... Source: Asher, Sanford A. - Department of...

  9. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Patrick W (Jefferson, MD)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  10. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowers, Mark W. (Patterson, CA)

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  11. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ellison, G.B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies.

  12. Development of three-dimension microelectrode array for bioelectric measurement using the liquidmetal-micromolding technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Xueyao; Chen, Weixing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jin, Cuiyun; Fu, Jingjing [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)] [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacturing three-dimension microneedle electrode arrays is presented in this paper using the micromolding technology with liquid metal at room temperature, based on the physical property of the Bi-In-Sn liquid metal alloy, being its melting point especially low. Observed under scanning electron microscopy, the needle body of the electrode chip manufactured using this method has a good consistency. Skin penetration test in-vitro indicates that the microneedle electrode can pierce the stratum corneum and cross the high-impedance layer to acquire electrical signals. Electrical impedance and polarization voltage experimental results show that the electrode chips have great electric characteristics and meet the practical application demands.

  13. Correlation Between Detector Array Measurements and a Computer Algorithm for Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gossman, Michael S. [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States)], E-mail: MGossman@TSRCC.com; Robertson, Mary A.; Lawson, Raymond C. [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Verification of dosimetric data computed by a treatment planning system is necessary in the commissioning process for any clinical software, just as it is necessary for any annual quality assurance testing. Direct verification of the dosimetric data is achievable when calculating the enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) off-axis ratio at each point of interest. As mathematical models for hand-calculating such factors are still evolving, measurement of these external beam arrangements has proven significantly more accurate. This research presents a correlation for measured and planned data, specific for 6- and 18-MV photon beams on a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, using the EDW mode. Field generation was created using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. On treatment field delivery, the Sun Nuclear MapCHECK diode array was used to plot each beam profile in 2 dimensions. Wedge angles of 10 deg., 15 deg., 20 deg., 25 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 60 deg. were studied here, under isocentric geometry, at a fixed water equivalent depth of 15 cm. Field size dependence was considered with each wedge and energy combination, where symmetric apertures of 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}, 15 x 15 cm{sup 2} and 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} were used. Accurate dosimetric results were found to be achievable when using this treatment planning system to within 2.8% maximum deviation, and to within 1% deviation averaged over all. The diode array also proved to be simple and ideally suited for EDW measurements.

  14. Dynamic method to measure calcium carbonate scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidovec, D. [Ashland Chemical, Boonton, NJ (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to measure scaling rate and the effect of scale control agents are discussed. It is based on calcium carbonate growth under controlled conditions in a capillary stainless steel column. The efficacy of blended compositions can be predicted when the response of individual components is known.

  15. LOW-FREQUENCY PHASED-ARRAY METHODS FOR CRACK DETECTION IN CAST AUSTENITIC PIPING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, austenitic stainless steel reactor components. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness, limitations, and reliability of advanced inspection techniques for application on safety-related components in commercial nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from recent assessments using a low-frequency phased-array methodology for detecting cracks in cast austenitic piping welds. Piping specimens that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located adjacent to welds were examined. The specimens have surface geometrical conditions and weld features that simulate portions of primary piping systems in many U.S. pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were examined to assess inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of ultrasonic (UT) responses from varied circumferential locations. The phased-array UT methods were applied from the outside surface of the specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling, and employed a modified instrument operating between 500 kHz and 1.0 MHz. Composite volumetric images of the specimens were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing crack detection and sizing effectiveness are discussed, including acoustic parameters observed in centrifugally cast piping base materials.

  16. The modeling of the nuclear composition measurement performance of the Non-Imaging CHErenkov Array (NICHE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krizmanic, John; Sokolsky, Pierre

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In its initial deployment, the Non-Imaging CHErenkov Array (NICHE)will measure the flux and nuclear composition of cosmic rays from below 10^16 eV to 10^18 eV by using measurements of the amplitude and time-spread of the air-shower Cherenkov signal to achieve a robust event-by-event measurement of Xmax and energy. NICHE will have sufficient area and angular acceptance to have significant overlap with TA/TALE, within which NICHE is located, to allow for energy cross-calibration. In order to quantify NICHE's ability to measure the cosmic ray nuclear composition, 4-component composition models were constructed based upon a poly-gonato model of J. Hoerandel using simulated Xmax distributions of the composite composition as a function of energy. These composition distributions were then unfolded into individual components via an analysis technique that included NICHE's simulated Xmax and energy resolution performance as a function of energy as well as the effects of finite event statistics. Details of the construc...

  17. Apparatus and method for measuring electrostatic polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahn, Erwin L. (Berkeley, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Sloater, Tycho (Urbana, IL); Hilbert, Claude (Austin, TX); Heaney, Michael B. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the electric properties of solid matter which provides data for determining the polarizability of the electron distributions contained therein is disclosed. A sample of the solid to be studied is placed between the plates of a capacitor where it acts as a dielectric. The sample is excited by the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with an atomic species contained in the sample. The voltage induced across the capacitor is then measured as a function of time with the aid of a high Q circuit tuned to a frequency related to the frequency of the applied electromagnetic energy.

  18. A microreactor array for spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity for high-throughput catalysis science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondratyuk, Petro; Gumuslu, Gamze; Shukla, Shantanu; Miller, James B.; Morreale, Bryan D.; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a 100 channel microreactor array capable of spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity across the surface of a flat substrate. When used in conjunction with a composition spread alloy film (CSAF, e.g. Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y}) across which component concentrations vary smoothly, such measurements permit high-throughput analysis of catalytic activity and selectivity as a function of catalyst composition. In the reported implementation, the system achieves spatial resolution of 1 mm{sup 2} over a 10×10 mm{sup 2} area. During operation, the reactant gases are delivered at constant flow rate to 100 points of differing composition on the CSAF surface by means of a 100-channel microfluidic device. After coming into contact with the CSAF catalyst surface, the product gas mixture from each of the 100 points is withdrawn separately through a set of 100 isolated channels for analysis using a mass spectrometer. We demonstrate the operation of the device on a Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} CSAF catalyzing the H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange reaction at 333 K. In essentially a single experiment, we measured the catalytic activity over a broad swathe of concentrations from the ternary composition space of the Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} alloy.

  19. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  20. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  1. A Climatological measurement methods This appendix describes the methods of climatological variable measurement at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a comparison of sensors employed. The measurement methods section describes the sensors used-wave A sensor used to measure the energy flux density of short-wave radiation is referred to as a pyranometer can be ±3 to 5% because of the relatively constant proportions of solar radiation at different

  2. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, Belen [Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David [Inst. of Physics Applied to the Sciences and Technologies, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Roig, Ana B. [Department of Optics, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  3. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  4. Heat pipe transient measurements incorporating visual methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeHart, Mark David

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liftoff on January 28, 1 9B6. These five men and two women gave their lives while att mpting to lead mankind into space and open the door for the future of our race. Their noble sacr ifice should r. ever be . orgotten. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish...!!CE December 1986 Major Subject: 1'uclear Eng nearing HEAT PIPE TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS INCORPORATING VISUAL METHODS A Thesis by MARK DAVID DeHART Approved as to style and content by: Frederick R. Best (Chairman of Committee) Carl A. Erdman (Member...

  5. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roper, John R. (Northglenn, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  6. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  8. Portable system and method combining chromatography and array of electrochemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable system for analyzing a fluid sample includes a small, portable, low-pressure and low-power chromatographic analyzer and a chemical parameter spectrometry monitor including an array of sensors for detecting, identifying and measuring the concentrations of a variety of components in the eluent from the chromatographic analyzer. The monitor includes one or more operating condition controllers which may be used to change one or more of the operating conditions during exposure of the sensors to the eluent from the chromatography analyzer to form a response pattern which is then compared with a library of previously established patterns. Gas and liquid chromatographic embodiments are disclosed. In the gas embodiment, the operating condition controllers include heated filaments which may convert electrochemically inactive components to electrochemically active products. In the liquid chromatography embodiment, low-power, liquid-phase equivalents of heated filaments are used with appropriate sensors. The library response patterns may be divided into subsets and the formed pattern may be assigned for comparison only with the patterns of a particular subset.

  9. Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated two-dimensional detector array using a single element detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauss, Charlie E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO.sub.2 laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart.

  10. Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated two-dimensional detector array using a single element detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauss, C.E.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO{sub 2} laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart. 4 figs.

  11. Interpretation of Array Production Logging Measurements in Horizontal Wells for Flow Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Lulu

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and possible back flow of denser phases result in misinterpretation of the inflow distribution. To assess the downhole flow conditions more accurately, logging tools have been developed to overcome the flow regime related issues. Multiple-sensor array tools...

  12. Method for noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic-based method for continuous, noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement and monitoring is described. The stress level in the skull bone is affected by pressure. This also changes the interfacial conditions between the dura matter and the skull bone. Standing waves may be set up in the skull bone and the layers in contact with the bone. At specific frequencies, there are resonance peaks in the response of the skull which can be readily detected by sweeping the excitation frequency on an excitation transducer in contact with a subject's head, while monitoring the standing wave characteristics from the signal received on a second, receiving transducer similarly in contact with the subject's head. At a chosen frequency, the phase difference between the excitation signal and the received signal can be determined. This difference can be related to the intracranial pressure and changes therein.

  13. Method of measurement in biological systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Vogel, J.S.; Felton, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.: Davis, J.C.; Stanker, L.H.

    1993-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed of quantifying molecules in biological substances, comprising: selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere; preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie; administering the chemical specie to the biological host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system; allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of the chemical specie with the host throughout the biological system of the host; isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from the host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of the substance from extraneous sources; converting the fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation; and measuring the radioisotope concentration in the material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  14. Dielectrophoresis device and method having non-uniform arrays for manipulating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA); Fintschenko, Yolanda (Livermore, CA); Simmons, Blake (San Francisco, CA)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidic devices according to embodiments of the present invention include an inlet port, an outlet port, and a channel or chamber having a non-uniform array of insulating features on one or more surfaces. Electrodes are provided for generation of a spatially non-uniform electric field across the array. A voltage source, which may be an A.C. and/or a D.C. voltage source may be coupled to the electrodes for the generation of the electric field.

  15. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord using arrays of X-ray microplanar beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; McDonald III, John W.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of brain or spinal cord injury includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to the injury site through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose at least temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated regions. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between the microplanar beams migrate to the in-beam irradiated portion and assist in recovery. The dose may be administered in dose fractions over several sessions, separated in time, using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses may be administered by varying the orientation of the microplanar beams. The method may be enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site.

  16. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord using arrays of X-Ray microplanar beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); McDonald, III, John W. (Baltimore, MD)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of brain or spinal cord injury includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to the injury site through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose at least temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated regions. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between the microplanar beams migrate to the in-beam irradiated portion and assist in recovery. The dose may be administered in dose fractions over several sessions, separated in time, using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses may be administered by varying the orientation of the microplanar beams. The method may be enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site.

  17. Nanowire array and nanowire solar cells and methods for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Greene, Lori (Berkeley, CA); Law, Matthew (Berkeley, CA)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous and dense arrays of nanowires are described. The nanowires can be formed in solution and can have average diameters of 40-300 nm and lengths of 1-3 .mu.m. They can be formed on any suitable substrate. Photovoltaic devices are also described.

  18. System and method for 100% moisture and basis weight measurement of moving paper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Jose E. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for characterizing a set of properties for a moving substance are disclosed. The system includes: a first near-infrared linear array; a second near-infrared linear array; a first filter transparent to a first absorption wavelength emitted by the moving substance and juxtaposed between the substance and the first array; a second filter blocking the first absorption wavelength emitted by the moving substance and juxtaposed between the substance and the second array; and a computational device for characterizing data from the arrays into information on a property of the substance. The method includes the steps of: filtering out a first absorption wavelength emitted by a substance; monitoring the first absorption wavelength with a first near-infrared linear array; blocking the first wavelength from reaching a second near-infrared linear array; and characterizing data from the arrays into information on a property of the substance.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, R.B.

    1983-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of micro-structural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnet-electromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, R. Bruce (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of micro-structural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnet-electromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.

  1. DALI2: A NaI(Tl) detector array for measurements of $?$ rays from fast nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Takeuchi; T. Motobayashi; Y. Togano; M. Matsushita; N. Aoi; K. Demichi; H. Hasegawa; H. Murakami

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A NaI(Tl) detector array called DALI2 (Detector Array for Low Intensity radiation 2) has been constructed for in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy experiments with fast radioactive isotope (RI) beams. It consists typically of 186 NaI(Tl) scintillators covering polar angles from $\\sim$15$^{\\circ}$ to $\\sim$160$^{\\circ}$ with an average angular resolution of 6$^{\\circ}$ in full width at half maximum. Its high granularity (good angular resolution) enables Doppler-shift corrections that result in, for example, 10% energy resolution and 20% full-energy photopeak efficiency for 1-MeV $\\gamma$ rays emitted from fast-moving nuclei (velocities of $v/c \\simeq 0.6$). DALI2 has been employed successfully in numerous experiments using fast RI beams with velocities of $v/c = 0.3 - 0.6$ provided by the RIKEN RI Beam Factory.

  2. Development of a High Solid-Angle Silicon Detector Array for Measurement of Transfer Reactions in Inverse Kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pain, S. D. [Rutgers University; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Johnson, Micah [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high quality radioactive beams, such as those at the HRIBF at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has made possible the measurement of transfer reactions in inverse kinematics on unstable nuclei. Measurement of (d,p) reactions on neutron-rich nuclei yield data on the evolution of nuclear structure away from stability, and are of astrophysical interest due to the proximity of suggested nuclear burning paths in the astrophysical r-process in supernovae. Experimentally, (d,p) reactions on heavy (Z = 50) fission fragments are complicated by the strongly inverse kinematics, and the relatively low beam intensities. Consequently, ejectile detection with high resolution in position and energy, a high dynamic range and a high solid angular coverage is required. The Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) is a new silicon detector array currently under construction, optimized for the measurement of (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics. It consists of two rings of silicon detectors, providing a high solid angular coverage for angles symmetrically forward and backward of 90 degrees. Resistive strip detectors are used to obtain high precision position and energy measurement of reaction ejectiles.

  3. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  4. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  5. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Bergren, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  6. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Z.W. [Universita Degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza (Italy)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation.

  7. Spectral resolution for a five-element, filtered, x-ray detector array using the method of Backus and Gilbert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehl, D. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States); Biggs, F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States); Chandler, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States); Stygar, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generalized method of Backus and Gilbert (BG) is described and applied to the inverse problem of obtaining the spectrum from a five-channel, filtered array of x-ray detectors. This diagnostic is routinely fielded on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories to study soft x-ray photons ({approx}100-2300 eV), emitted by high density Z-pinch plasmas. The BG method defines spectral resolution limits on the system of response functions that are in good agreement with a classical unfold method, based on a histogram representation of the source spectrum. The resolution so defined is independent of the source spectrum. For noise-free, simulated data the BG approximating function is also in reasonable agreement with the source spectrum (150 eV blackbody) and the unfolded spectrum. This function may be used as an initial trial function for iterative methods or a regularization model.(c) 2000 American Institute of Physics. (c)

  8. Spectral Resolution for Five-Element, Filtered, X-Ray Detector (XRD) Arrays Using the Methods of Backus and Gilbert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FEHL,DAVID LEE; BIGGS,F.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.

    2000-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The generalized method of Backus and Gilbert (BG) is described and applied to the inverse problem of obtaining spectra from a 5-channel, filtered array of x-ray detectors (XRD's). This diagnostic is routinely fielded on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories to study soft x-ray photons ({le}2300 eV), emitted by high density Z-pinch plasmas. The BG method defines spectral resolution limits on the system of response functions that are in good agreement with the unfold method currently in use. The resolution so defined is independent of the source spectrum. For noise-free, simulated data the BG approximating function is also in reasonable agreement with the source spectrum (150 eV black-body) and the unfold. This function may be used as an initial trial function for iterative methods or a regularization model.

  9. Application of the array scanning method to the computation of dipole impedances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twine, David G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    program was written to find the input inipedance of an infinite array of dipole antennas in free space and slightly lossy space. The prograni ivas run on a 21 PY or y (-1, 1) + I I I I / I, / / V / X (0, 1) f / / / r X / / / (1, 1... the 105 ? , 'j72(7 given by Pozar. By using a fortr&an progr&am that used the Sonunerfeld integral approach [20] and the same input data. the multiple mode solution of the ASiVI ivas verified. The AS!M results were obtained using 3, 5. and 9...

  10. Apparatus and method for optical pulse measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebino, Rick P. (Livermore, CA); Tsang, Thomas (Brooklyn, NY); Fittinghoff, David N. (San Diego, CA); Sweetser, John N. (Livermore, CA); Krumbuegel, Marco A. (Danville, CA)

    1999-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical third-order frequency-resolved optical grating (FROG) techniques for characterization of ultrashort optical pulses are disclosed. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of single and/or weak optical pulses having pulse durations in the picosecond and subpicosecond regime. The relative quantum inefficiency of third-order nonlinear optical effects is compensated for through i) use of phase-matched transient grating beam geometry to maximize interaction length, and ii) use of interface-enhanced third-harmonic generation.

  11. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last...

  12. A new microphonics measurement method for superconducting RF...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new microphonics measurement method for superconducting RF cavities Re-direct Destination: Mechanical vibrations of the superconducting cavity, also known as microphonics, cause...

  13. Material permeance measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  14. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  15. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  16. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

  17. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.

  18. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nihei, K.T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements in unconsolidated sand using a phased-arraywave velocities in unconsolidated clay-rich sediments (V S unconsolidated sands is approximately

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M. (Merrick, NY); Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ)

    1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  20. Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Peter Miloslaw

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

  1. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord and treating various diseases using arrays of x-ray microplanar beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Anchel, David J. (Rocky Point, NY); Gaudette, Glenn (Holden, MA); Romanelli, Pantaleo (Monteroduni, IT); Hainfeld, James (Shoreham, NY)

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of the central nervous system (CNS) or treating a disease includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to a target volume through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose to treat CNS injury temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated site. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between beams migrate to the in-beam portion and assist recovery. The dose may be staggered in fractions over sessions using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses are administered by varying the orientation of the beams. The method is enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site. One array or the AVIMA method is applied to ablate selected cells in a target volume associated with disease for palliative or curative effect. Atrial fibrillation is treated by irradiating the atrial wall to destroy myocardial cells while continuously rotating the subject.

  2. Model Error Correction for Linear Methods in PET Neuroreceptor Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaut, Rosemary

    Model Error Correction for Linear Methods in PET Neuroreceptor Measurements Hongbin Guo address: hguo1@asu.edu (Hongbin Guo) Preprint submitted to NeuroImage December 11, 2008 #12;reached. A new

  3. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.; Gersh, M.E.; Goldstein, N.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution. 14 figs.

  4. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven (Newtonville, MA); Bernstein, Lawrence S. (Lexington, MA); Bien, Fritz (Concord, MA); Gersh, Michael E. (Bedford, MA); Goldstein, Neil (Belmont, MA)

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution.

  5. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  6. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  7. Method for measuring the density of lightweight materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snow, Samuel G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Giacomelli, Edward J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a nondestructive method for measuring the density of articles composed of elements having a low atomic number such as plastic and carbon composites. The measurement is accomplished by striking the article with a collimated beam of X radiation, simultaneously monitoring the radiation scattered and the radiation transmitted by the article, then relating the ratio of the radiation scattered to the radiation transmitted with the density of the article. The above method is insensitive to all variables except density.

  8. Reactor antineutrino monitoring with a plastic scintillator array as a new safeguards method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Oguri; Y. Kuroda; Y. Kato; R. Nakata; Y. Inoue; C. Ito; M. Minowa

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a segmented reactor-antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for application as a tool in nuclear safeguards inspection and performed mostly unmanned field operations at a commercial power plant reactor. At a position outside the reactor building, we measured the difference in reactor antineutrino flux above the ground when the reactor was active and inactive.

  9. Methods For Planning Accelerated Repeated Measures Degradation Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methods For Planning Accelerated Repeated Measures Degradation Tests Brian P. Weaver Statistical of Statistics Iowa State University Ames, IA 50010 wqmeeker@iastate.edu September 3, 2013 Abstract Accelerated-variable accelerated repeated measures degradation test plan when the (possibly transformed) degradation is linear

  10. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  11. Methods and MeasuresMethods and Measures for CCS Costsfor CCS Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellon Measures of CCS CostMeasures of CCS Cost · Cost of CO2 avoided · Cost of CO2 captured · Added cost Avoided ($/t CO2) = ($/MWh)ccs ­ ($/MWh)reference (t CO2/MWh)ccs, produced ­ (t CO2/MWh)ccs · Cost of CO2 CO2)ref ­ (t CO2)ccs = E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Cost of COCost of CO22 AvoidedAvoided

  12. A new microphonics measurement method for superconducting RF cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao,Zheng; He,Yuan; Chang,Wei; Powers, Tom [JLAB; Yue,Wei-ming; Zhu,Zheng-long; Chen,Qi

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical vibrations of the superconducting cavity, also known as microphonics, cause shifts in the resonant frequency of the cavity. In addition to requiring additional RF power, these frequency shifts can contribute to errors in the closed loop phase and amplitude regulation. In order to better understand these effects, a new microphonics measurement method was developed, and the method was successfully used to measure microphonics on the half-wave superconducting cavity when it was operated in a production style cryostat. The test cryostat held a single ?=0.1 half-wave cavity which was operated at 162.5 MHz [1] and [2]. It's the first time that the National Instruments PXIe-5641R intermediate frequency transceiver has been used for microphonics measurements in superconducting cavities. The new microphonics measurement method and results will be shown and analyzed in this paper.

  13. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Method for Welds in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping JCN N6398, Task 1B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS); dissimilar metal welds; piping with corrosion-resistant cladding; weld overlays, inlays and onlays; and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. In this effort, PNNL supports cooperation with Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) to assess reliable inspection of CASS materials. The NRC Project Manager has established a cooperative effort with the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). CEA, under funding from IRSN, are supporting collaborative efforts with the NRC and PNNL. Regarding its work on the NDE of materials, CEA is providing its modeling software (CIVA) in exchange for PNNL offering expertise and data related to phased-array detection and sizing, acoustic attenuation, and back scattering on CASS materials. This collaboration benefits the NRC because CEA performs research and development on CASS for Électricité de France (EdF). This technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of welds in CASS pressurizer (PZR) surge line nuclear reactor piping. A set of thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) was implanted into three CASS PZR surge-line specimens (pipe-to-elbow welds) that were fabricated using vintage CASS materials formed in the 1970s, and flaw responses from these cracks were used to evaluate detection and sizing performance of the PA-UT methods applied. This effort was comprised of multiple elements that included use of microstructural knowledge (dimensional analysis, grain orientation, and grain type) as well as sound field modeling to more effectively modify inspection parameters and enhance the inspection outcomes. Advanced probe design and sound field simulations were employed to enhance detection and characterization of circumferentially oriented flaws, and an assessment of lateral (circumferential) flaw localization capability and performance was also conducted. An evaluation of flaw detection, length sizing, depth sizing, and signal-to-noise ratio was performed for all flaws in the subject specimens, as a function of various inspection parameters, and finally, measurements were made to quantify and assess the baseline CASS material noise and its potential impact on flaw detection.

  14. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  15. Magnetic arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  16. Influence of the Density Law on Various Fissile Single Unit and Array Storage Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S T

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The advancement of computational technology has resulted in the wide-spread availability of powerful radiation transport Monte Carlo codes. Prevailing practices today rely heavily on Monte Carlo codes to provide the basis for assessing the reactivity of various fissile systems for nuclear criticality safety (NCS). In 1958, Weinberg and Wigner expressed their concerns on a 'deplorable trend in reactor design - the tendency to substitute a code for a theory'. Unfortunately, their concerns have largely become a reality in many modern NCS practices. lacking the time or information to understand the underlying neutron physics of the fissile system under consideration is indeed a deplorable trend. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many features of criticality hand calculation methods are indeed based upon the fundamentals of the density law and that many correlations of important physics parameters can be more easily understood from such a perspective. Historically, the density law was recognized by many pioneers in the field, including during the Manhattan Project. However, it was by and large an 'oral tradition' in that bits and pieces of great physical insights of the pioneers were scattered in many earlier publications. This paper attempts to bring together some of the 'jewels' of the pioneers which might have been lost or forgotten.

  17. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT METHODS, DIFFICULTIES, AND RESULTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign Object DamageSystemsU.S. TALKS1 | E nergy E

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitekamp, D.P.; Bielecki, A.; Zax, D.B.; Zilm, K.W.; Pines, A.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nuclei. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. 5 figs.

  19. Method and infrastructure for cycle-reproducible simulation on large scale digital circuits on a coordinated set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameh W; Bellofatto, Ralph E; Brezzo, Bernard; Haymes, Charles L; Kapur, Mohit; Parker, Benjamin D; Roewer, Thomas; Tierno, Jose A

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of target field programmable gate arrays are interconnected in accordance with a connection topology and map portions of a target system. A control module is coupled to the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. A balanced clock distribution network is configured to distribute a reference clock signal, and a balanced reset distribution network is coupled to the control module and configured to distribute a reset signal to the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. The control module and the balanced reset distribution network are cooperatively configured to initiate and control a simulation of the target system with the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. A plurality of local clock control state machines reside in the target field programmable gate arrays. The local clock state machines are configured to generate a set of synchronized free-running and stoppable clocks to maintain cycle-accurate and cycle-reproducible execution of the simulation of the target system. A method is also provided.

  20. Absolute shape measurements using high-resolution optoelectronic holography methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furlong, Cosme

    Absolute shape measurements using high- resolution optoelectronic holography methods Cosme Furlong optoelectronic holography (OEH) methodology is described. This description addresses apparatus and analysis-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [S0091-3286(00)02601-5] Subject terms: CAD/CAE models; fiber optics; optoelectronic

  1. A Novel Method for Measurement of Submembrane ATP Concentration*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Stephen J.

    A Novel Method for Measurement of Submembrane ATP Concentration* Received for publication, February adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is compartmentalized within cells and, in particular, whether the ATP concen as that of the bulk cytoplasm. This issue has been difficult to address because there is no indicator of cytosolic ATP

  2. A method for Fermi energy measurements A. Tsukernik,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    due to the built-in field, which converts the diffusive regime of transport into thermionic emission on the analysis of thermionic emission and diffusion over a barrier with a built-in charge. The method can cannot be employed for Fermi energy measurements. As a result, the temperature dependence of thermionic

  3. In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.

  4. Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Brian J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States)] [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States); Workman, Stephen M. [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)] [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will indicate which test method is the most accurate and most cost effective. This paper provides a benefit to Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and other Department of Defense (DOD) programs that may be performing uranium measurements. (authors)

  5. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  6. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods For Determining Energy Efficiency Savings For Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document provides a set of model protocols for determining energy and demand savings that result from specific energy efficiency measures implemented through state and utility efficiency programs. The methods described here are approaches that are?or are among?the most commonly used in the energy efficiency industry for certain measures or programs.

  7. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  8. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electrolyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polarographically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods. 6 figs.

  9. Acoustic Array Development for Wind Turbine Noise Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, S.; Roadman, J.; Moriarty, P.; Palo, S.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the design and use of a multi-arm, logarithmic spiral acoustic array by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for measurement and characterization of wind turbine-generated noise. The array was developed in collaboration with a team from the University of Colorado Boulder. This design process is a continuation of the elliptical array design work done by Simley. A description of the array system design process is presented, including array shape design, mechanical design, design of electronics and the data acquisition system, and development of post-processing software. System testing and calibration methods are detailed. Results from the initial data acquisition campaign are offered and discussed. Issues faced during this initial deployment of the array are presented and potential remedies discussed.

  10. Method for measuring liquid viscosity and ultrasonic viscometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Lawrence, William P. (Downers Grove, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic viscometer and method for measuring fluid viscosity are provided. Ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are generated and coupled to the fluid. Reflections from the generated ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are detected. Phase velocity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic longitudinal waves reflections. Viscosity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic shear waves reflections. Unique features of the ultrasonic viscometer include the use of a two-interface fluid and air transducer wedge to measure relative signal change and to enable self calibration and the use of a ratio of reflection coefficients for two different frequencies to compensate for environmental changes, such as temperature.

  11. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  12. Verification of the performance of the Multi-Piezometer Array System for the measurement of pore pressures in shallow marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzales, Simon Peter

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VERIFICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE MULTI-PIEZOMETER ARRAY SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PORE PRESSURES IN SHALLOW MARINE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by SIMON PETER GONZALES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... SEDIMENTS A Thesis By SIMON PETER GONZALES Submitted to Texas ARM University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Approved as to style and content by: Glen R. Andersen Chair of Committee) William B...

  13. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

  14. Beam Halo Measurements at UMER and the JLAB FEL Using an Adaptive Masking Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H D; Fiorito, R B; Kishek, R A; O& #x27; Shea, P G; Shkvarunets, A G; Benson, S V; Douglas, D; Wilson, F G

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam halo is a chal­leng­ing issue for in­tense beams since it can cause beam loss, emit­tance growth, nu­cle­ar ac­ti­va­tion and sec­ondary elec­tron emis­sion. Be­cause of the po­ten­tial­ly low num­ber of par­ti­cles in the halo com­pared with beam core, tra­di­tion­al imag­ing meth­ods may not have suf­fi­cient con­trast to de­tect faint halos. We have de­vel­oped a high dy­nam­ic range, adap­tive mask­ing method to mea­sure halo using a dig­i­tal mi­cro-mir­ror array de­vice and demon­strat­ed its ef­fec­tive­ness ex­per­i­men­tal­ly on the Uni­ver­si­ty of Mary­land Elec­tron Ring (UMER). We also re­port on sim­i­lar ex­per­i­ments cur­rent­ly in progress at the Jef­fer­son Lab Free Elec­tron Laser (FEL) using this method.

  15. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  16. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  17. A Cross-Referencing-Based Droplet Manipulation Method for High-Throughput and Pin-Constrained Digital Microfluidic Arrays*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    -Constrained Digital Microfluidic Arrays* Tao Xu and Krishnendu Chakrabarty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA {tx, krish}@ee.duke.edu Abstract Digital microfluidic. As high-throughput bioassays are mapped to digital microfluidic platforms, the need for design automation

  18. Coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, L.F.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method are disclosed which includes a rotary spindle having an upper phase plate and an axis of rotation, a kinematic ball mount attached to the phase plate concentric with the axis of rotation of the phase plate, a groove mounted at the circumference of the phase plate, and an arm assembly which rests in the groove. The arm assembly has a small sphere at one end and a large sphere at the other end. The small sphere may be a coordinate measuring machine probe tip and may have variable diameters. The large sphere is secured in the kinematic ball mount and the arm is held in the groove. The kinematic ball mount includes at least three mounting spheres and the groove is an angular locating groove including at least two locking spheres. The arm may have a hollow inner core and an outer layer. The rotary spindle may be a ratio reducer. The device is used to evaluate the measuring performance of a coordinate measuring machine for periodic recertification, including 2 and 3 dimensional accuracy, squareness, straightness, and angular accuracy. 5 figs.

  19. Acoustic velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Edwin F. (Alamo, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic energy is propagated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  20. Acoustic-velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, E.F.

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic energy is propatated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  1. affymetrix expression arrays: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The main method for harnessing solar power is with arrays made up of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Accumulation-based cleaning methods for photovoltaic arrays are costly in time,...

  2. affymetrix expression array: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The main method for harnessing solar power is with arrays made up of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Accumulation-based cleaning methods for photovoltaic arrays are costly in time,...

  3. Methods and apparatus for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P (Idaho Falls, ID); Christiansen, Richard L. (Littleton, CO)

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  4. Methods for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P (Idaho Falls, ID); Christiansen, Richard L. (Littleton, CO)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  5. Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tow, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walter, John B (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating adhered to a substrate. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer is used to induce surface waves into the coating. The surface waves have a selected frequency and a fixed wavelength. Interpolation is used to determine the frequency of surface waves that propagate through the coating with the least attenuation. The phase velocity of the surface waves having this frequency is then calculated. The phase velocity is compared to known phase velocity/thickness tables to determine the thickness of the coating.

  6. Method and apparatus for thickness measurement using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul (Bedford, MA) [Bedford, MA; Lamar, David A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for measuring the thickness of a material which transmits a detectable amount of microwave radiation includes irradiating the material with coherent microwave radiation tuned over a frequency range. Reflected microwave radiation is detected, the reflected radiation having maxima and minima over the frequency range as a result of coherent interference of microwaves reflected from reflecting surfaces of the material. The thickness of the material is determined from the period of the maxima and minima along with knowledge of the index of refraction of the material.

  7. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  8. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  9. Methods and preliminary measurement results of liquid Li wettability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, G. Z., E-mail: zuoguizh@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, J. S.; Ren, J.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zakharov, L. E.; Mansfield, D. K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A test of lithium wettability was performed in high vacuum (< 3 × 10{sup ?4} Pa). High magnification images of Li droplets on stainless steel substrates were produced and processed using the MATLAB{sup ®} program to obtain clear image edge points. In contrast to the more standard “?/2” or polynomial fitting methods, ellipse fitting of the complete Li droplet shape resulted in reliable contact angle measurements over a wide range of contact angles. Using the ellipse fitting method, it was observed that the contact angle of a liquid Li droplet on a stainless steel substrate gradually decreased with increasing substrate temperature. The critical wetting temperature of liquid Li on stainless steel was observed to be about 290?°C.

  10. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, Mark P. (3815 Brighton Ave., Oakland, CA 94602); Sherman, Max H. (461 Hudson St., Oakland, CA 94618)

    1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  11. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

  12. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Apparatus and systems for measuring elongation of objects, methods of measuring, and reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rempe, Joy L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knudson, Darrell L. (Firth, ID); Daw, Joshua E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Condie, Keith G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoots, Carl M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Elongation measurement apparatuses and systems comprise at least two Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) with a push rod coupled to each of the at least two LVDTs at one longitudinal end thereof. At least one push rod extends to a base and is coupled thereto at an opposing longitudinal end, and at least one other push rod extends to a location spaced apart from the base and is configured to receive a sample between an opposing longitudinal end of the at least one other push rod and the base. Nuclear reactors comprising such apparatuses and systems and methods of measuring elongation of a material are also disclosed.

  14. Top quark mass measurement using the template method at CDF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T [Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B [Oviedo U.; Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S [INFN, Padua; Amidei, D [Michigan U.; Anastassov, A [Northwestern U.; Annovi, A [Frascati; Antos, J [Comenius U.; Apollinari, G [Fermilab; Appel, J A [Fermilab; Apresyan, A [Purdue U.; Arisawa, T [Waseda U.; Dubna, JINR

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels of tt? decays using the template method. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb-1 of pp? collisions at Tevatron with ?s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector. The measurement is performed by constructing templates of three kinematic variables in the lepton+jets and two kinematic variables in the dilepton channel. The variables are two reconstructed top quark masses from different jets-to-quarks combinations and the invariant mass of two jets from the W decay in the lepton+jets channel, and a reconstructed top quark mass and mT2, a variable related to the transverse mass in events with two missing particles, in the dilepton channel. The simultaneous fit of the templates from signal and background events in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels to the data yields a measured top quark mass of Mtop = 172.1±1.1 (stat)±0.9 (syst) GeV/c2.

  15. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Riley, KS); Shultis, John K. (Manhattan, KS); Rice, Blake B. (Manhattan, KS); McNeil, Walter J. (Winnfield, KS); Solomon, Clell J. (Wichita, KS); Patterson, Eric L. (Manhattan, KS); Bellinger, Steven L. (Manhattan, KS)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  16. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

  17. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

  18. System and method for measuring permeability of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. Systems typically provide a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring spatial uniformity of radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Halden (Boulder, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concurrently receive portions of the radiation beam and transmit electrical signals representative of the intensity of impinging radiation to a signal processor circuit connected to each of the detectors and adapted to concurrently receive the electrical signals from the detectors and process with a central processing unit (CPU) the signals to determine intensities of the radiation impinging at each detector location. The CPU displays the determined intensities and relative intensity values corresponding to each detector location to an operator of the measuring apparatus on an included data display device. Concurrent sampling of each detector is achieved by connecting to each detector a sample and hold circuit that is configured to track the signal and store it upon receipt of a "capture" signal. A switching device then selectively retrieves the signals and transmits the signals to the CPU through a single analog to digital (A/D) converter. The "capture" signal. is then removed from the sample-and-hold circuits. Alternatively, concurrent sampling is achieved by providing an A/D converter for each detector, each of which transmits a corresponding digital signal to the CPU. The sampling or reading of the detector signals can be controlled by the CPU or level-detection and timing circuit.

  20. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Key, William S. (Knoxville, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  1. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  2. Array of nucleic acid probes on biological chips for diagnosis of HIV and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chee, Mark (Palo Alto, CA); Gingeras, Thomas R. (Santa Clara, CA); Fodor, Stephen P. A. (Palo Alto, CA); Hubble, Earl A. (Mountain View, CA); Morris, MacDonald S. (San Jose, CA)

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an array of oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a solid support for analysis of a target sequence from a human immunodeficiency virus. The array comprises at least four sets of oligonucleotide probes 9 to 21 nucleotides in length. A first probe set has a probe corresponding to each nucleotide in a reference sequence from a human immunodeficiency virus. A probe is related to its corresponding nucleotide by being exactly complementary to a subsequence of the reference sequence that includes the corresponding nucleotide. Thus, each probe has a position, designated an interrogation position, that is occupied by a complementary nucleotide to the corresponding nucleotide. The three additional probe sets each have a corresponding probe for each probe in the first probe set. Thus, for each nucleotide in the reference sequence, there are four corresponding probes, one from each of the probe sets. The three corresponding probes in the three additional probe sets are identical to the corresponding probe from the first probe or a subsequence thereof that includes the interrogation position, except that the interrogation position is occupied by a different nucleotide in each of the four corresponding probes.

  3. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  4. Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

  5. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Cheng-Jun, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov; Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zhang, Bangmin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore) [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

  6. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  7. System for measuring electricity and method of providing and using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamer, Doanld B; Page, Robert

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Some embodiments include a system for measuring electricity. Other embodiments of related systems and methods are also disclosed.

  8. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Kidd, Terrel G. (Blackfoot, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  9. First bolometric measurement of the two neutrino double beta decay of $^{100}$Mo with a ZnMoO$_4$ crystals array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cardani; L. Gironi; N. Ferreiro Iachellini; L. Pattavina; J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; N. Casali; O. Cremonesi; I. Dafinei; S. Di Domizio; F. Ferroni; E. Galashov; C. Gotti; S. Nagorny; F. Orio; G. Pessina; G. Piperno; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; C. Rusconi; C. Tomei; M. Vignati

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The large statistics collected during the operation of a ZnMoO$_4$ array, for a total exposure of 1.3 kg $\\cdot$ day of $^{100}$Mo, allowed the first bolometric observation of the two neutrino double beta decay of $^{100}$Mo. The observed spectrum of each crystal was reconstructed taking into account the different background contributions due to environmental radioactivity and internal contamination. The analysis of coincidences between the crystals allowed the assignment of constraints to the intensity of the different background sources, resulting in a reconstruction of the measured spectrum down to an energy of $\\sim$300 keV. The half-life extracted from the data is T$_{1/2}^{2\

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Generation: Feasibility of Reconciling Measurement Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Shelly H.

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    . Indirect measurement by a materials flow analysis (MFA) and published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 2. Direct measurement of the MSW stream at the local, state, or regional level. The MFA used by EPA to estimate the quantity of MSW...

  11. Method for single-cell mass and electrophoretic mobility measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dextras, Philip

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of single cells using flow cytometry techniques has created a wealth of knowledge about cellular phenomena that could not be obtained by population average measurements. As these techniques are integrated with ...

  12. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Finland by M. HW1'aien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries ineluding the United States where Perez (1986) presented a method for deriving beam radiation from a series of vertically mounted pyranometers...

  13. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  14. A laser Doppler method for noninvasive measurement of flow velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, G.L.

    1986-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Doppler velocimetry is a powerful optical technique for noninvasively obtaining experimental flow-velocity data. This paper describes the principle of operation and various optical configurations of the laser Doppler velocimeter. As a sample application, we describe an experimental apparatus for measuring the velocity flow field around a cylinder, and give our experimental results.

  15. A Measurement Method of Actual Thermal Performance of Detached Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iwamae, A.; Nagai, H.; Miura, H.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of residential houses based on field measurement (In Japanese), AIJ Report on Environmental engineering Vol.3, 1981 2) Martin Sandberg, J?rgen Eriksson: Commissioning of residential buildings in Sweden, IEA ECBCS Annex40 meetings held in Quebec, 2001/9, Doc...

  16. Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part I --Vertical wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part a new linear iterative refinement method to simulate nuclear borehole measurements accurately included in the in- tegral form of Boltzmann's equation. The linear iterative refine- ment method accounts

  17. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  18. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring purity of noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin, Robert (Largo, FL)

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for detecting impurities in a noble gas includes a detection chamber and a source of pulsed ultraviolet light. The pulse of the ultraviolet light is transferred into the detection chamber and onto a photocathode, thereby emitting a cloud of free electrons into the noble gas within the detection chamber. The cloud of electrons is attracted to the opposite end of the detection chamber by a high positive voltage potential at that end and focused onto a sensing anode. If there are impurities in the noble gas, some or all of the electrons within the cloud will bond with the impurity molecules and not reach the sensing anode. Therefore, measuring a lower signal at the sensing anode indicates a higher level of impurities while sensing a higher signal indicates fewer impurities. Impurities in the range of one part per billion can be measured by this device.

  20. Polarisation measurements with a CdTe pixel array detector for Laue hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caroli, E; Pisa, A; Stephen, J B; Frontera, F; Castanheira, M T D; Sordo, S; Caroli, Ezio; Silva, Rui M. Curado da; Pisa, Alessandro; Stephen, John B.; Frontera, Filippo; Castanheira, Matilde T. D.; Sordo, Stefano del

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarimetry is an area of high energy astrophysics which is still relatively unexplored, even though it is recognized that this type of measurement could drastically increase our knowledge of the physics and geometry of high energy sources. For this reason, in the context of the design of a Gamma-Ray Imager based on new hard-X and soft gamma ray focusing optics for the next ESA Cosmic Vision call for proposals (Cosmic Vision 2015-2025), it is important that this capability should be implemented in the principal on-board instrumentation. For the particular case of wide band-pass Laue optics we propose a focal plane based on a thick pixelated CdTe detector operating with high efficiency between 60-600 keV. The high segmentation of this type of detector (1-2 mm pixel size) and the good energy resolution (a few keV FWHM at 500 keV) will allow high sensitivity polarisation measurements (a few % for a 10 mCrab source in 106s) to be performed. We have evaluated the modulation Q factors and minimum detectable polaris...

  1. Polarisation measurements with a CdTe pixel array detector for Laue hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezio Caroli; Rui M. Curado da Silva; Alessandro Pisa; John B. Stephen; Filippo Frontera; Matilde T. D. Castanheira; Stefano del Sordo

    2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarimetry is an area of high energy astrophysics which is still relatively unexplored, even though it is recognized that this type of measurement could drastically increase our knowledge of the physics and geometry of high energy sources. For this reason, in the context of the design of a Gamma-Ray Imager based on new hard-X and soft gamma ray focusing optics for the next ESA Cosmic Vision call for proposals (Cosmic Vision 2015-2025), it is important that this capability should be implemented in the principal on-board instrumentation. For the particular case of wide band-pass Laue optics we propose a focal plane based on a thick pixelated CdTe detector operating with high efficiency between 60-600 keV. The high segmentation of this type of detector (1-2 mm pixel size) and the good energy resolution (a few keV FWHM at 500 keV) will allow high sensitivity polarisation measurements (a few % for a 10 mCrab source in 106s) to be performed. We have evaluated the modulation Q factors and minimum detectable polarisation through the use of Monte Carlo simulations (based on the GEANT 4 toolkit) for on and off-axis sources with power law emission spectra using the point spread function of a Laue lens in a feasible configuration.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bylenok, Paul J. (Clifton Park, NY); Patmos, William M. (Schenectady, NY); Wagner, Thomas A. (Bronswick, NY); Martin, Francis H. (Melrose, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system uses an ultrasonic fsed beam probe for measuring thickness of an object, such as a wall of a tube, a computer for controlling movement of the probe in a scanning pattern within the tube and processing an analog signal produced by the probe which is proportional to the tube wall thickness in the scanning pattern, and a line scan recorder for producing a record of the tube wall thicknesses measured by the probe in the scanning pattern. The probe is moved in the scanning pattern to sequentially scan circumferentially the interior tube wall at spaced apart adjacent axial locations. The computer processes the analog signal by converting it to a digital signal and then quantifies the digital signal into a multiplicity of thickness points with each falling in one of a plurality of thickness ranges corresponding to one of a plurality of shades of grey. From the multiplicity of quantified thickness points, a line scan recorder connected to the computer generates a pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses with each quantified thickness point thus being obtained from a minute area, e.g. 0.010 inch by 0.010 inch, of tube wall and representing one pixel of the pictorial map. In the pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses, the pixels represent different wall thicknesses having different shades of grey.

  4. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  5. Statistical Tomographic Image Reconstruction Methods for Randoms-Precorrected PET Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    Statistical Tomographic Image Reconstruction Methods for Randoms-Precorrected PET Measurements-Precorrected PET Measurements by Mehmet Yavuz Chair: Jeffrey A. Fessler Medical imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET) and electron- ically collimated single positron emission tomography (SPECT

  6. Systems and methods for selective hydrogen transport and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for selectively removing hydrogen gas from a hydrogen-containing fluid volume are disclosed. An exemplary system includes a proton exchange membrane (PEM) selectively permeable to hydrogen by exclusively conducting hydrogen ions. The system also includes metal deposited as layers onto opposite sides or faces of the PEM to form a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA), each layer functioning as an electrode so that the MEA functions as an electrochemical cell in which the ionic conductors are hydrogen ions, and the MEA functioning as a hydrogen selective membrane (HSM) when located at the boundary between a hydrogen-containing fluid volume and a second fluid.

  7. Simulation Based Method for Measuring Spatially Varying Properties of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2)Sharing Smart GridShiftMethod forA "Sponge"

  8. A new method for measuring the viscosity of nanoparticles | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHeResearchcharm thatA8 14theA new method

  9. Sensitive method for measurement of telomeric DNA content in human tissues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryant, Jennifer E. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchings, Kent G. (Albuquerque, NM); Moyzis, Robert K. (Corona Del Mar, CA); Griffith, Jeffrey K. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive method for measurement of telomeric DNA content in human tissue, based upon the ratio of telomeric to centromeric DNA present in the tissue.

  10. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring enrichment of UF6

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Thomas Roy (Santa Fe, NM); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for determining the enrichment of .sup.235U in Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) utilizing synthesized X-rays which are directed at a container test zone containing a sample of UF6. A detector placed behind the container test zone then detects and counts the X-rays which pass through the container and the UF6. In order to determine the portion of the attenuation due to the UF6 gas alone, this count rate may then be compared to a calibration count rate of X-rays passing through a calibration test zone which contains a vacuum, the test zone having experienced substantially similar environmental conditions as the actual test zone. Alternatively, X-rays of two differing energy levels may be alternately directed at the container, where either the container or the UF6 has a high sensitivity to the difference in the energy levels, and the other having a low sensitivity.

  12. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, John L. (Butte, MT); Morrison, William H. (Manchester, CT); Christophersen, Jon P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

  13. Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements.

  14. Device and method for skull-melting depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of skull-melting comprises the steps of: a. providing a vessel adapted for a skull-melting process, the vessel having an interior, an underside, and an orifice in connecting the interior and the underside; b. disposing a waveguide in the orifice so that the waveguide protrudes sufficiently into the interior to interact with the skull-melting process; c. providing a signal energy transducer in signal communication with the waveguide; d. introducing into the vessel a molten working material; e. carrying out the skull-melting process so that a solidified skull of the working material is formed, the skull and the vessel having an interface therebetween, the skull becoming fused to the waveguide so the signal energy can be transmitted through the waveguide and the skull without interference from the interface; f. activating the signal energy transducer so that a signal is propagated through the waveguide; and, g. controlling at least one variable of the skull-melting process utilizing feedback information derived from the propagated signal energy.

  15. Device and method for skull-melting depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Heestand, R.L.

    1993-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of skull-melting comprises the steps of: (a) providing a vessel adapted for a skull-melting process, the vessel having an interior, an underside, and an orifice connecting the interior and the underside; (b) disposing a waveguide in the orifice so that the waveguide protrudes sufficiently into the interior to interact with the skull-melting process; (c) providing a signal energy transducer in signal communication with the waveguide; (d) introducing into the vessel a molten working material; (e) carrying out the skull-melting process so that a solidified skull of the working material is formed, the skull and the vessel having an interface therebetween, the skull becoming fused to the waveguide so the signal energy can be transmitted through the waveguide and the skull without interference from the interface; (f) activating the signal energy transducer so that a signal is propagated through the waveguide; and, (g) controlling at least one variable of the skull-melting process utilizing feedback information derived from the propagated signal energy.

  16. Apparatus and method for measuring and imaging traveling waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for imaging traveling waves in a medium. The apparatus includes a vibration excitation source configured to impart traveling waves within a medium. An emitter is configured to produce two or more wavefronts, at least one wavefront modulated by a vibrating medium. A modulator is configured to modulate another wavefront in synchronization with the vibrating medium. A sensing media is configured to receive in combination the modulated one wavefront and the another wavefront and having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth. The another wavefront is modulated at a frequency such that a difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. Such modulation produces an image of the vibrating medium having an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium for all vibration frequencies above the sensing media's response bandwidth. A detector is configured to detect an image of traveling waves in the vibrating medium resulting from interference between the modulated one wavefront and the another wavefront when combined in association with the sensing media. The traveling wave can be used to characterize certain material properties of the medium. Furthermore, a method is provided for imaging and characterizing material properties according to the apparatus.

  17. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  18. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

  19. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  20. Evaluation Of Methods To Measure Hydrogen Generation Rate In A Shielded Cell Environment And A Method Recommendation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M. E.

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the art for determination of hydrogen generation rates of radioactive slurries and solutions to provide a basis for design, fabrication, testing, and implementation of a measurement method for Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) during qualification of waste feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The HGR measurement will be performed on samples of the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) staged waste feeds for the WTP as well as on samples from selected unit operations testing during the qualification program. SRNL has performed a review of techniques utilized to measure HGR of high level radioactive waste slurries, evaluated the Hanford 222-S Laboratory method for measurement of hydrogen, and reviewed the hydrogen generation rate models for Hanford waste.Based on the literature review, method evaluation, and SRNL experience with measuring hydrogen generation rate, SRNL recommends that a continuous flow system with online gas analysis be used as the HGR measurement method during waste qualification.

  1. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, William D. (Laramie, WY); Naughton, Jonathan (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  2. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWall, Kevin George (Pocatello, ID); Garcia, Humberto Enrique (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael George (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  3. Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part 2 --High-angle and horizontal wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part refinement method to rapidly simulate borehole nuclear measurements acquired in vertical wells neutron and density measurements. Based on new research, we implemented the linear iterative refinement

  4. Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces: Application to reacting black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenberg, J. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Bostroem, S. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland); Hernberg, R. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A specialized two-color pyrometric method has been developed for the measurement of particle surface temperatures in hot, radiating environments. In this work, the method has been applied to the measurement of surface temperatures of single reacting black liquor char particles in an electrically heated muffle furnace. Black liquor was introduced into the hot furnace as wet droplets. After drying, the resulted particles were processed in different atmospheres corresponding to combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification at furnace temperatures of 700{endash}900{degree}C. The pyrometric measurement is performed using two silicon photodiode detectors and 10 nm bandpass filters centered at 650 and 1050 nm. Thermal radiation is transferred using an uncooled fiberoptic probe brought into the vicinity of the char particle. The key features of the pyrometric apparatus and analysis method are: (1) Single particle temperature is resolved temporally at high speed. (2) The thermal radiation originating from the furnace and reflected by the particle is accounted for in the measurement of the surface temperature. (3) Particle temperatures above or below the furnace temperature can be measured without the need of a cooled background assisting the measurement in the hot furnace. To accomplish this, a minimum particle size is needed that is a function of the temperature difference between the particle and furnace. Particles cooler than the furnace can be measured if their diameter is more than 0.7 mm. Surface temperatures of 300{endash}400{degree}C above the furnace temperature were measured during combustion of black liquor char particles in air. In atmospheres corresponding to gasification, endothermic reactions occurred, and char temperature remained typically 40{degree} below the furnace temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Method of Measuring Permittivity of Composite Materials with Hexagonal Ferrite Inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Method of Measuring Permittivity of Composite Materials with Hexagonal Ferrite Inclusions Alexander containing hexagonal ferrite powders, as well on such dielectric materials, as PMMA, schungite composites, waveguide, reflection coefficient, hexagonal ferrite, schungite, PMMA, alabaster I. INTRODUCTION In many

  6. Evaluation of method of preparation of passive diffusion tubes for measurement of ambient nitrogen dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Richard P; Heal, Mathew R

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was carried out in response to suggestions that the measurement of NO2 by Palmes-type passive diffusion tubes (PDT) is affected by the method of preparation of the triethanolamine (TEA) absorbent coating on the ...

  7. Evaluation of the TEOM method for the measurement of particulate matter for Texas cattle feedlots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skloss, Stewart James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) sampler is an EPA approved Federal Equivalent Method Sampler for measuring PM10 concentrations. The Center for Agricultural Air Quality Engineering and Science (CAAQES) owns two Rupprecht...

  8. Micro- and Nanoscale Measurement Methods for Phase Change Heat Transfer on Planar and Structured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo

    In this opinion piece, we discuss recent advances in experimental methods for characterizing phase change heat transfer. We begin with a survey of techniques for high-resolution measurements of temperature and heat flux ...

  9. A method for using polyethylene passive samplers to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemical activity in sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Loretta A. (Loretta Ana)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to aid in the determination of the hazards posed by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment beds, a method for the use of polyethylene (PE) sheets as passive sampling devices for measuring chemical ...

  10. Sensitive method for measurement of telomeric DNA content in human tissues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryant, J.E.; Hutchings, K.G.; Moyzis, R.K.; Griffith, J.K.

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research discloses a sensitive method for measurement of telomeric DNA content in human tissue, based upon the ratio of telomeric to centromeric DNA present in the tissue. 5 figs.

  11. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  12. Standardization of Laser Methods and Techniques for Vibration Measurements and Calibrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, Hans-Juergen von [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (retired), Abbestrasse 2-12, 12587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and refined laser methods and techniques developed by national metrology institutes and by leading manufacturers in the past two decades have been swiftly specified as standard methods for inclusion into in the series ISO 16063 of international documentary standards. A survey of ISO Standards for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers demonstrates the extended ranges and improved accuracy (measurement uncertainty) of laser methods and techniques for vibration and shock measurements and calibrations. The first standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers by laser interferometry or by a reference accelerometer calibrated by laser interferometry (ISO 16063-41) is on the stage of a Draft International Standard (DIS) and may be issued by the end of 2010. The standard methods with refined techniques proved to achieve wider measurement ranges and smaller measurement uncertainties than that specified in the ISO Standards. The applicability of different standardized interferometer methods to vibrations at high frequencies was recently demonstrated up to 347 kHz (acceleration amplitudes up to 350 km/s{sup 2}). The relative deviations between the amplitude measurement results of the different interferometer methods that were applied simultaneously, differed by less than 1% in all cases.

  13. Localized Regression Analysis as a Method for Detecting Erroneous Measurements in Geospatial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Karen

    Localized Regression Analysis as a Method for Detecting Erroneous Measurements in Geospatial at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA Abstract Geospatial databases generally consist of measurements dealing with many other types of point data. Keywords: Geospatial Databases; Error Detection; Gravity Data

  14. A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements Chuanfeng algorithm to detect aerosols and clouds based on micropulse lidar measurements. A semidiscretization is then introduced. Combined with empirical threshold values, we determine if the signal waves indicate clouds

  15. A simple solar cell series resistance measurement method J. Cabestany and L. Castaer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the series resistance of a solar cell is described. This procedure only needs dark I(V) measurements565 A simple solar cell series resistance measurement method J. Cabestany and L. Castañer E Physics Abstracts 73.40L The series resistance of a solar cell is a parameter of special interest because

  16. Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks Byungkun, MA 02139, USA ABSTRACT The inherent control flexibility implied by solid-state lighting ­ united propose several techniques for measuring work surface illuminance and ambient light using a sensor network

  17. Areal array jetting device for ball grid arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frear, D.R.; Yost, F.G.; Schmale, D.T.; Essien, M.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Package designs for microelectronics devices have moved from through-hole to surface mount technology in order to increase the printed wiring board real estate available by utilizing both sides of the board. The traditional geometry for surface mount devices is peripheral arrays where the leads are on the edges of the device. As the technology drives towards high input/output (I/O) count (increasing number of leads) and smaller packages with finer pitch (less distance between peripheral leads), limitations on peripheral surface mount devices arise. A solution to the peripheral surface mount issue is to shift the leads to the area under the device. This scheme is called areal array packaging and is exemplified by the ball grid array (BGA) package. In a BGA package, the leads are on the bottom surface of the package in the form of an array of solder balls. The current practice of joining BGA packages to printed wiring boards involves a hierarchy of solder alloy compositions. A high melting temperature ball is typically used for standoff. A promising alternative to current methods is the use of jetting technology to perform monolithic solder ball attachment. This paper describes an areal array jetter that was designed and built to simultaneously jet arrays of solder balls directly onto BGA substrates.

  18. Impact of parasitic thermal effects on thermoelectric property measurements by Harman method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Beomjin, E-mail: bkwon@kist.re.kr; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Keun Kim, Seong; Kim, Jin-Sang, E-mail: jskim@kist.re.kr [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Harman method is a rapid and simple technique to measure thermoelectric properties. However, its validity has been often questioned due to the over-simplified assumptions that this method relies on. Here, we quantitatively investigate the influence of the previously ignored parasitic thermal effects on the Harman method and develop a method to determine an intrinsic ZT. We expand the original Harman relation with three extra terms: heat losses via both the lead wires and radiation, and Joule heating within the sample. Based on the expanded Harman relation, we use differential measurement of the sample geometry to measure the intrinsic ZT. To separately evaluate the parasitic terms, the measured ZTs with systematically varied sample geometries and the lead wire types are fitted to the expanded relation. A huge discrepancy (?28%) of the measured ZTs depending on the measurement configuration is observed. We are able to separately evaluate those parasitic terms. This work will help to evaluate the intrinsic thermoelectric property with Harman method by eliminating ambiguities coming from extrinsic effects.

  19. Note: A simple charge neutralization method for measuring the secondary electron yield of insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Ming, E-mail: wengming@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Cao, Meng; Zhao, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Bo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a simple and effective charge neutralization method for measuring the total electron-induced secondary electron yield of insulators in a measurement system with a single pulsed electron gun. In this method, the secondary electron collector is negatively biased with respect to the sample to force some emitted secondary electrons to return to the sample surface and therefore to neutralize positive charges accumulated in the sample during the previous measurement. The adequate negative bias is determined and the equilibrium state of negative charging is discussed. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by the measured electron yields in the cases with and without charge neutralization and by comparison with existing electron yield data of polyimide.

  20. Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  1. Method for measuring changes in light absorption of highly scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM); Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The noninvasive measurement of variations in absorption that are due to changes in concentrations of biochemically relevant compounds in tissue is important in many clinical settings. One problem with such measurements is that the pathlength traveled by the collected light through the tissue depends on the scattering properties of the tissue. It is demonstrated, using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, that for an appropriate separation between light-delivery and light-collection fibers, the pathlength of the collected photons is insensitive to scattering parameters for the range of parameters typically found in tissue. This is important for developing rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate methods for measuring absorption changes in tissue.

  2. array signal processing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Array Signal Processing Using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods William Ng, James P. Reilly model in the time-domain, and incorporates the Markov chain Monte Carlo methods 11,...

  3. “Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M. [Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR), Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)] [Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR), Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as “multi-temperature” (short “multi-T”) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  4. Measurement of spatial and temporal behavior of H{sub ?} emission from Aditya tokamak using a diagnostic based on a photomultiplier tube array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhuri, M. B., E-mail: malay@ipr.res.in; Ghosh, J.; Manchanda, R.; Banerjee, S.; Ramaiya, N.; Virani, Niral; Mali, Aniruddh; Amardas, A.; Kumar, Pintu; Tanna, R. L.; Gupta, C. N.; Bhatt, S. B.; Chattopadhyay, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India); Kumar, Ajay [Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A photo multiplier tube (PMT) array based spectroscopic diagnostic with fast time response of 10 ?s and spatial resolution ?3 cm has been developed and installed on Aditya tokamak to study the spatial and temporal behavior of H{sub ?} emissions from typical discharges. Collimated light has been collected from the plasma along 16 lines of sight passing through entire plasma poloidal cross section of Aditya and detected by two 8 channels PMT arrays after selecting H{sub ?} emission using interference filter. The studies are carried out during plasma formation phase of Aditya by changing vertical field and its delay with respect to loop voltage. It is observed that plasma initiated in the high field side in typical discharges of Aditya. The plasma formation position is matched with null field location estimated through simulation.

  5. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  6. Optimized Volumetric Scanning for X-Ray Array Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K; Foudray, A M; Wang, A; Kallman, J S; Martz, H

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is the science and technology of determining non-invasively the internal structure of manufactured parts, objects, and materials. NDE application areas include medicine, industrial manufacturing, military, homeland security, and airport luggage screening. X-ray measurement systems are most widely used because of their ability to image through a wide range of material densities (from human tissue in medical applications to the dense materials of weapon components). Traditional x-ray systems involve a single source and detector system that rotate and/or translate about the object under evaluation. At each angular location, the source projects x-rays through the object. The rays undergo attenuation proportional to the density of the object's constitutive material. The detector records a measure of the attenuation. Mathematical algorithms are used to invert the forward attenuated ray projection process to form images of the object. This is known as computed tomography (CT). In recent years, the single-source x-ray NDE systems have been generalized to arrays of x-ray sources. Array sources permit multiple views of the object with fewer rotations and translations of the source/detector system. The spatially diverse nature of x-ray array sources has the potential of reducing data collection time, reducing imaging artifacts, and increasing the resolution of the resultant images. Most of the existing CT algorithms were not derived from array source models with a spatially diverse set of viewing perspectives. Single-source x-ray CT data collection, processing, and imaging methods and algorithms are not applicable when the source location is expanded from one dimension (a rotating and/or translating point source) to two (a rotating and/or translating array). They must be reformulated. The goal of this project is to determine the applicability of x-ray array sources to problems of interest to LLNL and its customers. It is believed array source data collection will be faster while yielding higher resolution reconstructions with fewer artifacts. There are three tasks in the research: (1) Develop forward array source analytic and computational models; (2) Research and develop array source reconstruction algorithms; and (3) Perform experiments.

  7. Method of Fission Product Beta Spectra Measurements for Predicting Reactor Anti-neutrino Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Asner; K. Burns; L. W. Campbell; B. Greenfield; M. S. Kos; J. L. Orrell; M. Schram; B. VanDevender; 1 L. S. Wood; D. W. Wootan

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron anti-neutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to current precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent re-considerations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  8. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar (Manorville, NY)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  9. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  10. Calibration method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration method and apparatus for use in measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid is provided. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The peak-to-trough calculations are simplified by compensating for radiation absorption by the apparatus. The invention also allows absorption characteristics of an interfering fluid component to be accurately determined and negated thereby facilitating analysis of the fluid. 7 figures.

  11. Calibration method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D. (Castle Rock, CO); Sagan, Francis J. (Lakewood, CO); Burkhardt, Mark R. (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration method and apparatus for use in measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid is provided. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The peak-to-trough calculations are simplified by compensating for radiation absorption by the apparatus. The invention also allows absorption characteristics of an interfering fluid component to be accurately determined and negated thereby facilitating analysis of the fluid.

  12. Spectrometer for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid stream and method for using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Stedman, D.H.; Ebner, T.G.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1991-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method are described for measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid stream. Preferably, the fluid stream is an in-situ gas stream, such as a fossil fuel fired flue gas in a smoke stack. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The need for a reference intensity is eliminated. 15 figures.

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P. (Pasco, WA); Martin, Paul F. (Richland, WA); Lindenmeier, Clark W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  14. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature. 5 figs.

  15. Standard guide for establishing calibration for a measurement method used to analyze nuclear fuel cycle materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide provides the basis for establishing calibration for a measurement method typically used in an analytical chemistry laboratory analyzing nuclear materials. Guidance is included for such activities as preparing a calibration procedure, selecting a calibration standard, controlling calibrated equipment, and documenting calibration. The guide is generic and any required technical information specific for a given method must be obtained from other sources.

  16. Method of locating underground mines fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laage, Linneas (Eagam, MN); Pomroy, William (St. Paul, MN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of locating an underground mine fire by comparing the pattern of measured combustion product arrival times at detector locations with a real time computer-generated array of simulated patterns. A number of electronic fire detection devices are linked thru telemetry to a control station on the surface. The mine's ventilation is modeled on a digital computer using network analysis software. The time reguired to locate a fire consists of the time required to model the mines' ventilation, generate the arrival time array, scan the array, and to match measured arrival time patterns to the simulated patterns.

  17. Measurement of the surface wavelength distribution of narrow-band radiation by a colorimetric method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraiskii, A V; Mironova, T V; Sultanov, T T [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is suggested for determining the wavelength of narrow-band light from a digital photograph of a radiating surface. The digital camera used should be appropriately calibrated. The accuracy of the wavelength measurement is better than 1 nm. The method was tested on the yellow doublet of mercury spectrum and on the adjacent continuum of the incandescent lamp radiation spectrum. By means of the method suggested the homogeneity of holographic sensor swelling was studied in stationary and transient cases. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Method for Microfluidic Whole-Chip Temperature Measurement Using Thin-Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Method for Microfluidic Whole-Chip Temperature Measurement Using Thin-Film Poly- phoresis effects. Recent developments in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices has drawn ever of a glass or plastic microfluidic platform with integrated sample processing units such as mixers

  19. "How many zombies do you know?" Using indirect survey methods to measure alien attacks and outbreaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    "How many zombies do you know?" Using indirect survey methods to measure alien attacks applicable to zombies or, for that matter, ghosts, aliens, angels, and other hard-to-reach entities; for example, what if your wife2 is actually a zombie or an alien and you are not aware of the fact. This 2

  20. Improving objective intelligibility prediction by combining correlation and coherence based methods with a measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    objective method for intelligibility prediction of enhanced speech which is based on the negative distortion clean speech signal, likely due to a bad noise estimate during the speech enhancement procedure. While Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Speech intelligibility; Objective measures; Speech enhancement

  1. Comparing methods for measuring the rate of spread of invading populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebhold, Andrew

    with known theoretical spread rates over a hypothetical region where a set of sampling points are distributed as well as the shape of the invaded area and then compare how different spread rate measurement methods biology, and in particular on the factors influencing spread into new environments (Sharov et al. 1999

  2. Energy Storage & Delivery The goal of this project is to deliver measurement methods specific to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Storage & Delivery Materials The goal of this project is to deliver measurement methods specific to polymeric and organic materials needed in next generation energy storage and delivery. · The NIST team is works closely with leaders in the energy storage and delivery field, including General

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring the NMR spectrum of an orientationally disordered sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise oreintationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions is zero.

  4. Measuring multiple residual-stress components using the contour method and multiple cuts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pagliaro, Pierluigi [U. PALERMO; Zuccarello, Bernardo [U. PALERMO

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional contour method determines one component of stress over the cross section of a part. The part is cut into two, the contour of the exposed surface is measured, and Bueckner's superposition principle is analytically applied to calculate stresses. In this paper, the contour method is extended to the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts with subsequent applications of superposition. The theory and limitations are described. The theory is experimentally tested on a 316L stainless steel disk with residual stresses induced by plastically indenting the central portion of the disk. The stress results are validated against independent measurements using neutron diffraction. The theory has implications beyond just multiple cuts. The contour method measurements and calculations for the first cut reveal how the residual stresses have changed throughout the part. Subsequent measurements of partially relaxed stresses by other techniques, such as laboratory x-rays, hole drilling, or neutron or synchrotron diffraction, can be superimposed back to the original state of the body.

  5. Algal Biomass Constituent Analysis: Method Uncertainties and Investigation of the Underlying Measuring Chemistries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Dempster, T. A.; Jones, H. D. T.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Van Wychen, S.; McAllister, J. S. P.; Rencenberger, M.; Parchert, K. J.; Gloe, L. M.

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Algal biomass compositional analysis data form the basis of a large number of techno-economic process analysis models that are used to investigate and compare different processes in algal biofuels production. However, the analytical methods used to generate these data are far from standardized. This work investigated the applicability of common methods for rapid chemical analysis of biomass samples with respect to accuracy and precision. This study measured lipids, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture of a single algal biomass sample at 3 institutions by 8 independent researchers over 12 separate workdays. Results show statistically significant differences in the results from a given analytical method among laboratories but not between analysts at individual laboratories, suggesting consistent training is a critical issue for empirical analytical methods. Significantly different results from multiple lipid and protein measurements were found to be due to different measurement chemistries. We identified a set of compositional analysis procedures that are in best agreement with data obtained by more advanced analytical procedures. The methods described here and used for the round robin experiment do not require specialized instrumentation, and with detailed analytical documentation, the differences between laboratories can be markedly reduced.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring the mass flow rate of a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curtis (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Blotter, Jonathan D. (Pocatello, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non invasive method and apparatus is provided to measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid. An accelerometer is attached to a pipe carrying a multi-phase fluid. Flow related measurements in pipes are sensitive to random velocity fluctuations whose magnitude is proportional to the mean mass flow rate. An analysis of the signal produced by the accelerometer shows a relationship between the mass flow of a fluid and the noise component of the signal of an accelerometer. The noise signal, as defined by the standard deviation of the accelerometer signal allows the method and apparatus of the present invention to non-intrusively measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid.

  7. Standard Test Method for Electronic Measurement for Hydrogen Embrittlement From Cadmium-Electroplating Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers an electronic hydrogen detection instrument procedure for measurement of plating permeability to hydrogen. This method measures a variable related to hydrogen absorbed by steel during plating and to the hydrogen permeability of the plate during post plate baking. A specific application of this method is controlling cadmium-plating processes in which the plate porosity relative to hydrogen is critical, such as cadmium on high-strength steel. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statement, see Section 8. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  8. Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T.K.; Hakkila, E.A.; Flosterbuer, S.F. [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP.

  9. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  10. Automated control of linear constricted plasma source array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Maschwitz, Peter A. (Martinsville, VA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for controlling an array of constricted glow discharge chambers are disclosed. More particularly a linear array of constricted glow plasma sources whose polarity and geometry are set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the sources are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The quality of film along deposition "tracks" opposite the plasma sources can be measured and compared to desired absolute or relative values by optical and/or electrical sensors. Plasma quality can then be adjusted by adjusting the power current values, gas feed pressure/flow, gas mixtures or a combination of some or all of these to improve the match between the measured values and the desired values.

  11. Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  12. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  13. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into the formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figures.

  14. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figs.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

  16. Electromagnetic formation flight of satellite arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Daniel W., 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining ...

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horvath, Mark S. (Canton, MI); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fodor, George (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature.

  18. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  19. Free-Space Time-Domain Method for Measuring Thin Film Dielectric Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Cho, Gyu Cheon

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact method for determining the index of refraction or dielectric constant of a thin film on a substrate at a desired frequency in the GHz to THz range having a corresponding wavelength larger than the thickness of the thin film (which may be only a few microns). The method comprises impinging the desired-frequency beam in free space upon the thin film on the substrate and measuring the measured phase change and the measured field reflectance from the reflected beam for a plurality of incident angles over a range of angles that includes the Brewster's angle for the thin film. The index of refraction for the thin film is determined by applying Fresnel equations to iteratively calculate a calculated phase change and a calculated field reflectance at each of the plurality of incident angles, and selecting the index of refraction that provides the best mathematical curve fit with both the dataset of measured phase changes and the dataset of measured field reflectances for each incident angle. The dielectric constant for the thin film can be calculated as the index of refraction squared.

  20. A nonintrusive method for measuring the operating temperature of a solenoid-operated valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kryter, R.C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data are presented to show that the in-service operating temperature of a solenoid-operated valve (SOV) can be interred simply and nondisruptively by using the copper winding of the solenoid coil as a self-indicating, permanently available resistance thermometer. The principal merits of this approach include (a) there is no need for an add-on temperature sensor, (b) the true temperature of a critical --- and likely the hottest --- part of the SOV (namely, the electrical coil) is measured directly, (c) temperature readout can be provided at any location at which the SOV electrical lead wires are accessible (even though remote from the valve), (d) the SOV need not be disturbed (whether normally energized or deenergized) to measure its temperature in situ, and (e) the method is applicable to all types of SOVs, large and small, ac- and dc-powered. Laboratory tests comparing temperatures measured both by coil resistance and by a conventional thermometer placed in contact with the external surface of the potted solenoid coil indicate that temperature within the coil may be on the order of 40{degree}C higher than that measured externally, a fact that is important to life-expectancy calculations made on the basis of Arrhenius theory. Field practicality is illustrated with temperature measurements made using this method on a SOV controlling the flow of refrigerant in a large chilled-water air-conditioning system. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kikta, T.J.; Mitchell, R.D.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet. 4 figs.

  2. Spin transport and precession in graphene measured by nonlocal and three-terminal methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dankert, André, E-mail: andre.dankert@chalmers.se; Kamalakar, Mutta Venkata; Bergsten, Johan; Dash, Saroj P., E-mail: saroj.dash@chalmers.se [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the spin transport and precession in graphene by using the Hanle effect in nonlocal and three-terminal measurement geometries. Identical spin lifetimes, spin diffusion lengths, and spin polarizations are observed in graphene devices for both techniques over a wide range of temperatures. The magnitude of the spin signals is well explained by spin transport models. These observations rules out any signal enhancements or additional scattering mechanisms at the interfaces for both geometries. This validates the applicability of both the measurement methods for graphene based spintronics devices and their reliable extractions of spin parameters.

  3. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

    1980-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  4. A new method of alpha ray measurement using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Iwata; Y. Inoue; M. Minowa

    2007-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method of alpha($\\alpha$)-ray measurement that detects helium atoms with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer(QMS). A demonstration is undertaken with a plastic-covered $^{241}$Am $\\alpha$-emitting source to detect $\\alpha$-rays stopped in the capsule. We successfully detect helium atoms that diffuse out of the capsule by accumulating them for one to 20 hours in a closed chamber. The detected amount is found to be proportional to the accumulation time. Our method is applicable to probe $\\alpha$-emitting radioactivity in bulk material.

  5. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a substrate actually modified the mechanical properties of the cell membrane. Thus, the use of the method for measuring the mechanical properties of the cell may not be completely appropriate without significant modifications. The latest of the studies discussed in this report is intended to overcome the drawback of the AFM as a means of measuring mechanical and rheological properties. The squeezing-flow AFM technique utilizes two parallel plates, one stationary and the other attached to an AFM probe. Instead of using static force-displacement curves, the technique takes advantage of frequency response functions from force to velocity. The technique appears to be quite promising for obtaining dynamic properties. More research is required to develop this technique.

  6. array processing techniques: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    telescope arrays MIT - DSpace Summary: Measurement and analysis of redshifted 21cm hydrogen emissions is a developing technique for studying the early universe. The primary time...

  7. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  8. The measurement of gas relative permeability for low permeability cores using a pressure transient method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning, Xiuxu

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    of oil and gas from a. typical reservoir. However, determining relative permeability ac- curately, especially for tight formations, has been a, challenging problem to petroleum engineers for many years. Commonly used laboratory methods of measuring.... Generally, there exist three kinds of fluids in petroleum reservoirs, oil, gas and water. In petroleum engineering, relative permeability of formation is one of the most important parameters one must use to estimate the fluid flow rates and recoveries...

  9. A method for measuring the rate of reaction by molecular microwave absorption spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Allan Neil

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF REACTION BT MOLECULAR MICROWAVE ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY A Dissertation 9$r Allan Neil Brown Approved as to style and content by: Head of the Departme Chairman of Committee June AM ET LIBRARY A A M COLLEGE... Amplifier ............. ET Figure 8. The Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1H Figure 9. The Voltage Integrator.......................... 17 Figure 10. Diagram of Voltage Inte g r a t o r................... 18 Figure 11. The Recording Unit...

  10. A METHOD FOR MEASURING (SLOPES OF) THE MASS PROFILES OF DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Matthew G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Penarrubia, Jorge, E-mail: mwalker@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB30HA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a method for measuring the slopes of mass profiles within dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies directly from stellar spectroscopic data and without adopting a dark matter halo model. Our method combines two recent results: (1) spherically symmetric, equilibrium Jeans models imply that the product of half-light radius and (squared) stellar velocity dispersion provides an estimate of the mass enclosed within the half-light radius of a dSph stellar component, and (2) some dSphs have chemodynamically distinct stellar subcomponents that independently trace the same gravitational potential. We devise a statistical method that uses measurements of stellar positions, velocities, and spectral indices to distinguish two dSph stellar subcomponents and to estimate their individual half-light radii and velocity dispersions. For a dSph with two detected stellar subcomponents, we obtain estimates of masses enclosed at two discrete points in the same mass profile, immediately defining a slope. Applied to published spectroscopic data, our method distinguishes stellar subcomponents in the Fornax and Sculptor dSphs, for which we measure slopes {Gamma} {identical_to} {Delta}log M/{Delta}log r = 2.61{sup +0.43}{sub -0.37} and {Gamma} = 2.95{sup +0.51}{sub -0.39}, respectively. These values are consistent with 'cores' of constant density within the central few hundred parsecs of each galaxy and rule out 'cuspy' Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles (dlog M/dlog r {<=} 2 at all radii) with a significance {approx}> 96% and {approx}> 99%, respectively. Tests with synthetic data indicate that our method tends systematically to overestimate the mass of the inner stellar subcomponent to a greater degree than that of the outer stellar subcomponent, and therefore to underestimate the slope {Gamma} (implying that the stated NFW exclusion levels are conservative).

  11. An indirect transmission measurement-based spectrum estimation method for computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Wei; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of an x-ray spectrum can greatly influence imaging and related tasks. In practice, due to the pile-up effect of the detector, it's difficult to directly measure the spectrum of a CT scanner using an energy resolved detector. An alternative solution is to estimate the spectrum using transmission measurements with a step phantom or other CT phantom. In this work, we present a new spectrum estimation method based on indirect transmission measurement and model spectra mixture approach. The estimated x-ray spectrum was expressed as weighted summation of a set of model spectra, which can significantly reduce the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the spectrum estimation problem. Next, an estimated projection can be calculated with the assumed spectrum. By iteratively updating the unknown weights, we minimized the difference between the estimated projection data and the raw projection data. The final spectrum was calculated with these calibrated weights and the model spectra. Both simulation and experim...

  12. Method and apparatus for measurement of orientation in an anisotropic medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Robert Snee (Burnt Hills, NY); Kline, Ronald Alan (Norman, OK); Deaton, Jr., John Broddus (Niskayuna, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring the anisotropic orientation and the thickness of an article. The apparatus comprises a transducer assembly which propagates longitudinal and transverse waves through the article and which receives reflections of the waves. A processor is provided to measure respective transit times of the longitudinal and shear waves propagated through the article and to calculate respective predicted transit times of the longitudinal and shear waves based on an estimated thickness, an estimated anisotropic orientation, and an elasticity of the article. The processor adjusts the estimated thickness and the estimated anisotropic orientation to reduce the difference between the measured transit times and the respective predicted transit times of the longitudinal and shear waves.

  13. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  14. New method for measuring time-resolved spectra of lanthanide emission using square-wave excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Feng [Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhao, Hua; Cai, Wei, E-mail: weicai@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Duan, Qianqian [College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Zhiguo, E-mail: zhangzhiguo@hit.edu.cn [Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Laboratory of Sono- and Photo-Theranostic Technologies, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Cao, Wenwu, E-mail: dzk@psu.edu [Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Laboratory of Sono- and Photo-Theranostic Technologies, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method using modulated continuous wave (CW) visible laser to measure time-resolved fluorescence spectra of trivalent rare-earth ions has been developed. Electro-optic modulator was used to modulate the CW pumping laser with a rise time of 2 ?s. CW Nd{sup 3+} lasers were used as examples to present the method. Upconversion dynamic process of Ho{sup 3+} was studied utilizing a 532 nm CW laser. Quantum cutting dynamic process from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} was analyzed by a 473 nm CW laser. This method can be applied to any CW laser such as He-Ne laser, Ar{sup +} laser, Kr{sup +} laser, Ti:sapphire laser, etc.

  15. Measurement of neutron spectra in varied environments by the foil-activation method with arbitrary trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron spectra have been measured by the foil-activation method in 13 different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor, the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor. The spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner that was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial-dependent methods. For some of the configurations, studies have also been made of how well the solution is determined in each energy region. The experimental methods and the techniques used in the analyses are thoroughly explained. 34 refs., 51 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. A consistent, differential versus integral, method for measuring the delayed neutron yield in fissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flip, A. [CEA, Cadarache (France); Pang, H.F. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); D`Angelo, A. [ENEA, Roma (Italy)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the persistent uncertainties: {approximately} 5 % (the uncertainty, here and there after, is at 1{sigma}) in the prediction of the `reactivity scale` ({beta}{sub eff}) for a fast power reactor, an international project was recently initiated in the framework of the OECD/NEA activities for reevaluation, new measurements and integral benchmarking of delayed neutron (DN) data and related kinetic parameters (principally {beta}{sub eff}). Considering that the major part of this uncertainty is due to uncertainties in the DN yields (v{sub d}) and the difficulty for further improvement of the precision in differential (e.g. Keepin`s method) measurements, an international cooperative strategy was adopted aiming at extracting and consistently interpreting information from both differential (nuclear) and integral (in reactor) measurements. The main problem arises from the integral side; thus the idea was to realize {beta}{sub eff} like measurements (both deterministic and noise) in `clean` assemblies. The `clean` calculational context permitted the authors to develop a theory allowing to link explicitly this integral experimental level with the differential one, via a unified `Master Model` which relates v{sub d} and measurables quantities (on both levels) linearly. The combined error analysis is consequently largely simplified and the final uncertainty drastically reduced (theoretically, by a factor {radical}3). On the other hand the same theoretical development leading to the `Master Model`, also resulted in a structured scheme of approximations of the general (stochastic) Boltzmann equation allowing a consistent analysis of the large range of measurements concerned (stochastic, dynamic, static ... ). This paper is focused on the main results of this theoretical development and its application to the analysis of the Preliminary results of the BERENICE program ({beta}{sub eff} measurements in MASURCA, the first assembly in CADARACHE-FRANCE).

  18. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  19. Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

  20. The Submillimeter Array Polarimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel P. Marrone; Ramprasad Rao

    2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the Submillimeter Array (SMA) Polarimeter, a polarization converter and feed multiplexer installed on the SMA. The polarimeter uses narrow-band quarter-wave plates to generate circular polarization sensitivity from the linearly-polarized SMA feeds. The wave plates are mounted in rotation stages under computer control so that the polarization handedness of each antenna is rapidly selectable. Positioning of the wave plates is found to be highly repeatable, better than 0.2 degrees. Although only a single polarization is detected at any time, all four cross correlations of left- and right-circular polarization are efficiently sampled on each baseline through coordinated switching of the antenna polarizations in Walsh function patterns. The initial set of anti-reflection coated quartz and sapphire wave plates allows polarimetry near 345 GHz; these plates have been have been used in observations between 325 and 350 GHz. The frequency-dependent cross-polarization of each antenna, largely due to the variation with frequency of the retardation phase of the single-element wave plates, can be measured precisely through observations of bright point sources. Such measurements indicate that the cross-polarization of each antenna is a few percent or smaller and stable, consistent with the expected frequency dependence and very small alignment errors. The polarimeter is now available for general use as a facility instrument of the SMA.

  1. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  2. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  3. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, Vanston R. (Knoxville, TN); Miller, Donald R. (Kingston, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.

  4. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryer, Michael O. (Roberts, ID); Hills, Andrea J. (Iowa City, IA); Morrison, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  6. A method to measure the absolute branching fractions of $?_c$ decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Contu; Dorothea Fonnesu; Rudolf Gerhard Christiaan Oldeman; Biagio Saitta; Claudia Vacca

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to exploit the decay of the meson ${B}^+ \\rightarrow p \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\bar{\\Sigma}_c^{--}$ and of its charge conjugate $B^-$ copiously produced at LHC to obtain a sample of $\\Lambda_c$ baryons through the strong decay $\\Sigma_c \\rightarrow \\Lambda_c \\pi$. The sample thus obtained is not affected by biases typically introduced by selections that depend on specific decay modes. Therefore it allows a measurement of the absolute branching fraction for the decay of the $\\Lambda_c$ baryon into $ p K \\pi$ or into other observable final states to be performed in a model independent manner. The accuracy that can be achieved with this method is discussed and it is shown that it would be either competitive with or an improvement over current measurements.

  7. Application of electrical methods to measure microbial activity in soils: Preliminary microcosm results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.L. Sweet, A.; Majer, E.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the geophysical technique known as self-potential to the measurement of microbial activity was tested on laboratory microcosms containing ferric iron and iron-reducing bacteria Shewanella alga BrY. Measurements of the electrical response of silver-coated copper electrodes distributed along a Teflon probe inserted into sterile and inoculated layers containing either ferric chloride, ferric citrate, or ferric oxide rich soil were recorded over hours or days. Strong electrical signals reached values more negative than {minus}400 mV for all types of inoculated ferric iron layers. Electric signals in sterile control layers, by contrast, rarely reached values more negative than {minus}150 mV. These preliminary experiments indicate that it may be possible to apply the self-potential geophysical method to monitor bioremediation in the field.

  8. Measurements of electron cloud density in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron with the microwave transmission method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federmann, S; Mahner, E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron cloud effect can pose severe performance limitations in high-energy particle accelerators as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Mitigation techniques such as vacuum chamber thin film coatings with low secondary electron yields (SEY < 1.3) aim to reduce or even suppress this effect. The microwave transmission method, developed and first applied in 2003 at the SPS, measures the integrated electron cloud density over a long section of an accelerator. This paper summarizes the theory and measurement principle and describes the new SPS microwave transmission setup used to study the electron cloud mitigation of amorphous carbon coated SPS dipole vacuum chambers. Comparative results of carbon coated and bare stainless steel dipole vacuum chambers are given for the beam with nominal LHC 25 ns bunch-to-bunch spacing in the SPS and the electron cloud density is derived.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of the Measured Performance Rating (MPR) method. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A report was commissioned by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Electric Power Research Institute to evaluate the uncertainties in the energy monitoring method known as measured performance rating (MPR). The work is intended to help further development of the MPR system by quantitatively analyzing the uncertainties in estimates of the heat loss coefficients and heating system efficiencies. The analysis indicates that the MPR should detect as little as a 7 percent change in the heat loss coefficients and heating system efficiencies. The analysis indicate that the MPR should be able to detect as little as a 7 percent change in the heat loss coefficient at 95 percent confidence level. MPR appears sufficiently robust for characterizing common weatherization treatments; e.g., increasing attic insulation from R-7 to R-19 in a typical single-story, 1,100 sq. ft. house resulting in a 19 percent reduction in heat loss coefficient. Furnace efficiency uncertainties ranged up to three times those of the heat loss coefficients. Measurement uncertainties (at the 95 percent confidence level) were estimated to be from 1 to 5 percent for heat loss coefficients and 1.5 percent for a typical furnace efficiency. The analysis also shows a limitation in applying MPR to houses with heating ducts in slabs on grade and to those with very large thermal mass. Most of the uncertainties encountered in the study were due more to the methods of estimating the ``true`` heat loss coefficients, furnace efficiency, and furnace fuel consumption (by collecting fuel bills and simulating two actual houses) than to the MPR approach. These uncertainties in the true parameter values become evidence for arguments in favor of the need of empirical measures of heat loss coefficient and furnace efficiency, like the MPR method, rather than arguments against.

  10. Feedback control of torsion balance in measurement of gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quan, Li-Di [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China) [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun, E-mail: junluo@mail.hust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, Yong-Ji [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)] [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to 7.3×10{sup ?7} rad /?( Hz ) at the signal frequency of 2?mHz, which contributes a 0.4 ppm uncertainty to the G value.

  11. Method for measuring residual stresses in materials by plastically deforming the material and interference pattern comparison

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (241 Chardonnat La., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of establishing a speckle pattern on the surface with a first laser then heating a portion of that pattern with an infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress dung heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  12. A thermal method for measuring the rate of water movement in plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloodworth, Morris Elkins

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L?BP A 8 V a L ?BPA8B8 op A THERMAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Vao Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial... Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May, 1958 TLX Major Subject: Soil Physics p ^i???pP ??^i?? ??? ??p?????? ^i? ?p^? ?? WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Approved as to style...

  13. A method for measurement of delayed neutron parameters for liquid-metal-cooled power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Brock, R.W. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The trend toward increased reliance on passive features for power reactor safety makes it important to obtain the characteristics of the reactor system from measurements on the system. A method is described for solving for the delayed neutron parameters in a liquid-metal power reactor by fitting an analytic solution of the point-kinetics equations to the flux die-away from a dropped rod in an initially critical core. The method includes treatment of those conditions found in a power reactor that depart from those in a critical assembly experiment. These include a comparatively long rod drop time and a detector signal that instead of providing an integrated count rate is a sampled data signal proportional to the instantaneous fission power. The delayed neutron parameter values calculated from a rod drop experiment in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II are in agreement with values calculated using first principles and knowledge of core material composition and nuclear cross sections.

  14. Array for detecting microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  15. SOUTH AFRICA'S MEERKAT ARRAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    SOUTH AFRICA'S MEERKAT ARRAY THE MEERKAT ARRAY, currently taking shape in South Africa's Karoo) is completed around 2024. Via MeerKAT, South Africa is playing a key role in design and technology developments at the engineering office in Cape Town, and at universities and technology companies across South Africa and Africa

  16. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.; Ball, Millicent, J.

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  17. Recent Results from Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukushima, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum Xmax are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20 degrees radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 sigma. The measured Xmax is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 10^18.2 eV - 10^19.2 eV.

  18. A comparison between conventional hotothermal frequency scan and the lock-in rate window method in measuring thermal diffirsivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    that for thick materials with long thermal transport times across the sample where low-frequency measurements to measure thermal conductivity of materials by steady-state heat flow methods and thermal diffusivity for thermal diffusivity measurements of materials, is presented. In this comparison, a completely noncontact

  19. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashida, Misa [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray F. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6H 2E1 (Canada); Bergen, Michael; Li, Peng [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  20. A Method for the Precision Mass Measurement of the Stop Quark at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freitas, Ayres; /Chicago U. /Argonne /Zurich U.; Milstene, Caroline; /Fermilab /Wayne State U.; Schmitt, Michael; /Northwestern U.; Sopczak, Andre; /Lancaster U.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many supersymmetric models predict new particles within the reach of the next generation of colliders. For an understanding of the model structure and the mechanism(s) of symmetry breaking, it is important to know the masses of the new particles precisely. In this article the measurement of the mass of the scalar partner of the top quark (stop) at an e+e- collider is studied. A relatively light stop is motivated by attempts to explain electroweak baryogenesis and can play an important role in dark matter relic density. A method is presented which makes use of cross-section measurements near the pair-production threshold as well as at higher center-of-mass energies. It is shown that this method not only increases the statistical precision, but also greatly reduces the systematic uncertainties, which can be important. Numerical results are presented, based on a realistic event simulation, for two signal selection strategies: using conventional selection cuts, and using an Iterative Discriminant Analysis (IDA). Our studies indicate that a precision of {Delta}m{tilde t}{sub 1} = 0.42 GeV can be achieved, representing a major improvement over previous studies. While the analysis of stops is particularly challenging due to the possibility of stop hadronization, the general procedure could be applied to the mass measurement of other particles as well. We also comment on the potential of the IDA to discover a stop quark in this scenario, and we revisit the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the neutralino relic density

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Bohanon, T.M.; Mikrut, J.M.

    1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact method and apparatus are described for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement of mechanical characteristics of fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use. 4 figures.

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Bohanon, Thomas M. (Evanston, IL); Mikrut, John M. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact method and apparatus for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement mechanical characteristics' fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use.

  3. Device and method for the measurement of depth of interaction using co-planar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi (Syosset, NY)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for measuring a depth of interaction of an ionizing event and improving resolution of a co-planar grid sensor (CPG) are provided. A time-of-occurrence is measured using a comparator to time the leading edge of the event pulse from the non-collecting or collecting grid. A difference signal between the grid signals obtained with a differential amplifier includes a pulse with a leading edge occurring at the time-of-detection, measured with another comparator. A timing difference between comparator outputs corresponds to the depth of interaction, calculated using a processor, which in turn weights the difference grid signal to improve spectral resolution of a CPG sensor. The device, which includes channels for grid inputs, may be integrated into an Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The combination of the device and sensor is included. An improved high-resolution CPG is provided, e.g., a gamma-ray Cadmium Zinc Telluride CPG sensor operating at room temperature.

  4. Test method for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pate, B.A.; Peterson, M.R.; Rickman, E.E.; Jayanty, R.K.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol was designated under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as a pollutant to be regulated. A test method has been developed for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources. The methanol sampling train (MST) consists of a glass-lined heated probe, two condensate knockout traps, and three sorbent cartridges packed with Anasorb 747. The Anasorb samples were desorbed with a 1:1 mixture of carbon disulfide and N,N-dimethylformamide. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Following laboratory testing, field tests of the MST and the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) sampling method for methanol were conducted at two pulp and paper mills. In accordance with EPA Methol 301, two pairs of trains were run in parallel for six runs, collecting a total of 24 samples by each method. During each run, half of the trains were spiked with a known amount of methanol. The sampling location at the first test was an inlet vent to a softwood bleach plant scrubber where the methanol concentration was about 30 ppm. A second field test was conducted at the vent of a black liquor oxidation tank where the methanol concentration was about 350 ppm. Samples were shown to be stable for at least 2 weeks after collection.

  5. An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE`s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE`s Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute`s Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454{degrees}C [850`F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about {plus_minus}5% (23.6{degrees}C [42.5{degrees}F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes.

  6. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham Tu Quoc, S., E-mail: sang.phamtuquoc@cea.fr; Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)] [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ? L ? r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

  7. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng F. (Newton, MA); Tu, Yi (Belmont, MA)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  8. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qinglin [General Motors Global Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 (United States); Xiao, Xingcheng, E-mail: xingcheng.xiao@gm.com; Verbrugge, Mark W. [General Motors Global Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Cheng, Yang-Tse [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 (United States)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  9. Fiber-optic apparatus and method for measurement of luminescence and raman scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael L. (Livermore, CA); Angel, Stanley M. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual fiber forward scattering optrode for Raman spectroscopy with the remote ends of the fibers in opposed, spaced relationship to each other to form a analyte sampling space therebetween and the method of measuring Raman spectra utilizing same. One optical fiber is for sending an exciting signal to the remote sampling space and, at its remote end, has a collimating microlens and an optical filter for filtering out background emissions generated in the fiber. The other optical fiber is for collecting the Raman scattering signal at the remote sampling space and, at its remote end, has a collimating microlens and an optical filter to prevent the exciting signal from the exciting fiber from entering the collection fiber and to thereby prevent the generation of background emissions in the collecting fiber.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  12. Apparatus and method for measuring critical current properties of a coated conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Haenisch, Jens (Dresden, DE)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The transverse critical-current uniformity in a superconducting tape was determined using a magnetic knife apparatus. A critical current I.sub.c distribution and transverse critical current density J.sub.c distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a magnetic knife apparatus. The method utilizes the strong depression of J.sub.c in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low, including zero, magnetic field in a surrounding higher field is moved transversely across a sample of coated conductor. This reveals the critical current density distribution. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J.sub.c distribution in the sample.

  13. In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICALLY-BASED METHOD TO INTERPRET REAL-TIME FLOWING MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Keita Yoshioka; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we are developing new methods for interpreting measurements in complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to determine the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. These methods are needed to take full advantage of ''smart'' well instrumentation, a technology that is rapidly evolving to provide the ability to continuously and permanently monitor downhole temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and perhaps other fluid flow properties at many locations along a wellbore; and hence, to control and optimize well performance. In this first year, we have made considerable progress in the development of the forward model of temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. In this period, we have progressed on three major parts of the forward problem of predicting the temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. These three parts are the temperature and pressure behaviors in the reservoir near the wellbore, in the wellbore or laterals in the producing intervals, and in the build sections connecting the laterals, respectively. Many models exist to predict pressure behavior in reservoirs and wells, but these are almost always isothermal models. To predict temperature behavior we derived general mass, momentum, and energy balance equations for these parts of the complex well system. Analytical solutions for the reservoir and wellbore parts for certain special conditions show the magnitude of thermal effects that could occur. Our preliminary sensitivity analyses show that thermal effects caused by near-wellbore reservoir flow can cause temperature changes that are measurable with smart well technology. This is encouraging for the further development of the inverse model.

  15. Expandable LED array interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  16. Intelligent field emission arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

  17. GUINEVERE experiment: Kinetic analysis of some reactivity measurement methods by deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, G.; Burgio, N.; Carta, M. [ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy); Peluso, V. [ENEA C.R. BOLOGNA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fabrizio, V.; Ricci, L. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza, C/o ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GUINEVERE experiment (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) is an experimental program in support of the ADS technology presently carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol (Belgium). In the experiment a modified lay-out of the original thermal VENUS critical facility is coupled to an accelerator, built by the French body CNRS in Grenoble, working in both continuous and pulsed mode and delivering 14 MeV neutrons by bombardment of deuterons on a tritium-target. The modified lay-out of the facility consists of a fast subcritical core made of 30% U-235 enriched metallic Uranium in a lead matrix. Several off-line and on-line reactivity measurement techniques will be investigated during the experimental campaign. This report is focused on the simulation by deterministic (ERANOS French code) and Monte Carlo (MCNPX US code) calculations of three reactivity measurement techniques, Slope ({alpha}-fitting), Area-ratio and Source-jerk, applied to a GUINEVERE subcritical configuration (namely SC1). The inferred reactivity, in dollar units, by the Area-ratio method shows an overall agreement between the two deterministic and Monte Carlo computational approaches, whereas the MCNPX Source-jerk results are affected by large uncertainties and allow only partial conclusions about the comparison. Finally, no particular spatial dependence of the results is observed in the case of the GUINEVERE SC1 subcritical configuration. (authors)

  18. DEFECT ASSESSMENT USING CONFORMABLE ARRAY DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred E. Crouch; Todd H. Goyen

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the design and fabrication of a conformable eddy current array useful for the mapping and measurement of external corrosion on a transmission pipeline. The feasibility of the basic measuring approach was demonstrated and the general guidelines for sensor design were disclosed in a previous project. This project was concerned with design of a practical array, development of interface electronics, and design of the operation and analysis software. A prototype system was constructed, checked out, and demonstrated on natural corrosion in a field environment.

  19. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  20. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian (Newton, MA); Chen, Jinghua (Chestnut Hill, MA); Huang, Zhongping (Belmont, MA); Wang, Dezhi (Wellesley, MA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  1. Initial exploration of 21-cm cosmology with imaging and power spectra from the Murchison Widefield Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher Leigh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency radio array under construction in Western Australia with a primary goal of measuring the power spectrum of the 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen during the Epoch ...

  2. The use of non-destructive passive neutron measurement methods in dismantling and radioactive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P. G. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bernard, P.; Loridon, J. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Soyer, P.; Pouyat, D. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, DPAD, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Torreblanca, L. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, LMDE, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Reneleau, A. [AREVA NC, Pierrelatte, DDAC/ESD, BP16, F-26701 Pierrelatte Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cleaning up and dismantling of nuclear facilities lead to a great volume of technological radioactive wastes which need to be characterized in order to be sent to the adequate final disposal or interim storage. The control and characterization can be performed with non-destructive nuclear measurements such as gamma-ray spectrometry. Passive neutron counting is an alternative when the alpha-gamma emitters cannot be detected due to the presence of a high gamma emission resulting from fission or activation products, or when the waste matrix is too absorbing for the gamma rays of interest (too dense and/or made of high atomic number elements). It can also be a complement to gamma-ray spectrometry when two measurement results must be confronted to improve the confidence in the activity assessment. Passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 244}Cm...) and neutrons resulting from ({alpha}, n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, Be...). The latter is conditioned by the presence of high {alpha}-activity radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am...) and low-Z elements, which depends on the chemical form (metallic, oxide or fluorine) of the plutonium or uranium contaminant. This paper presents the recent application of passive neutron methods to the cleaning up of a nuclear facility located at CEA Cadarache (France), which concerns the Pu mass assessment of 2714 historic, 100 litre radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. Another application is the dismantling and decommissioning of an uranium enrichment facility for military purposes, which involves the {sup 235}U and total uranium quantifications in about a thousand, large compressors employed in the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. (authors)

  3. Method Evaluation And Field Sample Measurements For The Rate Of Movement Of The Oxidation Front In Saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Stefanko, D. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Spencer, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hatfield, A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Arai, Y. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a series of methods and validate their capability to measure differences in oxidized versus reduced saltstone. Validated methods were then applied to samples cured under field conditions to simulate Performance Assessment (PA) needs for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Four analytical approaches were evaluated using laboratory-cured saltstone samples. These methods were X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), chemical redox indicators, and thin-section leaching methods. XAS and thin-section leaching methods were validated as viable methods for studying oxidation movement in saltstone. Each method used samples that were spiked with chromium (Cr) as a tracer for oxidation of the saltstone. The two methods were subsequently applied to field-cured samples containing chromium to characterize the oxidation state of chromium as a function of distance from the exposed air/cementitious material surface.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - acceleration measurement method Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    method Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 HybridOS: Runtime Support for Reconfigurable Accelerators Summary: and evaluated four methods for accessing the data buffers required by...

  5. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yang, “Solution-processed core-shell nanowires for efficientYong, “Fabrication of ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays fornew fabrication method for core-shell nanopillar array solar

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  7. Top Quark Mass Measurement in the Lepton plus Jets Channel Using a Modified Matrix Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a measurement of the top quark mass, m{sub t}, obtained from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron using the CDF II detector. They analyze a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.9 rfb{sup -1}. They select events with an electron or muon, large missing transverse energy, and exactly four high-energy jets in the central region of the detector, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark. They calculate a signal likelihood using a matrix element integration method, where the matrix element is modified by using effective propagators to take into account assumptions on event kinematics. The event likelihood is a function of m{sub t} and a parameter JES that determines in situ the calibration of the jet energies. They use a neural network discriminant to distinguish signal from background events. They also apply a cut on the peak value of each event likelihood curve to reduce the contribution of background and badly reconstructed events. Using the 318 events that pass all selection criteria, they find m{sub t} = 172.7 {+-} 1.8 (stat. + JES) {+-} 1.2(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  8. Fast Characterization of Radiation Patterns of Conformal Array Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -arrays. At the finest level of decomposition, the radiation patterns of single element arrays are computed or measured are thus of special interest for imaging radar systems mounted on the fuselage of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or of an aircraft [1]. This new generation of radar imaging systems is based

  9. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunden, Melissa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutant Control Index: A New Method of Characterizing Ventilation in Commercial Buildings." Proceedings of Indoor Air'

  10. Study of the Electrochemical System of Antimony-Tellurium in Dimethyl Sulfoxide for Growth of Nanowire Arrays, and an Innovative Method for Single Nanowire Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisman, Philip Taubman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can then be put in an electroless nickel bath, resulting inand then with an electroless nickel deposition. to breakagenickel through a warm electroless nickel bath. At this point

  11. Study of the Electrochemical System of Antimony-Tellurium in Dimethyl Sulfoxide for Growth of Nanowire Arrays, and an Innovative Method for Single Nanowire Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisman, Philip Taubman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    followed by the nickel electrodeposition; this results incoated with nickel through electrodeposition and then with

  12. Study of the Electrochemical System of Antimony-Tellurium in Dimethyl Sulfoxide for Growth of Nanowire Arrays, and an Innovative Method for Single Nanowire Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisman, Philip Taubman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peltier Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .time later in 1834 Jean Peltier independently discovered thewould later be known as the Peltier effect. Finally in 1851

  13. Quantum manipulation and simulation using Josephson junction arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xingxiang Zhou; Ari Mizel

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the prospect of using quantum properties of large scale Josephson junction arrays for quantum manipulation and simulation. We study the collective vibrational quantum modes of a Josephson junction array and show that they provide a natural and practical method for realizing a high quality cavity for superconducting qubit based QED. We further demonstrate that by using Josephson junction arrays we can simulate a family of problems concerning spinless electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions. These protocols require no or few controls over the Josephson junction array and are thus relatively easy to realize given currently available technology.

  14. Field comparison of the point velocity probe with other groundwater velocity measurement methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labaky, W.; Devlin, J. F.; Gillham, R. W.

    2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Field testing of a new tool for measuring groundwater velocities at the centimeter scale, the point velocity probe (PVP), was undertaken at Canadian Forces Base, Borden, Ontario, Canada. The measurements were performed in ...

  15. Rapid Screening of Complex Chemical Samples via Capillary Array Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Anex; D. W. Neyer

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the results of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that developed instrumentation and methods for capillary array analysis. During the course of this project, a new capillary array electrochromatography instrument was developed to perform eight simultaneous separations and provide complementary chromatographic information from each column on a single sample.

  16. Method and apparatus of a portable imaging-based measurement with self calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh (Ann Arbor, MI); Huang, Hsun-Hau (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable imaging-based measurement device is developed to perform 2D projection based measurements on an object that is difficult or dangerous to access. This device is equipped with self calibration capability and built-in operating procedures to ensure proper imaging based measurement.

  17. MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data.

  18. ROBOTIC DEVICE FOR CLEANING PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL ARRAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    -Corresponding Author, ymarkopoulos@greenproject.gr, +30-210-60.90.880 With growing costs of electricity and concern. The main method for harnessing solar power is with arrays made up of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Accumulation, and it is vital to maximize the power generating potential during daily service. The accumulation of dust

  19. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Wuenschel; K. Hagel; L. W. May; R. Wada; S. J. Yennello

    2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4 $\\pi$ array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of 86Kr+64Ni at 35MeV/u.

  20. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; May, L. W.; Wada, R.; Yennello, S. J. [Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute College Station TX 77843 (United States)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4{pi} array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of {sup 86}Kr+{sup 64}Ni at 35 MeV/u.

  1. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  2. Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, S. R.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to compare and evaluate several candidate test methods for evaluating oxidation stability of biodiesel.

  3. Measurement method for roll angular displacement with a high resolution by using diffraction gratings and a heterodyne interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Shanzhi, E-mail: shanzhit@gmail.com [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Gao, Jianmin; Guo, Junjie [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The roll angle measurement is difficult to be achieved directly using a typical commercial interferometer due to its low sensitivity in axial direction, where the axial direction is orthogonal to the plane of the roll angular displacement. A roll angle measurement method combined diffraction gratings with a laser heterodyne interferometer is discussed in this paper. The diffraction grating placed in the plane of a roll angular displacement and the interferometer arranged in the plane's orthogonal direction, constitute the measurement pattern for the roll angle with high resolution. The roll angular displacement, considered as the linear, can be tested precisely when the corresponding angle is very small. Using the proposed method, the angle roll measurement obtains the high resolution of 0.002{sup ?}. Experiment has proved its feasibility and practicability.

  4. Compound droplet manipulations on fiber arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyer, Floriane; Dreesen, Laurent; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent works demonstrated that fiber arrays may constitue the basis of an open digital microfluidics. Various processes, such as droplet motion, fragmentation, trapping, release, mixing and encapsulation, may be achieved on fiber arrays. However, handling a large number of tiny droplets resulting from the mixing of several liquid components is still a challenge for developing microreactors, smart sensors or microemulsifying drugs. Here, we show that the manipulation of tiny droplets onto fiber networks allows for creating compound droplets with a high complexity level. Moreover, this cost-effective and flexible method may also be implemented with optical fibers in order to develop fluorescence-based biosensor.

  5. Noninterceptive method to measure longitudinal Twiss parameters of a beam in a hadron linear accelerator using beam position monitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shishlo, A.; Aleksandrov, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of measuring of the rms longitudinal Twiss parameters of a beam in linear accelerators is presented. It is based on using sum signals from beam position monitors sensitive to the longitudinal charge distribution in the bunch. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on the superconducting section of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator. The results are compared to a direct measurement of the bunch longitudinal profiles using an interceptive bunch shape monitor in the linac warm section of the same accelerator. Limitations of the method are discussed. The method is fast and simple, and can be used to obtain the initial parameters for the longitudinal matching in linear accelerators where interceptive diagnostics are not desirable.

  6. Case Study of the Application of a Modified Method to Measure Global Solar Irradiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rael, F. P.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Case study that examines the application of a pyranometer responsivity function to data from 23 measurement stations in the Southern Great Plains.

  7. Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydride from the Salado Formation: Sensitivity analysis and data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, R.L.; Kalbus, J.S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents, demonstrates, evaluates, and provides theoretical justification for methods used to convert experimental data into relative permeability relationships. The report facilities accurate determination of relative permeabilities of anhydride rock samples from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Relative permeability characteristic curves are necessary for WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) predictions of the potential for flow of waste-generated gas from the repository and brine flow into repository. This report follows Christiansen and Howarth (1995), a comprehensive literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability. It focuses on unsteady-state experiments and describes five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments. Unsteady-state experimental methods were recommended for relative permeability measurements of low-permeability anhydrite rock samples form the Salado Formation because these tests produce accurate relative permeability information and take significantly less time to complete than steady-state tests. Five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments are described: the Welge method, the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann method, the Jones-Roszelle method, the Ramakrishnan-Cappiello method, and the Hagoort method. A summary, an example of the calculations, and a theoretical justification are provided for each of the five methods. Displacements in porous media are numerically simulated for the calculation examples. The simulated product data were processed using the methods, and the relative permeabilities obtained were compared with those input to the numerical model. A variety of operating conditions were simulated to show sensitivity of production behavior to rock-fluid properties.

  8. CURRENT LOS ALAMOS SFERIC ARRAY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heavner, M.J.; Smith, D.A.; Harlin, J.

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of fast electric-field-change sensors has been operated in New Mexico, Texas, Florida, and Nebraska during 1998--2000 to improve identification of lightning processes responsible for VHF and optical signals detected by the FORTE satellite. Differential time of arrival methods are used to provide gee-locations of events from multi-station observations. A comparison of two dimensional location from the steric array and the National Lightning Detection Network operated by Global Atmospherics, Inc. is presented. Also, the time differences of multiple paths of the lightning signals to a station due to ionospheric reflection can be used to determine the altitude of a temporally narrow event. We present altitude determination of Compact Intracloud Discharges observed by the steric array and compare with the Kennedy Space Center Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system in Florida.

  9. A New Method to Reconstruct the Energy and Determine the Composition of Cosmic Rays from the Measurement of Cherenkov Light and Particle Densities in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lindner

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Monte-Carlo study to reconstruct energy and mass of cosmic rays with energies above 300 TeV using ground based measurements of the electromagnetic part of showers initiated in the atmosphere is presented. The shower properties determined with two detector arrays measuring the air Cherenkov light and the particle densities as realized at the HEGRA experiment are processed to determine the energy of the primary particle without the need of any hypothesis concerning its mass. The mass of the primary particle is reconstructed coarsely from the same observables in parallel to the energy determination.

  10. Experimental method for reactor-noise measurements of effective beta. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, E.F.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variance-to-mean noise technique, modified to eliminate systematic errors from drifting of reactor power, has been used to infer integral values of effective beta for uranium and plutonium fueled fast reactor modk-ups. The measurement technique, including corrections for a finite detector-electrometer time response, is described together with preliminary beta measurement results.

  11. Ultrasonic methods for measuring liquid viscosity and volume percent of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes two ultrasonic techniques under development at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the tank-waste transport effort undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy in treating low-level nuclear waste. The techniques are intended to provide continuous on-line measurements of waste viscosity and volume percent of solids in a waste transport line. The ultrasonic technique being developed for waste-viscosity measurement is based on the patented ANL viscometer. Focus of the viscometer development in this project is on improving measurement accuracy, stability, and range, particularly in the low-viscosity range (<30 cP). A prototype instrument has been designed and tested in the laboratory. Better than 1% accuracy in liquid density measurement can be obtained by using either a polyetherimide or polystyrene wedge. To measure low viscosities, a thin-wedge design has been developed and shows good sensitivity down to 5 cP. The technique for measuring volume percent of solids is based on ultrasonic wave scattering and phase velocity variation. This report covers a survey of multiple scattering theories and other phenomenological approaches. A theoretical model leading to development of an ultrasonic instrument for measuring volume percent of solids is proposed, and preliminary measurement data are presented.

  12. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohn, Gabriel (Omer, IL); Hicho, George (Derwood, MD); Swartzendruber, Lydon (New Carrollton, MD)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment.

  13. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

    1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

  14. Total hemispherical emittance measured at high temperatures by the calorimetric method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiFilippo, F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Mirtich, M.J.; Banks, B.A. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Stidham, C.; Kussmaul, M. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A calorimetric vacuum emissometer (CVE) capable of measuring total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at elevated temperatures was designed, built, and tested. Several materials with a wide range of emittances were measured in the CVE between 773 to 923 K. These results were compared to values calculated from spectral emittance curves measured in a room temperature Hohlraum reflectometer and in an open-air elevated temperature emissometer. The results differed by as much as 0.2 for some materials but were in closer agreement for the more highly-emitting, diffuse-reflecting samples. The differences were attributed to temperature, atmospheric, and directional effects, and errors in the Hohlraum and emissometer measurements ({+-} 5 percent). The probable error of the CVE measurements was typically less than 1 percent.

  15. DEFECT ASSESSMENT USING CONFORMABLE ARRAY DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred E. Crouch

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conformable array data acquisition system consists of the array, the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and the data acquisition and analysis software. The following decisions were made in the development of the system. Array design decisions include the following: (a) The flexible array board will be approximately 8 by 12 inches square with the active coil section confined to a smaller 6-inch-square section at the center of the board. The outer edges of the board will be used for switching and other circuitry. (b) The diameter of the array coils will be approximately 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Data acquisition strategy includes: (a) The corrosion spots will be mapped by successive interrogations of the active section of the array board. Approximately 10,000 samples will be acquired for each coil. The 10,000 readings will be averaged to produce one lower-noise value for each coil. This will be repeated for each coil in the array in a sequential manner. The total corrosion image for the sector will be built from the individual coil data. (b) Corrosion larger than the operational portion of the array board will be measured using a grid technique. Uniquely identified areas in the grid will overlay a corroded area, and data collected for each area will be connected by the display and assessment software to form a composite image for the corroded area. (c) Defect assessment will be invoked on the corrosion image by ''boxing'' selected areas on the color contour map. Software decisions consisted of selecting the appropriate LABVIEW modules running in a Windows XP operating system to obtain the required functionality. This third quarterly report of the project presents the activity and conclusions reached to date. Specifically, the design of the conformable array was completed and work was started on obtaining the data acquisition hardware. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and Clock Spring{reg_sign} staff met at the SwRI facilities in June 2003 to discuss the project. The Clock Spring representative was given the latest version of the data acquisition and analysis software for evaluation. Comments were received.

  16. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

  17. 5th International Landfills Conference -Sardinia'95, Cagliari, 1995 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR MEASURING BIOGAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OF A METHOD FOR MEASURING BIOGAS EMISSIONS USING A DYNAMIC CHAMBER Zbigniew POKRYSZKA, Christian TAUZIEDE biogas flow, designing a dynamic flux chamber. Preliminary bench tests revealed the necessity of defining gas releases. A mixture of gases (known as biogas) is produced from organic waste, and consists mainly

  18. Development of a device for the measurement of biological tissue optical properties using the single Monte Carlo method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bendele, Travis Henry

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A honeycomb probe was designed to measure the optical properties of biological tissues using single Monte Carlo method. The ongoing project is intended to be a multi-wavelength, real time, and in-vivo technique to detect breast cancer. Preliminary...

  19. Investigation of a high spatial resolution method based on polar coordinate maximum entropy method for analyzing electron density fluctuation data measured by laser phase contrast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, K. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Iguchi, H.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser phase contrast is a powerful diagnostic method to determine the spatial distribution of electron density fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas, although its applicability depends on magnetic field configurations. The spatial resolution of fluctuations is linked with the resolution of the propagation direction that is derived from the two-dimensional spectral analysis of the wavenumber for the fluctuations. The method was applied to fluctuation measurements in a compact helical system. In order to improve the resolution of the propagation direction with a relatively small number of data points, the maximum entropy method with polar coordinates was employed. A spatial resolution of the order of 1 cm was obtained, which is satisfactory in a plasma with a 20 cm minor radius.

  20. A fast new method for measuring hard-to-diagnose 3D plasmas in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin blue saddle coils that researchers used to make diagnostic measurements with the new computer code. (Photo by Graphic by Sam Lazerson) A simulated plasma in the Large Helical...

  1. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

  2. Evanescent wave and video microscopy methods for directly measuring interactions between surface-immobilized biomolecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, William Neil

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial and temporal tracking of passively diffusing functionalized colloids continues to be an improving and auspicious approach to measuring weak specific and non-specific biomolecular interactions. Evidence of this is given by the recent increase...

  3. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  4. Measurement Error in Progress Monitoring Data: Comparing Methods Necessary for High-Stakes Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruhl, Susan

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -stakes decisions. The study was conducted using extant data from 92 "low performing" third graders who were progress monitored using mathematics concept and application measures. The results for the participants in this study identified 1) the number of weeks...

  5. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIsaac, C.V.; Killian, E.W.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Kynaston, R.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Randolph, P.D.

    1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector. 7 figs.

  6. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIsaac, Charles V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Killian, E. Wayne (Idaho Falls, ID); Grafwallner, Ervin G. (Arco, ID); Kynaston, Ronnie L. (Blackfoot, ID); Johnson, Larry O. (Pocatello, ID); Randolph, Peter D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Based Nanoelectrode Arrays: Fabrication, Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arrays: Fabrication, Evaluation and Application in Voltammetric Analysis. Carbon Nanotubes Based Nanoelectrode Arrays: Fabrication, Evaluation and Application in Voltammetric...

  8. Solar array construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnect tab on each cell of a first set of circular solar cells connects that cell in series with an adjacent cell in the set. This set of cells is arranged in alternate columns and rows of an array and a second set of similar cells is arranged in the remaining alternate columns and rows of the array. Three interconnect tabs on each solar cell of the said second set are employed to connect the cells of the second set to one another, in series and to connect the cells of the second set to those of the first set in parallel. Some tabs (making parallel connections) connect the same surface regions of adjacent cells to one another and others (making series connections) connect a surface region of one cell to the opposite surface region of an adjacent cell; however, the tabs are so positioned that the array may be easily assembled by depositing the cells in a certain sequence and in proper orientation.

  9. Array detector for high energy laser based on diffuse transmission sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Miao [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China) [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 China (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Rong, Jian [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)] [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhou, Shan; Wu, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Xiaoyang [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 China (China)] [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 China (China); Fan, Guobin [Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to improve the ability and accuracy of measuring the temporal–spatial distribution of the intensity of a large-size, high-energy laser beam, a novel array detecting method based on diffuse transmission sampling is proposed. The measurement principle and the design of the sampling and attenuating unit are presented. High-temperature-resistant diffuse transmission material is used to sample and attenuate a high energy laser beam. Pure copper, whose surface is first sand-blasted and then gold-plated, is applied to scatter the incident high-energy laser beam. The formula for the attenuation ratio was derived in detail. We developed two large-aperture array detectors with spatial resolution of 5 mm, spatial duty ratio of 20%, and useable angle range of ±30° without varying the responsivity, the non-uniformity in the laser profile measurement is below 1%, and the repeatability error in the laser power measurement is approximately 1%. The maximal energy density that the array detector can endure is more than 10 kJ/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  11. Standardization and Application of Spectrophotometric Method for Reductive Capacity Measurement of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Wonjoong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    incubation, the particles were removed from the solution by either filtration or centrifugation before applying the spectrophotometric method. In addition, optimal pH and minimum time to reach ultimate color intensity were also found. Carbon...

  12. Measurement of resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators: Comparison of methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    , so that a Q determination must be robust over many orders of magnitude of Q. Also, it must. Smith chart methods have been used to determine half-power points which can be used in conjunction

  13. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux dependence of photosynthesis and respiration. This observation provides empirical validation of efforts consideration of the temperature dependence of respiration and photosynthesis are likely to carry significant

  14. Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughman, Christopher Reed.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

  15. Method of automatic measurement and focus of an electron beam and apparatus therefore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giedt, W.H.; Campiotti, R.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam focusing system, including a plural slit-type Faraday beam trap, for measuring the diameter of an electron beam and automatically focusing the beam for welding is disclosed. Beam size is determined from profiles of the current measured as the beam is swept over at least two narrow slits of the beam trap. An automated procedure changes the focus coil current until the focal point location is just below a workpiece surface. A parabolic equation is fitted to the calculated beam sizes from which optimal focus coil current and optimal beam diameter are determined. 12 figs.

  16. Methods of predicting the weight of carcass roast and steak meat from easily obtainable carcass measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzhugh, Henry Allen

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEASUREMENTS 152 HEREFORD STEERS AND 51 CROSSBRED STEERS 16 3. SIMPLE CORRELATIONS BET!&EN CARCASS MEASUREMENTS 152 HEREFORD S EERS. 17 4. PARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS WITH CHILLED CARCASS WEIGHT HELD CONSTANT ? 152 HEREFORD STEERS. 19 5. PARTIAL... retail cuts by 1. 5 percent or sligh ly ?ore thtan otte percetdc& Leapt'cl ively. Furthermore, an tt 1 1 1' ~tt 1t 1 ~P; by 1' k (1960) 1t 6 an U. S. D. A, conclusion that the negative effect of fatness on carcass yield is approximately twice as great...

  17. Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilya N. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Puretzky, Alexander A [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites. A composition includes a vertically aligned nanotube array including a plurality of nanotubes characterized by a property across substantially all of the vertically aligned nanotube array. A method includes depositing a vertically aligned nanotube array that includes a plurality of nanotubes; and controlling a deposition rate of the vertically aligned nanotubes array as a function of an in situ monitored property of the plurality of nanotubes.

  18. Method for measuring and controlling beam current in ion beam processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kearney, Patrick A. (Livermore, CA); Burkhart, Scott C. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing film thickness control of ion beam sputter deposition films. Great improvements in film thickness control is accomplished by keeping the total current supplied to both the beam and suppressor grids of a radio frequency (RF) in beam source constant, rather than just the current supplied to the beam grid. By controlling both currents, using this method, deposition rates are more stable, and this allows the deposition of layers with extremely well controlled thicknesses to about 0.1%. The method is carried out by calculating deposition rates based on the total of the suppressor and beam currents and maintaining the total current constant by adjusting RF power which gives more consistent values.

  19. Method for measuring the effectiveness of gaseous-contaminant removal filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, B.M.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents a brief review of the gas-adsorption kinetics theory applicable to adsorption of gaseous contaminants by filter media, and an algorithm for assessing the effectiveness of filtering devices with flow bypass. It briefly describes the selected testing technique for measuring the effectiveness of filter media, and presents experimental data for adsorption of n-butane, toluene, and carbon monoxide.

  20. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Moyers, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stewart, Brian K. (Burns, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner.

  1. Measuring LCSTs by Novel Temperature Gradient Methods: Evidence for Intermolecular Interactions in Mixed Polymer Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the precipitation mechanisms are often complex, it is generally accepted that the desorption of water molecules from the temperature along the tube was a simple matter of measuring the lengthwise position. As a demonstration inverted microscope by employing dark field microscopy (Figure 2). Interestingl

  2. Bayesian Functional Integral Method for Inferring Continuous Data from Discrete Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research and k Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences, Department secretion rate (ISR) from C-peptide measurements as a quantification of pancreatic b-cell function as manifested in the insulin secretion rate (ISR) is clinically important in assessing the contribution

  3. A method for calibration of bone driver transducers to measure the mastoid impedance Reggie Weecea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    bone vibrator transducers for clinical measurements, the transfer of energy from the bone driver by known masses. This absolute calibration is based upon a circuit model of the driver, describing specialized equipment not available in the clinic, and a refined bone driver circuit model is proposed

  4. Research Paper A method for calibration of bone driver transducers to measure the mastoid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    vibrator transducers for clinical measurements, the transfer of energy from the bone driver depends. This absolute calibration is based upon a circuit model of the driver, describing it with three frequency in the clinic, and a refined bone driver circuit model is proposed to better capture the observed behaviors. Ã?

  5. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bionta, M. R., E-mail: mina.bionta@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartmann, N. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Nicholson, D. J. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Cryan, J. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Baker, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kane, D. J. [Mesa Photonics, LLC., 1550 Pacheco St., Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States); and others

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  6. New method for measuring time-resolved spectra of lanthanide emission using square-wave excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Qianqian Duan,3 Wei Cai,2,a) Zhiguo Zhang,1,4,b) and Wenwu Cao1,4,5,c) 1 Condensed Matter Science more and more attentions, due to the relatively high exci- tation photon energy compared infrared quantum cutting, which aims at im- proving the efficiency of solar cells.8,9 In such cases, measur

  7. Apparatus and method for measuring the uniformity of the nuclide distribution in an extended source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarev, A.A.; Gavrilov, V.D.; Radchenko, V.M.; Berkutov, V.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical description is given of an apparatus for remote sensing of the activity distribution along a radioactive source, which is based on gamma scanning. Test results with extended sources are reported and recommendations are made on improving the equipment. The apparatus was tested with line sources of californium-252, curium-244, and americium-241. The amount of californium-252 was determined by a relative method involving comparison of the neutron count rates from the test source and a standard one. The amounts of curium and americium in the sources were determined by a radiometric method after dissolution.

  8. Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, D. Kent (San Francisco, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

  9. A Laboratory Method For Measuring The Ozone Emission From In-duct Air Cleaners.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    : Emission rate, HVAC air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators, coronas, standard test method 1 Introduction Subchapter 8.7). However, in-duct air cleaners including electronic air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators of an ozone analyzer. Viner et al. (1992) studied commercial in-duct electrostatic precipitators and observed

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring on-line failure of turbine thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zombo, Paul J.; Lemieux, Dennis; Diatzikis, Evangelos

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of remotely monitoring the radiant energy (6) emitted from a turbine component such as a turbine blade (1) having a low-reflective surface coating (3) which may be undergoing potential degradation is used to determine whether erosion, spallation, delamination, or the like, of the coating (3) is occurring.

  11. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of PbTe Nanocrystal Coated Glass Fibers by the 3 Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruan, Xiulin

    and high aspect ratio result in a significant thermal radiation effect. We simulate the experiment using such as automobile exhaust pipes, power plant steam pipes, manufacturing industry cooling pipes, and so forth. Our the radiation effect and extract the thermal conductivity at the single fiber level. Our simulation method

  12. Noisy clocks and silent sunrises: measurement methods of daily activity pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    intensity or ambient temperature and thus of the sun's position in the sky: time of sunrise, zenith; distribution of activity. Correspondence Pierre Nouvellet. Current address: Biology and Environmental Science with the actual position of the sun. To demonstrate the important difference between these methods of analysis, we

  13. Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of operation using micro-mechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (616 Plainfield Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923); Oden, Patrick I. (804-171 Olde Pioneer Trail, Knoxville, TN 37923); Datskos, Panagiotis G. (8444 Mecklenburg Ct., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact infrared thermometer measures target temperatures remotely without requiring the ratio of the target size to the target distance to the thermometer. A collection means collects and focusses target IR radiation on an IR detector. The detector measures thermal energy of the target over a spectrum using micromechanical sensors. A processor means calculates the collected thermal energy in at least two different spectral regions using a first algorithm in program form and further calculates the ratio of the thermal energy in the at least two different spectral regions to obtain the target temperature independent of the target size, distance to the target and emissivity using a second algorithm in program form.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; means for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and means for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a means for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

  15. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  17. Method and system of measuring ultrasonic signals in the plane of a moving web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, M.S.; Jackson, T.G.; Wink, W.A.; Knerr, C.

    1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like is disclosed. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the machine direction, MD, and a cross direction, CD, generally perpendicular to the direction of the traveling web, therefore, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web. 37 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  19. An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.

  20. A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetrationand deposition in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    tlthatcher@lbl.gov

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size-dependent particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: (1) measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations, (2) rapid reduction in particle concentration through induced ventilation by pressurization of the houses with HEPA-filtered air, and (3) measurement of the particle concentration rebound after house pressurization stopped. During the particle concentration decay period, when indoor concentrations are very high, losses due to deposition are large compared to gains due to particle infiltration. During the concentration rebound period, the opposite is true. The large variation in indoor concentration allows the effects of penetration and deposition losses to be separated by the transient, two-parameter model we employed to analyze the data. We found penetration factors between 0.3 and 1 and deposition loss rates between 0.1 and 5 h{sup -1}, for particles between 0.1 and 10 {micro}m.

  1. Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term. 4 figs.

  2. Method for measuring the rate of cell reproduction by analysis of nanoliter cell samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, Paul L.

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting cancer using a laser biocavity having a semiconductor laser including a microchannel through which cells in fluid traverse, comprising determining the laser wavelength of the laser biocavity with only fluid in the microchannel; determining the wavelength shift of the biocavity when each cell passes through the microchannel; and determining the percentage of cells in G2 phase from the wavelength shift of the cells; wherein an increased percentage of G2 phase cells is an indication of cancer.

  3. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  4. Method of measuring the dc electric field and other tokamak parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ); Kirtz, Arnold H. (Princeton Junction, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method including externally imposing an impulsive momentum-space flux to perturb hot tokamak electrons thereby producing a transient synchrotron radiation signal, in frequency-time space, and the inference, using very fast algorithms, of plasma parameters including the effective ion charge state Z.sub.eff, the direction of the magnetic field, and the position and width in velocity space of the impulsive momentum-space flux, and, in particular, the dc toroidal electric field.

  5. Experimental measurements and methods for data analysis to determine the rotordynamic coefficients of a labyrinth seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Sang Kyu

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    subsynchronous instability, which means that rotor whirl occurs at a frequency less than the rotating speed with amplitudes which grow as running speed increases. Synchronous response of high pressure turbines, compressors and other rotating machinery can also... equation turns out to be overdetermined. The present method consists of two parts; one a part to identify the rotor support properties - stifFness and damping coefficients of roller bearings, and the other a part to identify seal force coefficients...

  6. A method for evaluating bias in global measurements of CO{sub 2} total columns from space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Connor, B. J.; Fisher, B.; Osterman, G. B.; Frankenberg, C.; Mandrake, L.; O?Dell, C.; Ahonen, P.; Biraud, S. C.; Castano, R.; Cressie, N.; Crisp, D.; Deutscher, N. M.; Eldering, A.; Fisher, M. L.; Griffith, D. W.T.; Gunson, M.; Heikkinen, P.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Kyro, E.; Lindenmaier, R.; Macatangay, R.; Mendonca, J.; Messerschmidt, J.; Miller, C. E.; Morino, I.; Notholt, J.; Oyafuso, F. A.; Rettinger, M.; Robinson, J.; Roehl, C. M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Sherlock, V.; Strong, K.; Sussmann, R.; Tanaka, T.; Thompson, D. R.; Uchino, O.; Warneke, T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method of evaluating systematic errors in measurements of total column dry-air mole fractions of CO{sub 2} (X{sub CO{sub 2}} ) from space, and we illustrate the method by applying it to the Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Observations from Space retrievals of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (ACOS-GOSAT) v2.8. The approach exploits the lack of large gradients in X{sub CO{sub 2}} south of 25{degree}#14; S to identify large-scale offsets and other biases in the ACOS-GOSAT data with several retrieval parameters and errors in instrument calibration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by comparing the ACOS-GOSAT data in the Northern Hemisphere with ground truth provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We use the correlation between free-tropospheric temperature and X{sub CO{sub 2}} in the Northern Hemisphere to define a dynamically informed coincidence criterion between the ground-based TCCON measurements and the ACOS-GOSAT measurements. We illustrate that this approach provides larger sample sizes, hence giving a more robust comparison than one that simply uses time, latitude and longitude criteria. Our results show that the agreement with the TCCON data improves after accounting for the systematic errors. A preliminary evaluation of the improved v2.9 ACOS-GOSAT data is also discussed.

  7. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel tracers that would improve method sensitivity, (3) development of a software tool for design and interpretation of reactive tracer tests and (4) field testing of the reactive tracer temperature monitoring concept.

  8. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass at CDF Using the Template Method in the Lepton + Jets Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adelman, Jahred A.; /Chicago U.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement of the top quark mass in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV is presented. The analysis uses a template method, in which the overconstrained kinematics of the Lepton+Jets channel of the t{bar t} system are used to measure a single quantity, the reconstructed top quark mass, that is strongly correlated with the true top quark mass. in addition, the dijet mass of the hadronically decaying W boson is used to constrain in situ the uncertain jet energy scale in the CDF detector. Two-dimensional probability density functions are derived using a kernel density estimate-based machinery. Using 1.9 fb{sup -1} of data, the top quark mass is measured to be 171.8{sub -1.9}{sup +1.9}(stat.) {+-} 1.0(syst.)GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, R.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  10. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  11. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators. 6 figs.

  12. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  13. Proposed method for high-speed plasma density measurement in proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarkeshian, R.; Reimann, O.; Muggli, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently a proton-bunch-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using the CERN-SPS beam was proposed. Different types of plasma cells are under study, especially laser ionization, plasma discharge, and helicon sources. One of the key parameters is the spatial uniformity of the plasma density profile along the cell that has to be within < 1% of the nominal density (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}). Here a setup based on a photomixing concept is proposed to measure the plasma cut-off frequency and determine the plasma density.

  14. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yelton, William G. (Sandia Park, NM); Siegal, Michael P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  15. Elastomeric optical fiber sensors and method for detecting and measuring events occurring in elastic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Capps, Gary J. (Knoxville, TN); Smith, David B. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Clifford P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.

  16. An investigation of a direct current method for measuring resistances of electrolytic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Jacob Russell

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    they vere in contact Cor4on and his co workers (6, 7, 8, 9, 10) published a series of papers on the oonduotivities of NaC1 ~ KGB KB' NaBrg KX ~ LiC1 and CaC1 in aqueous solutions, anhydrous methanol, an4 methanol-vater mixtures, These solutions vere... studied at various temperatures and conoentrations, employing the metho4 devised by Cunning and Cordon, Ei Elias an4 I, X+ Sohiff (ll) reported a modification of the method developed by Cunning and Cordon vhich exten4ed its application to eleotroiytes...

  17. Potential method for measurement of CO2 leakage from underground sequestration fields using radioactive tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachelor, Paula P.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Amonette, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Saripalli, Prasad

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) release to the environment is a pressing challenge that should be addressed to avert the potential devastating effects of global warming. Within the United States, the most abundant sources of CO2 emissions are those generate from coal- or gas-fired power plants; one method to control CO2 emissions is to sequester it in deep underground geological formations. From integrated assessment models the overall leakage rates from these storage locations must be less than 0.1% of stored volume per year for long-term control. The ability to detect and characterize nascent leaks, in conjunction with subsequent remediation efforts, will significantly decrease the amount of CO2 released back into the environment. Because potential leakage pathways are not necessarily known a priori, onsite monitoring must be performed; the monitoring region in the vicinity of a CO2 injection well may be as large as 100 km2, which represents the estimated size of a supercritical CO2 bubble that would form under typical injection scenarios. By spiking the injected CO2 with a radiological or stable isotope tracer, it will be possible to detect ground leaks from the sequestered CO2 using fewer sampling stations, with greater accuracy than would be possible using simple CO2 sensors. The relative merits of various sorbent materials, radiological and stable isotope tracers, detection methods and potential interferences will be discussed.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Perlee, Henry E. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

  19. Qproteome GlycoArray Handbook Qproteome GlycoArray Kit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Secondary Antibody 29 Drying Slides After Processing 33 #12;4 Qproteome GlycoArray Handbook 09/2005 Scanning Installation 37 Running GlycoArray Analysis Software 40 Interpreting the Glycoprotein Fingerprint 44 Evaluating wear a suitable lab coat, disposable gloves, and protective goggles. For more information, please

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring areas of photoelectric cells and photoelectric cell performance parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osterwald, Carl R. (Lakewood, CO); Emery, Keith A. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser scanning system for scanning the surface of a photovoltaic cell in a precise, stepped raster pattern includes electric current detecting and measuring equipment for sensing the current response of the scanned cell to the laser beam at each stepped irradiated spot or pixel on the cell surface. A computer is used to control and monitor the raster position of the laser scan as well as monitoring the corresponding current responses, storing this data, operating on it, and for feeding the data to a graphic plotter for producing a visual, color-coded image of the current response of the cell to the laser scan. A translation platform driven by stepper motors in precise X and Y distances holds and rasters the cell being scanned under a stationary spot-focused laser beam.

  1. Method and apparatus for the measurement of signals from radiation sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The preferred embodiments of the present invention include a device for measuring an ionizing event in a radiation sensor. The device can include a charge amplifier and a timing shaper. The charge amplifier receives a cathode signal and is configured to output an amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is operatively connected to the charge amplifier to receive the amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is configured to generate a first pulse in response to a beginning of the ionizing event and a second pulse in response to an end of the ionizing event. The first and second pulses are associated with a depth of interaction of the ionizing event and are generated in response to a slope of the amplified cathode signal changing.

  2. Apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO); Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearity for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V. (Williamsburg, VA); Dotson, Danny Wayne (Gloucester, VA)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  4. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

  5. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Evans, Roger (N. Hampton, NH)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the .sup.196 Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of .+-.0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour.

  6. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Evans, R.

    1991-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the [sup 196]Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of [+-]0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour. 8 figures.

  7. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  8. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher (Modesto, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  9. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  10. Light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  11. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  12. A measurement of the top quark mass with a matrix element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Adam Paul; /UC, Berkeley

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark. The event sample is selected from proton-antiproton collisions, at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy, observed with the CDF detector at Fermilab's Tevatron. They consider a 318 pb{sup -1} dataset collected between March 2002 and August 2004. They select events that contain one energetic lepton, large missing transverse energy, exactly four energetic jets, and at least one displaced vertex b tag. The analysis uses leading-order t{bar t} and background matrix elements along with parameterized parton showering to construct event-by-event likelihoods as a function of top quark mass. From the 63 events observed with the 318 pb{sup -1} dataset they extract a top quark mass of 172.0 {+-} 2.6(stat) {+-} 3.3(syst) GeV/c{sup 2} from the joint likelihood. The mean expected statistical uncertainty is 3.2 GeV/c{sup 2} for m{sub t} = 178 GTeV/c{sup 2} and 3.1 GeV/c{sup 2} for m{sub t} = 172.5 GeV/c{sup 2}. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty of the jet energy scale.

  13. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  14. Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

  15. THE NGC 300 TRANSIENT: AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR MEASURING PROGENITOR MASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.ed [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Rd., Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

    2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an alternative technique for measuring the precursor masses of transient events in stars undergoing late stage stellar evolution. We use the well-established techniques of stellar population modeling to age-date the stars surrounding the site of the recent transient event in NGC 300 (NGC 300 OT2008-1). The surrounding stars must share a common turnoff mass with the transient, since almost all stars form in stellar clusters that remain physically associated for periods longer than the lifetime of the most massive stars. We find that the precursor of NGC 300 OT2008-1 is surrounded by stars that formed in a single burst between 8 and 13 Myr ago, with 70% confidence. The transient was therefore likely to be due to a progenitor whose mass falls between the main sequence turnoff mass (12-17 M{sub sun}) and the maximum stellar mass (16-25 M{sub sun}) found for isochrones bounding this age range. We characterize the general applicability of this technique in identifying precursor masses of historic and future transients and supernovae (SNe), noting that it requires neither precursor imaging nor sub-arcsecond accuracy in the position of the transient. It is also based on the well-understood physics of the main sequence, and thus may be a more reliable source of precursor masses than fitting evolutionary tracks to precursor magnitudes. We speculate that if the progenitor mass is {approx}>17 M {sub sun}, there may be a connection between optical transients such as NGC 300 OT2008-1 and the missing type II-P SNe, known as the 'red supergiant problem'.

  16. Subcriticality measurements for coupled uranium metal cylinders using the /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalezo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments performed with two coupled uranium metal cylinders are the first application to coupled systems of the /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method for obtaining the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. These coaxial cylinders were separated axially by various thicknesses of either air or borated plaster between the flat surfaces. In all measurements, the /sup 252/Cf neutron source was located at the center of the outer flat surface of one cylinder, and the two detectors were located in three configurations. By comparing the subcriticality from the measurements performed with borated plaster separating the uranium cylinders to those separated by air, it was found that the neutron multiplication factor was always increased by the insertion of borated plaster between the cylinders, regardless of their separation.

  17. A method to measure the resonance transitions between the gravitationally bound quantum states of neutrons in the GRANIT spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreuz, M; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Soldner, T; Thomas, M; Boerner, H G; Naraghi, F; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Rebreyend, D; Vezzu, F; Flaminio, R; Michel, C; Pinard, L; Remillieux, A; Baessler, S; Gagarski, A M; Grigorieva, L A; Kuzmina, T M; Meyerovich, A E; Mezhov-Deglin, L P; Petrov, G A; Strelkov, A V; Voronin, A Yu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to measure the resonance transitions between the gravitationally bound quantum states of neutrons in the GRANIT spectrometer. The purpose of GRANIT is to improve the accuracy of measurement of the quantum states parameters by several orders of magnitude, taking advantage of long storage of Ultracold neutrons at specula trajectories. The transitions could be excited using a periodic spatial variation of a magnetic field gradient. If the frequency of such a perturbation (in the frame of a moving neutron) coincides with a resonance frequency defined by the energy difference of two quantum states, the transition probability will sharply increase. The GRANIT experiment is motivated by searches for short-range interactions (in particular spin-dependent interactions), by studying the interaction of a quantum system with a gravitational field, by searches for extensions of the Standard model, by the unique possibility to check the equivalence principle for an object in a quantum state and by study...

  18. CDF measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton + jets channel using the multivariate template method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, John; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors measure the mass of the top quark using 162 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF experiment at FNAL in Run II. The decay chain t{bar t} {yields} bq{bar q}{bar b}lv is studied using a novel technique called the Multivariate Template Method (MTM). Using this technique they obtain a result of M{sub top} = 179.6{sub -6.3}{sup +6.4} {+-} 6.8 GeV/c{sup 2} for the top quark.

  19. Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy apparatus and method with detection of shear resonances for measuring anisotropy, thickness, and other properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levesque, Daniel (Terrebonne, CA); Moreau, Andre (St-Bruno-de-Montarville, CA); Dubois, Marc (Montreal, CA); Monchalin, Jean-Pierre (Montreal, CA); Bussiere, Jean (St-Bruno, CA); Lord, Martin (Beloeil, CA); Padioleau, Christian (Montreal, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.

  20. Comparison of various interpretation methods of the electric probe measurements in inductively coupled Ar and O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo Seo, Min; Keun Bae, Min; Chung, T. H., E-mail: thchung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In low-pressure inductively coupled argon and oxygen discharges, the plasma density and electron temperature and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) were obtained by using a cylindrical electric probe. The plasma densities were determined by various methods to interpret the probe current-voltage characteristic curve: the EEDF integration, the electron saturation current, the ion current at the floating potential, and the orbital-motion-limited (OML) ion current. Quite a good agreement exists between the plasma densities determined by various classical methods. Although the probe technique has some limitation in electronegative plasmas, the plasma densities determined from OML theory compare well with those measured by the ion saturation current at the floating potential in the oxygen discharges. In addition, the EEDFs of inductively coupled Ar and oxygen plasmas are observed to be nearly Maxwellian at the pressure range of 1-40 mTorr.

  1. Tunable synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenqi [Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Jie, E-mail: flyyangj@163.com [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gong, Yingpeng, E-mail: ypgong@jhust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hong, Hanlie [Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanowires with tunable SrO shell layer are easily fabricated. The core/shell structure can enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanowires and restrict the recombination of the electrons/holes. Display Omitted Highlights: ? A facile method to fabricate TiO{sub 2}/SrO core-shell nanowire array is reported. ? The thickness of SrO shell layer can be tunable by adjusting the dipping time. ? TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowires shows enhanced photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: We report a simple method to fabricate well-aligned TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowire arrays. The core/shell structure is confirmed to have crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanowires core and amorphous SrO shell layer. The shell is composed of SrO with tunable thickness. Photocatalytic activity measurement shows that TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowire arrays outperform uncovered TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Such core/shell nanowire arrays have potential applications for photovoltaic devices and as high performance photocatalyst.

  2. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David; Schwoebel, Paul

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  3. Bicrystal-Array Fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahanovsky, Mary Elizabeth

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Akselsen, "Review: Diffusion Bonding of Ceramics," Journalphotolithographic methods, diffusion bonding, hot pressing,islands, direct diffusion bonding, and seeded polycrystals.

  4. Method and apparatus for control of a magnetic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challenger, Michael P. (Bothell, WA); Valla, Arthur S. (Bothell, WA)

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for independently adjusting the spacing between opposing magnet arrays in charged particle based light sources. Adjustment mechanisms between each of the magnet arrays and the supporting structure allow the gap between the two magnet arrays to be independently adjusted. In addition, spherical bearings in the linkages to the magnet arrays permit the transverse angular orientation of the magnet arrays to also be adjusted. The opposing magnet arrays can be supported above the ground by the structural support.

  5. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  6. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  7. Quality assurance of asymmetric jaw alignment using 2D diode array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun Mo [Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9, Canada and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)] [Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9, Canada and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Chmielewski, Renata; Abbas, Ahmar [Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9 (Canada)] [Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9 (Canada); Yeung, Ivan W. T.; Moseley, Douglas J. [Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9 (Canada) [Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A method using a 2D diode array is proposed to measure the junction gap (or overlap) and dose with high precision for routine quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.Methods: The central axis (CAX) of the radiation field was determined with a 15 × 15 cm{sup 2} photon field at four cardinal collimator angles so that the junction gap (or overlap) can be measured with respect to the CAX. Two abutting fields having a field size of 15 cm (length along the axis parallel to the junction) × 7.5 cm (width along the axis perpendicular to the junction) were used to irradiate the 2D diode array (MapCHECK2) with 100 MU delivered at the photon energy of 6 MV. The collimator was slightly rotated at 15° with respect to the beam central axis to increase the number of diodes effective on the measurement of junction gap. The junction gap and dose measured in high spatial resolution were compared to the conventional methods using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiochromic film, respectively. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the proposed method to the measurements of junction gap and dose were investigated.Results: The junction gap (or overlap) and dose measured by MapCHECK2 agreed well to those measured by the conventional methods of EPID and film (the differences ranged from ?0.01 to 0 cm and from ?1.34% to 0.6% for the gap and dose, respectively). No variation in the repeat measurements of the junction gap was found whereas the measurements of junction dose were found to vary in quite a small range over the days of measurement (0.21%–0.35%). While the sensitivity of the measured junction gap to the actual junction gap applied was the ideal value of 1 cm/cm as expected, the sensitivity of the junction dose to the actual junction gap increased as the junction gap (or overlap) decreased (maximum sensitivity: 201.7%/cm).Conclusions: The initial results suggest that the method is applicable for a comprehensive quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.

  8. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings. 6 figs.

  9. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Reynolds, Gerald D. (Tijeras, NM); Steinfort, Terry D. (Tijeras, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers arranged in a vertical string. The transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings.

  10. Laser radiation scattering from the wires and fibers of imploding arrays on the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Smirnov, V. P.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Oleinik, G. M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Gribov, A. N.; Samokhin, A. A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Sasorov, P. V. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Mitrofanov, K. N.; Medovshchikov, S. F. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Khishchenko, K. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Rupasov, A. A.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is developed for measurements of laser radiation scattering by wires and fibers in different types of imploding arrays in the initial stage of plasma production at discharge currents per wire of up to 2 kA for aluminum arrays and up to 8 kA for tungsten arrays. The experiments were carried out on the Angara-5-1 facility at a current density in the wires of 10{sup 8} A/cm{sup 2} and current growth rate of {approx}10{sup 13} A/s. It is found that the indicatrix of laser radiation reflected from the wires (fibers) in cylindrical and conical arrays is modified at currents of 0.1-10 kA per wire (fiber). The experimental data on the reflection and scattering of laser radiation from wires and fibers are compared with the results of numerical simulations of their electric explosion in vacuum. It is proposed that the change in the reflection indicatrix of laser radiation is caused by the onset of thermal instabilities. The typical size of density and temperature inhomogeneities on the wire surface is in a range of 10-20 {mu}m, which probably results in a transition from specular to diffuse reflection of laser radiation. A simultaneous abrupt (over 2-3 ns) reduction in the reflection intensity from several wires of an array indicates a homogeneous distribution of the discharge current over the irradiated wires. This closes the issue of the quality of the contact between the wires and the electrodes. The obtained experimental information is of considerable importance for the development of numerical codes for simulations of the implosion of wire arrays and the refinement of the wire parameters in the initial stage of plasma production.

  11. Localization in active incommensurate arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. V. Laptyeva; S. V. Denisov; G. V. Osipov; M. V. Ivanchenko

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a dissipationless linear lattice, spatial disorder or incommensurate modulation induce localization of the lattice eigenstates and block spreading of wave packets. Additionally, incommensurate arrays allow for the metal-insulator transition at a finite modulation amplitude already in one dimension. The addition of nonlinearity to the lattice Hamiltonian causes interaction between the eigenstates, which results in a slow packet spreading. We go beyond the dissipationless limit and consider nonlinear quasi-periodic arrays that are subjected to the dissipative losses and energy pumping. We find that there is a finite excitation of oscillations threshold in both metallic and insulating regimes. Moreover, excitation in the metallic and weakly insulating regime displays features of the second order phase transition to global oscillations, in contrast to disordered arrays. The Anderson attractor regime is recovered only in the limit of strong localization. The identified transition, and the further onset of chaos and synchronization can be potentially realized with polariton condensates lattices and cavity-QED arrays.

  12. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ord, S M; Emrich, D; Pallot, D; Wayth, R B; Clark, M A; Tremblay, S E; Arcus, W; Barnes, D; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, N D R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; deSouza, L; Ewell-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, H; Jacobs, D; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Pathikulangara, J; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Remillard, R A; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio--astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia (WA). The MWA consists of 4096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and others by Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 TFLOPS (Tera FLoating point Operations Per Second). The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB/day of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper we outline the correlator design, signal path, and proce...

  13. Duality in Josephson Junction Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. M. Blanter; Rosario Fazio; Gerd Schoen

    1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Various properties of mesoscopic two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to structure of the topological excitations, charges and vortices, which are shown to be dual to each other. This duality persists in the presence of external magnetic fields and offset charges, which influence vortices and charges in an equivalent way. A double-layer junction array is also considered, where an even further reaching duality is discovered.

  14. Calibrating the MKAR array using transfer functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renwald, M. D. (Marie D.); Taylor, S. R. (Steven R.); Wallace, Terry C.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing regional discriminants (RDs) at any given seismic station requires a ground-truth database of waveforms from both earthquakes and explosions. Recently installed stations used for seismic monitoring have no single charge explosions on which to base discriminants. We have developed a procedure to map information from surrogate stations, having a long recording history, to newly installed operational stations. We investigated a method to compute transfer functions using known effective 13Ds for a database of earthquakes and explosions located near the Lop Nor nuclear test site and recorded at the KNET array in Kyrgyzstan. For specific source-station paths, transfer functions work well. However, preliminary analysis of India and Pakistan nuclear tests indicate strong azimuthal dependence in the construction of reliable transfer functions. The success of the preliminary work suggests we can apply the same technique to calibrate the recently installed MKAR array using the Global Seismic Network station MAKZ as a surrogate. Both MKAR, an 11-element array operational since 2000, and MAKZ (including its earlier counterpart MAK), operating very broadband instruments since 1994, are located in Eastern Kazakhstan and separated by 25 km. To perform the calibration requires additional considerations not taken into account during the initial investigation: (1) utilizing amplitude spectra, rather than using RDs, to calculate transfer functions; (2) computing transfer functions for a range of azimuths, as we believe the transfer function are azimuthally dependent; and (3) determining whether working with each array element separately or developing a single-input/multiple-output model will provide more stable results and better error estimates.

  15. Fast algorithms for triangular Josephson junction arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, S.; Sahdev, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)] [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop fast algorithms for the numerical study of two-dimensional triangular Josephson junction arrays. The Dirac bra-ket formalism is introduced in the context of such arrays. We note that triangular arrays can have both hexagonal and rectangular periodicity and develop algorithms for each. Boundaries are next introduced and fast algorithms for finite arrays are developed. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  16. High-frequency wave sources using Josephson-junction arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Kelin.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from Josephson-junction arrays used as high-frequency wave sources are presented. Phase-locked Josephson-junction arrays having a large number of junctions were developed to meet the need for compact submillimeter-wave sources for use in such applications as satellite communications are receivers for radioastronomical observations. The design, fabrication processes, and measurement are discussed. Distributed arrays of 40 junctions in which all Josephson junctions are placed at wavelength intervals were fabricated and tested. Such arrays can deliver about 1 [mu]W of power into a 20-60 [Omega] load resistor in the frequency ranger from 100 to 500 GHz, the upper limit being set by the large loss of the superconducting microstrip. Compact arrays were designed and fabricated to eliminate the loss of the superconducting microstrip. Those arrays have also demonstrated an output power level about 1 [mu]W into a 15 [Omega] load from 100 GHz up to 620 GHz. Characteristics of the Josephson junction source, including the power level, impedance matching, the tunability, the radiation linewidth, and tuning rate (or frequency-modulation) are discussed.

  17. The effect of absorbent grid preparation method on precision and accuracy of ambient nitrogen dioxide measurements using Palmes passive diffusion tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A few studies have suggested that the precision and accuracy of measurement of NO2 by Palmes-type passive diffusion tube (PDT) are affected by the method of preparation of the triethanolamine (TEA) absorbent coating on the ...

  18. Estimating direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation for various cities in Iran by two methods and their comparison with the measured data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashjaee, M.; Roomina, M.R.; Ghafouri-Azar, R. (Univ. of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two computational methods for calculating hourly, daily, and monthly average values of direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation on horizontal collectors have been presented in this article for location with different latitude, altitude, and atmospheric conditions in Iran. These methods were developed using two different independent sets of measured data from the Iranian Meteorological Organization (IMO) for two cities in Iran (Tehran and Isfahan) during 14 years of measurement for Tehran and 4 years of measurement for Isfahan. Comparison of calculated monthly average global solar radiation, using the two models for Tehran and Isfahan with measured data from the IMO, has indicated a good agreement between them. Then these developed methods were extended to another location (city of Bandar-Abbas), where measured data are not available. But the work of Daneshyar predicts its monthly global radiation. The maximum discrepancy of 7% between the developed models and the work of Daneshyar was observed.

  19. Method and apparatus for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux for analysis of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denton, M. Bonner (Tucson, AZ); Sperline, Roger (Tucson, AZ), Koppenaal, David W. (Richland, WA), Barinaga, Charles J. (Richland, WA), Hieftje, Gary (Bloomington, IN), Barnes, IV, James H. (Santa Fe, NM); Atlas, Eugene (Irvine, CA)

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.

  20. Cooper pair transport and Coulomb blockade in one dimensional Josephson junction arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    Cooper pair transport and Coulomb blockade in one dimensional Josephson junction arrays Peter Å¡Ë?ogskoletryckeriet, Stockholm, 2000 #12; Abstract One dimensional Josephson junction arrays have been fabricated, measured small capacitance Josephson junction is described using a Serial Resistive and Inductive Junction (SRLJ

  1. TUNABLE ELECTRODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT AND COULOMB BLOCKADE WITH 1D SQUID ARRAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    -capacitance Josephson junction. The tunability of the SQUID arrays when used in the measurement leads allows us properties. Treating the Josephson junctions as linear elements (valid when the current is smaller. The one-dimensional Josephson junction array is also interesting when each junction is formed in the DC

  2. High-throughput analysis of thin-film stresses using arrays of micromachined cantilever beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-throughput analysis of thin-film stresses using arrays of micromachined cantilever beams Hyun-throughput residual stress measurements on thin films by means of micromachined cantilever beams and an array of parallel laser beams. In this technique, the film of interest is deposited onto a silicon substrate

  3. 7003A-30, Session 5 Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7003A-30, Session 5 Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical spatial fi ltering-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of compact low-cost optical sensors for measuring e.g. minor fl uctuations-to-noise ratio, and delivers a "real time" output (0-1 kHz). The sensors use optical spatial-fi ltering

  4. Trigger-Wave Propagation in Arbitrary Metrics in Asynchronous Cellular Logic Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Piotr

    Trigger-Wave Propagation in Arbitrary Metrics in Asynchronous Cellular Logic Arrays Przemyslaw image processing tasks using trigger-wave propagation in a medium with a hardware-controlled metric. The principles of wave propagation in cellular four-connected logic arrays emulating different distance measure

  5. A Near-Infrared 64-pixel Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector Array with Integrated Multiplexed Readout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allman, M S; Stevens, M; Gerrits, T; Horansky, R D; Lita, A E; Marsili, F; Beyer, A; Shaw, M D; Kumor, D; Mirin, R; Nam, S W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array, as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  6. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  7. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  8. A Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with the D0 Detector at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV using the Matrix Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroeninger, Kevin Alexander; /Bonn U.

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a data set of 158 and 169 pb{sup -1} of D0 Run-II data in the electron and muon plus jets channel, respectively, the top quark mass has been measured using the Matrix Element Method. The method and its implementation are described. Its performance is studied in Monte Carlo using ensemble tests and the method is applied to the Moriond 2004 data set.

  9. Microprocessor-controlled photovoltaic-array loading unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, D.F.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a microprocessor-controlled test system in operation at the Photovoltaics Advanced Systems Test Facility located at Sandia National Laboratories. The test system is designed to measure the total energy output of photovoltaic arrays. The theory, installation, operation, and calibration of the test system are described.

  10. Validating mass spectrometry measurements of nuclear materials via a non-contact volume analysis method of ion sputter craters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willingham, David G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Fahey, Albert J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of secondary ion mass spectrometry, optical profilometry and a statistically-driven algorithm was used to develop a non-contact volume analysis method to validate the useful yields of nuclear materials. The volume analysis methodology was applied to ion sputter craters created in silicon and uranium substrates sputtered by 18.5 keV O- and 6.0 keV Ar+ ions. Sputter yield measurements were determined from the volume calculations and were shown to be comparable to Monte Carlo calculations and previously reported experimental observations. Additionally, the volume calculations were used to determine the useful yields of Si+, SiO+ and SiO2+ ions from the silicon substrate and U+, UO+ and UO2+ ions from the uranium substrate under 18.5 keV O- and 6.0 keV Ar+ ion bombardment. This work represents the first steps toward validating the interlaboratory and cross-platform performance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of nuclear materials.

  11. The Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey. V. modelling the dynamics of M87 with the Made-to-Measure method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ling; Mao, Shude; Peng, Eric W; Liu, Chengze; Caldwell, Nelson; Li, Biao; Blakeslee, John P; Cote, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Jordan, Andres; Lancon, Ariane; Mei, Simona; Munoz, Roberto; Puzi, Thomas

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalogue of 922 globular cluster line-of- sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. 263 globular clusters, mainly located beyond 40 kpc, are newly observed by the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS). For the M2M modelling, the gravitational potential is taken as a combination of a luminous matter potential with a constant stellar mass-to-light ratio and a dark matter potential modelled as a logarithmic potential. Our best dynamical model returns a stellar mass-to-light ratio in the I band of M/LI = 6.0(+ -0.3) M_sun/L_sun with a dark matter potential scale velocity of 591(+ -50) km/s and scale radius of 42(+ -10) kpc. We determine the total mass of M87 within 180 kpc to be (1.5 + - 0.2) 10^13 M_sun. The mass within 40 kpc is smaller than pr...

  12. Self-assembly of silicide quantum dot arrays on stepped silicon surfaces by reactive epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Enrique

    investigated on the epitaxy and self- organization of laterally nanostructured transition metal TM silicideSelf-assembly of silicide quantum dot arrays on stepped silicon surfaces by reactive epitaxy L to be a flexible and a convenient method for the preparation of dense arrays of Co silicide quantum dots

  13. 2007 IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference Solar Photovoltaic Array's Shadow Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    whether the maximum output power of the solar photovoltaic arrays under the system is sufficiently cost, and the the "shading factor," which is defined as the ratio of the non- maximum output power of the solar photovoltaic solar PV arrays: effects on performance, and in particular the output power of * In the numerical method

  14. Generation of Blue Noise Arrays by Genetic Algorithm Jeffrey Newbern and V. Michael Bove, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bove Jr., V. Michael

    Generation of Blue Noise Arrays by Genetic Algorithm Jeffrey Newbern and V. Michael Bove, Jr for generating blue­noise threshold arrays which do not appear regular, and offer the visual advantages of error or output device characteristics. We present instead a genetic method for generating a blue­noise threshold

  15. Air cooling of a VCSEL diode array on quartz Christiane Gimkiewicz, Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    dissipate heat power densities on the order of 10 W/cm2 . Air cooling is a common method for heat removal arrays in integrated planar free- space optical system," Micro-System Technologies 98, 6th Int. Conf in combination with VCSEL arrays has been suggested as a viable approach to overcome the bottleneck of electronic

  16. Opto-Electronics in Large Array Gas Detector Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumdar, M R D; Nayak, T K; Das, Debasish; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large array gas detector systems are used in particle and nuclear physics experiments involving high-energy nucleon-nucleon and heavy-ion collisions. We have observed that in large array gas detector systems the momentary discharges inside the detector cells result in slowdown of High Voltage conditioning and possible hindrances in signal processing. We have explored the opto-electronic devices like the opto-coupler, optical fibre and signal processing circuit, which provide successful monitoring procedures and preventive measures to overcome the challenges produced in such complex detector systems.

  17. Conditions for synchronization in Josephson-junction arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernikov, A.A.; Schmidt, G. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)] [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective perturbation theoretical method has been developed to study the dynamics of Josephson-junction series arrays. It is shown that the inclusion of junction capacitances, which is often ignored, has a significant impact on synchronization. Comparison of analytic with computational results over a wide range of parameters shows excellent agreement.

  18. Conditions for synchronization in Josephson-junction arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernikov, A.A.; Schmidt, G. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective perturbation theoretical method has been developed to study the dynamics of Josephson Junction series arrays. It is shown that the inclusion of Junction capacitances, often ignored, has a significant impact on synchronization. Comparison of analytic with computational results over a wide range of parameters shows excellent agreement.

  19. Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Konings, J.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays that form large solar deployments relies on accurate measurements of the available solar resource. Therefore, determining the accuracy of these solar radiation measurements provides a better understanding of investment risks. This paper provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements by radiometers using methods that follow the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM). Standardized analysis based on these procedures ensures that the uncertainty quoted is well documented.

  20. A Statistical Model and Computer program for Preliminary Calculations Related to the Scaling of Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Morris

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in sensor technology and engineering have made it possible to assemble many related sensors in a common array, often of small physical size. Sensor arrays may report an entire vector of measured values in each data collection cycle, typically one value per sensor per sampling time. The larger quantities of data provided by larger arrays certainly contain more information, however in some cases experience suggests that dramatic increases in array size do not always lead to corresponding improvements in the practical value of the data. The work leading to this report was motivated by the need to develop computational planning tools to approximate the relative effectiveness of arrays of different size (or scale) in a wide variety of contexts. The basis of the work is a statistical model of a generic sensor array. It includes features representing measurement error, both common to all sensors and independent from sensor to sensor, and the stochastic relationships between the quantities to be measured by the sensors. The model can be used to assess the effectiveness of hypothetical arrays in classifying objects or events from two classes. A computer program is presented for evaluating the misclassification rates which can be expected when arrays are calibrated using a given number of training samples, or the number of training samples required to attain a given level of classification accuracy. The program is also available via email from the first author for a limited time.

  1. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  2. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  3. PV array simulator development and validation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Lucca, Roberto (Ametek Programmable Power, San Diego, CA); Deuel, Don (Ametek Programmable Power, San Diego, CA)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to harvest all available energy from a photovoltaic (PV) array is essential if new system developments are to meet levelized cost of energy targets and achieve grid parity with conventional centralized utility power. Therefore, exercising maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, dynamic irradiance condition operation and startup and shutdown routines and evaluating inverter performance with various PV module fill-factor characteristics must be performed with a repeatable, reliable PV source. Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with Ametek Programmable Power to develop and demonstrate a multi-port TerraSAS PV array simulator. The simulator will replicate challenging PV module profiles, enabling the evaluation of inverter performance through analyses of the parameters listed above. Energy harvest algorithms have traditionally implemented methods that successfully utilize available energy. However, the quantification of energy capture has always been difficult to conduct, specifically when characterizing the inverter performance under non-reproducible dynamic irradiance conditions. Theoretical models of the MPPT algorithms can simulate capture effectiveness, but full validation requires a DC source with representative field effects. The DC source being developed by Ametek and validated by Sandia is a fully integrated system that can simulate an IV curve from the Solar Advisor Model (SAM) module data base. The PV simulator allows the user to change the fill factor by programming the maximum power point voltage and current parameters and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current. The integrated PV simulator can incorporate captured irradiance and module temperature data files for playback, and scripted profiles can be generated to validate new emerging hardware embedded with existing and evolving MPPT algorithms. Since the simulator has multiple independent outputs, it also has the flexibility to evaluate an inverter with multiple MPPT DC inputs. The flexibility of the PV simulator enables the validation of the inverter's capability to handle vastly different array configurations.

  4. Josephson Junction Arrays with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. Cataliotti; S. Burger; C. Fort; P. Maddaloni; F. Minardi; A. Trombettoni; A. Smerzi; M. Inguscio

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the direct observation of an oscillating atomic current in a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions realized with an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The array is created by a laser standing-wave, with the condensates trapped in the valleys of the periodic potential and weakly coupled by the inter-well barriers. The coherence of multiple tunneling between adjacent wells is continuously probed by atomic interference. The square of the small-amplitude oscillation frequency is proportional to the microscopic tunneling rate of each condensate through the barriers, and provides a direct measurement of the Josephson critical current as a function of the intermediate barrier heights. Our superfluid array may allow investigation of phenomena so far inaccessible to superconducting Josephson junctions and lays a bridge between the condensate dynamics and the physics of discrete nonlinear media.

  5. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  6. Specification for the unified heliostat array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance and design requirements for the Unified Heliostat Array are established. The Unified Heliostat Array is an array of heliostats on a common terraced structure. Requirements are given for designing and evaluating the individual heliostats. Representative site conditions to be encountered and survived by the array are described, including wind loading, precipitation, insolation, and earthquake, and soil properties are described. Heliostat design load calculations and preliminary design point calculations are presented. (LEW)

  7. Proceedings: EPRI Second Phased Array Inspection Seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Second EPRI Phased Array Inspection Seminar focused on industrial applications of phased array technology that have been achieved to date or are planned for the near future. Presentations were made by developers of inspection techniques, inspection services vendors, and utility personnel who have performed inspections using arrays.

  8. Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays Daniel W. Kwon and David W. Miller February 2005 SSL # 2-05 #12;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays By DANIEL W. KWON S;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays by DANIEL W. KWON Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics

  9. Study of nuclei far from stability with AYE-Ball array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, M.P.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupling of a Compton-suppressed Ge (CsGe) detector array to a recoil mass separator (RMS) has seen limited use in the past due to the low efficiency for measuring recoil-{gamma} ray coincidences (< 0.1%). With the building of new generation recoil separators and gamma-ray arrays, a substantial increase in detection efficiency has been achieved. This allows for the opportunity to measure excited states in nuclei with cross-sections approaching 100 nb. In this paper, results from the coupling of a modest array of CsGe detectors (AYE-Ball) with a recoil separator (FMA) will be presented.

  10. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  11. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

  12. An automatic method to detect defaults in the measurement chain of a sound level meter, used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes Cedex, France erik.aflalo@01db-metravib.com Proceedings of the Acoustics-frequency check offers the advantage of a better assessment of a possible degradation of the microphone membrane in the measurement chain. 1 Introduction The risk of wrong measurements in environmental noise assessment must

  13. Microwave coupling of frequency-locked Josephson junction arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, I.; Eom, Y.; Park, G. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 100-611 (Korea)] [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 100-611 (Korea); Lee, E.; Park, S. [Electronic Materials Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea)] [Electronic Materials Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} array of five Josephson junctions designed with additional coupling lines has been developed to demonstrate the effects of frequency locking and impedance matching for applications such as oscillators, mixers, and detectors. The Josephson self-radiation power was directly detected by a superheterodyne receiver, and Shapiro steps were also measured. The Josephson self-radiation properties reveal good quality of phase locking and microwave coupling with external circuits. The maximum self-radiation power of our array is about 50 pW which is several ten times higher than that of a single Josephson junction, and its peak point exactly satisfies the Josephson current-voltage relation. The Shapiro-step measurements show that the behavior of current-voltage curve depends on the effective inductance of coupling lines which affects the total impedance of Josephson junction array and microwave coupling. The Josephson oscillation frequency was obtained up to about 880 GHz which is 73{percent} of the maximum available frequency calculated from the characteristic voltage of the Josephson junctions. Experimental results show that this type of Josephson junction array can improve the Josephson self-radiation power and increase the maximum detectable frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. The Expanded Very Large Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perley, R; Jackson, J; Butler, B; Carlson, B; Fort, D; Dewdney, P; Clark, B; Hayward, R; Durand, S; Revnell, M; McKinnon, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost 30 years of operation, the Very Large Array (VLA) has proved to be a remarkably flexible and productive radio telescope. However, the basic capabilities of the VLA have changed little since it was designed. A major expansion utilizing modern technology is currently underway to improve the capabilities of the VLA by at least an order of magnitude in both sensitivity and in frequency coverage. The primary elements of the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project include new or upgraded receivers for continuous frequency coverage from 1 to 50 GHz, new local oscillator, intermediate frequency, and wide bandwidth data transmission systems to carry signals with 16 GHz total bandwidth from each antenna, and a new digital correlator with the capability to process this bandwidth with an unprecedented number of frequency channels for an imaging array. Also included are a new monitor and control system and new software that will provide telescope ease of use. Scheduled for completion in 2012, the EVLA will prov...

  15. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  16. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems.

  17. Micropatterned cell arrays for detecting DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Sukant

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous agents are capable of interacting with DNA and damaging it. Permanent changes in the DNA structure can be both mutagenic and cytotoxic; therefore, methods to measure the susceptibility of cells to mutations are ...

  18. A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters...

  19. Electrostatically focused addressable field emission array chips (AFEA's) for high-speed massively parallel maskless digital E-beam direct write lithography and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN); Baylor, Larry R. (Farragut, TN); Voelkl, Edgar (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, John C. (Clinton, TN); Wilgen, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A method of operating an addressable field-emission array, includes: generating a plurality of electron beams from a pluralitly of emitters that compose the addressable field-emission array; and focusing at least one of the plurality of electron beams with an on-chip electrostatic focusing stack. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  20. Evaluation of commercially available techniques and development of simplified methods for measuring grille airflows in HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Wray, Craig P.; Guillot, Cyril; Masson, S.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we discuss the accuracy of flow hoods for residential applications, based on laboratory tests and field studies. The results indicate that commercially available hoods are often inadequate to measure flows in residential systems, and that there can be a wide range of performance between different flow hoods. The errors are due to poor calibrations, sensitivity of existing hoods to grille flow non-uniformities, and flow changes from added flow resistance. We also evaluated several simple techniques for measuring register airflows that could be adopted by the HVAC industry and homeowners as simple diagnostics that are often as accurate as commercially available devices. Our test results also show that current calibration procedures for flow hoods do not account for field application problems. As a result, organizations such as ASHRAE or ASTM need to develop a new standard for flow hood calibration, along with a new measurement standard to address field use of flow hoods.