Sample records for aromatic hydrocarbons pahs

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pah5 Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants Summary: 1461 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous,...

  2. Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Anuradha M.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pah Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 19 Deuterated PAHs in space To appear as Summary: fluorescence from UV pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs, Allamandola et al.,...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pahs Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 19 Deuterated PAHs in space To appear as Summary: fluorescence from UV pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs, Allamandola et al.,...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon pah Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 19 Deuterated PAHs in space To appear as Summary: fluorescence from UV pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs, Allamandola et al.,...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon pah-degrading Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N... , terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the...

  7. Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge Patryk Oleszczuk a,b, , Sarah E. Hale a , Johannes Lehmann c , Gerard Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Sewage sludge a b s t r a c t The aim of the research of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge. Two different biochars (MSB and PMW) and two ACs

  8. Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment Upal Ghosh1 , Richard G. Luthy1 , J. Seb Gillette2 , and Richard N long-term issue confronting sediment bioremediation is the lack of understanding of contaminant-sediment

  9. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced allow recycling of nutrients. Hence, bioprocessed sewage sludge application on agricultural soilRemoval of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N

  10. aromatic hydrocarbon components: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 2005 April 19 ABSTRACT Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features 26 Dehydrogenation of polycyclic aromatic...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  12. Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

    1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon contamination Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are...

  14. aromatic hydrocarbons coated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: ??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in animal models....

  15. Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    . PAHs and the different fungal species that can metabolize them. (adapted from Kanaly et al 2000) Compound Organisms Acenaphthene Cunninghamella elegans Anthracene Bjerkandera sp, Cunninghamella elegans...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons fluorene Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons inenvironmental Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon o-quinones Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons extracted Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Toxic Contamination Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)....

  1. Environmental Research 105 (2007) 101118 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (6.8 million, US Census Bureau, 2000) and urbanized region and is subject to polycyclic aromatic congestion in the US (TTI, 2003). The Bay receives freshwater inflow primarily from the Delta.10.007 Ã?Corresponding author. Fax: +1 510 746 7300. E-mail address: john@sfei.org (J.R.M. Ross). #12;wastewater

  2. Risk assessment of complex mixtures: development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Erica Dawn

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    RISK ASSESSMENT O F C O M P L E X M I X T U R E S : D E V E L O P M E N T O F T O X I C E Q U I V A L E N C Y F A C T O R S (TEFs) F O R P O L Y C Y C L I C A R O M A T I C H Y D R O C A R B O N S (PAHs) A Thesis by E R I C A D A W N R E E S E... Submitted to the Office o f Graduate Studies o f Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree o f M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E December 2001 Major Subject: C i v i l Engineering RISK A S S E S S M E N T O F C O M P...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons investigated Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon investigation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon residues Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons analyses Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic polycyclic aromatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  10. .. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore marine sediments of Australia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    143 . .. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore marine sediments of Australia* W.A. Maher and J. Aislabiet Water Research Centre, University of Canberra, PO Box /, Belconnen,ACT 26/6, Australia aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in nearshore marine sediments of Australia isdiscussed. Available information

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon neutrals Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RANDHIR S. MAKKAR and KARL J. ROCKNE... --Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of the environment represents a serious threat to the health... bioremediation...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons modulate Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon tracers Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... with their lipophilicity and water...

  15. aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil Microcosms: A Review CiteSeer Summary: Copyright 2001 Kansas State University Key words: bioremediation, denitrification, PAHs, sulfidogenesis...

  16. Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

  17. Estimating the in situ sediment-porewater distribution of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic impacted sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Peter H. Arp; Gijs D. Breedveld; Gerard Cornelissen [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo (Norway). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has become increasingly apparent that the in situ sediment-porewater distribution behavior of organic compounds within anthropogenic impacted sediments is quite diverse, and challenging to generalize. Traditional models based on octanol-water partitioning generally overestimate native porewater concentrations, and modern approaches accounting for multiple carbon fractions, including black carbon, appear sediment specific. To assess the diversity of this sorption behavior, we collected all peer-reviewed total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized in situ sediment-porewater distribution coefficients, K{sub TOC}, for impacted sediments. This entailed several hundreds of data for PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and chlorinated benzenes, covering a large variety of sediments, locations, and experimental methods. Compound-specific KTOC could range up to over 3 orders of magnitude. Output from various predictive models for individual carbonaceous phases found in impacted sediments, based on peer-reviewed polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs), Raoult's Law, and the SPARC online-calculator, were tested to see if any of the models could consistently predict literature K{sub TOC} values within a factor of 30 (i.e. about 1.5 orders of magnitude, or half the range of K{sub TOC} values). The Raoult's Law model and coal tar PP-LFER achieved the sought-after accuracy for all tested compound classes, and are recommended for general, regional-scale modeling purposes. As impacted sediment-porewater distribution models are unlikely to get more accurate than this, this review underpins that the only way to accurately obtain accurate porewater concentrations is to measure them directly, and not infer them from sediment concentrations. 86 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  19. Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Including Evaluation of Arctic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Carey

    We use the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to simulate long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To evaluate the model’s ability to simulate PAHs with different volatilities, ...

  20. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Occurrence of chlorinated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiraishi, H.; Pilkington, N.H.; Otsuki, A.; Fuwa, K.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic compounds in tap waters were extracted by a modified continuous liquid-liquid extractor and analyzed by computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a fused silica capillary column. The results indicate the presence of monochlorinated derivatives of naphthalene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, fluorenone, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene and dichlorinated derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. The parent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives such as fluorenone and anthraquinone were also found. It was demonstrated that chlorinated PAHs (Cl-PAHs) were really present in tap waters at 10/sup -1/-10/sup -2/ ng/L levels.

  2. Stable carbon isotope ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment: validation of isolation and stable carbon isotope analysis methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Moon Koo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , purification and compound specific isotope analysis methods were developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratio of individual PAHs. Development of the method included improving accuracy and precision of the isotopic measurement by producing...

  3. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  4. Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    processes of PAH with subcritical water [5,6] since it provides the extractability limit which can be used groups, for the representation of the solubility of solid PAH in subcritical water. These hal-00872639Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, William Allan

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    / / / / / / glg. 4. Diag~am showing the morphology and lithologic bed associations of a submarine fan (adapted from IIANER, 1971). 16 indicative of land-sourced organic matter even in the intraslope basins. Furthermore, KENNICUTT et ai, (1986a) concluded.... Sandberg, B. A. , University of Colorado Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. James M. Brooks Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Mississippi Fan and two intraslope basins in the Gulf of Mexico...

  6. Mass Transfer of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    of the individual components of four synthetic dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) mixtures into the aqueous hydrocarbons (PAHs), were designed to serve as models for coal tars and creosotes. The reactor employed (PAHs) are often present in the environment as components of such dense non- aqueous phase liquids

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - astronomical polycyclic aromatic Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

  8. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  9. Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gijs D. Breedveld; Emilien Pelletier; Richard St. Louis; Gerard Cornelissen [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinite-sink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (about 100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Removal of trace olefins from aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachtler, J.W.A.; Barger, P.T.

    1989-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating a hydrocarbon process stream by converting trace quantities of olefinic impurities to nonolefinic hydrocarbons. The process comprises contacting the process stream, which contains trace olefins in an amount of from about 50 to about 2000 as measured by Bromine Index and at least 80% by weight of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons having from 6 to 20 carbon atoms per molecule, at reaction conditions which ensure liquid phase operation with a solid catalyst composite comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite and a refractory inorganic oxide. A catalytic olefin-consuming alkylation reaction then produces an essentially olefinfree product stream with approximately the same quantity and distribution of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons as contained in the process stream.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burstyn, I.; Kromhout, H.; Partanen, T.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Ahrens, W.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, The Netherlands and Norway. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene were assessed quantitatively using measurement-driven exposure models. Exposure to coal tar was assessed in a semiquantitative manner on the basis of information supplied by company representatives. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess potential confounding by tobacco smoking. Both cumulative and average exposure indices for benzo(a)pyrene were positively associated with mortality from IHD. The highest relative risk for fatal IHD was observed for average benzo(a)pyrene exposures of 273 ng/m{sup 3} or higher, for which the relative risk was 1.64(95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.38). Similar results were obtained for coal tar exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even in a realistic scenario of confounding by smoking, we would observe approximately 20% to 40% excess risk in IHD in the highest PAH-exposure categories. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that occupational PAH exposure causes fatal IHD and demonstrate a consistent exposure-response relation for this association.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons based Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Burn...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons assessment Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... of airborne soot. The air...

  14. One-electron oxidation in the degradation of creosote polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysoporium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogan, B.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[USDA Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States); Lamar, R.T. [USDA Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The abilities of whole cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and P. chrysosporium manganese peroxidase-mediated lipid peroxidation reactions to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in creosote were studied. The disappearance of 12 three- to six-ring PAHs occurred in both systems. Both in vivo and in vitro, the disappearance of all PAHs was found to be very strongly correlated with ionization potential. This was true even for compounds beyond the ionization potential thresholds of lignin peroxidase and Mn{sup 3+}. Deviations from this correlation were seen in the cases of PAHs which are susceptible to radical addition reactions. These results thus begin to clarify the mechanisms of non-lignin peroxidase-labile PAH degradation in the manganese peroxidase-lipid peroxidation system and provide further evidence for the ability of this system to explain the in vivo oxidation of these compounds. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments near Kitimat, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, C.D.; Harrington, C.F.; Cullen, W.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Bright, D.A.; Reimer, K.J. [Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group] [Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like many other hydrophobic organic contaminants, are rapidly sorbed to particles and incorporated within sediments in aquatic systems. The PAH composition within the sediments reflects the source(s) from which the PAHs were derived. However, the ``source signature`` may be altered by postdepositional weathering or biodegradation. In the present study, variation in PAH composition was investigated in size-fractionated sediments and depth-fractionated sediments collected from a Canadian fjord contaminated with aluminum smelter derived PAHs. Multivariate analyses of PAH compositional data consistently showed that different sampling sites could be discriminated on the basis of their PAH composition, but smaller versus larger size fractions within a site could not. The composition of unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs in a sediment core primarily showed changes with depth that were attributable to enhancement of anthropogenic inputs in the upper core segments. No trends with sediment depth, associated with compound-specific weathering or biotransformation, were noted in the composition of anthropogenically generated PAHs. This may indicate a limited chemical and biological availability of the aluminum smelter derived PAHs.

  16. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  17. The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ecology Websites Summary: ), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David...

  19. DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, Bruce T.

    '' PAHs in reflection nebulae near stars as cool as Teff ¼ 3000 K can result in observable emis- sion at 6DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE Aigen Li and B. T. Draine Department of Astrophysical Sciences

  20. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon exposure Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Port Phillip Bay... of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons alcohols Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mathematics 29 UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices Summary: UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices: Production of Alcohols,...

  3. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G. [National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Pusan (Republic of Korea)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

  4. Anisotropy and Size Effects on the Optical Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caterina Cocchi; Deborah Prezzi; Alice Ruini; Marilia J. Caldas; Elisa Molinari

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic and optical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a strong dependence on their size and geometry. We tackle this issue by analyzing the spectral features of two prototypical classes of PAHs, belonging to D6h and D2h symmetry point groups and related to coronene as multifunctional seed. While the size variation induces an overall red shift of the spectra and a redistribution of the oscillator strength between the main peaks, a lower molecular symmetry is responsible for the appearance of new optical features. Along with broken molecular orbital degeneracies, optical peaks split and dark states are activated in the low-energy part of the spectrum. Supported by a systematic analysis of the composition and the character of the optical transitions, our results contribute in shedding light to the mechanisms responsible for spectral modifications in the visible and near UV absorption bands of medium-size PAHs.

  5. Estimation method for the thermochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Joanna

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. They are formed during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and are ...

  6. aromatic hydrocarbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

  7. aromatic hydrocarbon emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

  8. The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, Eric Jon

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS(PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK...

  9. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    lower. 9- Fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for about 60[a]anthracene-7,12-dione seems to be diesel vehicles. Finally, 9,10-anthraquinone presents a double origin: primary diesel emission and photochemical processes. Formation of 9,10- anthraquinone from anthracene

  11. Comparative potency approach based on H2AX assay for estimating the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audebert, M., E-mail: marc.audebert@toulouse.inra.fr [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, EIP, UPS, UMR1331, Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Zeman, F.; Beaudoin, R.; Péry, A. [Unité “Modèles pour l'écotoxicologie et la toxicologie” (METO), INERIS, BP2, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)] [Unité “Modèles pour l'écotoxicologie et la toxicologie” (METO), INERIS, BP2, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Cravedi, J.-P. [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France) [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, EIP, UPS, UMR1331, Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a family of over one hundred compounds and can generally be found in complex mixtures. PAHs metabolites cause DNA damage which can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. Toxicity assessment of PAH complex mixtures is currently expressed in terms of toxic equivalents, based on Toxicity Equivalent Factors (TEFs). However, the definition of new TEFs for a large number of PAH could overcome some limitations of the current method and improve cancer risk assessment. The current investigation aimed at deriving the relative potency factors of PAHs, based on their genotoxic effect measured in vitro and analyzed with mathematical models. For this purpose, we used a new genotoxic assay (?H2AX) with two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) to analyze the genotoxic properties of 13 selected PAHs at low doses after 24 h treatment. The dose–response for genotoxic effects was modeled with a Hill model; equivalency between PAHs at low dose was assessed by applying constraints to the model parameters. In the two cell lines tested, we observed a clear dose–response for genotoxic effects for 11 tested compounds. LS-174T was on average ten times more sensitive than HepG2 towards PAHs regarding genotoxicity. We developed new TEFs, which we named Genotoxic Equivalent Factor (GEF). Calculated GEF for the tested PAHs were generally higher than the TEF usually used. Our study proposed a new in vitro based method for the establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? Examination of the genotoxic properties of 13 PAHs on two human cell lines. ? Modelization with a Hill model of the genotoxic dose–response. ? First investigation of the genotoxicity of benzo[c]fluorene on human cell lines. ? Establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment.

  12. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 ?m, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 ?m) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 ?m, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons phahs Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WH, Caton JE. 1983. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for qualitative analysis. In... : Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic ... Source: Rock, Chris - Department of...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Port Phillip Bay... of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and fluorescence emission analysis, shows... of hydrocarbon inputs....

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon receptor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic hydrocarbons... the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ydrocarbonDegradation It was hypothesized... aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Hypothesis Test Result Groundwater stimulates Fe(lll) reduction Cell... Hydrocarbon Degradation At...

  17. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN THE PROPLYD HST10: WHAT IS THE MECHANISM BEHIND PHOTOEVAPORATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicente, S.; Kamp, I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Berne, O. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huelamo, N. [CAB (INTA-CSIC), LAEFF, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Pantin, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAP, F-91191 sur Yvette (France); Carmona, A. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Proplyds are photodissociation-region-(PDR)-like cometary cocoons around young stars which are thought to originate through photoevaporation of the central protoplanetary disk by external UV radiation from the nearby OB stars. This Letter presents spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the proplyd HST10 obtained with the Very Large Telescope/VISIR instrument. These observations allow us to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the proplyd PDR and to study the general properties of PAHs in proplyds for the first time. We find that PAHs in HST10 are mostly neutral and at least 50 times less abundant than typical values found for the diffuse interstellar medium or the nearby Orion Bar. With such a low PAH abundance, photoelectric heating is significantly reduced. If this low abundance pertains also to the original disk material, gas heating rates could be too low to efficiently drive photoevaporation unless other processes can be identified. Alternatively, the model behind the formation of proplyds as evaporating disks may have to be revised.

  18. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN GALAXIES AT z approx 0.1: THE EFFECT OF STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K. [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charlot, S. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Bvd Arago, 75014, Paris (France); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Martins, Lucimara P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M., E-mail: matt@astro.columbia.ed [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) spectra of a sample of 92 typical star-forming galaxies at 0.03 < z < 0.2 observed with the Spitzer intensified Reticon spectrograph (IRS). We compare the relative strengths of PAH emission features with Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical diagnostics to probe the relationship between PAH grain properties and star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) activity. Short-to-long wavelength PAH ratios, and in particular the 7.7 mum-to-11.3 mum feature ratio, are strongly correlated with the star formation diagnostics D{sub n} (4000) and Halpha equivalent width, increasing with younger stellar populations. This ratio also shows a significant difference between active and non-active galaxies, with the active galaxies exhibiting weaker 7.7 mum emission. A hard radiation field as measured by [O{sub III}]/Hbeta and [Ne{sub III}]{sub 15.6m}u{sub m}/[Ne{sub II}]{sub 12.8m}u{sub m} effects PAH ratios differently depending on whether this field results from starburst activity or an AGN. Our results are consistent with a picture in which larger PAH molecules grow more efficiently in richer media and in which smaller PAH molecules are preferentially destroyed by the AGN.

  20. Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames K. Siegmanna) Swiss 96822 Received 24 August 1999; accepted 13 October 1999 A laminar diffusion flame of methane exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood

  1. FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photolysis of these ices produces a host of new compounds, some of which show intriguing prebiotic behavior1 FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY LOUIS J. ALLAMANDOLA, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon

  2. A Multiscale Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Properties in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Galliano

    2008-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present contribution, I summarize a systematic study of ISO and Spitzer mid-IR spectra of Galactic regions and star forming galaxies. This study quantifies the relative variations of the main aromatic features inside spatially resolved objects as well as among the integrated spectra of 50 objects. Our analysis implies that the properties of the PAHs are remarkably universal throughout our sample and at different spatial scales. In addition, the relative variations of the band ratios, as large as one order of magnitude, are mainly controled by the fraction of ionized PAHs. In particular, I show that we can rule out both the modification of the PAH size distribution and the mid-IR extinction, as an explanation of these variations. High values of the I(6.2)/I(11.3) ratio are found to be associated with the far-UV illuminated surface of PDRs, at the scale of an interstellar cloud, and associated with star formation activity, at the scale of a galaxy. Using a few well-studied Galactic regions, we provide an empirical relation between the I(6.2)/I(11.3) ratio and the ionization/recombination ratio G0/ne. Finally, I show that these trends are consistent with the detailed modeling of the PAH emission within photodissociation regions, taking into account the radiative transfer, the stochastic heating and the charge exchange between gas and dust.

  3. Effect of Soederberg smelting technology, anode paste composition, and work shift on the relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric G. Sanderson; Peter J. Kelly; Jean-Pierre Farant [McGill University, Montreal (Canada). Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This follow-up of the Farant and Gariepy study investigates the relationship between benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar pitch volatiles in two types of Soederberg aluminum smelters horizontal and vertical stud. The study confirms the strong relationships between B(a)P and total PAHs, and that B(a)P was a good indicator for other PAHs in this industry. The PAH profiles were consistent within each smelter, but the smelter technology used and the changes in the raw material formulation resulted in significantly different profiles. B(a)P toxic equivalency factors for emitted PAH mixtures were greater in the horizontal stud smelter than in the vertical stud smelter. Overall, this study illustrates the potential usefulness of B(a)P relative abundance ratios to simplify exposure assessment in the workplace and reduce associated costs.

  4. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  5. On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Malloci; C. Joblin; G. Mulas

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C10H8) up to circumovalene (C66H20). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/ and http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/.

  6. Accumulation and effects of aluminum smelter-generated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soft-bottom invertebrates and fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naes, K.; Hylland, K.; Oug, E.; Foerlin, L.; Ericson, G.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated study involving measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in bottom sediments, assessments of resident soft-bottom communities, the accumulation of PAHs in soft-bottom invertebrates, and biomarker responses in invertebrates and fish was conducted to assess the impact of an aluminum reduction plant in a Norwegian fjord. The fjord sediments were heavily contaminated by PAHs in the inner reaches near the aluminum smelter, where concentrations were well above levels elsewhere reported to induce biological effects. Nevertheless, the PAH contamination in the fjord did not seem to have severe effects on the benthic biota. This conclusion can be drawn from the soft-bottom communities as well as from biomarker analyses. Presumably, contaminant speciation is important for explaining the restricted biological effects. The results support the assumption that PAHs associated with soot-like structures have limited bioavailability. They also point to the need to link various single-species approaches to measurements of effects on higher levels of organization and with an understanding of the speciation of the chemical contaminant.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: : Acetylenes: Aromatics: 57 15 2 26 A breakdown of 17...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... and detected all of the...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal, oil, gas... called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called Source: Rock, Chris - Department of Biological Sciences,...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soil... hydrocarbon degraders, and polycyclic aromatic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

  11. Time-dependent density functional study of the electronic excited states of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, So; Head-Gordon, Martin P.; Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin

    2003-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A uniform, comprehensive theoretical interpretation of spectroscopic data is presented for 53 radical ion species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) with the aid of (Tamm–Dancoff) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). TDDFT is capable of predicting the transition energies to the low-lying excited states of PAH ions with quantitative accuracy (the standard deviation from experimental results being less than 0.3 eV) and their intensity patterns qualitatively correctly. The accuracy is hardly affected by the sizes of PAH ions (azulene through dinaphthocoronene), the types of transitions (Koopmans or satellite transitions), the types of orbi-tals involved (*←, *←, or *← transitions), the types of ions (cations or anions), or other geometrical or electronic perturbations (non-planarity, sp3 carbons, or heterocyclic or non-benzenoid rings)

  12. The importance of snow scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies] [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies; Hoff, J.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, experimental data on the scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the atmosphere by snow were interpreted assuming that the distribution of chemical between particles and dissolved phase measured in the meltwater reflects the state of the chemical during the scavenging process. A consequence of this assumption is that vapor scavenging is found to be unimportant relative to particle scavenging. An alternative interpretation is presented that during melting repartitioning occurs from the dissolved phase to the particle-sorbed phase. Further, it is argued that a constant particle scavenging ratio may apply to all chemicals of the same class in the same precipitation event, and its value can be estimated from the scavenging characteristics of predominantly particle-sorbed, high molecular mass chemicals. This analysis suggests that for more volatile PCBs and PAHs vapor scavenging is an important, if not the dominating, snow scavenging process. Gas scavenging ratios obtained with this method are, as expected, negatively correlated with the vapor pressure of a substance, indicating that adsorption to the air-ice interface is the process responsible for vapor scavenging.

  13. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  14. Adequacy of benzo(a)pyrene and benzene soluble materials as indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Sderberg aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, M.C.; Demers, P.A.; Spinelli, J.J.; Le, N.D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs as a complex mixture that is evaluated using specific components, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and benzene soluble materials (BSM). Factors that influence the relationship between BaP, BSM, and other PAHs within an aluminum smelter were investigated. Personal samples collected from 1978 to 2001 were used. Differences in the log-transformed ratios (PAH/BaP, BaP/BSM) due to anode paste composition, pot group, season, and job were examined using linear regression. In linear regression, 27% of the variability in the log-transformed BaP/BSM ratio was explained by coal tar pitch, work area, and job; no seasonal or pot group differences were observed. Within the potrooms, BaP was very strongly correlated with other PAHs (majority 0.9). Depending on the PAH, between 23% and 89% of the variability in the log-transformed PAH/BSM was explained by season, coal tar pitch, pot group, and job. The BaP toxic equivalency factors of the mixture varied more across job (2.1-3.5) than across coal tar pitch source (1.8-2.8) or pot group (2.3-2.5). Seasonal and work area differences in the relationship between BaP and other PAHs have not been reported previously.

  15. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in relation to water column phase distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelman, J.; Naes, K.; Naef, C.; Broman, D.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were deployed at a site contaminated by discharges of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aluminium reduction plant, and at a reference site. The accumulation of PAHs in SPMDs versus mussels, along with the ability of the two matrices to predict contaminant concentrations in the ambient environment, were evaluated through concurrent measurements of particulate, dissolved, and colloidal PAHs in the water column. Analysis of the results showed that blue mussels were more efficient at sequestering PAHs than were SPMDs. The PAH profile (i.e,, the relative abundance of individual PAHs) in the two matrices were similar, but differed significantly from the profile in the dissolved phase. Further, back-calculation of the ambient dissolved concentrations from SPMDs indicated systematic overtrapping with increasing hydrophobicity. Calculation of in situ bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the blue mussels at the smelter site indicated that uptake via particles or from colloids dominated over direct uptake from the dissolved phase, as opposed to the reference site. The in situ BCFs differed markedly from literature values, which implies that the use of mussels to predict ambient concentrations would require that site-specific BCFs be applied.

  16. A 700 year sediment record of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near the EMEP air monitoring station in Aspvreten, Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marie Elmquist; Zdenek Zencak; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of poor constraints on historical combustion emissions, past environmental loadings of black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were reconstructed from dated lake sediment cores collected 70 km south of Stockholm, Sweden. Compared to several dramatic variations over the recent 150 years, the preindustrial loadings were steady within {+-}50% through the entire medieval with BC fluxes of 0.071 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} and PAH fluxes of 6 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. In the wood-burning dominated century leading up to the industrial revolution around 1850, increasing BC fluxes were leading PAH fluxes. BC fluxes reached their millennial-scale maximum around 1920, whereas PAH fluxes increased exponentially to its record maximum around 1960, 50-fold above preindustrial values. For 1920-1950, BC fluxes consistently decreased as PAH fluxes kept increasing. Coal and coke represented >50% of the Swedish energy market in the 1930s. Combined with sharply decreasing (1,7-)/(1,7{+-}2,6-dimethylphenanthrene), indicative of diminishing wood combustion, and decreasing methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene, indicative of higher-temperature combustion (coal instead of wood), the sediment archive suggests that the relative BC/PAH emission factors thus are lower for coal than for wood combustion. For the first time, both BC and PAH fluxes decreased after 1960. This trend break is a testament to the positive effects of decreasing reliance on petroleum fuels and a number of legislative actions aimed at curbing emissions and by 1990, the loading of BC was back at preindustrial levels, whereas that of PAH were the lowest since the 1910s. However, for the most recent period (1990-2004) the BC and PAH fluxes are no longer decreasing. 55 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

  18. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); McNamara, Brian R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, Paul E. J., E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: hofferaa@msu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  19. Climate Change and Emissions Impacts on Atmospheric PAH Transport to the Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanxu

    We investigate effects of 2000–2050 emissions and climate changes on the atmospheric transport of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). We use the GEOS-Chem ...

  20. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  1. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  2. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  3. UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates samples, such as petroleum and coal, or for man-made samples, such as coal liquids, a major desire- nique for studying coal-liquid samples. 1-4 We demon- strated that the Raman spectra of polycyclic

  4. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Size distribution; Atmospheric pollution; POVA (POllution des Vallées, published in "Atmospheric Environment 42, 173 (2008) 55 à 64" DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.008 #12 was determined during the intensive sampling campaigns of the POVA (POllution des Vallées Alpines) research

  5. Reaction mechanisms in aromatic hydrocarbon formation involving the C{sub 5}H{sub 5} cyclopentadienyl moiety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melius, C.F.; Colvin, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum chemical BAC-MP4 and BAC-MP2 methods have been used to investigate the reaction mechanisms leading to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ring formation. In particular the authors have determined the elementary reaction steps in the conversion of two cyclopentadienyl radicals to naphthalene. This reaction mechanism is shown to be an extension of the mechanism occurring in the H atom-assisted conversion of fulvene to benzene. The net reaction involves the formation of dihydrofulvalene, which eliminates a hydrogen atom and then rearranges to form naphthalene through a series of ring closures and openings. The importance of forming the {single_bond}CR({center_dot}){single_bond}CHR{single_bond}CR{prime}{double_bond}CR{double_prime}-moiety, which can undergo rearrangement to form three-carbon-atom ring structures, is illustrated with the C{sub 4}H{sub 7} system. The ability of hydrogen atoms to migrate around the cyclopentadienyl moiety is illustrated both for methyl-cyclopentadiene, C{sub 5}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, and dihydrofulvalene, C{sub 5}H{sub 5}C{sub 5}H{sub 5}, as well as for their radical species, C{sub 6}H{sub 7} and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}. The mobility of hydrogen in the cyclopentadienyl moiety plays an important role both in providing resonance-stabilized radical products and in creating the {single_bond}CR({center_dot}){single_bond}CHR{single_bond}CR{prime}{double_bond}CR{double_prime}-moiety for ring formation. The results illustrate the radical pathway for converting five-membered rings to aromatic six-membered rings. Furthermore, the results indicate the important catalytic role of H atoms in the aromatic ring formation process.

  6. Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    included parent compounds, as well as methylated versions of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene - a total of 40 PAHs. naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes acenaphthene acenaphthylene fluorene and methylfluorenes....62 1418.54 ? 0.71 2.68 3.94 -0.26 Acenaphthene 154.21 333.62 ? 0.48 1488.20 ? 0.18 1455.06 ? 1.28 2.10 3.92 0.22 Fluorene 166.22 363.89 ? 0.78 1586.39 ? 0.72 1552.98 ? 1.90 1.85 4.18 -0.23 Phenanthrene 178.24 423.36 ? 1.02 1784...

  7. Rotational Spectroscopy of PAHs: Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene and Fluorene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorwirth, S; Gottlieb, C A; McCarthy, M C; Thaddeus, P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure rotational spectra of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorene - have been obtained by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of a molecular beam and subsequently by millimeter wave absorption spectroscopy for acenaphthene and fluorene. The data presented here will be useful for deep radio astronomical searches for PAHs employing large radio telecopes.

  8. Rotational Spectroscopy of PAHs: Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene and Fluorene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Thorwirth; P. Theule; C. A. Gottlieb; M. C. McCarthy; P. Thaddeus

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure rotational spectra of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorene - have been obtained by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of a molecular beam and subsequently by millimeter wave absorption spectroscopy for acenaphthene and fluorene. The data presented here will be useful for deep radio astronomical searches for PAHs employing large radio telecopes.

  9. Quantification of in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation at a petroleum contaminated site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conti, Enzo Mario

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contaminated area located in the Port Arthur Refinery of Fina Oil and Chemical Company (FINA). The soil within these area had been chronically contaminated with Bunker C fuel oil spills. As this contamination was considered a potential threat... formed as products of combustion (Gibson, 1977). Their hydrophobic properties and low water solubility make them adsorb to sediments and migrate with them through rivers, lakes and oceans (Cerniglia and Heitkamp, 1989). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

  10. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs using PAHs as tracers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to produce liquid hydrocarbons and water. -- Coal-to-liquids (CTLs) are derived either by pyrolysis of coal authors accept that conventional oil resources are at an advanced stage of depletion and that liquid fuels is a heterogeneous mix of hydrocarbons that remain in liquid phase when extracted to the surface. -- Condensate

  11. On-line electrochemistry/electrospray mass spectrometry: Studies of oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Lu, Wenzhe; Cole, R.B. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of on-line coupling of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry, i.e., {open_quotes}electrochemical mass spectrometry{close_quotes} (EC/MS) date back to work by Bruckenstein et al. in the 1970`s. In these and other early experiments, porous working electrodes or permeable membranes were usually used as the interface between the cell and the MS ionization source which exclusively employed electron ionization (EI). As a result, only volatile products of electrochemical reactions could be detected by the mass line electrochemistry/mass spectroscopy was the coupling of an mass spectrometer (EC/TS/MS) reported by Hambitzer and g an aqueous ammonium acetate thermospray buffer solution, all detected or ammoniated species in the positive ion mode or as deprotonated or acetate adduct species in the negative ion mode. Radical cations or anions were not detected. Although {open_quotes}electrochemically assisted electrospray mass spectrometry{close_quotes} has been progressing for a few years, chiefly due to the pioneering efforts of Van Berkel and coworkers, on-line coupling electrochemistry with electrospray mass spectrometry (EC/ESMS) is still a developing area because of the experimental difficulties involved, such as high voltage hazard to the electrochemistry hardware (e.g. potentiostat), and MS signal suppression caused by the presence of high concentrations of supporting electrolytes. We report the coupling of an electrochemical device on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (EC/ESMS) to extend the potential of ESMS to detect non-polar neutral compounds, and to monitor and identify intermediates and products generated by electrochemical reactions.

  12. Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onufrock, Amy Mildred

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factors which assume additive interactions between individual PAHS. The mutagenic interactions of PAH mixtures were investigated using the Salmonellalmicrosome assay. Two groups of samples included PAH mixtures modeling a coal tar and an environmental...

  13. PAH characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China)] [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the PAH samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-PAH composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-PAH composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-PAH composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase PAHs had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons estimated Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences 26 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: estimated for many hydrocarbons 26, 27. The MIR of a hydrocarbon is the...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons methyl Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy 2 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons progress Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Chemistry 3 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-exposed lung Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in non-smoking and smoking lung cancer... of the fetus. These mutageniccarcinogenic pollutants include aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic... of transplacental exposure...

  18. On-site profiling and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at manufactured gas plant sites by a high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe coupled to a photoionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Considine; Albert Robbat Jr. [Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States). Chemistry Department, Center for Field Analytical Studies and Technology

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe (HTTL-MIP) coupled to a photoionization detector (PID) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to rapidly profile and speciate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the subsurface. PID signals were in agreement with GC/MS results. Correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.99 were obtained for discrete and composite samples collected from the same exact location. Continuous probe advancement with PID detection found coal tar, a dense nonaqueous phase liquid, in soil channels and saturated media. When samples were collected conventionally, split, solvent extracted, and analyzed in the field and confirmation laboratory, GC/MS measurement precision and accuracy were indistinguishable; despite the fact the field laboratory produced data five times faster than the laboratory using standard EPA methods. No false positive/negatives were found. Based on these findings, increased confidence in site conceptual models should be obtained, since PID response indicated total PAH presence/absence in 'real-time', while GC/MS provided information as to which PAH was present and at what concentration. Incorporation of this tool into a dynamic workplan will provide more data at less cost enabling environmental scientists, engineers, and regulators to better understand coal tar migration and its impact on human health and the environment. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Comparison of aromatic hydrocarbon measurements made by PTR-MS, DOAS and GC-FID during the MCMA 2003 Field Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jobson, B. T.

    A comparison of aromatic hydrocarbon measurements is reported for the CENICA supersite in the district of Iztapalapa during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field experiment in April 2003 (MCMA 2003). Data from three ...

  20. Partitioning and Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Intertidal Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruya, Keith A; Horne, Alex J

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfied their requirements. BSAF vs. log Kow by organismsediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for PAHs to the octanol-accumulation factor (BSAF). These BSAFs spanned nearly three

  1. PAH chemistry and IR emission from circumstellar disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Visser; V. C. Geers; C. P. Dullemond; J. -C. Augereau; K. M. Pontoppidan; E. F. van Dishoeck

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. The chemistry of, and infrared (IR) emission from, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in disks around Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars are investigated. The equilibrium distribution of the PAHs over all accessible charge/hydrogenation states depends on the size and shape of the PAHs and on the physical properties of the star and surrounding disk. Methods. A chemistry model is created to calculate this equilibrium distribution. Destruction of PAHs by ultraviolet (UV) photons, possibly in multi-photon absorption events, is taken into account. The chemistry model is coupled to a radiative transfer code to provide the physical parameters and to combine the PAH emission with the spectral energy distribution (SED) from the star+disk system. Results. Normally hydrogenated PAHs in Herbig Ae/Be disks account for most of the observed PAH emission, with neutral and positively ionized species contributing in roughly equal amounts. Close to the midplane, the PAHs are more strongly hydrogenated and negatively ionized, but these species do not contribute to the overall emission because of the low UV/optical flux deep inside the disk. PAHs of 50 carbon atoms are destroyed out to 100 AU in the disk's surface layer, and the resulting spatial extent of the emission does not agree well with observations. Rather, PAHs of about 100 carbon atoms or more are predicted to cause most of the observed emission. The emission is extended on a scale similar to that of the size of the disk. Furthermore, the emission from T Tauri disks is much weaker and concentrated more towards the central star than that from Herbig Ae/Be disks. Positively ionized PAHs are predicted to be largely absent in T Tauri disks because of the weaker radiation field.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons influence Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ; Geosciences 93 Hydrocarbons Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: Experiments and Modeling for Scramjet Thermal Management Summary: of the decomposition of the heavy hydrocarbon fuel is the...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon unresolved Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    40 On the Use, and Reuse, of Polymers for the Treatment of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Water Via a Solidliquid Partitioning Bioreactor Summary: hydrocarbons and more heavily...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons affect Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 3 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons annual Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: releases about 5 billion kilograms of hydrocarbons...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons implications Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons molecules Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 35 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: to number of carbon atoms per hydrocarbon molecule (Figure 2). For each...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons resulting Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences 50 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: a retention library developed by performing runs with known hydrocarbon...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons determined Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mathematics 39 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: hydrocarbons is by their structure. Figure 10 shows conversion efficiency...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons formed Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 31 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: of engine-out hydrocarbons that are partially reacted fuel. LATE FORMING...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon content Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies 23 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: hydrocarbons is by their structure. Figure 10 shows conversion efficiency...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon molecules Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 35 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: to number of carbon atoms per hydrocarbon molecule (Figure 2). For each...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrocarbon is introduced into the ocean via oil spillage, offshore drilling leaks, industrial... hydrocarbons have been attributed to inhibition of ... Source: National...

  14. GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ANIONS WITH MOLECULES OF INTERSTELLAR RELEVANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang Zhibo; Martinez, Oscar; Wehres, Nadine; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@Colorado.edu, E-mail: OMartinez@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: Nadine.Wehres@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Veronica.Bierbaum@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Theodore.Snow@Colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied reactions of small dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anions with neutral species of interstellar relevance. Reaction rate constants are measured at 300 K for the reactions of phenide (C{sub 6}H{sup -}{sub 5}), naphthalenide (C{sub 10}H{sup -}{sub 7}), and anthracenide (C{sub 14}H{sup -}{sub 9}) with atomic H, H{sub 2}, and D{sub 2} using a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube instrument. Reaction rate constants of phenide with neutral molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}CN, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}Cl, and (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O) are also measured under the same conditions. Experimental measurements are accompanied by ab initio calculations to provide insight into reaction pathways and enthalpies. Our measured reaction rate constants should prove useful in the modeling of astrophysical environments, particularly when applied to dense regions of the interstellar and circumstellar medium.

  15. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. w. Hahn; K. r. Hencken; H. A. Johnsen; J. R. Ross; P. M. Walsh

    1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 {micro}m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine for NO{sub x} control. Iron-containing particles are expected to be scale from ferrous metals. A commercial photoelectric aerosol sensor was used to measure PAH adsorbed on particles in the exhaust from the steam generator and the rich-burn engine. The conversion of the instrument readings to PAH concentrations is dependent upon the specific distribution of PAH species present. Using the typical calibration factor recommended by the instrument manufacturer, the estimated average concentration of particle-bound PAH was below the instrument detection limit (3--10 ng/m{sup 3}) in the stack gas from the steam generator, and was estimated to be 0.045--0.15 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the exhaust from the rich-burn engine. Particle mass concentrations estimated from number concentrations determined using the particle counting and sizing instrument were only small fractions of the concentrations measured using Method 5. This is thought to be due primarily to the limited range over which size was quantified (0.1 to 7.5 {micro}m) and the poor efficiency with which the sampling system transferred large particles.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords polycyclic aromatic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords polycyclic aromatic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon clusters Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation Summary: to macromolecular building blocks (nanoparticles) that eventually turn into soot. Polycyclic aromatic...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    773 K, 20 k... staging on (a) C6+ aromatics to C1 + C2 selectivity ratios; (b) propane to ... Source: Iglesia, Enrique - Department of Chemical Engineering, University...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    773 K, 20 k... staging on (a) C6+ aromatics to C1 + C2 selectivity ratios; (b) propane to ... Source: Iglesia, Enrique - Department of Chemical Engineering, University...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne polycyclic aromatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... has been criticized for...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons part Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By Abbas Firoozabadi Reservoir Engineering... Research Institute (RERI), Palo Alto Yale University, New Haven New phase formation is an integral part... of hydrocarbon...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons adducted Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrocarbon... to its high reactivity toward DNA and cellular proteins. The major acrolein-DNA adduct, -hydrox- ypropano... -hy- droxynonenal, and acrolein, that readily form...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons distributed Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering 23 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: the relative distribution among the bins, the data in Figure 2 are...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon aryl Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

  6. Liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letcher, T.M.; Naicker, P.K.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of pure aromatic and aliphatic compounds from their mixtures is an important goal in chemical operations (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) that produce both types of compounds. In this work the authors have used 1,4-dicyanobutane (DCB) as a potential solvent for this separation. Liquid-liquid equilibrium results for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K are reported, where the alkane is hexane or nonane or dodecane or hexadecane and the aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene or methylbenzene or 1,2-dimethylbenzene, or 1,3-dimethylbenzene, or 1,4-dimethylbenzene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene or ethylbenzene. The results show that there is a small increase in the two-phase region as the chain length of the alkane is increased. The type of aromatic hydrocarbon present in the mixture has a noticeable effect on the slopes of the tie lines. There is also an increase in the area of the two phase-region with increasing substitution of methyl groups on the benzene ring. NRTL and UNIQUAC models were correlated to the data. The results show that 1,4-dicyanobutane may be used as a solvent for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  7. 1 Solvent-Extractable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biochar: 2 Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Feedstock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combustion (or 30 pyrolysis) of plant biomass are important natural constituents 31 of soils and sediments.1 45 different starting materials. 46 Pyrolysis of biomass is known to produce a wide variety of 47 low and high molecular weight (LMW and HMW, respectively) 48 PAHs depending on the biomass type, pyrolysis

  8. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Estuaries of South-eastern Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    (PAH) in the environment has increased since the Industrial Revolution, chiefly through the widespread-eastern Australia John Bagg,AJ. David SmithBand William A. MaherB A Department of Industrial Science, University and Suess 1970). Estuarine and river sediments can be contaminated by inputs from domestic and industrial

  9. MICROCHEMICALJOURNAL39, 160-165<-) Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    by acetonitrile and all traces of dichlo- romethane were removed beforeanalysis. Q I~ Academic grade. PAH stock solutions (40~g/ml) were prepared by dissolving standardsin acetonitrile. Individual diluted with acetonitrile when required. Microparticulate separa- tory columns (Sep-Pak CIS>were obtained

  10. Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah) exposure in human subjects in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Li, Lianfa; Jaimes, Guillermo; Delfino, Ralph J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R21ES016379), the Health Effect Institute (HEI 4787-RFA09-Research Report 143. Health Effects Institute: Boston, MA;

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in feces of river otters from the southern Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), while in 2004, chemistry was confined to PCBs and OC) detected in all samples. In 1998, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and other higher chlorinated PCDD, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  12. Distribution, source apportionment, and transport of PAHs in sediments from the Pearl River Delta and the northern South China Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, X.J.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M.; Zeng, E.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 59 surface sediments from rivers in the Pearl River Delta and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea. Total PAH concentrations varied from 138 to 6,793 ng/g dry weight. The sources of PAH inputs to sediments in the Pearl River Delta were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by diagnostic ratios and principal components analysis with multiple linear regression. The results showed that on average coal and wood combustion, petroleum spills, vehicle emissions, and nature sources contributed 36%, 27%, 25%, and 12% of total PAHs, respectively. Coal and biomass combustion was the main source of PAHs in sediments of the South China Sea, whereas petroleum combustion was the main source of pyrolytic PAHs in riverine and estuarine sediments of the Pearl River Delta. Perylene was formed in situ in river sediments and then transported to coastal areas along with other PAHs. The relative abundance of perylene from five-ring PAHs can be used to estimate the contribution of riverine-discharged PAHs to coastal sediments.

  13. UV-vis spectra of singlet state cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Time-dependent density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominikowska, Justyna, E-mail: justyna@uni.lodz.pl; Domagala, Malgorzata; Palusiak, Marcin [Department of Theoretical and Structural Chemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 163/165, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)] [Department of Theoretical and Structural Chemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 163/165, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study of singlet state cations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is performed. Appropriate symmetry suitable for further calculations is chosen for each of the systems studied. The excitation states of such species are obtained by the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. The computations are performed using both Pople and electronic response properties basis sets. The results obtained with the use of different basis sets are compared. The electronic transitions are described and the relationships for the lowest-lying transitions states of different species are found. The properties of in-plane and out-of-plane transitions are also delineated. The TD-DFT results are compared with the experimental data available.

  14. Aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism by Rhodococcus sp. I24 : computational, biochemical and transcriptional analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Jefferson A. (Jefferson Alexander), 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rhodococcus sp. 124 is a Gram-positive soil bacterium being developed for the manufacture of (-)cis-(1S,2R)-1-aminoindan-2-ol, a key precursor in the production of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor CrixivanTM, from the aromatic ...

  15. SIDE GROUP ADDITION TO THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CORONENE BY ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOLYSIS IN COSMIC ICE ANALOGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    - ated aromatics can be produced in D2O ice photolysis experiments under interstellar conditions IN COSMIC ICE ANALOGS Max P. Bernstein,1,2 Jamie E. Elsila,3 Jason P. Dworkin,1,2 Scott A. Sandford,1 Louis Ultraviolet photolysis of various coronene-ice mixtures at low temperature and pressure caused the addi- tion

  16. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on the vegetation of a railroad right-of-way

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, James Leonard

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (a)pyrone (P/BaP) ratios in leaf waxes to ratios reported in urban air pollution indicated that the py1'ene found in the leaf waxes was more stable than pyrene in the atmosphere. This suggested that pyrene, and possibly other PAH, were endogenous leaf wax... studied trace com- ponents in polluted air (HOFFi~WuN and WYDHER, 1968). They have been identified in the atmosphere of all large American cities (SAWACKI, 1967) and are present in a variety of environmental substances with which humans are in contact...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne polycyclic organic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - acids enhances polycyclic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  19. Formation and destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rapacioli; F. Calvo; C. Joblin; P. Parneix; D. Toublanc; F. Spiegelman

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The competition between the formation and destruction of coronene clusters under interstellar conditions is investigated theoretically. The unimolecular nucleation of neutral clusters is simulated with an atomic model combining an explicit classical force field and a quantum tight-binding approach. Evaporation rates are calculated in the framework of the phase space theory and are inserted in an infrared emission model and compared with the growth rate constants. It is found that, in interstellar conditions, most collisions lead to cluster growth. The time evolution of small clusters (containing up to 312 carbon atoms) was specifically investigated under the physical conditions of the northern photodissociation region of NGC 7023. These clusters are found to be thermally photoevaporated much faster than they are reformed, thus providing an interpretation for the lowest limit of the interstellar cluster size distribution inferred from observations. The effects of ionizing the clusters and density heterogeneities are also considered. Based on our results, the possibility that PAH clusters could be formed in PDRs is critically discussed.

  20. Manganese peroxidase mRNA and enzyme activity levels during bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil with Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogan, B.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Schoenike, B.; Lamar, R.T.; Cullen, D. [Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mRNA extraction from soil and quantitation by competitive reverse transcription-PCR were combined to study the expression of three manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes during removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in presterilized soil. Periods of high mnp transcript levels and extractable MnP enzyme activity were temporally correlated, although separated by a short (1- to 2-day) lag period. This time frame also coincided with maximal rates of fluorene oxidation and chrysene disappearance in soil cultures, supporting the hypothesis that high ionization potential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized in soil via MnP-dependent mechanisms. The patterns of transcript abundance over time in soil-grown P. chrysosporium were similar for all three of the mnp mRNAs studied, indicating that transcription of this gene family may be coordinately regulated under these growth conditions. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    samples were also analyzed for Acenaphthene, Fluorene, 2,6-were also analyzed for Acenaphthene, Fluorene, 2,6- p-PAHs (

  2. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoylman, A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Ecology; Walton, B.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived {sup 14}C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

  4. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impacts such as oil spills, urban storm- water runoff, or sediments contaminated by legacy industrial the zebrafish experimental model have shown that PAHs are toxic to the embryonic cardiovascular system, aquatic sediments in urbanized areas are often dominated by 4- to 6-ring compounds (Kimbrough and Dickhut

  5. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  6. Spitzer Detection of PAH and Silicate Dust Features in the Mid-Infrared Spectra of z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Yan; R. Chary; L. Armus; H. Teplitz; G. Helou; D. Frayer; D. Fadda; J. Surace; P. Choi

    2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the initial results from a Spitzer GO-1 program to obtain low resolution, mid-infrared spectra of infrared luminous galaxies at z~1-2. This paper presents the spectra of eight sources observed with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS). Of the eight spectra, six have mid-IR spectral features, either emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) or silicate absorption. Based on these mid-IR features, the inferred six redshifts are in the range of 1.8-2.6. The remaining two spectra detect only strong continua, thus do not yield redshift information. Strong, multiple PAH emission features are detected in two sources, and weak PAH emission in another two. These data provide direct evidence that PAH molecules are present and directly observable in ULIRGs at z~2. The six sources with measured redshifts are dusty, infrared luminous galaxies at z~2 with estimated $L_{bol} \\sim 10^{13}L_\\odot$. Of the eight sources, two appear starburst dominated; two with only power law continua are probably type I QSOs; and the remaining four are likely composite systems containing a buried AGN and a starburst component. Since half of our sample are optically faint sources with R>25.5mag (Vega), our results demonstrate the potential of using mid-infrared spectroscopy, especially the Aromatic and silicate features produced by dust grains to directly probe optically faint and infrared luminous populations at high redshift.

  7. QSAR model of the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro, Marcia Miguel Castro Ferreira*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    of carcinogenic and toxic potential. These chemicals are well known as water, sediment, soil and air contaminants [1­5]. They are predominant in urban and rural areas, due to the burning of wood and coal, exhaust molecular masses, including even methane, may act as precursors for the polycyclic aromatic compounds. Low

  8. 2094 J.Org. Chem. 1988,53, 2094-2099 Table 11. Bromination of Aromatic Hydrocarbons with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    Br,/aromatic = 5; solvent: carbon tetrachloride. *Chloro- benzene. tetrachloride and 1,4-dibromonaphthalenewas from ICN Biomedicals (WoelmN-Super 1). Carbon tetrachloride was dried with calcium chloride,26, 759. (10) Kovacic, P.; Wu, C. J. Org. Chem. 1961,26, 762. mmol), 2 (30 g), and carbon tetrachloride

  9. Constraining uncertainties about the sources and magnitude of ambient air exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The state of Minnesota as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This list includes acenaphthene; acenaphthylene; anthracene;b Acenaphthylene 10 f Acenaphthene 1.2 f Anthracene Benz( a)

  10. Constraining uncertainties about the sources and magnitude of ambient air exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The state of Minnesota as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wood, wood waste, and ‘black liquor’ are reported by thee other= wood waste, black liquor, used oil, petroleum coke,

  11. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in northwest Gulf of Mexico marine fish and invertebrates: indicators of offshore petroleum contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Cynthia Marie

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    marine fish and invertebrates were collected in the vicinity of offshore petroleum platforms in the northwest Gulf of Mexico and subdivided with respect to distance from the platforms (i.e. "near", 3000 m). Hepatic tissues were analyzed...

  12. Effect of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic distribution in the hydrocarbon mixture and water on the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon systems over the temperature range from 333 K to 366 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezekwe, J.N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide flooding has been suggested as an efficient and effective means of achieving additional oil recoveries from depleted and/or water flooded reservoirs. The numerical simulation of a carbon dioxide flood requires a phase equilibria predictor that will provide the compositional distribution of the reservoir fluids as the displacement propagates through the reservoir. The objective of this work was to provide a phase equilibria predictor that utilizes the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A new PUT apparatus was constructed. This apparatus was used to measure the isothermal P-x data of the systems: CO/sub 2/-toluene, CO/sub 2/-ethylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-propylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-cyclopentane, CO/sub 2/-cyclohexane and CO/sub 2/-methylcyclohexane at 333.15 K, 349.82 K and 366.48 K. Interaction parameters were regressed from literature data for CO/sub 2/-paraffin systems and from the experimental data of this work for CO/sub 2/-aromatic and CO/sub 2/-naphthenic systems. Recommended interaction parameters for these systems are provided. Experimental results indicated that the dominant effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems was the solubilization of carbon dioxide by water into the aqueous phase. This concept was simulated with the SRK equation of state and a correlation of literature data on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. The predicted results agreed well with the experimental results. The presence of dissolved salts in water mitigates the effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems. The presence on n-butylbenzene or n-butylcylcohexane in the heavy ends with n-decane improved the maximum miscibility composition of the system. Pressure has a substantial effect on maximum miscibility compositions.

  13. Femtosecond-picosecond laser photolysis studies on the dynamics of excited charge-transfer complexes: Aromatic hydrocarbon-acid anhydride, -tetracyanoethylene, and -tetracyanoquinodimethane systems in acetonitrile solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahi, Tsuyoshi; Mataga, Noboru (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1991-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation processes of contact ion pairs (CIP) from the excited Franck-Condon (FC) state of charge-transfer (CT) complexes of aromatic hydrocarbons with acid anhydride as well as cyano compound acceptors in acetonitrile solution and charge recombination (CR) rates (k{sub CR}{sup CIP}) of produced CIP states have been investigated by femtosecond and picosecond laser phototlysis and time-resolved absorption spectral measurements covering a wide range of free energy gap-{Delta}G{degree}{sub ip} between the ion pair and the ground state. It has been confirmed that the CIP formation becomes faster and k{sub CR}{sup CIP} of the produced CIP increases with increase of the strengths of the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) in the complex, i.e., with decrease of the {minus}{Delta}G{degree}{sub ip} value. This peculiar energy gap dependence of k{sub CR}{sup CIP}, quite different from the bell-shaped one observed in the case of the solvent-separated ion pairs (SSIP) or loose ion pairs (LIP) formed by encounter between fluorescer and quencher in the fluoresence quenching reaction, has been interpreted by assuming the change of electronic and geometrical structures of CIP depending on the strengths of D and A.

  14. Directed metalation of N,N-diethylbenzamides. Silylated benzamides for the synthesis of naturally occurring peri-methylanthraquinones and peri-methyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, R.J.; Snieckus, V. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient methodologies based on directed ortho metalation, fluoride-induced carbodesilylation, and metal-halogen exchange processes (Scheme I) are reported for the synthesis of peri-methyl-substituted anthraquinone natural products 5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 6, 7. Benzamide 8 (Scheme II) is converted in a one-pot sequence into the disilylated derivative 10, which upon metalation, condensation with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, CsF desilylation, and TsOH cyclization leads to the key phthalide 11. Compound 11 is transformed into deoxyerythrolaccin tris(methyl ether) 5c, which has been previously converted into the natural product 5a. For the synthesis of erythrolaccin tetrakis(methyl ether) 5d, the silyl and bromo benzamides 14 and 15 (Scheme III) are condensed with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by CsF-induced carbodesilylation and metal-halogen exchange expedients, respectively, to give the phthalide 16, which is transformed into the target anthraquinone 55d by methods identical with those used in 5c. Along similar lines, the synthesis of 11-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6a, Scheme IV), 8-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6b), and 10-methyl-9,14-dibenz(a,c)anthraquinone (7) is described.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  16. Optical and infrared emission of H II complexes as a clue to PAHs lifecycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khramtsova, M S; Lozinskaya, T A; Egorov, O V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of optical spectroscopy and infrared aperture photometry of more than 100 H II complexes in nine galaxies. Spectra obtained with the 6-m telescope of SAO RAS are used along with archival data from Spitzer and several ground-based telescopes to infer a strength of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, age, properties of the UV radiation field, and metallicity of studied H II complexes. Physical properties (age, radiation field parameters, metallicity) are related to the $F_{8}/F_{24}$ ratio used as a proxy for the PAH abundance in order to reveal factors that may influence the PAH evolution in H II complexes. The well-known correlation between the $F_{8}/F_{24}$ ratio and metallicity is confirmed in the studied complexes. The infrared flux ratio also correlates with the [O III]$\\lambda 5007/\\mathrm{H\\beta}$ ratio which is often considered as an indicator of the radiation field hardness, but this correlation seems to be a mere reflection of a correlation between [O III]$\\lambda ...

  17. INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic non-basmati rice Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can modulate susceptibility include proliferation rates... but greater indoor coal use). Biomarkers were: WBC aromatic-DNA adducts by 32 P-postlabeling and PAH Source:...

  19. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    , and Acrolein 1979; 513 pages ISBN 92 832 1219 3 (out of print) Volume 20 Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons 1979

  20. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive thermodynamic description of the chemical evolution of organic matter with increasing depth in sedimentary basins.

  1. Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, D.A.; Gundel, L.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.

  2. AR242-PP56-02 ARI 24 December 2004 21:20 Phytoremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for environmental cleanup TCE: trichloroethylene TNT: trinitrotoluene PAH: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon MTBE

  3. RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Fraser Basin: chlorophenols, chlorinated dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH

  4. WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF DR. TRACY COLLIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -diphenyl- trichloroethanes (DDTs) and other organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  5. 2.0 C O N TA M I NA N T S O U RC E S by Eric R. McGreer and Wayne Belzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated phenolics, dioxins, furans and pesticides. The major

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic degradation pathways Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Biotechnology 22 Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic...

  7. Influence of nitrogen sufficiency and manganese deficiency on PAH degradation by Bjerkandera sp.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Wasseveld, R.; Field, J.A. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Div. of Industrial Microbiology

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of Mn and N nutrients on the biodegradation of the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound, anthracene, by the N-deregulated ligninolytic fungus Bjerkandera sp. BOS55 was studied. Organic N supplements in the form of an amino acid mixture or peptone resulted in 10- to 14-fold increases in the extracellular peroxidase titers compared to those obtained in the basal N-limited medium. Although these enzymes are involved in the initial attack on PAH, the peptone supplement only increased the rate of anthracene elimination by 2.5 fold. The absence of Mn, which decreased the manganese peroxidase (MnP) titer and increased the lignin peroxidase (LiP) titer, was associated with a large improvement in the anthracene degradation. Mn deficiency also increased the yield of anthraquinone, a known product from peroxidase-mediated conversions of anthracene. Under the best conditions, with peptone N supplementing Mn-free medium, the anthracene degradation rate was 31 mg L{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}.

  8. adherent polycyclic aromatic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Risk in First Nations People Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Near In-situ Bitumen Extraction in Cold Lake, Alberta . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary:...

  9. Oil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81-Hydrocarbon Pollution of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    distribution offuel distillates is evident with only a small contribution from lubricating and heavier oilOil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81- pollution as all oils contain aromatic hydrocarbons while few, if any, biogenic aromatic hydrocarbons

  10. Bioavailability of PAHs: Effects of Soot Carbon and PAH Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, W. Gregory

    of biota-sediment-accumulation factors (BSAF). BSAF values were calculated from individual PAH of the bioaccumulation experiments. BSAF values for petrogenic PAH were greater than those for pyrogenic PAH (e.g., 1 when calculating BSAF values, and using PAH

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylated three-ring pahs Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rings has advanced significantly. Bacterial isolates, which... N CH3 NO2 NO2 O2N NO2 BTEX PAHs PCBs Chlorinated aliphatics Aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons... that many classes...

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Crassostrea virginica and sediments from Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard George

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    naphthalene 2-methylnaphthalene 1-methylnaphthalene biphenyl 2, 6-dimethylnaphthalene acenaphthene fluorene phenanthrene anthracene 1-methylphenanthrene fluoranthene pryene benz[a]anthracene chrysene benzo[e]pyrene benzo[a]pyrene perylene... trichlorobiphenyls tetrachlorobiphenyls pentachlorobiphenyls hexachlorobiphenyls heptachlorobiphenyls octachlorobiphenyls nonachlorobiphenyls Aromatic Internal Standards Pesticide Internal Standards naphthalene-dg acenaphthene-dlO phenanthrene-dlO chrysene...

  13. UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

  14. INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AND AROMATIC FEATURES IN THE 24 {mu}m FLUX-LIMITED SAMPLE OF 5MUSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Yanling; Helou, George; Shi Yong, E-mail: yanling@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: gxh@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: yong@ipac.caltech.ed [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a 24 {mu}m selected sample of 330 galaxies observed with the infrared spectrograph for the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey. We estimate accurate total infrared luminosities by combining mid-IR spectroscopy and mid-to-far infrared photometry, and by utilizing new empirical spectral templates from Spitzer data. The infrared luminosities of this sample range mostly from 10{sup 9} L{sub sun} to 10{sup 13.5} L{sub sun}, with 83% in the range 10{sup 10} L{sub sun} < L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}. The redshifts range from 0.008 to 4.27, with a median of 0.144. The equivalent widths of the 6.2 {mu}m aromatic feature have a bimodal distribution, probably related to selection effects. We use the 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon equivalent width (PAH EW) to classify our objects as starburst (SB)-dominated (44%), SB-AGN composite (22%), and active galactic nucleus (AGN)-dominated (34%). The high EW objects (SB-dominated) tend to have steeper mid-IR to far-IR spectral slopes and lower L{sub IR} and redshifts. The low EW objects (AGN-dominated) tend to have less steep spectral slopes and higher L{sub IR} and redshifts. This dichotomy leads to a gross correlation between EW and slope, which does not hold within either group. AGN-dominated sources tend to have lower log(L{sub PAH7.7{sub {mu}m}}/L{sub PAH11.3{sub {mu}m}}) ratios than star-forming galaxies, possibly due to preferential destruction of the smaller aromatics by the AGN. The log(L{sub PAH7.7{sub {mu}m}}/L{sub PAH11.3{sub {mu}m}}) ratios for star-forming galaxies are lower in our sample than the ratios measured from the nuclear spectra of nearby normal galaxies, most probably indicating a difference in the ionization state or grain size distribution between the nuclear regions and the entire galaxy. Finally, we provide a calibration relating the monochromatic continuum or aromatic feature luminosity to L{sub IR} for different types of objects.

  15. Solubilities of nitrogen in selected naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons at temperatures from 344 to 433 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, W.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L. Jr. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering] [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubilities of nitrogen in selected naphthenic (cyclohexane and trans-Decalin) and aromatic (benzene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene) solvents were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K at pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was shown to represent the experimental data with root-mean-square deviations of about 0.002 when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each binary system.

  16. Star Formation and AGN activity in Galaxies classified using the 1.6 {\\mu}m Bump and PAH features at $z = 0.4-2$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanami, Hitoshi; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Krumpe, Mirko; Umetsu, Keiichi; Ohyama, Youichi; Shim, Hyun Jin; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyoung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J; Willmer, Christopher N; Goto, Tomotsugu; Oyabu, Shinki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Wada, Takehiko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the star-formation and AGN activity of massive galaxies in the redshift range $z=0.4-2$, which are detected in a deep survey field using the AKARI InfraRed (IR) astronomical satellite and {\\em Subaru} telescope toward the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP). The AKARI/IRC Mid-InfraRed (MIR) multiband photometry is used to trace their star-forming activities with the Polycyclic-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, which is also used to distinguish star-forming populations from AGN dominated ones and to estimate the Star Formation Rate (SFR) derived from their total emitting IR (TIR) luminosities. In combination with analyses of their stellar components, we have studied the MIR SED features of star-forming and AGN-harboring galaxies.

  17. Water Ice, Silicate and PAH Emission Features in the ISO Spectrum of the Carbon-rich Planetary Nebula CPD-56 8032

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Cohen; M. J. Barlow; R. J. Sylvester; X. -W. Liu; P. Cox; T. Lim; B. Schmitt; A. K. Speck

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined ISO SWS and LWS spectroscopy is presented of the late WC-type planetary nebula nucleus CPD-56 8032 and its carbon-rich nebula. The extremely broad coverage (2.4-197 microns) enables us to recognize the clear and simultaneous presence of emission features from both oxygen- and carbon- rich circumstellar materials. Removing a smooth continuum highlights bright emission bands characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hereafter PAHs) in the 3-14 micron region, bands from crystalline silicates longwards of 18 microns, and the 43- and 62-micron bands of crystalline water ice. We discuss the probable evolutionary state and history of this unusual object in terms of (a) a recent transition from an O-rich to a C-rich outflow following a helium shell flash; or (b) a carbon-rich nebular outflow encountering an O-rich comet cloud.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric polycyclic aromatic Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    burning of coal, oil, gas... called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... by atmospheric currents and ocean currents...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic pollutants exit Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Toxic Contamination Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... the Pacific Ocean carry evidence of...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic organic compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... and detected all of the...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic chemical compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... in burn pits include, but...

  2. Calculate the solubility of aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Like naphthenes and paraffins, aromatics are an important hydrocarbon component of fossil fuels. Their physical and thermodynamic property data are valuable to engineers in the chemical process industries. In particular, their solubility in water is becoming more important in engineering and environmental studies because of increasingly stringent regulations regarding health, safety and the environment. In this article the authors present water-solubility data and correlations for aromatics (benzenes) as a function of temperature. These results can be useful for engineers conducting various types of initial studies.

  3. 7, 1569315721, 2007 Particulate PAH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of sources and15 ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH-to-black carbon mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8

  4. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: andrea.knecht@tanguaylab.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: goodaleb@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong.888@gmail.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: mtsimonich@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: swansoan@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: melissa.matzke@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: kim.anderson@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. • We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. • The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. • AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

  5. Contamination sources of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PAHs and trace metals in sediments of high and low impacted transboundary rivers (Belgium-France).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Contamination sources of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PAHs and trace metals in sediments of high hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins (PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs) and trace metals have been assessed in sediment from pyrolytic (combustion) origin. For the PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs we compared the fingerprint

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-1 Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PARENTAL FACTORS ON GAMETE CONDITION AND VIABILITY Summary: . 15. 16. 17. 18-21. 22. Pollutants - petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl Pollutants - pesticides... high levels of...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PARENTAL FACTORS ON GAMETE CONDITION AND VIABILITY Summary: . 15. 16. 17. 18-21. 22. Pollutants - petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl Pollutants - pesticides... high levels of...

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Ping

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Edney E.O. Izumi K. Sato K. 244 cm fluorescent bulbs 244cm fluorescent bulbs 1.6 kW Xe lamps 19 kW xenon arc lamps

  9. Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    ´ is a native of Croatia, born in 1930, and is a citizen of the United States and Croatia. He studied, Croatia, in 1960, he founded the theoretical chemistry group. Since 1971, he has visited several U

  10. Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naspinski, Christine S.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in people who work in pulp and paper mills, at hazardous waste sites, municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, and those involved in production, use, and disposal of chlorinated pesticides and herbicides. The most toxic of the PCDDs, 2...

  11. Chemical nature of high-molecular hydrocarbons of gaseous condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'dzhayev, B.A.; Makarov, V.V.; Sergiyenko, S.R.; Khramova, E.V.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass spectrometry was used to study the group-structure composition of high-boiling 50 deg (200/degrees/-250/degrees/, 250/degrees/-300/degrees/, and 300/degrees/-350/degrees/C) fractions of East Turkmenistan condensates: the hydrocarbons composition is characterized by a high content of paraffinic hydrocarbons, and that of others by aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons. For all the condensates under investigation, as the boiling temperature of fractions increases, the content of paraffinic hydrocarbons in them is increased, while that of naphthenic hydrocarbons is reduced. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons according to the number of rings is identical. In high-paraffin condensates, monoaromatic hydrocarbons consist mainly structures with alkyl substituents, but in condensates with a high content of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons they consist mainly of structures with naphthenic substituents. 4 references, 1 figures, 2 tables.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic compounds estudo Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons Source: Shaw, John - Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering,...

  13. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  14. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  15. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  16. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  17. Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

  18. Composition of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons in petroleum asphalts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botvin'eva, A.M.; Dubkova, R.V.; Shkredova, N.A.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uses a combination of chromatographic, chemical, and spectroscopic methods to determine the composition of the paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons recovered from asphalts. Monitors the completeness of separation of the hydrocarbons from the aromatics on the basis of UV spectra. Finds that in the mixture of adduct-forming hydrocarbons, along with the n-paraffins there were admixtures of isoparaffins and longchain alkylnaphthenes. Concludes that a comparison of the structural-group composition of the asphalt fractions from the different crudes shows that there are only slight differences in the structure of the paraffinic/naphthenic hydrocarbons present in these asphalts, particularly with regard to those hydrocarbons that do not react with urea.

  19. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  20. New correlation accurately calculates water solubilities of aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new correlation calculates reliable aromatics solubilities in water down to very low concentrations. The correlation, based on boiling point, can be used for initial engineering studies. The importance of hydrocarbon solubility in water is increasing because of health, safety, and environmental issues. The paper begins with a discussion of the importance of solubility, even at low concentrations. The new correlation is described, aromatics are compared with paraffins, and the new correlation is compared with the API correlation.

  1. Diesel fuel aromatic and cetane number effects on combustion and emissions from a prototype 1991 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, E.J.; Jass, R.E.; Slodowske, W.J.; McCarthy, C.I.; Krodel, A.L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book reports on a prototype 1991-model diesel engine that was tested using EPA transient emissions procedures to determine the effect of fuel properties on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. The eleven test fuel set focused primarily on total aromatic content, multi-ring aromatic content, and cetane number, but other fuel variables were also studied. Hydrotreating was used to obtain reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content. Increasing cetane number and reducing aromatic content resulted in lower emissions of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. Particulate emission were best predicted by sulfur content, aromatic content and 90% distillation temperature. Multi-ring aromatics showed a greater significance that total aromatics on hydrocarbon and particulate emissions. combustion parameters were highly dependent on fuel cetane number.

  2. Naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of residual lube stock from West Siberian crudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detusheva, E.P.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Khramtsova, L.P.; Nekrasova, A.V.; Shkol'nikov, V.M.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lube stocks from West Siberian crudes are characterized by high contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and by high viscosity indexes of the naphthenic/paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that isoparaffins account for one-third of the total naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons. The study showed that the naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of the residual lube stock from West Siberia crudes, even with a variation of molecular weight over broad limits, are relatively uniform in composition. They consist mainly of isoparaffinic and monocyclic and noncondensed naphthenic structures.

  3. Water solubility data for 151 hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Pan, Xiang; Lin, Xiaoyin (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of a hydrocarbon in water is important from both an environmental and a safety perspective. This information is required by engineers who design or operate stripping processes that remove hydrocarbons from air or water, or who must determine the amount of a hydrocarbon that has dissolved in water following a chemical spill. In particular, the water solubilities of paraffins are increasingly important because of more-stringent government regulations. Paraffins, along with naphthenes and aromatics, are the three major components of unrefined fuels. The water solubilities of 151 paraffins are listed in tables. The data are valid between 25 and 121 C, typical temperature in air- and steam-stripping operations. Also included is a correlation equation that allows users to estimate hydrocarbon solubilities above the given temperature range.

  4. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. Vibrational mode analysis of void induced coronene as a possible carrier of the astronomical aromatic infrared bands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ota, Norio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Void induced di-cation coronene C23H12++ is a possible carrier of the astronomically observed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Based on density functional theory, multiple spin state analysis was done for neutral void coronene C23H12. Singlet spin state was most stable (lowest total energy). By the Jahn-Teller effect, there occurs serious molecular deformation. Point group D6h of pure coronene transformed to C2 symmetry having carbon two pentagons. Advanced singlet stable molecules were di-cation C23H12++ and di-anion C23H12- -. Molecular configuration was almost similar with neutral C23H12. However, electric dipole moment of these two charged molecules show reversed direction with 1.19 and 2.63 Debey. Calculated infrared spectrum of C23H12++ show a very likeness to observed one of two astronomical sources of HD44179 and NGC7027. Harmonic vibrational mode analysis was done for C23H12++. At 3.2 micrometer, C-H stretching at pentagons was featured. From 6.4 to 8.7 micrometer, C-C stretching mode was obser...

  6. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  7. Manipulation of ring strain and antiaromaticity in the design and synthesis of unique optoelectronic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkhurst, Rebecca R. (Rebecca Rosenberg)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fully-conjugated ladder polymers are leading candidates for organics electronics, as their inherent conformational rigidity encourages electron delocalization. Many of these ...

  8. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diesel PM Polycyclic organic Matter (POM) Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1,3-Butadiene Acrolein Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene Xylene Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Diesel...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic cometabolic conversion Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N... treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They...

  10. Change in Contaminant Concentration in Fraser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    during this period: dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorophenolics, resin to the peak in suspended sediment concentration during the freshet sampling period, iv) dioxins

  11. Abstract Presented at Synchrotron Environmental Science II (SES-II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Abstract Presented at Synchrotron Environmental Science II (SES-II) Argonne National Laboratory - 6 such as dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). *Work

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms and dioxin resistance in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Mark E.

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms and dioxin resistance in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as well as polynuclear and that the frequencies of the major allele types differ between dioxin- sensitive and dioxin-resistant populations

  13. A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

  14. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  15. Naphthenic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, T.F.; Kuo, J.F.; Chilingarian, G.V.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important type of naphthenic hydrocarbons is the monocyclic type, (k/sub 2/, 0, 0). In this instance the number of carbon atoms, n = k/sub 2/, and a formula, C/sub n/H/sub 2n/, can be written where H/C = 2. The value n can vary from 2 to infinity. In the case of n = 2, it is ethylene (I) (2-membered cyclic ring); n = 3, cyclopropane (II) (3-membered cyclic ring); n = 4, cyclobutane (III) (4-membered cyclic ring); etc. If the monocyclic naphthenic is planar, then the bond angle theta can be expressed as theta = (1 - 2/n)..pi.. where n is the number of carbon atoms. However, the tetrahedron angle of the carbon atom being phi = cos/sup -1/ (- 1/3).

  16. Molecular and isotopic records of the combustion inputs to the environment over the last 250 yrs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lima, Ana Lúcia Cessel de, 1969-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most ubiquitous source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the environment is incomplete combustion. This study generated a high-resolution historical record of pyrogenic PAH emissions since pre-industrial ...

  17. A generalized viscosity equation for pure heavy hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. (Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (CA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method for the correlation and prediction of the viscosity of pure heavy hydrocarbons listed in API Research Project 42. The 273 heavy hydrocarbons in the database include branched/unbranched paraffins and olefins together with a variety of complex nonfused/fused aromatic and naphthenic compounds. A generalized one-parameter viscosity-temperature equation, log ({mu} + 0.8) = 100(0.01T){sup b}, is proposed (overall AAD {lt} 7-10%) for all heavy hydrocarbons in the database. For each hydrocarbon, an optimum value of parameter b is provided. It is shown that parameter b varies linearly with the logarithm of molar mass as well as the inverse of boiling temperature (at 10 mmHg). This important observation leads to the development of a predictive method for the liquid-phase viscosity of pure heavy hydrocarbons.

  18. Inner-Shell Excitation Spectroscopy of Fused-Ring Aromatic Molecules by Electron Energy Loss and X-ray Raman Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    recorded under scattering conditions where electric dipole transitions dominate (2.5 keV residual energy aromatics in bulk samples that are opaque to soft X-rays, such as coals and heavy hydrocarbon deposits. 1

  19. Engineered Antibodies for Monitoring of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander E. Karu Ph.D; Victoria A. Roberts Ph.D.; Qing X. Li, Ph.D.

    2002-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to fill needs in ODE's human and ecosystem health effects research, site remediation, rapid emergency response, and regulatory compliance monitoring programs. Doe has greatly stimulated development and validation of antibody-based, rapid, field-portable detection systems for small hazardous compounds. These range from simple dipsticks, microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and hand-held colorimeters, to ultrasensitive microfluidic reactors, fiber-optic sensors and microarrays that can identify multiple analytes from patterns of cross-reactivity. Unfortunately, the technology to produce antibodies with the most desirable properties did not keep pace. Lack of antibodies remains a limiting factor in production and practical use of such devices. The goals of our project were to determine the chemical and structural bases for the antibody-analyte binding interactions using advanced computational chemistry, and to use this information to create useful new binding properties through in vitro genetic engineering and combinatorial library methods.

  20. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM SEALCOATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNH SC RESEARCH FACILITY TREE FILTER Watershed Boundary #12;#12;Sealcoat ­ What is it, and why do we-Fluorene Phenanthrene Anthracene C1-Ph/An C2-Ph/An C3-Ph/An C4-Ph/An Dibenzothiophene C1-Dib C2-Dib C3-Dib

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San Francisco Estuary sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The estuary receives stormwater and wastewater effluents from 40 municipal wastewater treatment plants, 30 urbanized and rural areas surrounding the Delta. Temporal trend analysis showed a statistically significant

  2. aromatic hydrocarbon removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contamination control 12;10 Transfer of Graphite to Supersack (V) 12;11 Moving graphite pile Complete shipment of graphite to DOE's Nevada Test Site Removal of biological shield...

  3. Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    , Spain James S. Chickos Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One with sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpies, are critically evaluated. Whenever possible, recommended. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867 3.2. Sublimation enthalpies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867 3.3. Fusion Enthalpies

  4. aromatic hydrocarbons molecular: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    associated with NOM are being characterized and quantified using liquid- 2 and solid-state 3 deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, fluorescence probe...

  5. aromatic hydrocarbons interacting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    associated with NOM are being characterized and quantified using liquid- 2 and solid-state 3 deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, fluorescence probe...

  6. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  7. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  8. aromatischen kohlenwasserstoffen pah: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    knowledge on cometary PAHs, based on ground-based and space-borne observations of infrared vibrational and ultraviolet fluorescence spectra of comets, and laboratory analysis...

  9. aromatischen kohlenwasserstoffen pahs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    knowledge on cometary PAHs, based on ground-based and space-borne observations of infrared vibrational and ultraviolet fluorescence spectra of comets, and laboratory analysis...

  10. aromaticos policiclicos pah: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    knowledge on cometary PAHs, based on ground-based and space-borne observations of infrared vibrational and ultraviolet fluorescence spectra of comets, and laboratory analysis...

  11. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms by which various fuel component hydrocarbons related to both heavy petroleum and coal-derived liquids are converted to hydrogen without forming carbon were investigated. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in autothermal reforming (ATR) were shown to be responsible for the observed fuel-specific carbon formation characteristics. The types of carbon formed in the reformer were identified by SEM and XRD analyses of catalyst samples and carbon deposits. From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation. The effects of propylene addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics, synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Indications that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation were found. The conversion and degradation effects of the sulfur additive (thiophene) were examined.

  12. PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    months after sealant Oct 2008 30 months after sealant April 2010 3.08 51.2 58.3 27.8 1.58 95.7 89.6 9 Filter) Unsealed 1.6 mg/kg (Bioretention) Stormwater sediments (16PAH): Unsealed area

  13. Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

  14. Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H. [Epidemiology Resources Inc., Newton Lower Falls, MA (United States); Levin, L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Thermochemistry for Hydrocarbon Intermediates Chemisorbed on Metal Surfaces: CHn-m(CH3)m with n ) 1, 2, 3 and m e n on Pt, Ir,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for hydrocarbons on metal surfaces similar to the Benson scheme so useful for gas-phase hydrocarbons. This is used-bond isomerization of olefins, (3) dehydrogenation and dehydro- isomerization to aromatics, (4) isomerization processes. Although molecular orbital and valence bond theories have helped explain the nature of reactivity

  16. Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

  17. Effect of the site of infusion of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) on portal blood flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the site of infusion of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) on portal blood flow LM Zeoula C-308) suggested that mixing of PAH in portal blood could be improved by infusing PAH simultaneously via a ruminal of the PAH infusion site in different animals such that the infusion site effect may have been biased

  18. NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    affects ocean chemistry (Dando and Hovland, 1992) and provides a natural source of petroleum pollution the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets

  19. Hydrocarbon desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

    1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

  20. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  1. Tailoring hydrocarbon streams for asphaltene removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Stroppa, F.; Bertero, L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oilfield production is often hindered by asphaltene precipitation which tends to fill the pores of the reservoir rocks and plug the wellbore tubing as well as the other auxiliary equipment used during crude oil recovery. Several remedies to remove these deposits have been proposed and patented but the injection of aromatic solvents such as toluene and light petroleum distillates is normally preferred. Previous studies with a number of pure aromatic hydrocarbons have shown that the solvent capacity of these molecules may be very different and that the degree of condensation plays an important role. In this regard, tetralins and naphthalenes are superior to alkylbenzenes. However, because the use of pure compounds is not economically feasible, the authors examined various industrial streams and the authors correlated their chemical composition to the solvent capacity. This work allowed the identification of the pseudo-components whose relative concentration is crucial for evaluating the solvent performances. Based on these data, the authors were able to find new products with ideal characteristics. The efficiency of one of these products was confirmed by the analysis of the data obtained when using this new solvent to remove asphaltene in damaged wells of an Italian field.

  2. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  3. Aromatics Extraction Plant Design Using Synthesis Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R. J.; Nedwick, R.

    to extract an aromatics stream from a C 6 -C o heart cut of hydrogenated pyrolysis gasoline, leaving a raffinate containing paraffins and naphthenes. The Distillation Section distills the aromatics stream into high purity benzene, toluene, and Co... aromatics and a stream of C g and heavier Rromatics. Figure 1 shows the major flows and equipment relevant to this study. A lean solvent extracts the aromatics from the feed in the Extractor and the nonaromatic raffinate is sent to battery limits...

  4. Hydrocarbons in Soil Gas as Pathfinders in Geothermal Resource Surveys in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pudjianto, R.; Suroto, M.; Higashihara, M.; Fukuda, M.; Ong, Akhadiana and Jan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface geochemical technique utilizing normal paraffin (C{sub 7+}) and aromatic (C{sub 8}) hydrocarbons in soil gas has been successfully used as pathfinders in surveys for geothermal resources in Indonesia. The Dieng field was used to test the technique. The result shows the paraffin anomalies to be near and over productive wells. Because productive wells usually lie over upflow zones it reinforces our hypothesis that paraffins define the upflow of geothermal systems. The aromatic hydrocarbon alkylbenzene C{sub 8} was found near and around productive wells in the southeast quadrant of the Dieng field (Sikidang-Merdada area) but they are more spread out and more diffuse than the paraffins. The shape of their anomaly seems to suggest a tendency of spreading into the direction of lower elevations. It is thought that the aromatics, which are much more soluble than their corresponding paraffins, express at the surface as anomalies not only of locations of the upflow but also of the outflow of the geothermal system as well. Therefore the combined paraffin and aromatic anomalies, and topography, may be used as an indicator for the direction of the outflow or the flow of the under ground waters. The scarcity of the aromatics in the northwest quadrant of the Dieng field (Sileri area) is unique. A hypothesis has been proposed which could explain this unique feature.

  5. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  6. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  7. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  8. Hydrocarbon cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lochow, C.F.; Kovacs, D.B.

    1988-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a catalyst composition for cracking hydrocarbons to maximize gasoline comprising: rare earth exchanged ''Y'' crystalline faujasite dispersed in a clay containing matrix material; and which has been subsequently further ion exchanged to contain 0.20 to 3.0 wt% yttrium, calculated as the oxide, whereby the yttrium is chemically combined in the catalyst composition.

  9. Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

  10. ROTATIONAL SPECTRA OF SMALL PAHs: ACENAPHTHENE, ACENAPHTHYLENE, AZULENE, AND FLUORENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorwirth, Sven

    ROTATIONAL SPECTRA OF SMALL PAHs: ACENAPHTHENE, ACENAPHTHYLENE, AZULENE, AND FLUORENE S. Thorwirth in the frequency range from 7 to 37 GHz. Initial searches for acenaphthene (C12H10), acenaphthylene (C12H8 and experimentally derived ground-state rotational constants is achieved. Selected transitions of acenaphthene

  11. Assessment of PAH Levels in Atmospheric Particulates from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality Assurance/Quality Control __________________________________ 7 1.2.1 Meteorological Data size fractionation. Mean total PAH concentrations were 40 and 4.1 ng/m 3 for HV/PUF and LPI samples Ministry of Environment ambient air quality criterion in five of the 29 HV/PUF samples and two LPI samples

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute cold exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Summary: to the PAHs exposure were noted for barking cough (RR4.80; 95% CI: 2.73-8.44) and wheezing without cold (RR3... RESPIRATORY DISEASES...

  13. Biomarkers of Exposure to Foodborne and Environmental Carcinogens: Enterosorbent Intervention in a High Risk Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Natalie Malek

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been useful in providing information on population exposure and reducing associated public health impacts. Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites found in a variety of foods. Among these toxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found...

  15. Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) for Different Sediments with Passive Sampler Benoit Charrasse (benoit.charrasse@ineris.fr) and Pierre Hennebert aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five

  16. aliphatic saturated primary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic...

  17. Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Erica Dawn

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound...

  18. Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be defined when conditions exist where the recharging waters containing the hydrocarbons feed into the geothermal kitchen. The existence of open and active faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures allow sufficient permeability for the gases to flux up and express themselves at the surface as hydrocarbon anomaly in the soil gas. When any of the requirements is absent, i.e. in the absence of the recharging waters, hydrocarbons, temperature, or permeability, no anomaly can be expected. It assumes a dynamic convective system, i.e. recharging waters, upflow and outflow. The anomalies however can define to a certain extent, regions of geothermal upflow, buoyant transport of gases, and frequently down-gradient of cooling waters.

  19. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, V. Udaya S. (Monroeville, PA); Gormley, Robert J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  20. Conversion of synthesis gas and methanol to hydrocarbons using zeolite catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Michael Anthony

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    of methanol to hydrocarbons: 2CHsOH ~ (CH, ), O ~ C, -C, Olefinsr paraf f ins aromatics (2l coke This pathway and stoichiometry illustrates that conversion of methanol will yield a maximum of 43. 75 % by weight hydrocarbons and 56. 25% water. Langner... is readily calculated. CO + 2Ht ? + CHsOH /)G tppx = 12. 1 kcal/mol (3) With a feed ratio of 2/1 Hz/CO, the equilibrium CO conversion at 573K and 1, 500 psi is 46. 1%. Commercially, the conversions are much less than equilibrium. It would be desirable...

  1. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Process for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    vanEijl, A.T.

    1986-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture characterized by: (a) distilling a hydrocarbon mixture containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon with an N-(aminoalkyl) piperazine; and (b) separating the amine/hydrocarbon mixture into at least two factions, one of which contains the amine and the unsaturated hydrocarbon.

  4. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  5. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  6. Study of net soot formation in hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, R. B.; Farmer, R. C.; Wang, T. S.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen fuel cell is expected to be a valuable addition to the electric utility industry; however, the current fuel supply availability requires that conventional heavier hydrocarbon fuels also be considered as primary fuels. Typical heavier fuels would be No. 2 fuel oil with its accompanying sulfur impurities, compared with the currently used light hydrocarbon gases. The potential future use of alternate fuels which are rich in aromatics would exacerbate the problems associated with hydrogen production. Among the more severe of these problems, is the greater tendency of heavier hydrocarbons to form soot. The development of a quasi-global kinetics model to represent the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions which control the autothermal hydrogen reforming process and the accompanying soot formation and gasification was the objective of this study.

  7. Distribution and elimination routes of a naphthenic hydrocarbon (Dodecylcyclohexane) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cravedi, J.P.; Tulliez, J.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of fish by hydrocarbons, whether it occurred directly via the water or indirectly via the food chain has been the object of many studies during the last decade. The interest of laboratories have been focused on the most toxic components of crude oils, i.e., aromatic hydrocarbons but there is a lack of information on the fate of cyclic alkanes in fish. Naphthenic hydrocarbons are the least biologically active of the more mobile fractions of petroleum; nevertheless the fate of these compounds are worth considering, because they constitute respectively 41% and 19.2% of light and heavy crude oils. This paper reports the results of our experiment in which /sup 3/H-dodecylcyclohexane has been given per os to rainbow trout in order to evaluate the distribution and elimination routes of this cycloparaffin.

  8. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  9. Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key indus- trial

  10. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in Chemistry. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in...

  11. Further evidence for limited bioavailability of sediment PAH from an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allard, P.J.; Chapman, P.M.; Murdoch, M.H. [EVS Environment Consultants, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Paine, M.D. [Paine, Ledge and Associates, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Minifie, D. [Alcan Smelters and Chemicals Ltd., Kitimat, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial trends in benthic community structure and various parameters measured in resident Dungeness crabs (i.e., parent PAH in hepatopancreas, PAH metabolites in haemolymph, abnormalities, size, condition, female reproductive potential) were determined as part of a Sediment Quality Triad study into potential effects of PAH contamination in marine sediments of Kitimat Arm, BC. Despite high concentrations of PAH near the smelter (historically close to percent levels), previous evidence from a battery of toxicity tests and analyses of fish, shellfish and crab tissue had suggested limited PAH bioavailability. In this study, there were differences between the benthas near the smelter and in a reference area. However, the pattern observed, of reduced abundance and increased richness (i.e., diversity) near the smelter is the reverse of what is generally considered to be a negative effect (i.e., increased abundance, decreased richness). Resident Dungeness crabs showed no evidence of contaminant effects and only limited evidence of PAH bioavailability. Crab hepatopancreas contained low concentrations of PAH, primarily in crab collected near the smelter but also, unexpectedly, in crab from the reference area. PAH metabolites in crab haemolymph were elevated close to the smelter but nowhere else. These results extend and strengthen conclusions from past studies, specifically that sediment PAH in this area has very limited bioavailability. More, importantly, the results indicate little evidence of adverse biological effects.

  12. Process for recovering hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alston, R.B.; Braden, W.B.; Flournoy, K.H.

    1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for transporting heavy crude oil through a pipeline which involves introducing into a pipeline or well-bore with the viscous hydrocarbons an aqueous solution containing (1) a sulfonate surfactant, (2) a rosin soap or a naphthenic acid soap and, optionally (3) coupling agent whereby there is spontaneously formed a low viscosity, salt tolerant, oil-in-water emulsion. Also disclosed is a method of recovery of hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon bearing formation employing an aqueous solution containing (1) a sulfonate surfactant, (2) a rosin soap or a naphthenic acid soap and, optionally (3) a coupling agent.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  15. Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

  16. trends inI?nalytical chemistry, vol. 4, no. 3,X985 75 Analytical applications of ultraviolet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    - nique to studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coat liquids and in tissue. UVRR can also be used to speci- ate PAHs eluting from high-pe$ormance liquid chromato- graphy columns. Other, detection and identification of environmental pollu- tants, pesticide research, and coal and petroleum re

  17. 345Agronomie 23 (2003) 345348 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    article Assessment of soil and grass Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination levels exhausts can be deposited on grass and soil, leading to a risk of contamination through the food chain via). Analyses detected the 16 PAHs listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency in both sites and both grass

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic plant production Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Production of green aromatics... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon formation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By Abbas Firoozabadi Reservoir Engineering... Research Institute (RERI), Palo Alto Yale University, New Haven New phase formation is an ... Source: Saniie, Jafar -...

  2. Selective Fluorescence Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Other Airborne Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Gundel, L.A.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1= naphthalene, 2= acenaphthene. 3= acenaphthylene. 4=acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,1= naphthalene, 2= acenaphthene, 3= acenaphthylene, 4=

  3. Direct Determination of the Phase Distributions of Semi-Volatile Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Annular Denuders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Lee, V.C.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Stevens, R.K.; Daisey, J.M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i.e. , the naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene andthe naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, biphenyl andMethylnaphthalene Biphenyl Acenaphthene and acenaphthylene

  4. Supplementary Information for Depletion of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    /159); acenaphthene (153/154); fluorene (166/165); phenanthrene (178/179); d10-phenanthrene (188/189); anthracene (178

  5. Pulsed discharge nozzle cavity ringdown spectroscopy of cold polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    absorption spectra of the naphthalene (C10H8 ) and acenaphthene (C12H10) cations have been measured cation along with the gas-phase vibronic absorption spectrum of the cold acenaphthene cation are reported

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been readily ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Environmental Management and...

  7. Tenax as sorption sink for in vitro bioaccessibility measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    . Ma a, d a State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment & Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China d Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 30 June 2014

  8. Attenuation of dilute aromatic hydrocarbon transport by a block copolymer in a compacted vertisol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, James Browning

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard calibration curve for ethylbenzene. . . . . 85 32 Standard calibration curve for total xylenes . 86 33 Concentration of benzene in load column leachate as a function of pore volumes. 96 34 Concentration of toluene in load column leachate as a... function of pore volumes. 96 FIGURE Page 35 Concentration of ethylbenzene in load column leachate as a function of pore volumes . . 97 36 Concentration of xylenes in load column leachate as a function of pore volumes. 37 Pore volumes through column...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons diagnostic Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that map onto Source: Knuth, Kevin H. - Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany Collection: Physics 91 DISCOTIC MESOPHASES POTENTIALITIES Abstract....

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon cations Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Source: Canberra, University of - Institute for Applied Ecology Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 6 Dr. Shu Tao, ProfessorEnvironmental Geography and...

  11. Photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: implications for ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Inseon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    formation is essential to assess the urban air pollution. This dissertation consists of two parts: (1) theoretical investigation of the toluene oxidation initiated by OH radical using quantum chemical and kinetic calculations to understand the mechanism of O...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons ii Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 37 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR analysis of the thermal degradation products from vitrinites in relation to their Summary:...

  13. aromatic hydrocarbon-dna adducts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and DNA adducts. Growth of Mycobacterium sp. strain (more) Zhang, Chun 2013-01-01 2 Infrared spectroscopy of fullerene C60anthracene adducts CERN Preprints Summary: Recent...

  14. aromatic hydrocarbon-dna adduct: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and DNA adducts. Growth of Mycobacterium sp. strain (more) Zhang, Chun 2013-01-01 2 Infrared spectroscopy of fullerene C60anthracene adducts CERN Preprints Summary: Recent...

  15. A method for using polyethylene passive samplers to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemical activity in sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Loretta A. (Loretta Ana)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to aid in the determination of the hazards posed by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment beds, a method for the use of polyethylene (PE) sheets as passive sampling devices for measuring chemical ...

  16. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; Atmospheric pollution; POVA (POllution des Vallées Alpines); Alpine valleys 1. Introduction and objectives of atmospheric pollution in these two French Alpines valleys before and after the reopening of the TMB to heavy-12Feb2014 Author manuscript, published in "Atmospheric Environment 42, 173 (2008) 43 à 54" DOI : 10

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon degradation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 16 Organic Geochemistry 26, 353-359, 1997. doi:10.1016S0146-6380(97)00009-0 Summary:...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons degrading Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 16 Organic Geochemistry 26, 353-359, 1997. doi:10.1016S0146-6380(97)00009-0 Summary:...

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Cigarette Smoke Cause Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldman, Stephen D.

    of epidemiological studies have suggested that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Benzo- (a and fragility seen in smoking-related osteoporosis. In this study four groups of 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats; Ovariectomy (ovx); Estrogen; Osteoporosis. Introduction Epidemiological studies have focused

  20. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  1. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

  2. MHUG process for production of low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel. [Medium-pressure Hydro UpGrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Yu Lin; Shi, Jian Wen; Zhang, Xin Wei; Shi, Ya Hua; Li, Da Dong (SINOPEC, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Petroleum Processing)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new hydro-upgrading process operated under medium pressure has been developed to reduce the sulfur and the aromatics content in light cycle oil (LCO). Two catalysts were used in series in this technology. The commercial RN-1 catalyst, which is known as having high activity in hydrodenitrogenation, desulfurization and aromatic saturation, was chosen as the first catalyst. The second one was a nickel-tungsten zeolite catalyst, named RT-5, which was developed by RIPP specially for hydrogenolysis of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The pilot plant tests showed that high quality diesel oil with aromatics content less than 20 v% and sulfur content less than 0.05 wt% could be produced from various LCO/straight-run-gas-oil (SRGO) blended feedstocks under hydrogen partial pressure of 6.4 MPa. The reaction temperature and overall space velocity (S.V.) varied in the range of 350--380 C and 0.6--1.2 h[sup [minus]1], respectively, depending on the properties of the feedstocks to be processed and the upgrading depth required. Several examples presented also illustrated that this technology could be used to prepare catalytic reforming feedstock as well, which is in urgent need in China. A life test operated in relatively high severity for 3,000 hr. indicated that the catalysts possessed excellent stability. A commercial demonstration unit has been running well since the last Oct 1.

  3. Long-Term Composition Dynamics of PAH-Containing NAPLs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    08544 Subsurface contaminants such as coal tar, creosote, diesel fuel, and other petroleum the factors governing human health risk assessment for multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs of environmental pollution involving PAHs is subsurface contamination from nonaque- ous phase liquid (NAPL

  4. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  5. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  6. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  7. A Novel, Green Technology for the Production of Aromatic Thiol from Aromatic Sulfonyl Chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Bradley R.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Functional Theory (DFT), a quantum mechanical method, was used to investigate the new aromatic thiol production technology at the molecular level in aspects including reaction species adsorption and transition state determination. Plant design methods...

  8. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  9. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barron, T.F. [Exeter Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  10. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  11. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  12. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  14. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  15. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Rafal Gieleciak, Craig Fairbridge and Darcy Hager Poster...

  16. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  17. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

  19. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  20. Device for aqueous detection of nitro-aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, W.K.; Schulz, A.L.; Ingram, J.C.; Lancaster, G.D.; Grey, A.E.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a compact and portable detection apparatus for nitro-aromatic based chemical compounds, such as nitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene (TNT). The apparatus is based upon the use of fiber optics using filtered light. The preferred process of the invention relies upon a reflective chemical sensor and optical and electronic components to monitor a decrease in fluorescence when the nitro-aromatic molecules in aqueous solution combine and react with a fluorescent polycyclic aromatic compound. 4 figures.

  1. Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns Hippolyte Djizanne and Pierre Bérest LMS, Germany,1-2 October 2012 TENSILE EFFECTIVE STRESSES IN HYDROCARBON STORAGE CAVERNS Hippolyte Djizanne1 that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure

  2. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  3. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  4. Comparisons of hydrocarbon and nitrogen distributions in geologically diverse tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of bitumens from different tar sand deposits are generally significantly different and affect the utilization of the resource. The chemical and physical properties of bitumen are a result of maturation reactions on the varied organic sediments. For example, saturated hydrocarbon distributions have been related to the geochemical history of organic matter. Very paraffinic or sometimes paraffinic-naphthenic distributions in organic matter are derived from a nonmarine depositional environment. More aromatic and paraffinic-naphthenic hydrocarbon distributions are derived from organic matter deposited in a marine environment. The characteristics of the bitumen also influence the potential for recovery and subsequent processing of the material. For example, saturated hydrocarbons contribute to the high pour points of recovered oils. The origin and composition of an oil influence its viscosity, API gravity, and coke formation during processing, particularly under low-temperature oxidation conditions. The objective of this work is to determine the chemical and physical properties of several samples of bitumen from geologically diverse tar sand deposits. The compound-type distributions and LTD properties of these bitumens are discussed relative to the depositional environment and processing potential of the organic matter.

  5. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  6. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI...

  7. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and...

  8. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  9. aromatic aldehyde production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    virtual product and production Lemurell, Stefan 291 Production of 18F-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: One carbon Two carbon Aromatic ...

  10. aromatic diamine curing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hawaii 96822 University. University of Hawai'i at Manoa. (1) Ramdahl, T.; Bjorseth, J. Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Kaiser, Ralf I. 178 Photofragmentation spectroscopy of...

  11. aromatic nitro compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

  12. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  13. All-Metal Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFMFusionReview Off-site JanuaryAromaticity

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of nitro-substituted cyclopenta-fused PAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldring, J.M.; Ball, L.M.; Sangaiah, R.; Gold, A.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PAH containing a peripherally fused cyclopenta ring are genotoxically active in Salmonella and mammalian cells and have been identified in combustion emissions. Since the cyclopenta ring is predicted to be susceptible to electrophilic attack, nitrosubstituted cyclopenta-fused PAH may be formed in the presence of NO(x), particularly in diesel exhaust, and hence be present in the environment. Nitro derivatives of cyclopenta (cd) pyrene and the cyclopenta-fused benzanthracene isomers were prepared by reaction of the PAH with dinitrogen tetroxide. The purifed products were characterized by mass spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, UV-vis and HPLC. In all cases, nitro substitution occurred on the cyclopenta ring in accord with expectation. Preliminary assay in S. typhimurium indicates that 4-nitro-cyclopenta(cd)pyrene is mutagenically active without exogenous metabolic activation in nitroreductase-competent strains. The results of the study have allowed us to test the hypothesis and will aid in development of structure-activity relationships of nitroPAH.

  15. PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zijlstra, Albert

    understood. A possibility, but implausible, is that these stars all evolved from oxygen-rich to carbon with PAHs and crystalline silicates. A two-component model and images suggest a dense oxygen-rich torus at the outflow, while the continuum emission is concentrat- ed towards the center. Our findings support

  16. Passive sampling for the monitoring of organic pollutants (PAHs, BTEX) in groundwater. Application to a former

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Passive sampling for the monitoring of organic pollutants (PAHs, BTEX) in groundwater. Application techniques for groundwater sampling can affect the measurement of chemical composition of water. Sampling devices such as low-flow peristaltic pumps can sample water slowly from wells to obtain representative

  17. Spatially resolved l-c3h+ emission in the horsehead photodissociation region: Further evidence for a top-down hydrocarbon chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzmán, V V; Goicoechea, J R; Gerin, M; Roueff, E; Gratier, P; Oberg, K I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small hydrocarbons, such as C2H, C3H and C3H2 are more abundant in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) than expected based on gas-phase chemical models. To explore the hydrocarbon chemistry further, we observed a key intermediate species, the hydrocarbon ion l-C3H+, in the Horsehead PDR with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at high-angular resolution (6''). We compare with previous observations of C2H and c-C3H2 at similar angular resolution and new gas-phase chemical model predictions to constrain the dominant formation mechanisms of small hydrocarbons in low-UV flux PDRs. We find that, at the peak of the HCO emission (PDR position), the measured l-C3H+, C2H and c-C3H2 abundances are consistent with current gas-phase model predictions. However, in the first PDR layers, at the 7.7 mum PAH band emission peak, which are more exposed to the radiation field and where the density is lower, the C2H and c-C3H2 abundances are underestimated by an order of magnitude. At this position, the l-C3H+ abundance is also unde...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic rings synthesis Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds part Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Innovation, an Energy... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds derived Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules suggested Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic c48n12 azafullerene Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic blending compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds progress Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compound mixtures Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds effects Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules mini-review Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic geranyl derivatives Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic substitution reaction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic reactive intermediates Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and allene as intermediates... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules application Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient polycyclic aromatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adducts in Mothers Summary: . Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand: particle associated polycyclic aromatic... DNA Damage from Polycyclic Aromatic...

  14. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  15. Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanga, Shahrukh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that bioavailability of the crude oil to the microorganisms limited the degradation rates (Mills, 1994). Preliminary experiments at our laboratories have also indicated enhanced solubilities of petroleum hydrocarbons due to the effects of biosurfactants (Kanga et al...

  16. Detoxification of aromatic pollutants by fungal enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollag, J.M.; Dec, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fungal enzymes, such as laccase, peroxidase, and tyrosinase, play a prominent role in catalyzing the transformation of various aromatic compounds in the environment. The enzyme-mediated oxidative coupling reaction results in covalent binding of chlorinated phenols and anilines to soil organic matter or polymerization of the substrates in aquatic systems. Both of these processes are accompanied by a detoxification effect. Therefore, it has been postulated that they be exploited for the treatment of polluted soil and water. The mechanism and efficiency of oxidative coupling in pollutant removal were studied by incubation of chlorinated phenols and anilines with various humic substances or soil and analysis of the reaction products by chromatography and mass and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The decontamination effect could be enhanced by optimization of the reaction conditions and immobilization of enzymes on solid materials. The results obtained strongly support the concept of using enzymes for control of environmental pollution.

  17. Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  18. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  19. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  20. Dust Masses, PAH Abundances, and Starlight Intensities in the SINGS Galaxy Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, B T; Bendo, G; Gordon, K D; Smith, J D T; Armus, L; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Kennicutt, R C; Li, A; Roussel, H; Walter, F; Calzetti, D; Moustakas, J; Murphy, E J; Rieke, G H; Bot, C; Hollenbach, D J; Sheth, K; Teplitz, H I

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical dust models are presented for 65 galaxies in the SINGS survey that are strongly detected in the four IRAC bands and three MIPS bands. For each galaxy we estimate (1) the total dust mass, (2) the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, and (3) the intensity of the starlight heating the dust grains. We find that spiral galaxies have dust properties resembling the dust in the local region of the Milky Way, with similar dust-to-gas ratio, and similar PAH abundance. The observed SEDs, including galaxies with SCUBA photometry, can be reproduced by dust models that do not require "cold" (T8.1, grains contain a substantial fraction of interstellar Mg, Si and Fe. Galaxies with A_O8.1 have a median q_PAH=3.55%. The derived dust masses favor a value X_CO approx 4e20 cm^{-2}(K kms)^{-1} for the CO to H_2 conversion factor. Except for some starbursting systems (Mrk33, Tolo89, NGC3049), dust in the diffuse ISM dominates the IR power.

  1. Dust Masses, PAH Abundances, and Starlight Intensities in the SINGS Galaxy Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Draine; D. A. Dale; G. Bendo; K. D. Gordon; J. D. T. Smith; L. Armus; C. W. Engelbracht; G. Helou; R. C. Kennicutt; A. Li; H. Roussel; F. Walter; D. Calzetti; J. Moustakas; E. J. Murphy; G. H. Rieke; C. Bot; D. J. Hollenbach; K. Sheth; H. I. Teplitz

    2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical dust models are presented for 65 galaxies in the SINGS survey that are strongly detected in the four IRAC bands and three MIPS bands. For each galaxy we estimate (1) the total dust mass, (2) the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, and (3) the intensity of the starlight heating the dust grains. We find that spiral galaxies have dust properties resembling the dust in the local region of the Milky Way, with similar dust-to-gas ratio, and similar PAH abundance. The observed SEDs, including galaxies with SCUBA photometry, can be reproduced by dust models that do not require "cold" (Tmedia of galaxies with A_O=12+log(O/H)>8.1, grains contain a substantial fraction of interstellar Mg, Si and Fe. Galaxies with A_O8.1 have a median q_PAH=3.55%. The derived dust masses favor a value X_CO approx 4e20 cm^{-2}(K kms)^{-1} for the CO to H_2 conversion factor. Except for some starbursting systems (Mrk33, Tolo89, NGC3049), dust in the diffuse ISM dominates the IR power.

  2. Induction of murine CYP1A2 gene expression by acenaphthylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miggins, John Wesley

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES . VITA 1 3 10 17 24 30 34 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 38 40 43 52 71 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page PAHs Identified in a Coal Gasification Residue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Cytochrome P450 Superfamilies of the Rat... INTRODUCTION 1. 0 Background Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds containing two or more rings that occur as complex mixtures. The compounds present in these mixtures are commonly formed during incomplete combustion and pyrolysis...

  3. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  4. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  5. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  6. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

  7. Seismic Analysis Using Wavelet Transform for Hydrocarbon Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Rui

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    result in successful hydrocarbon finds because abnormal seismic amplitude variations can sometimes be caused by other factors, such as alternative lithology and residual hydrocarbons in certain depositional environments. Furthermore, not all gas fields...

  8. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

  9. A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the...

  10. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  11. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes Acid + Caustic Wastewater Treatment Process Heat and Power Integration Biogas + Sludge Fuel Finishing (hydroprocessing, as needed) Electricity Hydrogen Hydrocarbon...

  12. Astrochemistry: Recent Successes and Current Challenges Abstract Book IAU Symposium No. 231, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    spectroscopy of PAHs: acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, and fluorene Sven Thorwirth, Patrice Theul´e, Carl A rotational spectra of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons acenaphthene, ace- naphthylene and fluorene have of acenaphthene and fluorene have also been measured at 3 mm using conventional free space absorption spec

  13. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter.

  14. EVALUATION OF LEACHATE QUALITY FROM PENTACHLOROPHENOL, CREOSOTE AND ACA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -chlorinated phenols, resin acids and f~h toxicity. A quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program#12;EVALUATION OF LEACHATE QUALITY FROM PENTACHLOROPHENOL, CREOSOTE AND ACA PRESERVED WOOD PRODUCTS, total organic carbon, ammonia, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and non

  15. Revised version Chemosphere 48, 843-848, 2002. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00145-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurringChloroDibenzo-p- Dioxin (TCDD) transfer in the food chain, pigs have been fed with milk mixed either with 14 C- phenanthrene, with 14 C-benzo[a]pyrene or with 14 C-TCDD. The analysis of portal and arterial blood

  16. ERDC TN-DOER-D13 September 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    as subsample mass increases. A bench scale testing plan was designed to evaluate the variability associated sources, including navigation vessels, industrial and sewer outfalls, non-point source runoff and atmospheric deposition. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  17. Published in Journal de Physique IV, vol 11, pp. Pr3-101 ---Pr3-108 Kinetic modelling of gas-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition Cédric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas

  18. Laser photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated heterocyclic compounds. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noyes, R.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partial Contents: Laser Desorption-Laser Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry; Basic Principles of TOFMS; Factors Affecting Flight Time; Source of Broadening; Laser Desorption; Theory of Multiphoton Ionization: Application to Mass Spectrometry; Quantum Theory of MPI; Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory; Time-Dependent Coefficients; Probability of a Two-Photon Process; and Attributes of R2PI.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor Air and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Measured with a New Integrated Organic Vapor-Particle Sampler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Lee, C.C.; Stevens, R.K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and 2-methyl derivatives, acenaphthene and acenapthylene. At19; biphenyl, 69; acenaphthene and acenaphthylene, 4.9;

  20. Semi-Volatile and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Cleanup, Speciation and Emissions Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylnaphthalene Biphenyl Acenaphthene and acenaphthylene2-methylnaphthalene; acen, acenaphthene and acenaphthylene;and 2-methyl derivatives, acenaphthene and acenapthylene. At

  1. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -NAPHTHALENES C2-NAPHTHALENES C3-NAPHTHALENES C4-NAPHTHALENES BIPHENYL ACENAPHTHYLENE ACENAPHTHENE FLUORENE C1-FLUORENES C2-FLUORENES C3-FLUORENES PHENANTHRENE ANTHRACENE C1-PHEN ANTHR C2-PHEN ANTHR C3-PHEN ANTHR C4-PHEN ANTHR DIBENZOTHIO C1.../mg Conc PLOT 613 WEEK 11 W2320 ng/mg Conc NAPHTHALENE C1-NAPHTHALENES C2-NAPHTHALENES C3-NAPHTHALENES C4-NAPHTHALENES BIPHENYL ACENAPHTHYLENE ACENAPHTHENE FLUORENE C1-FLUORENES C2-FLUORENES C3-FLUORENES PHENANTHRENE ANTHRACENE C1-PHEN...

  2. Treatment of produced water by simultaneous removal of heavy metals and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a photoelectrochemical cell.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igunnu, Ebenezer Temitope

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Early produced water treatment technologies were developed before carbon dioxide emissions and hazardous waste discharge were recognised as operational priority. These technologies are deficient in… (more)

  3. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Response of the Photo-Electric Aerosol Sensor (PAS) to2008 Abstract. A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusionthe measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA) was

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in sediments of the Upper Scheldt River Basin: contamination levels and source apportionment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11, 5 (2009) 1086-1093" DOI : 10 and Antwerp. Anthropogenic activities including textile and chemical industries, transport, coal mining, paper) has been developing an integrated and coordinated water management plan for the whole river basin

  5. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  6. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  7. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  8. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  9. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  10. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  11. Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

  12. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  13. Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine Pesticides from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to San2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine 1.6 and 6.1%, respectively. Also monitored were PAHs, PBDEs (two years of19 data), and dioxins) pesticides (DDT, chlordanes, and dieldrin), polybrominated32 diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dioxins are highly

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic side chain Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    side chain Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aromatic side chain Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Role of Aromatic Side Chains in the...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic amine p-anilinoaniline Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1H, aromatic), 6.86 (m, 2H, aromatic), 4.52 (s, 2H, amine), 3.92 (s... with stearoyl chloride to yield compound 6. The two nitro groups were hydrogenated to afford di-amine 7......

  16. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  18. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodle, W.W.; Punwani, D.; Weil, S.A.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat providing wide variation of the composite proportion of liquid-gas output while maintaining high overall carbon conversion to useful fuel. The process and apparatus utilizes three process stages in a single vessel providing functions of drying wet peat, provisions for addition of both wet and dry peat to a hydropyrolysis zone and gasification of the peat char.

  19. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  20. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  1. Development of genetically engineered bacteria for production of selected aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Thomas E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Carolyn S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bulmer, Deborah K. (Henderson, NV); Johnson, Bruce F. (Scotia, NY); Amaratunga, Mohan (Clifton Park, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cloning and expression of genes in the common aromatic pathway of E. coli are described. A compound for which chorismate, the final product of the common aromatic pathway, is an anabolic intermediate can be produced by cloning and expressing selected genes of the common aromatic pathway and the genes coding for enzymes necessary to convert chorismate to the selected compound. Plasmids carrying selected genes of the common aromatic pathway are also described.

  2. Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parekh, M.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

  3. Physical Models of Noncovalent Interactions Involving Aromatic Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Jacob Walter Goldstein

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    -aromatic rings are often quite favourable. For example, the above computed interaction energies for model ethene-benzene and butadiene-benzene complexes are substantial (–0.85 and –1.50 kcal mol–1 for ethene and butadiene, respectively). In the latter case...

  4. Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents Rahoma S. Mohamed* and Anto. The results indicated possible asphaltene aggregation as well as the probable existence of critical micelle fraction. Average molecular areas for asphaltenes adsorbed at different interfaces estimated from surface

  5. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  6. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic polymethylbenzenes. However, as syngas conversion increases with increasing temperature, selectivity to liquid product diminished. This is attributed, in large part, to increased saturation of the olefinic intermediates over PdZn metal sites. Under all the conditions and catalysts evaluated in this study, generating liquid product in high yield was challenging (<10 wt. % C5+ yield).

  7. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Committee) Dr. Pau B. Crawford (Member) r. William D. McCain Jr. r. A ber t T. Watson (Member) Dr. i l. iam D. on Gonten ead of Department) December 1984 ABSTRACT An Experimental and Mathematical Investigation of Hydrocarbon Steam Distillation... mechanism associated with steam flooding and in-situ combustion enhanced oil recovery projects. It also takes place in hydrocarbon recovery from deep volatile oil reservoirs. Nethods for predicting the recovery of hydrocarbons by steam distillation have...

  8. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercialization of IH 2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Alan Del Paggio, Vice President CRI Catalyst Company 910 Louisiana, Houston, TX 77002 Disclaimer This...

  9. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

  10. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  11. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Lewis Center, OH); LaPlante, Timothy J. (Columbus, OH); Rankin, Scott (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick (Columbus, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH) Daymo, Eric (Dublin, OH)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  12. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel IntermediatePolyhydroxybu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster) Re-direct Destination: PHAs are...

  13. Selective aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons over supported gold catalysts.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hereijgers, B.P.C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The selective oxidation of hydrocarbons is of vital importance for the production of valuable chemicals from crude oil and natural gas resources. Unfortunately, when using… (more)

  14. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal...

  15. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

  16. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fractionation Hydrogen Acid, Caustic, Enzymes Wastewater Treatment Insoluble solids Biogas + Sludge Process Heat and Power Integration Corn Stover Hydrocarbon Biofuels (i.e....

  17. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  18. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  19. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

  20. Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:Photon Place:Net Jump Agency/Company(Redirected fromHydrocarbon

  1. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  2. LeS D.4 Monitored Natural Attenuation -3 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS BY ADDING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN GROUND-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    at TFS showed the degradation of all PAH along the plume, except for acenaphthene. The NSO-HET are still

  3. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  4. Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

  5. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

  6. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  7. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  8. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  9. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  10. Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matti Maricq, M. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

  11. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  12. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  13. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  14. Geology and hydrocarbon prospects of Latvia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freimanis, A. (Latvian Dept. of Geology, Riga (Latvia)); Margulis, L.; Brangulis, A.; Kanev, S.; Pomerantseva, R. (Inst. of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Riga (Latvia))

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prospects in Latvia are associated with the Baltic syneclise. Latvia occupies about one fourth of that large tectonic depression; zones of oil accumulation continue there from adjacent areas: the Telshai rampart (Lithuania) and the Leba nose (Polish offshore). The oil prospects in separate areas are determined by their position regarding the sources of oil generation--the Gdansk-Kura and Liepaya depressions. The most prospective areas are the Liepaya-Saldus zone of highs and the Pape-Barta trough. The Liepaya-Saldus zone was situated so that the hydrocarbon migration path crossed it. It probably is an important oil accumulation zone. The paper describes the geology of Latvia and the one oil field in Latvia.

  15. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic white spirit Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    white spirit Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aromatic white spirit Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 International Journal of Mass...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic aliphatic copolyester Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    changes... . An investigation of the aromatic and aliphatic structural changes in the coking coals during carbonisation using... of heat treated coal in relation to the...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Predicting Preignition...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic nucleophilic substitution Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic nucleophilic substitution Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 October CUME Organic Chemistry Summary: , Thomas H. Fisher, and Debbie B. Saebo, A Low-Temperature Internal...

  20. aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-9h-pyrido: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic thiol monolayers Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Applied Physics, Yale University Collection: Materials Science ; Engineering 23 Modification and Stability of Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers upon Irradiation with Energetic...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic sulfur heterocycles Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale Summary: . Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles IV. Determination of polycyclic...

  3. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  4. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  5. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  6. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Hydrocarbon Production in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Taylor Leigh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Algae biofuels ................................................................................ 1 Algae .............................................................................................. 2 Botryococcus braunii... ..................................................................... 4 General biology ........................................................................ 4 Biofuel potential ....................................................................... 9 Hydrocarbon synthesis...

  7. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  8. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  9. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  10. Faults as potential hydrocarbon barriers, Arroyo Grande, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switek, Daniel Paul

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faulting in a sandstone introduces properties which are different from the country rock. Previous work has shown that these new properties can significantly impede the flow of hydrocarbons through the country rock. This thesis seeks to analyze...

  11. Effect of the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of hydrocarbon samples and can be treated as compositional variables which could describe bulk properties of the samples Sample fingerprint STEP 1: Data receiving Q(2d)RPR How...

  12. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines...

  13. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  14. Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antieri, Salvatore J. (Trenton, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

  15. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  16. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in east-central Texas groundwaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Bryan Keith

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; Follett, 1974). The high transmissivity and sandy lithology of the Sparta are much like those of the Queen City, as is the quality of water. 40 LIGNITE STREAKS 30 Laminated and discontinuous lenticular. Trough cross bedded siltstones. 20 ROAD l... hydrocarbons simply reflects a difference in the 5 C of the substrate. Sparta lignite is about 7%%do enriched in ' C relative to Yegua lignite, comparable to the difference seen in the gaseous hydrocarbons. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Steven...

  17. Rock types, pore types, and hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coalson, E.B.; Hartmann, D.J.; Thomas, J.B.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed exploration-oriented method of classifying porosity in sedimentary rocks is based on microscopic examination cores or cuttings. Factors include geometry, size, abundance, and connectivity of the pores. The porosity classification is predictive of key petrophysical characteristics: porosity-permeability relationships, capillary pressures, and (less certainly) relative permeabilities. For instance, intercrystalline macroporosity typically is associated with high permeability for a given porosity, low capillarity, and favorable relative permeabilities. This is found to be true whether this porosity type occurs in a sucrosic dolomite or in a sandstone with pervasive quartz overgrowths. This predictive method was applied in three Rocky Mountain oil plays. Subtle pore throat traps could be recognized in the J sandstone (Cretaceous) in the Denver basin of Colorado by means of porosity permeability plotting. Variations in hydrocarbon productivity from a Teapot Formation (Cretaceous) field in the Powder River basin of Wyoming were related to porosity types and microfacies; the relationships were applied to exploration. Rock and porosity typing in the Red River Formation (Ordovician) reconciled apparent inconsistencies between drill-stem test, log, and mud-log data from a Williston basin wildcat. The well was reevaluated and completed successfully, resulting in a new field discovery. In each of these three examples, petrophysics was fundamental for proper evaluation of wildcat wells and exploration plays.

  18. Preliminary assessment of hydrocarbon potential in southern Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon exploration has been sparse south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois. Over 240,000 ac in this area are within the Shawnee National Forest (SNF). Upcoming review of mineral exploration policy on SNF land and a recent amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act (1987) will result in release of portions of the SNF for competitive and potentially noncompetitive bidding for mineral exploration tracts in the near future. Preliminary assessment of hydrocarbon potential has been carried out in southern Illinois. Numerous oil shows occur in Paleozoic strata south of the Cottage Grove fault system, which, at present, describes the southern boundary of most oil production in Illinois. Only Mitchellsville oil field in southern Saline County lies south of the Cottage Grove fault system. The Upper Devonian New Albany Shale, though to be the primary source rock for Illinois basin hydrocarbons, underlies most of the area. Older potential source rocks may be present. Depositional trends of prolific oil-productive Mississippian strata in Illinois continue southward through the area. Few drill holes have tested strata older than Mississippian in the area. Complex faulting in the Rough Creek-Shawneetown fault system may have improved the potential for hydrocarbon emplacement and entrapment in this region. Preliminary assessment of hydrocarbon potential indicates that this wildcat region deserves further tests.

  19. REAL-TIME IN SITU DETECTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM. Final tropical report (Task 1.3).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel J. Stepan; James A. Sorensen; Jaroslav Solc

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the field demonstration of a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method for characterization of brownfields and other contaminated sites. The technology was provided and demonstrated by Dakota Technologies, Inc. (DTI), of Fargo, North Dakota. LIF generates continuous data on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within the soil profile. The sensor used to record real-time data is deployed into the soil using a modified truck-mounted Geoprobe percussion soil probing device. The summary of observations described in the following text represents an independent evaluation of the performance, usefulness, and economics of the demonstrated technology for characterization at PAH-contaminated sites.

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  1. Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

  2. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  3. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  4. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  5. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  6. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  7. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  8. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  9. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  10. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  11. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  12. LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode. LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion...

  13. Interpretation of side-scan sonar images from hydrocarbon seep areas of the Louisiana continental slope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Rusheng

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Side-scan sonar images from the Louisiana continental slope were examined to study hydrocarbon seepage and related surficial geologic seafloor features. Three study areas are located in the Green Canyon area and the Garden Bank area. Hydrocarbon...

  14. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5...

  15. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    present. An evaluation of the performance of the biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon by the hydrocarbon degrading microbes at the Brayton Fire School??s 4 million gallon per day (MGD) wastewater treatment plant was the main research objective...

  16. Chemisorption of Aromatic Compounds on Well-Defined Palladium Surfaces: Studies by Electron Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ding

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemisorption of aromatic compounds, derivatized with different functional groups, on well-defined Pd(111) surfaces was studied by a combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution...

  17. Noncovalent ????? interaction between graphene and aromatic molecule: Structure, energy, and nature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weizhou, E-mail: wzw@lynu.edu.cn, E-mail: ybw@gzu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wang, Yi-Bo, E-mail: wzw@lynu.edu.cn, E-mail: ybw@gzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Guizhou High Performance Computational Chemistry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)] [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Guizhou High Performance Computational Chemistry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Noncovalent ????? interactions between graphene and aromatic molecules have been studied by using density functional theory with empirical dispersion correction (?B97X-D) combined with zeroth-order symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT0). Excellent agreement of the interaction energies computed by means of ?B97X-D and spin component scaled (SCS) SAPT0 methods, respectively, shows great promise for the two methods in the study of the adsorption of aromatic molecules on graphene. The other important finding in this study is that, according to SCS-SAPT0 analyses, ????? interactions between graphene and aromatic molecules are largely dependent on both dispersion and electrostatic type interactions. It is also noticed that ????? interactions become stronger and more dispersive (less electrostatic) upon substitution of the very electronegative fluorine atoms onto the aromatic molecules.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic polyamide membranes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aromatic polyamide membranes Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Desalination, 95 (1994) 325-345 Elsevier Science B.V....

  19. Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen Abstraction by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen carried out of the kinetics of inter- and intramolecular phenolic hydrogen abstraction phenolic hydrogen, which yields the corresponding phenoxyl-hemipinacol biradical. The biradicals have also

  20. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models, University of Oslo, Idaho National Laboratory, and Institute for Energy Technology Summary Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes