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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reexamination of the Aridity Conditions in Arid Northwestern China for the Last Decade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water resources are an essential part of the ecosystem in the extremely arid northwestern part of China. Previous studies revealed a dry-to-wet climate change since the late 1980s in this region, which suggested a relief from the drought ...

Ke Wei; Lin Wang

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers  

SciTech Connect

Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

Hoekstra, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Conditional Sampling of Turbulence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditional sampling and averaging techniques are used to obtain statistics of convectively-driven quasi-ordered structures at a height of 4 m within the atmospheric surface layer. The fraction of time 'y occupiedby these structures, and their ...

R. A. Antonia; S. Rajagopalan; A. J. Chambers

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

The Moist Available Energy of a Conditionally Unstable Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of “moist available energy,” defined by Lorenz, is applied to study the potential energy available for cumulus convection in a conditionally unstable atmosphere. A modified version of Lorenz's parcel-moving algorithm is applied to the ...

David A. Randall; Junyi Wang

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Study of Laser Scintillation in Different Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser scintillation observations were carried out over a flat surface in different atmospheric conditions on 33 separate days during March 1990?April 1991 and were analyzed and studied. The principal results of the analysis reveal (i) marked ...

P. Ernest Raj; S. Sharma; P. C. S. Devara; G. Pandithurai

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Biosphere-atmosphere interactions over semi-arid regions : modeling the role of mineral aerosols and irrigation in the regional climate system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation describes the role of land surface processes in shaping semi-arid climates, namely those of Southwest Asia and Northwest Africa. The interactions between dust emissions, irrigation, and climate processes ...

Marcella, Marc Pace

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

An Analysis of the Conditional Instability of the Tropical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice phase is included in thermodynamic calculations of convective available potential energy (CAPE) for a large number of soundings in the tropical atmosphere, at both land and ocean stations. It is found that the positive-buoyancy ...

Erle Williams; Nilton Renno

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fluorescence emission induced by extensive air showers in dependence on atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged particles of extensive air showers (EAS), mainly electrons and positrons, initiate the emission of fluorescence light in the Earth's atmosphere. This light provides a calorimetric measurement of the energy of cosmic rays. For reconstructing the primary energy from an observed light track of an EAS, the fluorescence yield in air has to be known in dependence on atmospheric conditions, like air temperature, pressure, and humidity. Several experiments on fluorescence emission have published various sets of data covering different parts of the dependence of the fluorescence yield on atmospheric conditions. Using a compilation of published measurements, a calculation of the fluorescence yield in dependence on altitude is presented. The fluorescence calculation is applied to simulated air showers and different atmospheric profiles to estimate the influence of the atmospheric conditions on the reconstructed shower parameters.

Keilhauer, Bianca

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Atmospheric Dispersion Model Validation in Low Wind Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

and SCIPUFF models and under-prediction bias by the ALOHA model. The experiment parameters were for near field dispersion (less than 100 meters) in low wind speed conditions (less than 2 meters per second).

Patrick Sawyer

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Conditional Sampling of Updrafts and Downdrafts in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of updrafts and downdrafts in the lower third of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the central Pacific Ocean are investigated using a conditional sampling technique. When the drafts are classified according to their ...

Siri Jodha Singh Khalsa; Gary K. Greenhut

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The Regional Atmospheric Water Budget over Southwestern Germany under Different Synoptic Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the question of how complex topography in a low-mountain region affects the partitioning and the variability of the atmospheric water budget components (WBCs) as a function of synoptic-scale flow conditions. The WBCs are ...

Romi Sasse; Gerd Schädler; Christoph Kottmeier

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Surface Turbulent Flux Formulation in Stable Conditions for Atmospheric Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forty-day Wangara data set is used to discuss the applicability of the traditional formulations for the surface fluxes for atmospheric circulation models. It is shown that, while in unstable conditions the surface layer relationships can be ...

Yves Delage

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Stability Parameters and Wind-Stress Coefficients under Various Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stability parameters and wind-stress coefficients under various atmospheric conditions are related to wind velocity and air-sea temperature difference. Readily applicable formulae, without iterative computations, of wind-stress coefficients under ...

Jin Wu

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Effects of Initial and Boundary Conditions of Mesoscale Models on Simulated Atmospheric Refractivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar ducting is caused by sharp vertical changes in temperature and, especially, water vapor at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer, both of which are sensitive to variations in the underlying surface conditions, local mesoscale weather, ...

Changgui Wang; Damian Wilson; Tracy Haack; Peter Clark; Humphrey Lean; Robert Marshall

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Wind Turbines Under Atmospheric Icing Conditions - Ice Accretion Modeling, Aerodynamics, and Control Strategies for Mitigating Performance Degradation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a combined engineering methodology of ice accretion, airfoil data, and rotor performance analysis of wind turbines subject to moderate atmospheric icing conditions.… (more)

Brillembourg, Dwight

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The Influence of Atmospheric Noise and Uncertainty in Ocean Initial Conditions on the Limit of Predictability in a Coupled GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of atmospheric stochastic forcing and uncertainty in initial conditions on the limit of predictability of the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) is quantified based on comparisons of idealized identical twin prediction experiments ...

Cristiana Stan; Ben P. Kirtman

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

An Analysis of Wind Fluctuation Statistics Collected under Stable Atmospheric Conditions at Three Sites in Alberta, Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind fluctuation data collected under stable atmospheric conditions at two prairie sites and a site located near the Rocky Mountain foothills have been analyzed. Results of the analysis show a marked tendency for horizontal fluctuation angles to ...

D. M. Leahey; M. C. Hansen; M. B. Schroeder

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The ISLSCP Initiative I Global Datasets: Surface Boundary Conditions and Atmospheric Forcings for Land-Atmosphere Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive series of global datasets for land-atmosphere models has been collected, formatted to a common grid, and released on a set of CD-ROMS. This paper describes the motivation for and the, contents of the dataset.

P. J. Sellers; B. W. Meeson; J. Closs; J. Collatz; F. Corprew; D. Dazlich; F. G. Hall; Y. Kerr; R. Koster; S. Los; K. Mitchell; J. McManus; D. Myers; K-J. Sun; P. Try

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Development of the semi-arid climate and environment research observatory over Loess Plateau  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arid and semi-arid areas comprise about 30 % of earth surface. Changes in climate and climate variability will likely have a significant impact on these regions. Loess Plateau over Northwest China is a special semi-arid land surface and part of dust aerosol source. To improve understanding and observe the direct evident of the impact of human activity on semi-arid climate over Loess Plateau, the Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) has been established since 2005. SACOL consists of a large set of instruments and focuses on: 1) monitoring of long term tendencies in semi-arid climate changes; 2) monitoring of the aerosol effect on water cycle; 3) studies of interaction between land surface and atmosphere; 4) improving the land surface and climate model; 5) validation of space-borne observations. This paper presents a description of SACOL objectives, measurements, and sampling strategies. Preliminary observation results are also reviewed in this paper. 2 1.

Jianping Huang; Wu Zhang; Jinqing Zuo; Congbin Fu; Jifan Chou; Jiuyi Yuan; Lei Zhang; Shigong Wang; Hongchao Zuo; Hua Fu; Zhoulin Chang; Jianrong Bi; Jinsen Shi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) was applied to the arid Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. The ability of the model to simulate ...

Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Yubao Liu; Joseph A. Zehnder; Jerome D. Fast

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Estimating Spatial Variability in Atmospheric Properties over Remotely Sensed Land Surface Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the spatial relationships between surface fluxes and near-surface atmospheric properties (AP), and the potential errors in flux estimation due to homogeneous atmospheric inputs over heterogeneous landscapes. A large-eddy ...

Giacomo Bertoldi; William P. Kustas; John D. Albertson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Conditional Sampling of Coherent Structures in Atmospheric Turbulence Using the Wavelet Transform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and evaluation of a technique to detect and retrieve coherent structures embedded in a record of atmospheric surface-layer temperature fluctuations is described. This new detection scheme, based on a local wavelet transform, is ...

B. J. Turner; M. Y. Leclerc

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Large Eddy Simulation of an Inhomogeneous Atmospheric Boundary Layer under Neutral Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow structures in an inhomogeneous neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer flow, obtained from large eddy simulation, are analyzed and compared with homogeneous case counterparts. The inhomogeneity is imposed in the streamwise direction ...

Ching-Long Lin; John W. Glendening

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Influence of Ocean Surface Conditions on Atmospheric Vertical Thermodynamic Structure and Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyze the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface wind divergence on atmospheric thermodynamic structure and the resulting effects on the occurrence of deep convection using National Meteorological Center radiosonde ...

Rong Fu; Anthony D. Del Genio; William B. Rossow

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Urban Modifications in a Mesoscale Meteorological Model and the Effects on Near-Surface Variables in an Arid Metropolitan Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A refined land cover classification for the arid Phoenix (Arizona) metropolitan area and some simple modifications to the surface energetics were introduced in the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric ...

Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Joseph A. Zehnder; William L. Stefanov; Yubao Liu; Michael A. Zoldak

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions, and Preliminary Findings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) during June and July 2002 near Ames, Iowa—a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 ...

William P. Kustas; Jerry L. Hatfield; John H. Prueger

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

E – ? model of spray-laden near-sea atmospheric layer in high wind conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-depth understanding and accurate modelling of the interaction between ocean spray and a turbulent flow under high-wind conditions is essential for improving intensity forecasts of hurricanes and severe storms. Here we consider the E – ? closure ...

Yevgenii Rastigejev; Sergey A. Suslov

31

A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) comprise a substantial fraction of the total global aerosol budget. While laboratory studies involving smog chambers have advanced our understanding of the formation mechanisms responsible for SOA, our knowledge of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly or indirectly by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, soot is thought to have a significant warming effect through absorption. Like inorganic salts, soot may undergo atmospheric transformation through the vapor condensation of non-volatile gaseous species which will alter both its chemical and physical properties. Typical smog chamber studies investigating the formation and growth of SOA as well as the soot aging process are temporally limited by the initial gaseous concentrations injected into the chamber environment. Furthermore, data interpretation from such experiments is generally restricted to the singular gaseous species under investigation. This dissertation discusses the use of a new aerosol chamber designed to study the formation and growth of SOA and soot aging under atmospherically relevant conditions. The Ambient Aerosol Chamber for Evolution Studies (AACES) was deployed at three field sites where size and hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of ammonium sulfate seed particles was monitored over time to examine the formation and growth of SOA. Similar studies investigating the soot aging process were also conducted in Houston, TX. It is shown that during the ambient growth of ammonium sulfate seed particles, as particle size increases, hygroscopic growth factors decrease considerably resulting in a significant organic mass fraction in the particle phase concluding an experiment. Observations of soot aging show an increase in measured size, HGF, mass and single scattering albedo. Ambient growth rate comparisons with chamber growth yielded similar trends verifying the use of AACES to study aerosol aging. Based on the results from this study, it is recommended that AACES be employed in future studies involving the production and growth of SOA and soot aging under ambient conditions in order to bridge the gaps in our current scientific knowledge.

Glen, Crystal

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Prediction of Monthly-Mean Temperature: The Roles of Atmospheric and Land Initial Conditions and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the retrospective forecasts from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) coupled atmosphere–ocean Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations from its uncoupled ...

Mingyue Chen; Wanqiu Wang; Arun Kumar

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Assessing groundwater storage changes using RS-based evapotranspiration and precipitation at a large semi-arid basin scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a method, which uses remote sensing based evapotranspiration and precipitation estimates with improved accuracies under semi-arid conditions to quantify a spatially distributed water balance, for analyzing groundwater storage changes ...

Mustafa Gokmen; Zoltan Vekerdy; Maciek W. Lubczynski; Joris Timmermans; Okke Batelaan; Wouter Verhoef

35

Transition of the Large-Scale Atmospheric and Land Surface Conditions from the Dry to the Wet Season over Amazonia as Diagnosed by the ECMWF Re-Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using 15-yr instantaneous European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA) data, the authors have examined the large-scale atmospheric conditions and the local surface fluxes through the transition periods from the dry to wet ...

Wenhong Li; Rong Fu

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

In-situ characterization of free-volume holes in polymer thin films under controlled humidity conditions with an atmospheric positron probe microanalyzer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pulsed, slow positron beam, with a diameter of 200 {mu}m, was extracted into air through a thin SiN window of an atmospheric positron probe microanalyzer (PPMA), and used to measure the ortho-positronium lifetimes {tau} in polyvinyl alcohol and polycaprolactam sub-{mu}m-thick films. By measuring the variation of {tau} as a function of relative humidity, the effect of water molecules on the hole sizes, deduced from {tau}, was examined for the films with consideration to the chain mobility. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the atmospheric PPMA to the in-situ characterization of nanoscopic holes in thin films under practical conditions.

Zhou Wei; Oshima, Nagayasu; O'Rourke, Brian E.; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Suzuki, Ryoichi [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier (RIIF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Chen Zhe; Ito, Kenji [Metrology Institute of Japan (MIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Yanagishita, Hiroshi [Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry (ISC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Tsutsui, Takuro; Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8850 (Japan)

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

37

Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

Churchfield, M. J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

Churchfield, M. J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A Study of the Effect of Molecular and Aerosol Conditions in the Atmosphere on Air Fluorescence Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The air fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to perform calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers created by cosmic rays of above 10^18 eV. To correct these measurements for the effects introduced by atmospheric fluctuations, the Observatory contains a group of monitoring instruments to record atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 km^2. The atmospheric data are used extensively in the reconstruction of air showers, and are particularly important for the correct determination of shower energies and the depths of shower maxima. This paper contains a summary of the molecular and aerosol conditions measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory since the start of regular operations in 2004, and includes a discussion of the impact of these measurements on air shower reconstructions. Between 10^18 and 10^20 eV, the systematic uncertainties due to all atmospheric effects increase from 4% to 8% in measurements of shower energy, and 4 g/cm^2 to 8 g/cm^...

,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

New Technologies to Reclaim Arid Lands User's Manual  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Under conventional technologies to mitigate these impacts, it is estimated that up to 35 percent of revegetation projects in arid areas will fail due to unpredictable natural environmental conditions, such as drought, and reclamation techniques that were inadequate to restore vegetative cover in a timely and cost-effective manner. New reclamation and restoration techniques are needed in desert ranges to help mitigate the adverse effects of military training and other activities to arid-land environments. In 1999, a cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the US. Department of Defense (DoD), and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on mitigating military impacts in arid lands. As arid lands are impacted due to DoD and DOE activities, biological and soil resources are gradually lost and the habitat is altered. A conceptual model of that change in habitat quality is described for varying levels of disturbance in the Mojave Desert. As the habitat quality degrades and more biological and physical resources are lost from training areas, greater costs are required to return the land to sustainable levels. The purpose of this manual is to assist land managers in recognizing thresholds associated with habitat degradation and provide reclamation planning and techniques that can reduce the costs of mitigation for these impacted lands to ensure sustainable use of these lands. The importance of reclamation planning is described in this manual with suggestions about establishing project objectives, scheduling, budgeting, and selecting cost-effective techniques. Reclamation techniques include sections describing: (1) erosion control (physical, chemical, and biological), (2) site preparation, (3) soil amendments, (4) seeding, (5) planting, (6) grazing and weed control, (7) mulching, (8) irrigation, and (9) site protection. Each section states the objectives of the technique, the principles, an in-depth look at the techniques, and any special considerations as it relates to DoD or DOE lands. The need for monitoring and remediation is described to guide users in monitoring reclamation efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Costs are provided for the proposed techniques for the major deserts of the southwestern U.S. showing the average and range of costs. A set of decision tools are provided in the form of a flow diagram and table to guide users in selecting effective reclamation techniques to achieve mitigation objectives. Recommendations are provided to help summarize key reclamation principles and to assist users in developing a successful program that contributes to sustainable uses of DoD and DOE lands. The users manual is helpful to managers in communicating to installation management the needs and consequences of training decisions and the costs required to achieve successful levels of sustainable use. This users manual focuses on the development of new reclamation techniques that have been implemented at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California, and are applicable to most arid land reclamation efforts.

W. K. Ostler

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Jump to: navigation, search Name International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Place India Sector Biofuels Product Biofuels ( Academic / Research foundation ) References International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics is a company located in India . References ↑ "International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=International_Crops_Research_Institute_for_the_Semi_Arid_Tropics&oldid=347036

42

Pathways Relating Soil Moisture Conditions to Future Summer Rainfall within a Model of the Land–Atmosphere System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the key pathways and mechanisms through which soil moisture conditions affect future rainfall over the U.S. Midwest are investigated using a regional climate model. A series of numerical experiments are performed to identify these ...

Jeremy S. Pal; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a temperate forest site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism that controls the variation of surface energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri, USA. Taking advantage of multiple micrometeorological and ecophysiological measurements and a prolonged drought in the middle of the 2005 growing season at this site, we studied how soil moisture, atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and net radiation affected surface energy partitioning. We stratified these factors to minimize potential confounding effects of correlation among them. We found that all three factors had direct effects on surface energy partitioning, but more important, all three factors also had crucial indirect effects. The direct effect of soil moisture was characterized by a rapid decrease in Bowen ratio with increasing soil moisture when the soil was dry and by insensitivity of Bowen ratio to variations in soil moisture when the soil was wet. However, the rate of decrease in Bowen ratio when the soil was dry and the level of soil moisture above which Bowen ratio became insensitive to changes in soil moisture depended on atmospheric conditions. The direct effect of increased net radiation was to increase Bowen ratio. The direct effect of VPD was very nonlinear: Increased VPD decreased Bowen ratio at low VPD but increased Bowen ratio at high VPD. The indirect effects were much more complicated. Reduced soil moisture weakened the influence of VPD but enhanced the influence of net adiation on surface energy partitioning. Soil moisture also controlled how net radiation influenced the relationship between surface energy partitioning and VPD and how VPD affected the relationship between surface energy partitioning and net radiation. Furthermore, both increased VPD and increased net radiation enhanced the sensitivity of Bowen ratio to changes in soil moisture and the effect of drought on surface energy partitioning. The direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning identified in this paper provide a target for testing atmospheric general circulation models in their representation of land-atmosphere coupling.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Arid sites stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC-Arid Site Integrated Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing and deploying innovative environmental cleanup technologies is an important goal for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which faces challenging remediation problems at contaminated sites throughout the United States. Achieving meaningful, constructive stakeholder involvement in cleanup programs, with the aim of ultimate acceptance of remediation decisions, is critical to meeting those challenges. DOE`s Office of Technology Development sponsors research and demonstration of new technologies, including, in the past, the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID), hosted at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The purpose of the VOC-Arid ID has been to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating carbon tetrachloride and other VOC contamination in soils and ground water. In October 1994 the VOC-Arid ID became a part of the Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation Focus Area (Plume Focus Area). The VOC Arid ID`s purpose of involving stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies will now be carried on in the Plume Focus Area in cooperation with Site Technology Coordination Groups and Site Specific Advisory Boards. DOE`s goal is to demonstrate promising technologies once and deploy those that are successful across the DOE complex. Achieving that goal requires that the technologies be acceptable to the groups and individuals with a stake in DOE facility cleanup. Such stakeholders include groups and individuals with an interest in cleanup, including regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, environmental and civic interest groups, public officials, environmental technology users, and private citizens. This report documents the results of the stakeholder involvement program, which is an integral part of the VOC-Arid ID.

Peterson, T.S.; McCabe, G.H.; Brockbank, B.R. [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

ASSESSMENT OF 90SR AND 137CS PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE (EXTENT OF 'DEEPENING') UNDER NATURAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures, and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mm. Both {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory and 70% of the total {sup 90}Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. {sup 90}Sr had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than {sup 137}Cs.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

48

A comparison of Nannochloropsis salina growth performance in two outdoor pond designs: conventional raceways versus the ARID pond with superior temperature management  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8 to 20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9 °C, the water temperature was 18 °C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 - 25 % and 5 - 15 %, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acid comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 vs 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.34 vs. 3.47 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

Crowe, Braden J.; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Chavis, Aaron R.; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Huesemann, Michael H.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

51

Arid Lands Ecology Facility management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) facility is a 312-sq-km tract of land that lies on the western side of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. The US Atomic Energy Commission officially set aside this land area in 1967 to preserve shrub-steppe habitat and vegetation. The ALE facility is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for ecological research and education purposes. In 1971, the ALE facility was designated the Rattlesnake Hills Research Natural Area (RNA) as a result of an interagency federal cooperative agreement, and remains the largest RNA in Washington. it is also one of the few remaining large tracts of shrub-steppe vegetation in the state retaining a predominant preeuropean settlement character. This management plan provides policy and implementation methods for management of the ALE facilities consistent with both US Department of Energy Headquarters and the Richland Field Office decision (US Congress 1977) to designate and manage ALE lands as an RNA and as a component of the DOE National Environmental Research Park System.

None

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

An Energetics Study of Wintertime Northern Hemisphere Storm Tracks under 4 × CO2 Conditions in Two Ocean–Atmosphere Coupled Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different possible behaviors of winter Northern Hemisphere storm tracks under 4 × CO2 forcing are considered by analyzing the response of two of the ocean–atmosphere coupled models that were run for the fourth Assessment Report of the ...

Alexandre Laîné; Masa Kageyama; David Salas-Mélia; Gilles Ramstein; Serge Planton; Sébastien Denvil; Sophie Tyteca

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

54

Impacts of Climate Change on Photosynthetic Microbes in Arid Ecosystems |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Impacts of Climate Change on Photosynthetic Microbes in Arid Ecosystems Impacts of Climate Change on Photosynthetic Microbes in Arid Ecosystems Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » October 2012 Impacts of Climate Change on Photosynthetic Microbes in Arid Ecosystems Researchers find that ten years of controlled CO2 elevation on desert microbes had deleterious effects.

55

Retrieval of Atmospheric Optical Depth Profiles from Downward-Looking High-Resolution O2 A-Band Measurements: Optically Thin Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-linear retrieval was developed to profile moderately thin atmospheres using a high-resolution O2 A-band spectrometer. The retrieval is explicitly linear with respect to single scattering; the multiple-scattering contribution is treated as ...

Qilong Min; Lee C. Harrison

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Potential of arid zone vegetation as a source of substrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three aspects of the potential of vegetation in arid zones as a source of substrates are discussed. The first includes the limitations on efficiency of conversion of solar energy to the stored chemical energy of biomass in green plants, and the subsequent biochemical pathways of carbon dioxide fixation and biosynthesis. Second is the potential of plants endogenous to arid zones. Finally, the use of covered agriculture or controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) is considered both in its present form and in terms of possible extenion to the large scale production of stable crops. (JGB)

Bassham, J.A.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Integrated modelling of water availability and water use in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated modelling of water availability and water use in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil A: Bronstert 1 Integrated modelling of water availability and water use in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil A con- straint for development in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil. Quanti cation of natural water

Bronstert, Axel

58

Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere between the heliostat and receiver of a Central Receiver solar energy system has been computed for a number of atmospheric conditions and tower-heliostat distances. The most important atmospheric variable is found to be the atmospheric aerosol content. No dependence of atmospheric water vapor is found and only a weak dependence on solar zenith angle. For a 500 m heliostat-tower distance two to four percent reductions are expected under typical desert conditions (50 to 120 km visibility). The reduction is approximately linear with heliostat-tower distance. A representative value of the attenuation coefficient is 0.051 km/sup -1/.

Randall, C.M.

1977-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

59

Oceanic and atmospheric response to climate change over varying geologic timescales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global climate is controlled by two factors, the amount of heat energy received from the sun (solar insolation) and the way that heat is distributed Earth's surface. Solar insolation varies on timescales of 10s to 100s of thousands of years due to changes in the path of Earth's orbit about the sun (Milankovitch cycles). Earth's internal boundary conditions, such as paleogeography, the presence/absence of polar icecaps, atmospheric/oceanic chemistry and sea level, provide distribution and feedback mechanisms for the incoming heat. Variations in these internal boundary conditions may happen abruptly or, as in the case of plate tectonics, take millions of years. We use geochemical and sedimentological techniques to investigate the response of ocean chemistry, regional aridity and atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns to climate change during both greenhouse and icehouse climates. To explore the connection between orbitally-forced changes in solar insolation, continental aridity and wind, we generated a high-resolution dust record for ~58 Myr old deep-sea sediments from Shatsky Rise. Our data provide the first evidence of a correlation between dust flux to the deep sea and orbital cycles during the Early Paleogene, indicating dust supply (regional aridity) responded to orbital forcing during the last major interval of greenhouse climate. The change in dust flux was comparable to that during icehouse climates implying subtle variations in solar insolation have a similar impact on climate during intervals of over-all warmth as they do during glacial-interglacial states. The Carboniferous Period (359-299 Ma) marks a critical time in Earth's history when a series of tectonic and biological events caused a shift in the mean climate state from a global "greenhouse" to an "icehouse". Geochemical records extracted from sedimentary rocks deposited in shallow epicontinental seaways are increasingly being used to infer relationships between tectonism, carbon cycling and climate and therefore are assumed to reflect global ocean processes. We analyzed radiogenic isotopes in biogenic apatite along a North American transect to constrain the degree of geochemical coupling between the epicontinental seas and the open ocean. Our results argue strongly for decoupling of North American seaways from the open ocean by latest Mississippian time.

Woodard, Stella C.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Agave: a biofuel feedstock for arid and semi-arid environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficient production of plant-based, lignocellulosic biofuels relies upon continued improvement of existing biofuel feedstock species, as well as the introduction of newfeedstocks capable of growing on marginal lands to avoid conflicts with existing food production and minimize use of water and nitrogen resources. To this end, specieswithin the plant genus Agave have recently been proposed as new biofuel feedstocks. Many Agave species are adapted to hot and arid environments generally unsuitable forfood production, yet have biomass productivity rates comparable to other second-generation biofuel feedstocks such as switchgrass and Miscanthus. Agavesachieve remarkable heat tolerance and water use efficiency in part through a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis, but the genes andregulatory pathways enabling CAM and thermotolerance in agaves remain poorly understood. We seek to accelerate the development of agave as a new biofuelfeedstock through genomic approaches using massively-parallel sequencing technologies. First, we plan to sequence the transcriptome of A. tequilana to provide adatabase of protein-coding genes to the agave research community. Second, we will compare transcriptome-wide gene expression of agaves under different environmentalconditions in order to understand genetic pathways controlling CAM, water use efficiency, and thermotolerance. Finally, we aim to compare the transcriptome of A.tequilana with that of other Agave species to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying traits desirable for biofuel feedstocks. These genomicapproaches will provide sequence and gene expression information critical to the breeding and domestication of Agave species suitable for biofuel production.

Gross, Stephen; Martin, Jeffrey; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Nuclear-waste isolation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vadose zone in arid regions is considered as a possible environment for geologic isolation of nuclear waste. There are several topographic and lithologic combinations in the vadose zone of arid regions that may lend themselves to waste isolation considerations. In some cases, topographic highs such as mesas and interbasin ranges - comprised of several rock types, may contain essentially dry or partially saturated conditions favorable for isolation. The adjacent basins, especially in the far western and southwestern US, may have no surface or subsurface hydrologic connections with systems ultimately leading to the ocean. Some rock types may have the favorable characteristics of very low permeability and contain appropriate minerals for the strong chemical retardation of radionuclides. Environments exhibiting these hydrologic and geochemical attributes are the areas underlain by tuffaceous rocks, relatively common in the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Adjacent valley areas, where tuffaceous debris makes up a significant component of valley fill alluvium, may also contain thick zones of unsaturated material, and as such also lend themselves to strong consideration as respository environments. This paper summarizes the aspects of nuclear waste isolation in unsaturated regimes in alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range province.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Contrasting Conditions of Surface Water Balance in Wet Years and Dry Years as a Possible Land Surface-Atmosphere Feedback Mechanism in the West African Sahel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate of West Africa, in particular the Sahel, is characterized by multiyear persistence of anomalously wet or dry conditions. Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, the Kalahari, lacks the persistence that is evident in the Sahel even though ...

A. R. Lare; S. E. Nicholson

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Criteria for greater confinement of radioactive wastes at arid western sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a set of criteria and standards for greater confinement disposal (CCD) of low-level waste as an alternative to shallow land burial or deep geologic disposal for certain types of waste. The criteria and standards are discussed relative to seven major areas: radiation exposure protection, characterization of waste, transportation and handling, site selection, engineering, general facility requirements, and administration. The document addresses the objectives or goals of burial at intermediate depths to provide greater confinement, and its advantages and disadvantages compared to shallow land burial. Additionally, the document describes a generic greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF), and discusses as well as evaluates the various interrelating factors which must be considered in the selection of a viable site and in the development of GCDF design and performance criteria. Methods are developed for evaluating and ranking the importance of the factors based on health and safety, their potential impact on cost, and the uncertainty and/or difficulty in measurement and control of the factors. It also provides the methodology and analysis used to determine the various site-specific waste concentration acceptance standards (in the form of area disposal concentration limits) as well as design and engineering standards. It also illustrates the methodology used to determine the optimal or preferred depth of disposal under expected arid site conditions and alternative wet or irrigated site conditions. In addition, an example calculation demonstrates the application of the waste area concentration limits at an arid or humid GDF in determining the allowable waste inventory capacity of a particular site and the loading capacity of a waste disposal cell.

Card, D.H.; Hunter, P.H.; Adam, J.A.; White, R.B.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is an international effort to determine the systematic climate errors of atmospheric models under realistic conditions, and calls for the simulation of the climate of the decade 1979–1988 using ...

W. Lawrence Gates

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphere–ocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flávio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

COLLOID AND COLLOID-FACILITATED RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AT THE SEMI-ARID HANFORD SITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COLLOID AND COLLOID-FACILITATED RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AT THE SEMI-ARID HANFORD SITE By ZIRU LIU Hanford project. Unfortunately, he just passed away this January and could not see the completion-ARID HANFORD SITE Abstract by Ziru Liu, Ph.D. Washington State University May 2013 Chair: Markus Flury

Flury, Markus

67

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN Richard Perez & Marek Kmiecik ASRC, the University at Albany 251 Fuller Rd. Albany, NY 12203 perez@asrc.cestm.albany.edu Pierre Ineichen, CUEPE, University of Geneva 7 Route de Drize 1227 Carouge, Switzerland Pierre.Ineichen@cuepe.unige.ch Marek Kmiecik, ASRC Kathleen Moore, IED 251 Fuller Rd. Albany, NY 12203 moore@iedat.com David Renne & Ray George NREL 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 drenne / ray_george@nrel.nrel.gov ABSTRACT This paper describes a methodology to correct satellite- derived irradiances over complex terrain. The correction applies to satellite models using visible images from geostationary satellites. 1. DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT MODEL

70

Plant Species Distributions under Present Conditions and Forecasted for Warmer Climates in an Arid Mountain Range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex environmental gradients in the White and Inyo Mountains in eastern California produce striking variations in vegetation assemblages over short distances. Vegetation composition is dominated by elevational gradients of temperature and ...

Christopher M. Van de Ven; S. B. Weiss; W. G. Ernst

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Sensitivity of Dynamical Intraseasonal Prediction Skills to Different Initial Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predictability of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) relies on both initial conditions and lower boundary conditions (or atmosphere–ocean interaction). The atmospheric reanalysis datasets are commonly used as initial conditions. Here, the biases of ...

Xiouhua Fu; Bin Wang; June-Yi Lee; Wanqiu Wang; Li Gao

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Surface Skin Temperature and the Interplay between Sensible and Ground Heat Fluxes over Arid Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over arid regions, two community land models [Noah and Community Land Model (CLM)] still have difficulty in realistically simulating the diurnal cycle of surface skin temperature. Based on theoretical arguments and synthesis of previous ...

Xubin Zeng; Zhuo Wang; Aihui Wang

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low energy cooling in multi-storey buildings for hot, arid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis discusses passive and low energy cooling strategies and systems in hot arid climates. The choice of a certain strategy, as well as determining the appropriate cooling schemes for such a context becomes of prime ...

Mostafa, Amira M

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The role of rooting strategies on the eco-hydrology of semi-arid regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arid regions are characterized by high variability in the arrival of rainfall, and species found in these areas have adapted mechanisms to ensure the capture of this scarce resource. In particular, the rooting strategies ...

Sivandran, Gajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

An Automated Microlysimeter to Study Dew Formation and Evaporation in Arid and Semiarid Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a simple and low-cost portable weighing microlysimeter that makes use of a load cell for automated recording and for studying daily dew formation, rate of accumulation, and subsequent evaporation in arid or semiarid regions ...

Bert G. Heusinkveld; Simon M. Berkowicz; Adrie F. G. Jacobs; Albert A. M. Holtslag; Willy C. A. M. Hillen

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Forecasting Drought Using the Agricultural Reference Index for Drought (ARID): A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drought forecasting can aid in developing mitigation strategies and minimizing economic losses. Drought may be forecast using a drought index, which is an indicator of drought. The agricultural reference index for drought (ARID) was used as a tool ...

Prem Woli; James Jones; Keith Ingram; Joel Paz

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.  

SciTech Connect

We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless %5Cnodes%22 which can be left in the eld for many months. Embedded software would then increase sampling frequency during periods of rainfall. We hypothesized that this contrast between no-volume ow in karst passageways dur- ing dry periods and partial- or saturated-volume ow during a rain event is detectable by these Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) geophysical nodes, we call this a Wireless Resistivity Network (WRN). The development of new methodologies to characterize semi-arid karst hydrology is intended to augment Sandia National Laboratorys mission to lead e orts in energy technologies, waste disposal and climate security by helping to identify safe and secure regions and those that are at risk. Development and initial eld testing identi ed technological barriers to using WRNs for identifying semi-arid karst, exposing R&D which can be targeted in the future. Gravity, seismic, and resis- tivity surveys elucidated how each technique might e ectively be used to characterize semi-arid karst. This research brings to light the importance and challenges with char- acterizing semi-arid karst through a multi-method geophysical study. As there have been very few studies with this emphasis, this study has expanded the body of practical experience needed to protect the nations water and energy security interests.

Barnhart, Kevin Scott

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Time–Space Distribution of Long-Range Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global three-dimensional structure of long-range (one month to one season) atmospheric predictability was investigated with a general circulation model. The main focus was to ascertain the role of atmospheric initial conditions for such ...

Thomas Reichler; John O. Roads

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Coastal Atmospheric Circulation around an Idealized Cape during Wind-Driven Upwelling Studied from a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study analyzes atmospheric circulation around an idealized coastal cape during summertime upwelling-favorable wind conditions simulated by a mesoscale coupled ocean–atmosphere model. The domain resembles an eastern ocean boundary with a ...

Natalie Perlin; Eric D. Skyllingstad; Roger M. Samelson

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): This paper describes a methodology to correct satellite-derived irradiances over complex terrain. The correction applies to satellite models using visible images from geostationary satellites. (Purpose): Solar model documentation Source SUNY Albany Date Released June 26th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated August 29th, 2003 (11 years ago) Keywords methodology solar SWERA UNEP validation Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 690.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1999 - 2002 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Please cite publication as follows: Perez, R., Ineichen, P., Moore, K., Kmiecik, M., Renné, D., and George, R. 2002.Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain. ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy

82

Spectral Preconditioners for Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elliptic problems in semi-implicit nonhydrostatic atmospheric models are difficult. Typically, they are poorly conditioned, nonseparable, contain cross-derivative terms, and are often nonsymmetric. Here, the resulting linear system is solved ...

Stephen J. Thomas; Joshua P. Hacker; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz; Roland B. Stull

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Intraseasonal Variability in a Dry Atmospheric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long integration of a primitive equation dry atmospheric model with time-independent forcing under boreal winter conditions is analyzed. A variety of techniques such as time filtering, space–time spectral analysis, and lag regressions are used ...

Hai Lin; Gilbert Brunet; Jacques Derome

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Linear Baroclinic Instability in the Martian Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linear baroclinic instability of zonal-mean flows like those in the wintertime Martian atmosphere under both relatively nondusty and highly dusty conditions is examined using a spherical quasi-geostrophic model. The basic states are idealized,...

Jeffrey R. Barnes

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Structure and Evolution of a Severe Squall Line over the Arid Region in Northwest China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure and evolution of a long-lived squall line associated with a disastrous dust storm, called a black storm, that occurred over the arid region in northwest China are described. Data used in the present study were those from routine ...

Tetsuya Takemi

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Apparent soil electrical conductivity mapping as an agricultural management tool in arid zone soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electromagnetic induction (EM) is a commonly used tool for non-invasive mapping of apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC"a). In this paper, we examine three applications of EM surveying used in arid southwestern US agriculture: repetitive salinity ... Keywords: ANOCOVA, ECa, EM, EM38, EMH, EMV, Electrical conductivity, Hi, Hp, Leaching, Regression, Rx, Salinity, Tile lines, Tx

S. M. Lesch; D. L. Corwin; D. A. Robinson

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Variability of surface fluxes over a heterogeneous semi-arid grassland  

SciTech Connect

Efforts are increasing throughout the research community to improve the predictive capabilities of general circulation models (GCMs). The US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has stated its goals as improving the representation and parameterization of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs by a combined modeling and experimental approach. Along with ambient atmospheric conditions, including advection of water vapor and cloud nuclei from other regions, cloud dynamics depend on surface fluxes of heat and water vapor. The lower boundary of the GCM modeling domain, the earth's surface, exerts a strong influence on regional dynamics of heat and water vapor, and the heterogeneity in the surface features can be responsible for generating regional mesoscale circulation patterns. Changes in the surface vegetation due to anthropogenic activity can cause substantial changes in the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux and result in climate changes that may be irreversible. A broad variety of models for representing energy fluxes are in use, from individual leaf and canopy models to mesoscale atmospheric models and GCMs. Scaling-up a model is likely to result in significant errors, since biophysical responses often have nonlinear dependence on the abiotic environment. Thus, accurate and defensible methods for selecting measurement scales and modeling strategies are needed in the effort to improve GCMs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Barnes, F.J.; Porch, W.; Cooper, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kunkel, K.E. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)); Hipps, L.; Swiatek, E. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

90

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology could create an algae biofuels industry that is economically competitive with current fuel prices systems for microalgae capable of producing biofuels. Diesel and jet fuels are critical to our nation more biofuel per acre than any other potential source. Under ideal conditions, microalgae theoretically

Cushing, Jim. M.

92

Improving the Noah Land Surface Model in Arid Regions with an Appropriate Parameterization of the Thermal Roughness Length  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daytime land surface temperatures in arid and semiarid regions are typically not well simulated in current land surface models (LSMs). This study first evaluates the importance of parameterizing the thermal roughness length (z0h) to model the ...

Yingying Chen; Kun Yang; Degang Zhou; Jun Qin; Xiaofeng Guo

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

An Evaluation of the Strength of Land–Atmosphere Coupling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two ensembles of 1-month integrations of a coupled land–atmosphere climate model that differ only in their treatment of land surface boundary conditions have been generated from initial conditions chosen from the July states taken from each year ...

Paul A. Dirmeyer

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Phase 1 involvement for potential stakeholders of the VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Phase I of a three-phased study to support evaluation of new cleanup technologies for federal facilities. It directly supports the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)-Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) being conducted at the Hanford Site. The purpose of the activity is to develop and demonstrate new technologies for cleaning up carbon tetrachloride and other VOCs in soils and groundwater. The institutional assessment task of the VOC-Arid ID, which is being performed by Battelle Seattle Research Center, is assessing regulatory and public acceptability of new technologies. Phase I focuses on gathering Hanford stakeholder input on how to evaluate technologies. Phase II will involve stakeholders applying the technology evaluation criteria to actual demonstration technologies. In Phase III, the task will evaluate stakeholder acceptability of innovative technologies at other DOE candidate sites. Only if a technology performs effectively during demonstration, and is accepted by the regulatory community and the public, can it be recommended for deployment. Phase I consisted of a series of stakeholder interviews and two stakeholder workshops, both designed to receive input about the criteria to be used to evaluate innovative technologies.

McCabe, G.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Influence of temperature, moisture, and organic carbon on the flux of H/sub 2/ and CO between soil and atmosphere: field studies in subtropical regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production and deposition rates of atmospheric hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied during field measurements in subtropical regions, i.e., Transvaal (South Africa), Andalusia (Spain), and the Karoo (South Africa). Measurements were carried out by applying static and equilibrium box techniques. The equilibrium technique has been introduced as a novel method to measure production and destruction rates simultaneously even when soil conditions (e.g., temperature) change during the course of the measurements. Deposition velocities of H/sub 2/ and CO were virtually independent of the soil temperature measured in 3- to 10-mm depths and agreed with those measured in the temperate regions. The deposition velocities were inhibited or stimulated by irrigation water depending on the conditions of the individual field sites. H/sub 2/ production by soil was not observed. By contrast, CO was produced by soil in a dark chemical reaction. Production rates increased exponentially with soil temperatures, giving activation energies of 57-110 kJ mol/sup -1/ and increased linearly with soil organic carbon content. CO production rates followed a diel rhythm parallel to soil surface temperatures. Production generally exceeded CO deposition during the hot hours of the day, so that arid subtropical soils act as a net source of atmospheric CO during this time. On a global basis, CO production by soil may reach source strengths of 30 Tg yr/sup -1/, which is considerably less than the global deposition of CO estimated to be 190-580 Tg yr/sup -1/. Global H/sub 2/ deposition rates were estimated to 70-110 Tg yr/sup -1/.

Conrad, R.; Seiler, W.

1985-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

96

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

97

Long-Term Colloid Mobilization And Colloid-Facilitated Transport Of Radionuclides In A Semi-Arid Vadose Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigations of single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. Field experiment using a vadose zone lysimeter facility at the Hanford site showed that surface-applied Eu colloids can be translocated rapidly under natural precipitation as well as artificial irrigation. Small amounts of applied colloids were translocated from the surface to a depth of two meters within two months and only 20 mm of cumulative infiltration. Large water infiltration events, mimicking snow melt, enhanced movement of Eu colloids. Nonetheless the majority of Eu colloids remained in the top 30 cm of the soil after 3.5 years of monitoring. These results suggest that colloid and radionuclide transport can occur in the near-surface vadose zone at Hanford under field conditions, but that the magnitude of the transport is less than what has been reported from laboratory studies. We further studied colloid mobilization from undisturbed sediment cores under a flow rate of 18 mm/year, a typical low flow rate at Hanford. Under this low flow rate, we observed continuous colloid mobilization from the sediments, although the total amounts of colloids mobilized are small, only 0.5% of available colloids were mobilized during 5 years of observations. These results demonstrate that colloidal particles are mobile even under the low recharge rates found in a semi-arid site like Hanford. Under higher flow rates, we would expect colloid transport to be even more pronounced. These results of our study are particularly relevant for colloid mobilization and transport related to three process in the vadose zone at Hanford: (1) water infiltration into sediments during rainfall or snowmelt events, (2) groundwater fluctuations as caused by river stage fluctuations, and (3) steady-state, low-flow recharge in deep vadose zone sediments. Transient water flow, like during infiltration or groundwater level fluctuations, are most conducive for colloid mobilization, but even during steady-state, low-flow recharge, colloids can be mobile, although to a much lesser extent. The results of this project have led to a comprehensive and fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions at the Hanford site.

Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zhang, Fred; Gee, Glendon W; Mattson, Earl D; Lichtner, Peter C

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Error Structure and Atmospheric Temperature Trends in Observations from the Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellites measures the atmospheric temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere under all weather conditions, excluding ...

Cheng-Zhi Zou; Mei Gao; Mitchell D. Goldberg

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A Study of the Incoming Longwave Atmospheric Radiation from a Clear Sky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A band model for atmospheric absorption is used to calculate the incoming longwave atmospheric radiative flux for some typical clear sky conditions. The sky radiation is also measured using a specially-designed calorimetric apparatus over a wide ...

J. W. Ramsey; H. D. Chiang; R. J. Goldstein

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Environment, safety, health, and quality plan for the TRU- Contaminated Arid Soils Project of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area Program  

SciTech Connect

The Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. LSFA supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The TRU-Contaminated Arid Soils project is being conducted under the auspices of the LSFA Program. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting LSFA/Arid Soils activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to LSFA/Arid Soils operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and system and performance audits as they apply to the LSFA Program.

Watson, L.R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Feedback mechanisms between water availability and water use in a semi-arid river basin: A spatially explicit multi-agent simulation approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the processes responsible for the distribution of water availability over space and time is of great importance to spatial planning in a semi-arid river basin. In this study the usefulness of a multi-agent simulation (MAS) approach for ... Keywords: Brazil, Irrigation, Multi-agent simulation, River basin, Semi-arid, Water availability

Pieter R. van Oel; Maarten S. Krol; Arjen Y. Hoekstra; Renzo R. Taddei

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products  

SciTech Connect

A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Development of passive dry cooling system for power plants in arid land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Availability of large amounts of cooling water is essential for steam power plants. In inland arid areas, gas turbines are usually used for electric power generation at low efficiency and high operation costs. Dry cooling towers are another option but they are not effective with high ambient temperature. This work explores the use of radiative cooling for power plants and large refrigeration plants in inland arid areas. The work done consists of small scale experiments, mathematical models, a survey of the suitable materials, and a prototype experiment. This article presents the prototype experiment. The mathematical modeling was presented by the authors in Solar Energy 48(5), 279-286 (1992). A prototype experimental pond, 10m x 25m x 1m, covered with a painted white aluminum sheet was designed, constructed, and tested. The pond was divided into two layers. The experiment was carried out from January to June. Temperatures in the pond at different sections and depths, net radiation, and weather data were measured. At night the results showed an average heat rejection by radiation of 50 W/m[sup 2]. These results were comparable with the results of the mathematical model. The net result of the experiment was positive. It demonstrated the suitability of the covered pond as a heat rejection system in place where a sufficient amount of cooling water was not available.

Sabbagh, J.A.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Olwi, I.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Simulation of Atmospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral atmospheric circulation model is time-integrated for approximately 18 years. The model has a global computational domain and realistic geography and topography. The model undergoes an annual cycle as daily values of seasonally varying ...

Syukuro Manabe; Douglas G. Hahn

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Atmospheric Available Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium ...

Peter R. Bannon

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclidetransport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigationsof single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. We further demonstrated that it is particularly the advancing air-water interface which is mainly responsible for colloid mobilization. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborated our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small. These results of our study are particularly relevant for colloid mobilization and transport related to three process in the vadose zone at Hanford: (1) water infiltration into sediments during rainfall or snowmelt events, (2) groundwater fluctuations as caused by river stage fluctuations, and (3) steady-state, low-flow recharge in deep vadose zone sediments. Transient water flow, like during infiltration or groundwater level fluctuations, are most conducive for colloid mobilization, but even during steady-state, low-flow recharge, colloids can be mobile, although to a much lesser extent. The results of this project have led to a comprehensive and fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions at the Hanford site.

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; Fred Zhang; Glendon W. Gee; Earl D. Mattson; Peter C. L

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Diagnosis of Local Land–Atmosphere Feedbacks in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the convective triggering potential (CTP)–humidity index (HIlow) framework by Findell and Eltahir, the sensitivity of atmospheric convection to soil moisture conditions is studied for India. Using the same slab model as Findell and ...

O. A. Tuinenburg; R. W. A. Hutjes; C. M. J. Jacobs; P. Kabat

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Mesoscale Modeling of Boundary Layer Refractivity and Atmospheric Ducting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study four mesoscale forecasting systems were used to investigate the four-dimensional structure of atmospheric refractivity and ducting layers that occur within evolving synoptic conditions over the eastern seaboard of the United States. ...

Tracy Haack; Changgui Wang; Sally Garrett; Anna Glazer; Jocelyn Mailhot; Robert Marshall

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Atmospheric Circulation Changes Associated with Rainfall Anomalies over Tropical Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During February–March 1981, striking contrasts existed in the rainfall distribution over most of Brazil and in the atmospheric circulation features over South America and the North and South Atlantic Oceans. Drier than normal conditions prevailed ...

Vernon E. Kousky

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Some Turbulence Characteristics in Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric boundary layer measurements during stable and near neutral condition from seven sites in different kinds of terrain have been analyzed in order to find relationships among turbulence parameters.

Ann-Sofi Smedman

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Atmospheric Research Using Kites: Here We Go Again!  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent campaign on Christmas Island in the equatorial Pacific has demonstrated that, at least under some conditions, simple and relatively inexpensive kites can serve as effective platforms for continuous monitoring of the tree atmosphere. ...

B. B. Balsley; C. L. Baisley; J. B. Williams; G. W. Tyrrell

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Atmospheric Variability on a Zonally Symmetric Land Planet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric variability an a zonally symmetric planet in the absence of external forcing anomalies is studied. With idealized boundary conditions such as the absence of ocean and topography, and by using perpetual equinox solar forcing, a 15-year ...

Lai-Yung Leung; Gerald R. North

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

near 100°E, 50°N, and the Aleutian Cyclone (Low) in the Gulfof the Siberian High (H), the Aleutian Low (L), and the mainto the northwest, and the Aleutian Low to the east. At 850

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suggestive of lee-side subsidence and adiabatic warming. Thesurface air dried, and subsidence returned above 12 of 26and column warmed while the subsidence increased and the

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data reveals the strong, offshore wind speed gradients thatVCSAO event periods. offshore winds as experienced by the

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

Clifton, A.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

119

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

120

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

122

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

123

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

124

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

125

Simulation of the atmospheric behavior for the environment of a small-scale wind turbine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates a method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model low-elevation atmospheric conditions. There are three goals in this research: to analyze the… (more)

Nguyen, Viet

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table to estimate costs for arid lands in general.

W. K. Ostler

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Environmental Evaluation on Atmosphere Radioactive Pollution of Uranium Mine Shaft Ventilation Exhausts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on calculation and evaluation on atmosphere radioactive pollution of uranium mine well ventilation exhaust gas is presented in this paper. Neutral atmosphere conditions were taken into consideration. Nuclear industry standards on safety protection ... Keywords: atmosphere pollution, radiation protection, environmental evaluation, control methods

Dong Xie; Zehua Liu; Jun Xiong; Jianxiang Liu

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

130

Simulating Surface Energy Fluxes and Radiometric Surface Temperatures for Two Arid Vegetation Communities Using the SHAW Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While land–atmosphere transfer models have been pursued for over 30 years, Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere–Transfer (SVAT) models are gaining attention only recently as the need to better represent the interaction between the soil and atmosphere in ...

G. N. Flerchinger; W. P. Kustas; M. A. Weltz

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

ON THE STABILITY OF SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stability of super-Earth atmospheres around M stars using a seven-parameter, analytical framework. We construct stability diagrams in the parameter space of exoplanetary radius versus semimajor axis and elucidate the regions in which the atmospheres are stable against the condensation of their major constituents, out of the gas phase, on their permanent nightside hemispheres. We find that super-Earth atmospheres that are nitrogen-dominated (Earth-like) occupy a smaller region of allowed parameter space, compared to hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, because of the dual effects of diminished advection and enhanced radiative cooling. Furthermore, some super-Earths which reside within the habitable zones of M stars may not possess stable atmospheres, depending on the mean molecular weight and infrared photospheric pressure of their atmospheres. We apply our stability diagrams to GJ 436b and GJ 1214b, and demonstrate that atmospheric compositions with high mean molecular weights are disfavored if these exoplanets possess solid surfaces and shallow atmospheres. Finally, we construct stability diagrams tailored to the Kepler data set, for G and K stars, and predict that about half of the exoplanet candidates are expected to harbor stable atmospheres if Earth-like conditions are assumed. We include 55 Cancri e and CoRoT-7b in our stability diagram for G stars.

Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kopparla, Pushkar [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Principal components analysis (PCA)in caracterization of the dynamic of the land in semi-arid brazilian area: Quixaba-PE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Brazilian semi-arid region has demostrated the pressure of human occupation changes, which are developed in non-sustainable forms. The analysis of the multi-temporal effects changes… (more)

Francisco Dario Maldonado

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Numerical Study on the Atmospheric Circulation over the Midlatitude North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the atmospheric circulation change over the midlatitude North Pacific under the boundary conditions during the last glacial maximum (LGM) have been studied by atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with different ocean ...

Wataru Yanase; Ayako Abe-Ouchi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Hydrostatic Adjustment in Nonisothermal Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author examines hydrostatic adjustment due to heating in two nonisothermal atmospheres. In the first case both the temperature and lapse rate decrease with height; in the second case the atmosphere consists of a troposphere with constant ...

Dean G. Duffy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Efficient rendering of atmospheric phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scattering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, ...

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

137

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management.

Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

On the Correlated k-Distribution Method for Radiative Transfer in Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres is discussed in terms of the physical and mathematical conditions under which this method is valid. Two correlated conditions are necessary and sufficient ...

Qiang Fu; K. N. Liou

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Diurnal Cycle of Land–Atmosphere Interactions across Oklahoma’s Winter Wheat Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manuscript documents the impact of Oklahoma’s winter wheat belt (WWB) on the near-surface atmosphere by comparing the diurnal cycle of meteorological conditions within the WWB relative to conditions in adjacent counties before and after the ...

Matthew J. Haugland; Kenneth C. Crawford

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

144

Ecological perspectives of land use history: The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to gather information on the land use history of the Arid Land Ecology (ALE) Reserve so that current ecological research could be placed within a historical perspective. The data were gathered in the early 1980s by interviewing former users of the land and from previously published research (where available). Interviews with former land users of the ALE Reserve in Benton County, Washington, revealed that major land uses from 1880 to 1940 were homesteading, grazing, oil/gas production, and road building. Land use practices associated with grazing and homesteading have left the greatest impact on the landscape. Disturbed sites where succession is characterized by non-native species, plots where sagebrush was railed away, and sheep trails are major indications today of past land uses. Recent estimates of annual bunchgrass production do ALE do not support the widespread belief that bunchgrass were more productive during the homesteading era, though the invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissium), and other European alien plant species has altered pre-settlement succession patterns. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hinds, N R; Rogers, L E

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

PNNL: FCSD: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change: Programs &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs & Facilities Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and ARM Climate Research Facility ARM Aerial Facility Environmental...

146

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

147

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF) carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14 C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fNF), which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fM) due to the elevated 14 C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fM and the source-dependent information on modern carbon enrichment. The fNF contained in PM1 total carbon analyzed by a US team (f TC

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Atmospheric Corrosion Test Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 27   Some marine-atmospheric corrosion test sites around the world...Zealand Phia Marine 0.2 0.12 15.8 2.4 � � � � Greece Rafina Marine 0.2 0.12 13.6 1.0 � � � � Rhodes Marine 0.2 0.12 14.3 1.5 � � � � Netherlands Schagen Marine 2.4 1.5 17.0 2.0 � � � � Spain Almeria � 0.035 0.022 22.4 1.6 � � � � Cartagena � 0.050 0.031 5.2 1.9 � � � � La Coruña � 0.160 0.1 26.2 1.4...

149

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

150

Adjustment of the Remote Tropical Climate to El Nińo Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adjustment of the tropical climate outside the Pacific (the “remote Tropics”) to the abrupt onset of El Nińo conditions is examined in a tropical atmosphere model that assumes simplified vertical structure and quasi-equilibrium (QE) ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; John C. H. Chiang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Investigation of Surface Duct Conditions over Istanbul, Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive examination of 2 yr of radiosonde data to determine the surface duct conditions over Istanbul (4°N, 29°E), Turkey, was made. The refractivity of the atmosphere is a function of air temperature and water vapor pressure. Any ...

?Sibel Mentes; Zerefsan Kaymaz

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

153

An Evaluation of Bulk Ri-Based Surface Layer Flux Formulas for Stable and Very Stable Conditions with Intermittent Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-rate near-surface overnight atmospheric data taken during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99) is used to quantify the representativeness of surface layer formulations under statically stable conditions. Combined ...

Gregory S. Poulos; Sean P. Burns

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Hybrid fluid/kinetic modeling of Pluto's escaping atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting the rate of escape and thermal structure of Pluto's upper atmosphere in preparation for the New Horizons Spacecraft encounter in 2015 is important for planning and interpreting the expected measurements. Having a moderate Jeans parameter Pluto's atmosphere does not fit the classic definition of Jeans escape for light species escaping from the terrestrial planets, nor does it fit the hydrodynamic outflow from comets and certain exoplanets. It has been proposed for some time that Pluto lies in the region of slow-hydrodynamic escape. Using a hybrid fluid/molecular-kinetic model, we previously demonstrated the typical implementation of this model fails to correctly describe the appropriate temperature structure for the upper atmosphere for solar minimum conditions. Here we used a time-dependent solver to allow us to extend those simulations to higher heating rates and we examined fluid models in which Jeans-like escape expressions are used for the upper boundary conditions. We compare these to our hybr...

Erwin, Justin T; Johnson, Robert E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Computer controlled air conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled air conditioning system providing for circulation of air through an air conditioned house in contact with concrete walls requiring a humidity within a critical range. The improvement consists of: a computer for processing sensed environmental input data including humidity and oxygen to produce output control signals for affecting the humidity of the air in the house; provision for an air flow circulation path through the house in contact with the concrete walls; sensing responsive to the amount of oxygen in the house for providing input signals to the computer; mixing for combining with the air in the house a variable amount of fresh atmospheric air to supply fresh oxygen; and humidity modifying means for modifying the humidity of the air flowing in the flow path responsive to the control signals.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

156

Baiu rainband termination in atmospheric and atmosphere-ocean models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan towards the Northwest Pacific. The climatological termination of the Baiu rainband is investigated using Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA25), a stand-alone atmospheric ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Bunmei Taguchi; Shang-Ping Xie

157

ANALYSIS OF OFF-GRID, OFF-PIPE HOUSING FOR HOT-HUMID AND HOT-ARID CLIMATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the feasibility of off-grid, off-pipe housing in hot-humid and hot-arid climates in the U.S. The study aims to eliminate the need for non-renewable sources of energy and municipal water in residences by using off-grid, off-pipe design approach. To accomplish this, a 2001 International Energy Conservation Code compliant house in Houston, TX and Phoenix, AZ was simulated to determine the base-case energy and water use. Based on the availability of on-site renewable energy and water sources (i.e., solar, wind and biomass and rainfall) in these locations, energy and water efficiency measures were selected in order to reduce the energy and water use to a level that could be met solely by on-site renewable resources. Finally, the sizing of the renewable energy and rainwater harvesting systems was performed to provide for daily needs as well as cumulative needs during the critical periods, in order to achieve complete self sufficiency in terms of energy and water use. The analysis was performed by integrating the results of DOE-2.1e, F-Chart and PV F-Chart programs, and cumulative rainwater supply and water demand analysis. The simulation results demonstrate the differences between the priorities for energy efficiency, water-efficiency and renewable energy measures in hot-humid and hot-arid climates.

Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

A. T. Korsakov; E. G. Tertyshnik

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

Korsakov, A T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Mountain Forces and the Atmospheric Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although mountains are generally thought to exert forces on the atmosphere, the related transfers of energy between earth and atmosphere are not represented in standard energy equations of the atmosphere. It is shown that the axial rotation of the ...

Joseph Egger

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A Combined Local and Nonlocal Closure Model for the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Part I: Model Description and Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer during convective conditions has long been a major source of uncertainty in the numerical modeling of meteorological conditions and air quality. Much of the difficulty stems from the large range of ...

Jonathan E. Pleim

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Refined Calibration Procedure of Two-Channel Sun Photometers to Measure Atmospheric Precipitable Water at Various Antarctic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-channel sun photometers can be easily employed at Antarctic sites, where harsh environmental conditions prevail, to carry out measurements of precipitable water W. In the very dry air conditions observed in the Antarctic atmosphere, water ...

Claudio Tomasi; Boyan Petkov; Elena Benedetti; Luca Valenziano; Angelo Lupi; Vito Vitale; Ubaldo Bonafé

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Glossary Term - Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Earth's Atmosphere Source: Definition of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition Gas Formula Abundance percent by volume...

164

A Computational Thermodynamic Analysis of Atmospheric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2001 ... The vacuum atmosphere is typically 0.1 atm. However, the vacuum atmosphere creates two major problems: air leakage and batch operation to ...

165

(Chemistry of the global atmosphere)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

Marland, G.

1990-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

The Navy's Operational Atmospheric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January of 1988, significant upgrades were made to the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). Among these improvements was the implementation of a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis scheme. Since that time, ...

James S. Goerss; Patricia A. Phoebus

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The Workshop in Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop on the subject of atmospheric predictability was held during 23-25 April 2001 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Of primary concern was the nature of forecast uncertainty due to initial conditionuncertainty of ...

Ronald M. Errico; Rolf Langland; David P. Baumhefner

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Stochastic Simulation of Atmospheric Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for generating an ensemble of synthetic atmospheric trajectories. These include methods for a set of independent trajectories, and methods for a correlated set of sequential trajectories. The models incorporate first-order ...

Mitchell J. Small; Perry J. Samson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Automated Measurements of Atmospheric Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using a solid-state, linear-array imaging device coupled with computerized scene analysis and display to measure daytime atmospheric visibility is described. Computer software is implemented for routine conversion of observed ...

W. Viezee; W. E. Evans

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

International Journal of Computers and Applications, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2009 PASSIVE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as atmospheric gas dispersion by industrial accidents or processes are generally predicted with Gaussian plumes simplicity, the Gaussian dispersion model is often used for predicting the progression of atmospheric gas of passive dispersion, initial conditions of gas emissions are often addressed differently, as various gases

Beauchemin, Steven S.

172

AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In hot, humid climates, the internal surfaces of windows in air-conditioned buildings are in contact with relatively colder air. Meanwhile, the external surfaces are exposed to hot humid atmospheric air. This hygro-thermal condition may cause frequent atmospheric condensation on external surfaces of windows when their surface temperature drops below the dew point temperature of the hot humid air. To date, external surface condensation on windows has been given relatively much less importance than their internal surface condensation. In addition, the thermal analysis of windows in hot humid climates has always been performed in the absence of condensation. Under moderate air temperature and humidity conditions, such practice is acceplable. However, when windows experience atmospheric condensation on their external surfaces, the effect of condensation on window energy loss needs to be examined. In this paper, the external condensation process is analyzed and the atmospheric water vapor mass condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates and in predicting the amount of condensation expected, as well as the associated energy loss for given thermal and moisture conditions. The numerical computation of the model is able to account for condensation and its impact on the temperature gradient across the window. Thermal analysis of both single and insulated double-glazed windows under condensation conditions is presented. The work also includes the computational procedure used and the results or a case study demonstrating the model's capabilities.

El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

Ackerman, T

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Development of a Land Surface Model Including Evaporation and Adsorption Processes in the Soil for the Land–Air Exchange in Arid Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional soil model has been developed to better predict heat and water exchanges in arid and semiarid regions. New schemes to calculate evaporation and adsorption in the soil were incorporated in the model. High performance of the model ...

Genki Katata; Haruyasu Nagai; Hiromasa Ueda; Nurit Agam; Pedro R. Berliner

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Validation of the EPIC model using a long-term experimental data on the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPIC model has been widely used in the world as an effective decision support tool in irrigation allocation and scheduling. However, there are still some uncertainties surrounding the soil water estimation of the EPIC model. In this paper the EPIC ... Keywords: EPIC model, Loess Plateau, Semi-arid area, Soil water

Xue Chun Wang; Jun Li; Muhammad Naveed Tahir; Ming De Hao

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Anomalous North Pacific Atmospheric Circulation and Large Winter Floods in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Specific anomalous atmospheric circulation conditions over the North Pacific are conducive to the occurrence of the largest winter floods (?10-yr return period) on rivers in six hydroclimatic subregions of Arizona and southern Utah, Nevada, and ...

Lisa L. Ely; Yehouda Enzel; Daniel R. Cayan

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Tracking Atmospheric Instabilities with the Kalman Filter. Part II: Two-Layer Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sequential data assimilation schemes approaching true optimality for sizable atmospheric models are becoming a reality. The behavior of the Kalman filter (KF) under difficult conditions needs therefore to be understood. In this two-part paper the ...

Michael Ghil; Ricardo Todling

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Extreme Cold Winter Temperatures in Europe under the Influence of North Atlantic Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North Atlantic atmospheric blocking conditions explain part of the winter climate variability in Europe, being associated with anomalous cold winter temperatures. In this study, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted to monthly ...

Jana Sillmann; Mischa Croci-Maspoli; Malaak Kallache; Richard W. Katz

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Comparison of Infrared Atmospheric Brightness Temperatures Measured by a Fourier Transform Spectrometer and a Filter Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased interest in using atmospheric brightness temperature measurements from simple infrared radiometers combined with radars and lidars has prompted the investigation of their accuracy for various sky conditions. In comparisons of ...

Joseph A. Shaw; Jack B. Snider; James H. Churnside; Mark D. Jacobson

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

On the Maximum Exospheric Temperature of Hydrogen-Dominated Planetary Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that under static conditions the maximum temperature attainable in the exospheres of hydrogen-dominated planetary atmospheres is of order 105 K when gravitational separation between hydrogen and other elements has occurred, and 104 K ...

G. P. Horedt

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST ...

Masaru Inatsu; Hitoshi Mukougawa; Shang-Ping Xie

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mount Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch Station (MKN): Installation and Meteorological Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meteorological conditions at the Mount Kenya (station identifier MKN) tropical Global Atmosphere Watch Programme station are described. Like other stations in mountainous terrain, the site experiences thermally induced wind systems that ...

Stephan Henne; Wolfgang Junkermann; Josiah M. Kariuki; John Aseyo; Jörg Klausen

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A Green Planet versus a Desert World: Estimating the Effect of Vegetation Extremes on the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of vegetation extremes on the general circulation is estimated by two atmospheric GCM simulations using global desert and forest boundary conditions over land. The difference between the climates of a “green planet” and a “desert world”...

Klaus Fraedrich; Axel Kleidon; Frank Lunkeit

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Intermittency and the Organization of Turbulence in the Near-Neutral Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft data from the JASIN Experiment have been used to examine the role that intermittency plays in turbulent transfer in the near-neutral marine atmospheric boundary layer. Conditional sampling, using the time-varying dissipation rate as an ...

William J. Shaw; Joost A. Businger

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A 2 Degree of Freedom Dynamical System for Interdecadal Oscillations of the Ocean–Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A four-box model of the ocean–atmosphere is constructed that exhibits self-sustained oscillations in the regime of decadal to interdecadal periods found in oceanic general circulation models under certain boundary conditions. The oscillations are ...

Alain Colin de Verdičre; Thierry Huck

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Atmospheric Dispersion from Elevated Sources in an Urban Area: Comparison between Tracer Experiments and Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric dispersion experiments were carried out in the Copenhagen area under neutral and unstable conditions. The tracer sulphurhexafluoride was released without buoyancy from a tower at a height of 115 m and then collected at ground-level ...

Sven-Erik Gryning; Erik Lyck

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

An Algorithm for Lidar Mapping of Aerosol Concentrations in a Varying Atmospheric Background Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm for the determination of the number density profiles of a specific aerosol as a function of time and space is developed and discussed. The algorithm is applicable to atmospheric conditions in which a varying density particulate ...

Moshe Kleiman; Smadar Egert; Ariel Cohen

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

On the Analytical Solutions of Flux-Profile Relationships for the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical solutions Of surface layer similarity equations are presented for the nondimensional profile functional forms suggested by Businger et al. For stable atmospheric conditions, exact analytical solutions of the Monin-Obukhoy stability ...

Daewon W. Byun

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Layered Structure of the Winter Atmospheric Boundary Layer in the Interior of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-latitude winter atmospheric boundary layer of interior Alaska continually exhibits a complex layered structure as a result of extreme meteorological conditions. In this paper the occurrence of elevated inversions (EI), surface-based ...

John A. Mayfield; Gilberto J. Fochesatto

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A Total Turbulent Energy Closure Model for Neutrally and Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a turbulence closure for neutral and stratified atmospheric conditions. The closure is based on the concept of the total turbulent energy. The total turbulent energy is the sum of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent ...

Thorsten Mauritsen; Gunilla Svensson; Sergej S. Zilitinkevich; Igor Esau; Leif Enger; Branko Grisogono

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Climate Simulation for 125 kyr BP with a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ECHAM-1 T21/LSG coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (GCM) is used to simulate climatic conditions at the last interglacial maximum (Eemian, 125 kyr BP). The results reflect the expected surface temperature changes (with respect ...

Marisa Montoya; Hans von Storch; Thomas J. Crowley

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

PASS: A Portable Atmospheric Sampling System for Chemical Studies in the Marine Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurement of many trace substances in the remote marine atmosphere requires that they be collected under controlled conditions and that meteorological and other data concerning these measurements be available to the experimenter. A Portable ...

George Schwartze; Robert Boldi; Timothy Wasco; Robert Duce

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a coupled atmosphere–land surface model, simulations were conducted to characterize the regional climate changes that result from the response of stomates to increases in leaf-level carbon dioxide (CO2) under differing conditions of ...

Faye T. Cruz; Andrew J. Pitman; John L. McGregor; Jason P. Evans

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Initialization of Soil-Water Content in Regional-Scale Atmospheric Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of determining the soil-water content fields required as initial conditions for land surface components within atmospheric prediction models. This is done using a model of the hydrologic ...

Christopher B. Smith; Mercedes N. Lakhtakia; William J. Capehart; Toby N. Carlson

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Stability and Variability in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Climate Model: Results of 100-year Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two 100-year seasonal simulators, one performed with a low resolution atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) coupled to a mixed-layer ocean formulation and the other made with the GCM forced by prescribed ocean conditions, are compared to ...

David D. Houghton; Robert G. Gallimore; Linda M. Keller

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

EPIC2001 and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere System of the Tropical East Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled global ocean–atmosphere models currently do a poor job of predicting conditions in the tropical east Pacific, and have a particularly hard time reproducing the annual cycle in this region. This poor performance is probably due to the ...

David J. Raymond; Steven K. Esbensen; Clayton Paulson; Michael Gregg; Christopher S. Bretherton; Walter A. Petersen; Robert Cifelli; Lynn K. Shay; Carter Ohlmann; Paquita Zuidema

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

199

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NARAC TOC NARAC TOC The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, NARAC, provides tools and services to the Federal Government, that map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC provides atmospheric plume predictions in time for an emergency manager to decide if taking protective action is necessary to protect the health and safety of people in affected areas. Located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment, emergency response, and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, and natural emissions. In an emergency situation (if lives are at risk), event-specific NARAC

200

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

202

Propagation of B mesons in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collisions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere may produce heavy hadrons of very high energy. The decay length of a $B$ meson of energy above $10^7$ GeV is larger than 1 km, implying that such a particle tends to interact in the air before it decays. We show that the fraction of energy deposited in these interactions is much smaller than in proton and pion collisions. We parameterize their elasticity and determine the average number of interactions and the atmospheric depth at the decay point for different initial energies. We find that the profile of a $3\\times 10^9$ GeV bottom shower may be very different from the profile of a proton shower of the same energy, defining either a very deep maximum, or two maxima, or other features that cannot be parameterized with a single Gaisser-Hillas function. Finally, we discuss under what conditions a bottom hadron inside the parent air shower may provide observable effects.

A. Bueno; A. Gascon; J. I. Illana; M. Masip

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

SciTech Connect

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Uptake of tritium by plants from atmosphere and soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by plants was examined under field conditions when tritium was available to leaves from only the atmosphere and when tritium was available from both the soil (root uptake) and the atmosphere. Maple, oak, and elm trees, planted in clean soil, were transported to a tritium-contaminated forest, where the atmospheric tritium concentration was elevated, to examine HTO uptake by tree leaves when the source was only in the atmosphere. The results partially agreed with a diffusion model of tritium uptake by plants. Discrepancies found between predicted and measured leaf HTO/air HTO ratios should be attributed to the existence of some isolated water, which is isolated from the transpiration stream in the leaves, that was not available for rapid turnover. The uptake of tritium by trees, when the source was both in the soil and atmosphere, was also examined using deciduous trees (maple and elm) resident to the tritium-contaminated forest. The results were in agreement with a prediction model.

Amano, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI); Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Geomagnetic Effects on Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic effects distort the zenith angle distribution of sub--GeV and few--GeV atmospheric neutrinos, breaking the up--down symmetry that would be present in the absence of neutrino oscillations and without a geomagnetic field. The geomagnetic effects also produce a characteristic azimuthal dependence of the $\

Paolo Lipari; T. K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

1998-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

207

Quality Assurance in Atmospheric Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a number of best practices associated with the use of numerical models of the atmosphere and is motivated by the rapid growth in the number of model users, who have a range of scientific and technical preparations. An underlying ...

Thomas T. Warner

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

A Fast Line-by-Line Method for Atmospheric Absorption Computations: The Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computationally fast line-by-line method for the determination of atmospheric absorption is described. This method is based on the creation of an Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A) covering all possible plausible atmospheric ...

N. A. Scott; A. Chedin

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known hadronic models, SIBYLL 2.1 and QGSJET-II. The atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy range $10-10^7$ GeV was computed within the 1D approach to solve nuclear cascade equations in the atmosphere, which takes into account non-scaling behavior of the inclusive cross-sections for the particle production, the rise of total inelastic hadron-nucleus cross-sections and nonpower-law character of the primary cosmic ray spectrum. This approach was recently tested in the atmospheric muon flux calculations [1]. The results of the neutrino flux calculations are compared with the Frejus, AMANDA-II and IceCube measurement data.

S. I. Sinegovsky; A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

210

Spatial-temporal changes of water resources in a typical semi-arid basin of North China over the past 50 years and assessment of possible natural and socioeconomic causes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrological processes in most semi-arid regions on Earth have been changing under the impacts of climate change, human activities, or combinations of the two. This paper first presents a trend analysis of the spatiotemporal changes in water ...

Bin Yong; Liliang Ren; Yang Hong; Jonathan J. Gourley; Xi Chen; Jinwei Dong; Weiguang Wang; Yan Shen; Jill Hardy

211

Semiclassical energy conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present and develop several nonlinear energy conditions suitable for use in the semiclassical regime. In particular, we consider the recently formulated "flux energy condition" (FEC), and the novel "trace-of-square" (TOSEC) and "determinant" (DETEC) energy conditions. As we shall show, these nonlinear energy conditions behave much better than the classical linear energy conditions in the presence of semiclassical quantum effects. Moreover, whereas the quantum extensions of these nonlinear energy conditions seem to be quite widely satisfied as one enters the quantum realm, analogous quantum extensions are generally not useful for the linear classical energy conditions.

Martin-Moruno, Prado

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

DOE/EA-1660: Combined Community Communications Facility and Infrastructure Cleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Land's Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland, WA (07/20/09)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July 2009 July 2009 DOE/EA-1660F Environmental Assessment Combined Community Communications Facility and Infrastructure Cleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Richland, Washington 99352 Final Environmental Assessment July 2009 Sum-1 Summary Introduction. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information and analyses of proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities associated with consolidating existing communications operations and removing excess facilities and infrastructure within the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington. Purpose and Need. To meet long-term federal agency missions, DOE needs to reduce indirect costs and

213

The Promise of GPS in Atmospheric Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they ...

Steven Businger; Steven R. Chiswell; Michael Bevis; Jingping Duan; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware; Michael Exner; T. VanHove; Fredrick S. Solheim

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Interannual Variation of Global Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Joseph J. Tribbia; Ming-Cheng Yen

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Generation of Turbulence by Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard current criterion for the generation of turbulence by atmospheric gravity waves and for the associated limitation on wave growth is based upon the standard criterion for static instability of the unperturbed atmosphere, namely, that ...

Colin O. Hines

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Retrieval of atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. Our method allows us to run millions of 1-D atmosphere models in order to cover the ...

Nikku, Madhusudhan, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Testing and Evaluating Atmospheric Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model validation is a crucial process that underpins model development and gives confidence to the results from running models. This article discusses a range of techniques for validating atmosphere models given that the atmosphere is chaotic and incompletely ...

Vicky Pope; Terry Davies

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

219

Dynamical Processes of Equatorial Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical processes that drive intraseasonal equatorial atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM) fluctuations are examined with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data. ...

Steven B. Feldstein

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

VALDRIFT—A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological—that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in ...

K. Jerry Allwine; Xindi Bian; C. David Whiteman; Harold W. Thistle

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Spontaneously Generated Tropical Atmospheric General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are presented. These experiments examine whether and how atmospheric deep moist convection, in the absence of meridional gradients in external forcing, interacts with ...

Ben P. Kirtman; Edwin K. Schneider

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Atmospheric Turbidity in the Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis is presented of 800 measurements of atmospheric monochromatic aerosol optical depth made poleward of 65° latitude. The atmosphere of the southern polar region appears to be uncontaminated but is charged with a background aerosol having ...

Glenn E. Shaw

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Statistics Education in the Atmospheric Sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of atmospheric sciences data and models are heavily dependent upon statistical and probabilistic reasoning. Statistical methods have played an important role in establishing physical relationships of atmosphere-ocean-land interactions ...

Timothy J. Brown; L. Mark Berliner; Daniel S. Wilks; Michael B. Richman; Christopher K. Wilke

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Atmospheric Control on the Thermohaline Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to elucidate the role of atmospheric and oceanic processes in setting a vigorous ocean overturning circulation in the North Atlantic but not in the North Pacific, a comparison of the observed atmospheric circulation and net surface ...

Arnaud Czaja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Advanced Atmospheric Modeling for Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models are an important part of emergency response systems for industrial facilities that have the potential to release significant quantities of toxic or radioactive material into the atmosphere. An advanced ...

Jerome D. Fast; B. Lance O'steen; Robert P. Addis

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

227

INHIBITION OF METHANE ATMOSPHERIC FLAMES BY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... atmospheric pressure was studied. The burner temperature was maintained at 65 “C by using a thermostat. The volumetric velocity ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

229

Detecting atmospheric rivers in large climate datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme precipitation events on the western coast of North America are often traced to an unusual weather phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers. Although these storms may provide a significant fraction of the total water to the highly managed western ... Keywords: atmospheric rivers, automatic detection of atmospheric rivers, connected component labeling, extreme climate events

Surendra Byna; Prabhat; Michael F. Wehner; Kesheng John Wu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Stability and phase evolution of mullite in reducing atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of mullite and its phase evolution when heated at 1600-1650 deg. C in reducing atmosphere created by a carbon bed. The stoichiometric mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}) was synthesized by reacting the proper precursors at 1400 deg. C in air atmosphere. Samples containing the primary mullite and graphite or carbon were prepared by pressing the mix and heated at 1600-1650 deg. C. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the stoichiometric mullite could decompose to corundum and alumina-rich mullite. During firing under reducing atmosphere, the stoichiometric mullite became richer in Al{sup 3+} cations. The gaseous SiO compound was found to be released from the sample and reacting with C to form SiC phase. Comparison of general mullite solid solution (Al{sub 4+2x}Si{sub 2-2x}O{sub 10-x}) with alumina-rich mullite obtained from decomposition revealed that x would take different values depending on temperature and atmosphere. The ultimate decomposition product was found to be corundum. - Research Highlights: {yields} This method is a new route for investigation of thermochemical stability of stoichimetric mullite under reducing condition which have done by the authors. {yields} This research has got very good results for stability of mullite at different conditions. {yields} This work has also studied the mechanism of stability of mullite under reducing atmosphere.

Naghizadeh, R., E-mail: rnaghizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Golestani-fard, F.; Rezaie, H.R.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

About ÂŤEffectiveÂŽ Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in "Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range V. N. Uzhegov, D. M. Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important factors affecting the radiation budget of the space - atmosphere - underlying surface system in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges. It is extremely important to take into account the contribution of this component into the extinction of solar radiation under cloudless sky conditions. Sometimes it is important to know not only the total value of the aerosol component of extinction, but also to have the possibility to estimate the "effective" height of

232

Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

B. Keilhauer; J. Bluemer; R. Engel; D. Gora; P. Homola; H. Klages; J. Pekala; M. Risse; M. Unger; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

233

Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

235

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

236

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

237

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

238

Acoustic Waves in the Turbulent Atmosphere: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject of atmospheric acoustics and its role in atmospheric research and in development of modern methods of ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere are outlined. A historical overview of investigations of the effect of atmospheric ...

M. A. Kallistratova

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Conditional belief types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study type spaces where a player’s type at a state is a conditional probability on the space. We axiomatize these type spaces using conditional belief operators, and examine three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be unconditionally certain of her beliefs. Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. The echo axiom implies that conditioning on an event is the same as conditioning on the event being certain, which formalizes the standard informal interpretation of conditioning in probability theory. The echo axiom also implies that the conditional probability given an event is a prior of the unconditional probability. The game-theoretic application of our model, which we treat in the context of an example, sheds light on a number of basic issues in the analysis of extensive form games. Type spaces are closely related to the sphere models of counterfactual conditionals and to models of hypothetical knowledge, and we discuss these relationships in detail.

Alfredo Di; Tillio Joseph; Y. Halpern; Dov Samet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Northern Hemispheric Trends of Pressure Indices and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns in Observations, Reconstructions, and Coupled GCM Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decadal trend behavior of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation is investigated utilizing long-term simulations with different state-of-the-art coupled general circulation models (GCMs) for present-day climate conditions (1990), ...

C. C. Raible; T. F. Stocker; M. Yoshimori; M. Renold; U. Beyerle; C. Casty; J. Luterbacher

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Atmospheric Bridge: The Influence of ENSO Teleconnections on Air–Sea Interaction over the Global Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, the atmospheric response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial Pacific influences ocean conditions over the remainder of the globe. This connection between ocean basins via ...

Michael A. Alexander; Ileana Bladé; Matthew Newman; John R. Lanzante; Ngar-Cheung Lau; James D. Scott

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Impact of Surface Flux Formulations and Geostrophic Forcing on Large-Eddy Simulations of Diurnal Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of surface flux boundary conditions and geostrophic forcing on multiday evolution of flow in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) was assessed using large-eddy simulations (LES). The LES investigations included several combinations of ...

Vijayant Kumar; Gunilla Svensson; A. A. M. Holtslag; Charles Meneveau; Marc B. Parlange

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Diagnosing the strength of land-atmosphere coupling at sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales in Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on diagnosing the strength of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling at sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales over Asia using two different approaches, the conditional correlation approach (applied to the GLDAS data, the CFSR ...

Di Liu; Guiling Wang; Rui Mei; Zhongbo Yu; Huanghe Gu

244

Cloud Diabatic Forcing of the Atmosphere, Estimated from Simultaneous ECMWF Diabatic Heating and ISCCP Cloud Amount Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud diabatic forcing (CDF) of the atmosphere, defined as the difference between the diabatic heating in average and in clear-sky conditions is estimated from time series of simultaneous observations of diabatic heating and cloud amount. The ...

Peter Siegmund

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

1995-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

246

Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

Hopke, P.K.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Terms and Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks to do business with qualified companies that offer value and high quality products and services. Contact Small Business Office (505) 667-4419 Email Use information below as guideline to doing business An "Appendix SFA-1" contains FAR and DEAR Clauses that are incorporated by reference into a particular subcontract. "Exhibit A General Conditions" are the general terms and conditions applicable to a particular subcontract. Note: The contents of the SFA-1 and Exhibit A (below) are not the only terms and conditions that will be in a LANS subcontract but represent the terms that generally do not change in a particular type of procurement. The

250

Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter ZCAREX-2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions in Winter ZCAREX-2001 G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physic Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is estimated for winter clear-sky conditions from measurements during ZCAREX-2001-Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in February-March, 2001 at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The estimates of ARF are made for conditions with high surface albedo. Data Used The following data of atmospheric characteristics observed during winter are used for the

251

An Analysis of the Klemp and Durran Radiation Boundary Condition as Applied to Dissipative Internal Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of the oceanic (atmospheric) boundary layer are complicated by the need to specify appropriate “outflow” or “radiation” boundary conditions at the artificial lower (upper) boundary of the computational domain. If the ...

Gregory P. Chini; Sidney Leibovich

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Experimental Study on Wind-Wave Momentum Flux in Strongly Forced Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quantitative description of wind-wave momentum transfer in high wind conditions is necessary for accurate wave models, storm and hurricane forecasting, and models that require atmosphere–ocean coupling such as circulation and mixed layer models. ...

Ivan B. Savelyev; Brian K. Haus; Mark A. Donelan

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Behavior of the Snow White Chilled-Mirror Hygrometer in Extremely Dry Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Snow White hygrometer, made by Meteolabor AG, Switzerland, is a new chilled-mirror instrument using a thermoelectric Peltier cooler to measure atmospheric water vapor. Its performance under dry conditions is evaluated in simultaneous ...

H. Vömel; M. Fujiwara; M. Shiotani; F. Hasebe; S. J. Oltmans; J. E. Barnes

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Variation of Hydrometeorological Conditions along a Topographic Transect in Northwestern Mexico during the North American Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relatively little is currently known about the spatiotemporal variability of land surface conditions during the North American monsoon, in particular for regions of complex topography. As a result, the role played by land–atmosphere interactions ...

Enrique R. Vivoni; Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado; Carlos A. Aragón; Luis A. Méndez-Barroso; Alex J. Rinehart; Robert L. Wyckoff; Julio C. Rodríguez; Christopher J. Watts; John D. Bolten; Venkataraman Lakshmi; Thomas J. Jackson

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Heavy Precipitation Events in New Jersey: Attendant Upper-Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first of an anticipated multipart study of atmospheric conditions occurring before and during heavy precipitation events in New Jersey, representative of the mid-Atlantic region, is presented. Upper-air data parameters were analyzed for 81 ...

Robert P. Harnack; Kirk Apffel; Joseph R. Cermak III

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Numerical Studies of Urban Planetary Boundary-Layer Structure under Realistic Synoptic Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model was modified and used to simulate the evolution of meteorological conditions in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, from near sunrise to noon ...

Nelson L. Seaman; Francis L. Ludwig; Evelyn G. Donall; Thomas T. Warner; Chandrakant M. Bhumralkar

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Response of Thermohaline Circulation to Freshwater Forcing under Present-Day and LGM Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Responses of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to freshwater forcing (hosing) in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean under present-day and the last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric ...

Aixue Hu; Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Gerald A. Meehl; Weiqing Han; Carrie Morrill; Esther C. Brady; Bruce Briegleb

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Climatological Conditions of Lake-Effect Precipitation Events Associated with the New York State Finger Lakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climatological analysis was conducted of the environmental and atmospheric conditions that occurred during 125 identified lake-effect (LE) precipitation events in the New York State Finger Lakes region for the 11 winters (October–March) from ...

Neil Laird; Ryan Sobash; Natasha Hodas

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Influence of Initial Conditions on Summer Precipitation Simulations over the United States and Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of initial conditions on summer precipitation over North America for July–September was examined by comparing long-term simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) runs with the ensemble simulations (SIMUs) ...

Kingtse C. Mo; J. E. Schemm; H. Kim; W. R. Higgins

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Use of Equivalent Potential Vorticity to Diagnose Regions of Conditional Symmetric Instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditional symmetric instability (CSI) is an important property of the atmosphere when diagnosing and predicting mesoscale bands of moderate to heavy precipitation within winter cyclones. Within regions of CSI, slantwise convection can increase ...

James T. Moore; Thomas E. Lambert

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Land surface conditions over Eurasia and Indian summer monsoon rainfall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land surface conditions over Eurasia and Indian summer monsoon rainfall Alan Robock and Mingquan Mu, surface air temperature, atmospheric circulation, and Indian summer monsoon precipitation from 1870 to 2000, we examine the relationship between interannual variations of the strength of the monsoon

Robock, Alan

262

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Operating Conditions Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Components in Aggressive Operating Conditions Opportunity Research is active on the patent-pending technology, titled "3-Dimensional Functionally Gradient Coatings for...

264

Data quality objectives for the initial fuel conditioning examinations  

SciTech Connect

The Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were established for the response of the first group of fuel samples shipped from the K West Basin to the Hanford 327 Building hot cells for examinations to the proposed Path Forward conditioning process. Controlled temperature and atmosphere furnace testing testing will establish performance parameters using the conditioning process (drying, sludge drying, hydride decomposition passivation) proposed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) Team as the baseline.

Lawrence, L.A.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nanoindentation Under Dynamic Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of H2 atmosphere P mN Load Q kJ mol-1 Activation energy R J mol-1 K-1 Molar gas constant - 8.31451 ± 7.0e-05 S mN nm-1 Stiffness – dp/dh at peak load and depth T şC Temperature Tc şC Critical temperature above which hydrogen has no miscibility... to the plasticity index H/Er. Finally, the issue of local and average strain rate is addressed. 2.3.1 Indenter Geometry There are several different indenter geometries in common usage. Some of these, such as the Brinell sphere, Rockwell conospheroids, and Vickers...

Wheeler, Jeffrey M

2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of substrates and then further process into optoelectronic materials using rapid thermal processing. You can read more on the rationale for developing this platform and its capabilities. Contact Maikel van Hest for more details on these capabilities. The Atmospheric Processing platform will allow deposition in any sequence and is applicable to activities in all Technology Roadmaps, which include

268

Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling Geographic Information Science and Technology Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Earth and Atmospheric Sciences SHARE Earth and Atmospheric Sciences At ORNL, we combine our capabilities in atmospheric science, computational science, and biological and environmental systems science to focus in the cross-disciplinary field of climate change science. We use computer models to improve climate change predications and to measure the impact of global warming on the cycling of chemicals in earth systems. Our Climate Change Science Institute uses models to explore connections among atmosphere,

269

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

271

Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

FOAM:The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Models Performance User Resources Publications History Developer's Page FOAM The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model cup2.jpeg (48474 bytes) Image made by Johan Kellum with Vis5D...

274

Jefferson Lab Science Series - Investigating Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Byron Meadows - NASALangley Research Center May 14, 1991 Demonstrations of weather forecasting tools and techniques for experiments in the atmosphere and of lasers used to...

275

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility...

276

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of...

277

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

278

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

279

Simplified Space Conditioning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simplified Space Conditioning Simplified Space Conditioning Duncan Prahl, RA IBACOS, Inc. Building America Technical Update April 29, 2013 Simplified Space Conditioning Rethinking HVAC Design * Traditional Method - Assume envelope losses dictate the load - Room by room load analysis - Pick Equipment and distribute to meet the load in each room * New Method - Consider how the occupants live in the building - Seriously consider internal gains in both heating and cooling - Consider ventilation strategy - Design system Simplified Space Conditioning If you are: * A production builder * Participating in "above code" programs * Following ACCA Manual RS or ASHRAE 55 * Need to prove "delivering heat to each habitable room" * Concerned about litigation * Play it safe, Use Manual J, S & D and condition every

280

Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to conduct model simulations for past and future climate change with respect to the proposed Yucca Mtn. repository. The authors report on three main topics, one of which is boundary conditions for paleo-hindcast studies. These conditions are necessary for the conduction of three to four model simulations. The boundary conditions have been prepared for future runs. The second topic is (a) comparing the atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with observations and other GCMs; and (b) development of a better precipitation data base for the Yucca Mtn. region for comparisons with models. These tasks have been completed. The third topic is preliminary assessments of future climate change. Energy balance model (EBM) simulations suggest that the greenhouse effect will likely dominate climate change at Yucca Mtn. for the next 10,000 years. The EBM study should improve rational choice of GCM CO{sub 2} scenarios for future climate change.

Crowley, T.J.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are ...

Ali Harzallah; Robert Sadourny

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methane and 13C12C, Flask Air Samples Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) data Data Investigators Paul Quay and...

283

Response of the Middle Atmosphere to CO2 Doubling: Results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) has been used to examine the middle atmosphere response to CO2 doubling. The radiative-photochemical response induced by doubling CO2 alone and the response produced by changes in prescribed SSTs are ...

V. I. Fomichev; A. I. Jonsson; J. de Grandpré; S. R. Beagley; C. McLandress; K. Semeniuk; T. G. Shepherd

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Transient Response of a Global Ocean-Atmosphere Model to a Doubling of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transient response of climate to an instantaneous increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been investigated by a general circulation model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system with global geography and annual ...

Syukuro Manabe; Kirk Bryan; Michael J. Spelman

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Cost Sensitive Conditional Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While POMDPs provide a general platform for conditional planning under a wide range of quality metrics they have limited scalability. On the other hand, uniform probability conditional planners scale very well, but many lack the ability to optimize plan quality metrics. We present an innovation to planning graph based heuristics that helps uniform probability conditional planners both scale and generate high quality plans when using actions with non uniform costs. We make empirical comparisons with two state of the art planners to show the benefit of our techniques.

Daniel Bryce; Subbarao Kambhampati

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participating pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.

Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Reda, I.; Stifter, Armin; Wendling, Peter; Wood, Norm; Clough, Shepard A.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Anderson, Gail; Revercomb, Henry E.; Shippert, Timothy R.

2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

287

ARM - Measurement - Surface condition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

condition condition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface condition State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments NAV : Navigational Location and Attitude SURFLOG : SGP Surface Conditions Observations by Site Technicians S-TABLE : Stabilized Platform MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

288

Terms and Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions R&D Overview 100G Testbed Testbed Description Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) Performance (perfSONAR) Tools Development Green Networking Authentication & Trust Federation (ATF) Partnerships Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Terms and Conditions Researchers must provide ESnet copies of any articles, presentations, and publications based on testbed research for posting on the ESnet Testbed web site. All publications based on work conducted on the testbed must include the following statement:

289

Anemometry in Icing Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of wind measurements in icing conditions is discussed, and wind tunnel calibrations as well as field comparisons are presented for three heated anemometers that use different measuring principles. It is pointed out that ice-free ...

Lasse Makkonen; Pertti Lehtonen; Lauri Helle

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Human effects on the global atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Johnston, H.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Overwater Atmospheric Diffusion: Measurements and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ten atmospheric tracer experiments provided 62 hours of overwater atmospheric dispersion data. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released as the tracer gas at a height of 13 m from a ship positioned about 7 km off the central California ...

Walter F. Dabberdt

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Measurements of Atmospheric Nanoparticles (1875–1980)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere contains a large variety of particles, ranging in size from near molecular (~1 nm) to larger than 10,000 nm. The total number concentration N of particles is dominated by nanoparticles ? 100 nm in diameter. Discovery of atmospheric ...

Volker Mohnen; George M. Hidy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Exponential Conditional Volatility Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- relation function (ACF) is less straightforward than it is for a GARCHmodel, analytic expressions can be obtained and these expressions are more general. Speci?cally, formulae for the ACF of the (absolute values of ) the observations raised to any power can... proposes an exponential link function for the conditional mean in gamma and Weibull distributions. As well as setting out the conditions for the asymptotic theory to be valid, expressions for moments, ACFs and multi-step forecasts are derived. Leverage...

Harvey, Andrew

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

295

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent changing global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year time series of annual values. A spline function has been fit to the data to provide a continuous time series of

296

THE FACILITY 350 HELIUM-ATMOSPHERE SYSTEM. Final Report, Metallurgy Division Program 1.5.5  

SciTech Connect

The He atmosphere system in Argonne's Facility 350 is described in detail. The system is straightforward, employing drying and carbon towers for the removal of moisture, oxygen, and other impurities. The bulk of the 15,000 ft/ sup 3/ of He atmosphere is continuously recirculated at nearly atmospheric pressure. Purification is accomplished at 140 psig on a portion of the gas that is passed through the drying tower at room temperature and the carbon towers at -- 46 deg C (--50 deg F). The operation is continuous, requiring a minimum of maintenance and operational manpower. The He atmosphere is supplied to the glove- boxes with impurity levels below 3,000 ppm nitrogen, 1,000 ppm oxygen, and 50 ppm moisture. Such purity levels prevent oxidation and combustion of the Pu materials being processed. Experimental data concerning the adsorption of oxygen from He by activated carbon over a range of temperature and pressure conditions are reported. (auth)

Mayfield, R.M.; Tope, W.G.; Shuck, A.B.

1962-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Earth's early atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Ideas about atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth have evolved considerably over the last 30 years, but many uncertainties still remain. It is generally agreed that the atmosphere contained little or no free oxygen initially and that oxygen concentrations increased markely near 2.0 billion years ago, but the precise timing of and reasons for its rise remain unexplained. Likewise, it is usually conceded that the atmospheric greenhouse effect must have been higher in the past to offset reduced solar luminosity, but the levels of atmospheric carbon cioxide and other greenhouse gases required remain speculative. A better understanding of past atmospheric evolution is important to understanding the evolution of life and to predicting whether Earth-like planets might exist elsewhere in the galaxy.

Kasting, J.F. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

298

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFD Predictions Title Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFD Predictions Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Jayaraman, Buvaneswari, Elizabeth U. Finlayson, Michael D. Sohn, Tracy L. Thatcher, Phillip N. Price, Emily E. Wood, Richard G. Sextro, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5236-5250 Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, atria, indoor airflow and pollutant transport, indoor environment department, indoor pollutant dispersion, mixed convection, turbulence model

299

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioning and Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioning and Emissions Conditioning and Emissions Air conditioning and indirect emissions go together in the sense that when a vehicle's air conditioning system is in use, fuel economy declines. When more petroleum fuel is burned, more pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted. An additional, "direct" source of greenhouse gas emissions is the refrigerant used in air conditioning. Called HFC-134a, this pressurized gas tends to seep through tiny openings and escapes into the atmosphere. It can also escape during routine service procedures such as system recharging. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team applied its vehicle systems modeling expertise in a study to predict fuel consumption and indirect emissions resulting from the use of vehicle air conditioning. The analysis

300

ECWEBTermsandConditions.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROCEDURES, TERMS AND CONDITIONS Version 1.0 May 1, 1998 PROCEDURES What follows prescribes the general procedures and policies to be followed when Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is used for transmitting requests for quote, quotations, purchase orders, or other business information in lieu of creating one or more paper documents normally associated with conducting business with the Government. See the Terms and Conditions section below for a list of the standard FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulation) and DEAR (Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation) clauses and provisions mandated to be included in Government contracting actions. The Terms and Conditions together with any clauses specified in the specific contract transaction,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mineralogy under extreme conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

Shu, Jinfu (CIW)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The poleward energy transports in the atmosphere–ocean system are estimated for the annual mean and the four seasons based on satellite measurements of the net radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric transports of energy at ...

B. C. Carissimo; A. H. Oort; T. H. Vonder Haar

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Biogenic Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonmethane hydrocarbons are ubiquitous trace atmospheric constituents yet they control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Both anthropogenic and biogenic processes contribute to the release of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. In this ...

J. D. Fuentes; L. Gu; M. Lerdau; R. Atkinson; D. Baldocchi; J. W. Bottenheim; P. Ciccioli; B. Lamb; C. Geron; A. Guenther; T. D. Sharkey; W. Stockwell

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) will support observational research on the structure of the atmospheric surface layer. ASTER will provide state-...

J. A. Businger; W. F. Dabberdt; A. C. Delany; T. W. Horst; C. L. Martin; S. P. Oncley; S. R. Semmer

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Vacillations in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a 35-year integration of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Both ocean and atmosphere are two-level, nonlinear primitive equations models. The global atmospheric model is forced by a steady, zonally symmetric Newtonian ...

Paul S. Schopf; Max J. Suarez

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Including Atmospheric Layers in Vegetation and Urban Offline Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A formulation to include prognostic atmospheric layers in offline surface schemes is derived from atmospheric equations. Whereas multilayer schemes developed previously need a complex coupling between atmospheric-model levels and surface-scheme ...

Valéry Masson; Yann Seity

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Homoclinic Dynamics: A Scenario for Atmospheric Ultralow-Frequency Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a link will be established between atmospheric ultralow-frequency variability (ULFV) and the occurrence of homoclinic dynamics in models of large-scale atmospheric flow. It is known that uncoupled atmosphere models possess ...

Daan T. Crommelin

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Supplemental heat rejection in ground source heat pumps for residential houses in Texas and other semi-arid regions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are efficient alternatives to air source heat pumps to provide heating and cooling for conditioned buildings. GSHPs are widely deployed… (more)

Balasubramanian, Siddharth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A Wave Theory for the Onset and Initial Growth of Condensation in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pre-storm conditions are often characterized by an atmosphere in the presence of rather strong wind shears and a temperature inversion. The latter acts as a lid for moisture in the boundary layer. In this paper we discuss the possibility that a ...

G. Chimonas; F. Einaudi; D. P. Lalas

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Variability in a Mixed Layer Ocean Model Driven by Stochastic Atmospheric Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stochastic model of atmospheric surface conditions, developed from 30 years of data at Ocean Weather Station P in the northeast Pacific, is used to drive a mixed layer model of the upper mean. The spectral characteristics of anomalies in the ...

Michael A. Alexander; Cecile Penland

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A new wall-shear stress model for atmospheric boundary layer simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new wall-shear stress model to be used as wall-boundary condition for Large Eddy Simulations of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer is proposed. The new model computes the wall shear stress and the vertical derivatives of the streamwise velocity ...

Marcus Hultmark; Marc Calaf; Marc B. Parlange

314

Necessary conditions for stabilization agreements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Climate Convention calls for stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper considers the issues that must be faced in formulating a plan to meet any such target, using a proposed CO2 level ...

Yang, Zili.; Jacoby, Henry D.

315

Numerical Study of the Effects of Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence on Wind Turbine Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Although the atmospheric sciences community has been studying the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on the planetary boundary layer for some time, their effects on wind turbine dynamics have not been well studied. In this study, we performed numerical experiments to explore some of the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on wind turbine dynamics. We used large-eddy simulation to create atmospheric winds and compute the wind turbine flows, and we modeled the wind turbines as revolving and flexible actuator lines coupled to a wind turbine structural and system dynamic model. We examined the structural moments about the wind turbine blade, low-speed shaft, and nacelle; power production; and wake evolution when large 5-MW turbines are subjected to winds generated from low- and high-surface roughness levels representative of offshore and onshore conditions, respectively, and also neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. In addition, we placed a second turbine 7 rotor diameters downwind of the first one so that we could explore wake effects under these different conditions. The results show that the turbulent structures generated within the atmospheric boundary layer wind simulations cause isolated loading events at least as significant as when a turbine is waked by an upwind turbine. The root-mean-square (RMS) turbine loads are consistently larger when the surface roughness is higher. The RMS blade-root out-of-plane bending moment and low-speed shaft torque are higher when the atmospheric boundary layer is unstable as compared with when it is neutral. However, the RMS yaw moments are either equal or reduced in the unstable case as compared with the neutral case. For a given surface roughness, the ratio of power produced by the downwind turbine relative to that of the upwind turbine is 15-20% higher when the conditions are unstable as compared with neutral. For a given atmospheric stability, this power ratio is 10% higher with the onshore roughness value versus the offshore one. The main conclusion is that various coherent turbulent structures that form under different levels of atmospheric stability and surface roughness have important effects on wind turbine structural response, power production, and wake evolution.

Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P. J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Large-Scale Atmospheric and Oceanic Conditions During the 2011-2012 DYNAMO Field Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An international field campaign, Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), took place in the Indian Ocean during October 2011 – March 2012 to collect observations for the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), especially its convective ...

Jon Gottschalck; Paul E. Roundy; Carl J. Schreck III; Augustin Vintzileos; Chidong Zhang

317

Design and construction of uniform glow discharge plasma system operating under atmospheric condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a uniform glow discharge plasma system operating without vacuum is presented. A full-bridge switching circuit was used to switch the transformers. The primary windings of transformers were connected in parallel, but in opposite phase to double the output voltage. Theoretically, 20 000 V{sub pp} was obtained. Rectangle copper electrodes were used, and placed parallel to each other. To prevent the spark production that is, to obtain uniformity, two 2 mm Teflon sheets were glued to the electrodes. However, it was observed that the operating frequency also affected the uniformity. For the system presented here, the frequency at which more uniformity was obtained was found to be 14 kHz.

Kocum, C.; Ayhan, H. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Baskent University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Chemistry Department, Biochemistry Division, Mugla University, Faculty of Science, Koetekli, 48170 Mugla (Turkey)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Importance of Spring and Autumn Atmospheric Conditions for the Evaporation Regime of Lake Superior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedbacks between ice extent and evaporation have long been suspected to be important for Lake Superior evaporation because it is during autumn and winter when latent heat fluxes are highest. Recent direct measurements of evaporation made at the ...

C. Spence; P. D. Blanken; J. D. Lenters; N. Hedstrom

319

Discrimination of Solid from Liquid Precipitation over Northern Eurasia Using Surface Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily synoptic observations were examined to determine the critical air temperatures and dew points that separate solid versus liquid precipitation for fall and spring seasons at 547 stations over northern Eurasia. We found that critical air ...

Hengchun Ye; Judah Cohen; Michael Rawlins

320

The NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed Interferometer—Remotely Sensed Surface and Atmospheric Conditions during CLAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS), the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), flying aboard the high-altitude ...

W. L. Smith Sr.; D. K. Zhou; A. M. Larar; S. A. Mango; H. B. Howell; R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; W. L. Smith Jr.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Moist Available Energy of a Conditionally Unstable Atmosphere. Part II: Further Analysis of GATE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generalized convective available potential energy (GCAPE) observed during GATE has been analyzed using the Lagrangian algorithm of Lorenz, as modified by Randall and Wang. The effects of ice are included and are discussed in an Appendix. A ...

Junyi Wang; David A. Randall

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Surface tension measurements of coal ash slags under reducing conditions at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global demand for reduced CO{sub 2} emission from power plants can be answered by coal gasification techniques. To develop integrated gasification combined cycles that incorporate hot syngas cleaning facilities, detailed knowledge of the thermophysical properties of coal ashes is imperative. Currently, the surface tension of liquid coal ash slags in a reducing environment was studied by means of the sessile drop method. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the acquired drop images. The slags under consideration were obtained from black and brown coals as well as from an experimental gasification reactor. Typically, a sharp surface tension decrease with temperature was found in the melting interval of the ashes. This was followed by a temperature range of smooth drop contours during which a slight rise of the surface tension could mostly be observed. Bubbles at the circumference of the drops started to appear when approaching the measurement temperature limit of 1550{sup o}C. With regard to the temperature regime of uncorrugated drop profiles, coal ash slags exhibited surface tension values between 400 and 700 mN/m. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Tobias Melchior; Gunther Putz; Michael Mueller [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany). Institute of Energy Research

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Importance of Spring and Autumn Atmospheric Conditions for the Evaporation Regime of Lake Superior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedbacks between ice extent and evaporation have long been suspected to be important for Lake Superior evaporation because it is during autumn and winter when latent heat fluxes are highest. Recent direct measurements of evaporation made at the ...

C. Spence; P. D. Blanken; J. D. Lenters; N. Hedstrom

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The Role of Atmospheric Conditions in Determining Intensity of Crepuscular and Anticrepuscular Rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer of 2006, daily observations of crepuscular and anticrepuscular rays were made around sunset from central Oklahoma. A relative scale of ray intensity was developed and used to relate the rays to concurrent meteorological ...

Matthew S. Van Den Broeke; William H. Beasley; Michael B. Richman

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A Sensitivity Study of Convective Cloud Formation by Vegetation Forcing with Different Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable vegetation cover is a possible trigger for convection, especially in semiarid areas due to differential surface forcing. A two-dimensional numerical model with explicit cloud physics and a detailed vegetation parameterization scheme is ...

Xiaodong Hong; Martin J. Leach; Sethu Raman

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Sea Ice Cover and Related Atmospheric Conditions in Arctic Canada During the Summer of 1978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maps are presented of sea ice cover and open water in the Canadian Arctic for the final day of each month, June–September, 1978. The maps are derived from NOAA satellite imagery and show an extent of open water which is considerably smaller than ...

B. Dey

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Atmospheric Circulation Response to an Instantaneous Doubling of Carbon Dioxide. Part II: Atmospheric Transient Adjustment and Its Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical mechanisms underlying the transient circulation adjustment in the extratropical atmosphere after the instantaneous doubling of carbon dioxide are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere ...

Yutian Wu; Richard Seager; Tiffany A. Shaw; Mingfang Ting; Naomi Naik

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

329

A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

330

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this room ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH -RECEIVED •I.AWSSKCEDIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTMass and Composition of Aerosol as a Function of Time,

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTLow-Z Elements in Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Nuclearof sulfur dioxide by aerosols of manganese sulfate," Ind.

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere by Anomalous/Lévy Diffusion: New Diagnostics Using FORTÉ Lightning Data A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Remote Sensing Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico D. M. Suszcynsky Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Atmospheric Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Anomalous photon diffusion can be described as an ad hoc modification of the popular 2-stream approximation, specifically the δ-Eddington/diffusion version, for monochromatic radiative transfer in a scattering plane-parallel atmosphere. In the physical picture that describes the standard diffusion (hence

333

Atmospheric considerations for central receiver power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a study of the effects of atmospheric attenuation, turbulent scattering, and the use of cooling towers on the performance of solar thermal central receiver power plants.

Henderson, R.G.; Pitter, R.L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Toward a Fully Lagrangian Atmospheric Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved treatment of advection is essential for atmospheric transport and chemistry models. Eulerian treatments are generally plagued with instabilities, unrealistic negative constituent values, diffusion, and dispersion errors. A higher-...

Jahrul M. Alam; John C. Lin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Filtering of Gravity Modes in Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of gravity modes in atmospheric model predictions is assessed quantitatively by comparing integrations with a normal mode initialized primitive equation model and its corresponding pseudogeostrophic form to document some generally ...

F. Baer; J. J. Tribbia

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Stochastic Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmospheric Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The innate tendency of the background straining field of the midlatitude atmospheric jet to preferentially amplify a subset of disturbances produces a characteristic response to stochastic perturbation whether the perturbations are internally ...

Brian F. Farrell; Peteros J. Ioannou

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Mars Atmosphere Pressure Periodicities from Viking Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first martian year of pressure data taken by the Viking landers on Mars is subjected to power spectrum analysis. The analysis suggests that strong periodicities are present in the martian atmosphere, especially at the high-latitude (48°N) ...

R. D. Sharman; J. A. Ryan

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Nonlinear Atmospheric Adjustment to Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear, numerical model of a compressible atmosphere is used to simulate the hydrostatic and geostrophic adjustment to a localized prescribed heating applied over five minutes with a size characteristic of an isolated, deep, cumulus cloud. ...

Paul F. Fanelli; Peter R. Bannon

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Effect of Nonlinearity on Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weakly nonlinear limit of two-dimensional gravity waves in an incompressible, inviscid and stably stratified atmosphere is studied. The three-wave resonant interaction theory indicates an energy cascade from a vertically propagating wave (...

Mostafa M. Ibrahim

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Shear Excitation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unstable Velocity shears are a Common source of vertically propagating gravity waves in the atmosphere. However, the growth rates of unstable modes predicted by linear theory cannot always amount for their observed importance.

David C. Fritts

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dynamic Stabilization of Atmospheric Single Column Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single column models (SCMs) provide an economical framework for assessing the sensitivity of atmospheric temperature and humidity to natural and imposed perturbations, and also for developing improved representations of diabatic processes in ...

John W. Bergman; Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Potential Vorticity in a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential vorticity principle for a nonhydrostatic, moist, precipitating atmosphere is derived. An appropriate generalization of the well-known (dry) Ertel potential vorticity is found to be P = ??1(2? + × u)?·???, where ? is the total ...

Wayne H. Schubert; Scott A. Hausman; Matthew Garcia; Katsuyuki V. Ooyama; Hung-Chi Kuo

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

The Flywheel Effect in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the requirement of geostrophic balance, mechanical inertia can affect the thermal response of the atmosphere to transient heating. We examine some very simple linear models of this “flywheel effect,” and discuss their possible ...

Roelof K. Snieder; Stephen B. Fels

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Atmospheric Entropy. Part I: Climate Dissipation Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric entropy and its association with climate dissipation are investigated. The balance equation for entropy is derived through the mean and transient thermal and moisture equations. The entropy production contains the internal and external ...

Jiangnan Li; Petr Chylek

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Atmospheric Turbidity over Central North Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some 8500 observations of atmospheric turbidity, taken at Raleigh, North Carolina from July 1969 to July 1975 are analyzed for within-day and day-to-day variations and their dependence on meteorological parameters. The annual average turbidity of ...

James T. Peterson; Edwin C. Flowers; Guillermo J. Berri; Cheryl L. Reynolds; John H. Rudisill

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Removal of Atmospheric Effects prom AVHRR Albedos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on numerical simulations, coefficients are determined to be used in a linear relationship between clear-sky planetary albedo and surface albedo. Thew coefficients are given as functions of solar zenith angle and atmospheric parameters for ...

Peter Koepke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (18°43?N, 73°51?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Meteorological Tracer Techniques for Parameterizing Atmospheric Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tracer materials have been used in atmospheric dispersion studies for decades, basic information about meteorological tracer techniques is scattered among a number of different sources. This paper attempts to pull together this ...

Warren B. Johnson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Atmosphere–Ocean Modeling Exploiting Fluid Isomorphisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical isomorphisms between the hydrostatic equations that govern the evolution of a compressible atmosphere and an incompressible ocean are described and exploited to guide the design of a hydrodynamical kernel for simulation of either ...

John Marshall; Alistair Adcroft; Jean-Michel Campin; Chris Hill; Andy White

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Basic Meteorological Observations for Schools: Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses measurement of atmospheric surface pressure using economical instruments. It is intended to provide members of the Society with a ready reference to respond to inquiries from earth and physical science teachers at the ...

John T. Snow; Michelle E. Akridge; Shawn B. Harley

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Atmospheric Mesoscale Dispersion Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale dispersion modeling system (MDMS) described herein is under development as a simulation tool to investigate atmospheric flow and pollution dispersion over complex terrain for domains up to several hundred kilometers. The system ...

Marek Uliasz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

State-Space Modeling for Atmospheric Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different aspect concerning the state-space modeling for atmospheric pollution are dealt with separately in this paper: (i) the treatment of the advection-diffusion equation and (ii) the use of time series analysis.

E. Hernández; F. Martín; F. Valero

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Resonant Planetary Waves in a Spherical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global model of planetary wave propagation in a spherical atmosphere is used to examine the spectrum of free or resonant planetary waves of the solstitial stratosphere. These free modes are located by forcing the model with a weak periodic ...

Mark R. Schoeberl; John H. E. Clark

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development is described of a Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)—the result of a cooperative project to collect global weather observations taken near the ocean's surface since 1854, primarily from merchant ships, into a compact and ...

Scott D. Woodruff; Ralph J. Slutz; Roy L. Jenne; Peter M. Steurer

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Ballistic Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of atmospheric turbulence on munition target scatter are determined from numerical simulations of ballistic trajectories through many realizations of realistic simulated turbulent wind fields. A technique is evaluated for correcting ...

Rod Frehlich; Robert Sharman; Charles Clough; Michael Padovani; Kelly Fling; Ward Boughers; W. Scott Walton

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optical depth, as well as absorption and backscatter coefficient.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik; M. Chiosso; R. Mussa; G. Sequeiros; M. A. Mostafa; M. D. Roberts

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

Profiling atmospheric aerosols | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a number of instruments that use low power lasers (the instrument is called Micropulse Lidar, MPL) to measure the turbidity of the atmosphere above the ground. For the first time,...

359

Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking  

SciTech Connect

Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Sampling Conditioned Hypoelliptic Diffusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of recent articles introduced a method to construct stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) which are invariant with respect to the distribution of a given conditioned diffusion. These works are restricted to the case of elliptic diffusions where the drift has a gradient structure, and the resulting SPDE is of second order parabolic type. The present article extends this methodology to allow the construction of SPDEs which are invariant with respect to the distribution of a class of hypoelliptic diffusion processes, subject to a bridge conditioning. This allows the treatment of more realistic physical models, for example one can use the resulting SPDE to study transitions between meta-stable states in mechanical systems with friction and noise. In this situation the restriction of the drift being a gradient can also be lifted.

Hairer, Martin; Voss, Jochen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

2008-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

363

Boiler Condition Assessment Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report Boiler Condition Assessment Guideline provides a concise overview of procedures developed by the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI to help power plant operators cost-effectively determine the extent of degradation and remaining life of key boiler components. The Guideline draws from EPRIs detailed area-specific guidelines, which in turn are based on extensive research findings by EPRI, member companies, and other organizations. This Guideline offers a starting point for power plant perso...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

364

Solar air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a hybrid solar-assisted air conditioning system that combines a vapor compression section for sensible cooling with a desiccant section for dehumidification and that uses both solar energy and condenser waste heat to drive the dehumidifier has been under way for the last two years (1981 and 1982). The results of this research are included in this report: utilizing solar energy in an economical way has proven quite difficult.

Robison, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

High voltage pulse conditioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

Stringfield, R.M.; Wheat, R.M. Jr.

1989-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

366

High voltage pulse conditioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Conditional SIC-POVMs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we examine a generalization of the symmetric informationally complete POVMs. SIC-POVMs are the optimal measurements for full quantum tomography, but if some parameters of the density matrix are known, then the optimal SIC POVM should be orthogonal to a subspace. This gives the concept of the conditional SIC-POVM. The existence is not known in general, but we give a result in the special cases when the diagonal is known of the density matrix.

D. Petz; L. Ruppert; A. Szanto

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

Conditional SIC-POVMs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we examine a generalization of the symmetric informationally complete POVMs. SIC-POVMs are the optimal measurements for full quantum tomography, but if some parameters of the density matrix are known, then the optimal SIC POVM should be orthogonal to a subspace. This gives the concept of the conditional SIC-POVM. The existence is not known in general, but we give a result in the special cases when the diagonal is known of the density matrix.

Petz, D; Szanto, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Nature Bulletin No. 554-A February 15, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BIRTH AND LIFE OF OUR ATMOSPHERE In Bulletin No. 542-A we described the atmosphere that surrounds the earth, held there by the pull of gravity, including the canopy of air immediately above us. That canopy is responsible for our weather and climates, shields us from the killing rays of the sun, and furnishes substances necessary for all life: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Astronomers believe that none of the other planets -- excepting Mars, perhaps -- has an atmosphere anything like ours. The principal elements, free nitrogen (78 percent) and free oxygen (21 percent), apparently are rare in the universe. On the other hand, the earth's atmosphere contains only traces of free hydrogen and helium -- the two lightest gases -- whereas they are by far the most common elements elsewhere in the universe.

372

Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

373

A comparison of atmospheric transport considerations in eastern and western oil shale operations  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric transport represents one of the critically important pathways for the distribution of pollutants from any oil shale operation. Our experience in studying eastern and western shale resources and operation suggest many common features regarding the atmospheric domain, but also many significant differences. Any issue of atmospheric transport and dispersion can be broken down into major elements: source factors which include the spatial and temporal distribution of pollutant sources as well as their chemical and physical characteristics, boundary conditions which include the character of the underlying surface as a lower boundary and the large scale meteorological circulations as an ''upper'' boundary; and meteorological structure is the resulting wind, temperature, moisture, and turbulence environment in the volume of air occupied by emitted material in an atmosphere subjected to the boundary conditions described above. For purposes of planning an industry, we want to be able to reliably model the atmospheric structure on a variety of time and space scales and the subsequent distribution of pollutants. This paper discusses differences in modeling concepts and results in the separate environments of eastern and western oil shale resources. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Barr, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Dynamics of nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission under elevated carbon dioxide in semi-arid cropping systems in Australia and China.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Within less than 50 years, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] will likely be double that observed in 1950. In this higher [CO2] world the sustainability… (more)

Lam, Shu Kee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Numerical Simulations of Air–Sea Interaction under High Wind Conditions Using a Coupled Model: A Study of Hurricane Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a coupled atmosphere–ocean wave modeling system is used to simulate air–sea interaction under high wind conditions. This coupled modeling system is made of three well-tested model components: The Pennsylvania State University–...

J-W. Bao; J. M. Wilczak; J-K. Choi; L. H. Kantha

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Attachment K TERMS AND CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attachment K TERMS AND CONDITIONS AWARD # #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE ............................................................................... 24 i #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. Grant Agreement This project is being funded with a grant from, the Terms and Conditions, and all attachments. These Terms and Conditions are standard requirements

377

Extreme Anomalous Atmospheric Circulation in the West Antarctic Peninsula Region in Austral Spring and Summer 2001/02, and Its Profound Impact on Sea Ice and Biota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exceptional sea ice conditions occurred in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region from September 2001 to February 2002, resulting from a strongly positive atmospheric pressure anomaly in the South Atlantic coupled with strong negative ...

Robert A. Massom; Sharon E. Stammerjohn; Raymond C. Smith; Michael J. Pook; Richard A. Iannuzzi; Neil Adams; Douglas G. Martinson; Maria Vernet; William R. Fraser; Langdon B. Quetin; Robin M. Ross; Yuko Massom; H. Roy Krouse

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Impact of Initial Soil Moisture Anomalies on Subsequent Precipitation over North America in the Coupled Land–Atmosphere Model CAM3–CLM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the impact of anomalous soil moisture conditions on subsequent precipitation over North America, a series of numerical experiments is performed using a modified version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 and the Community ...

Yeonjoo Kim; Guiling Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

On the Nature of the Chromosphere-Corona Transition Region of the Solar Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution of temperature and emission measure in the stationary heated solar atmosphere was obtained for the limiting cases of slow and fast heating, when either the gas pressure or the concentration are constant throughout the layer depth. Under these conditions the temperature distribution with depth is determined by radiation loss and thermal conductivity. It is shown that both in the case of slow heating and of impulsive heating, temperatures are distributed in such a way that classical collisional heat conduction is valid in the chromosphere-corona transition region of the solar atmosphere.

Ptitsyna, O

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Scanning Lidar Based Atmospheric Monitoring for Fluorescent Detectors of Cosmic Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the cosmic-ray air-shower fluorescence at extreme energies require precise knowledge of atmospheric conditions. The absolute calibration of the cosmic-ray energy depends on the absorption of fluorescence light between its origin and point of its detection. To reconstruct basic atmospheric parameters we review a novel analysis method based on two- and multi-angle measurements performed by the scanning backscatter lidar system. Applied inversion methods, optical depth, absorption and backscatter coefficient, as well as other parameters that enter the lidar equation are discussed in connection to the attenuation of the light traveling from shower to fluorescence detector.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

3D atmospheric modeling based on MODTRAN4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All the factors of atmospheric environment that influence the transmission of infrared radiation were analyzed in detail in the paper. Taking horizontally varying atmospheric property into consideration, a 3D model of atmospheric transmission of infrared ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, infrared radiation, model, path radiation, ratio of atmospheric transmission, simulation, single scatter solar radiation

Ge Li; Zhifeng Lu; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

383

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

384

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

385

Conditional sterility in plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

386

Battery condition indicator  

SciTech Connect

A battery condition indicator is described for indicating both the charge used and the life remaining in a rechargeable battery comprising: rate multiplying and counting means for indirectly measuring the charge useed by the battery between charges; means for supplying variable rate clock pulse to the rate multiplying and counting means, the rate of the clock pulses being a function of whether a high current consumption load is connected to the battery or not; timing means for measuring the total time in service of the battery; charge used display means responsive to the rate multiplying and counting means for providing an indication of the charge remaining in the battery; and age display means responsive to the timing means for providing an indication of the life or age of the battery.

Fernandez, E.A.

1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric and Climate Science Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic, social, and health effects. Research spans the molecular level to whole organisms and their interaction with climate, the ecosystem, and human activities. The goal is to improve our understanding of the world around us while increasing the accuracy of regional climate models to

388

Atmospheric Delta 14C Record from Wellington  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Isotopes » Carbon Isotopes » δ14C from Wellington Atmospheric δ14C Record from Wellington graphics Graphics data Data Investigators M.R. Manning, W.H. Melhuish National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Climate Division, Gracefield Road, Gracefield, P.O. Box 31-311, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Period of Record 1954-93 Methods Trays containing ~2 L of 5 normal NaOH carbonate-free solution are typically exposed for intervals of 1-2 weeks, and the atmospheric CO2 absorbed during that time is recovered by acid evolution. Considerable fractionation occurs during absorption into the NaOH solution, and the standard fractionation correction (Stuiver and Polach 1977) is used to determine a δ 14C value corrected to δ 13C = -25 per mil. Some samples reported here were taken using BaOH solution or with extended

389

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

390

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dusty Atmosphere Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

391

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

392

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

394

Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

R. J. Pollina

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Modern Records of Atmospheric Methane (CH4) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(CH4) » Ice Cores (CH4) » Ice Cores Modern Records of Atmospheric Methane (CH4) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric methane (CH4) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year record ending with the most recent data. A spline function has

396

Release of ethanol to the atmosphere during use of consumer cleaning products  

SciTech Connect

Liquid laundry and hand dish washing detergents contain volatile organic compounds, including ethanol, that may be liberated during use and contribute to photochemical air pollution. In this study, the release of ethanol to the atmosphere during simulated household use of liquid detergents was measured. Three replicate experiments, plus a blank, were conducted in a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber for each of four conditions: typical dish washing (DT), high-release dish washing (DH), typical laundry (LT), and high-release laundry (LH). Average amounts of ethanol transferred to the atmosphere per use (and the fraction of ethanol used so liberated) were 32 mg (0.038) for DT, 100 mg (0.049) for DH, 18 mg (0.002) for LT, and 110 mg (0.011) for LH. Thus, a large fraction of the ethanol added to wash solutions with liquid detergents is discharged to the sewer rather than transferred to the atmosphere during use.

Wooley, J.; Nazaroff, W.W. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Hodgson, A.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence Impacts on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Large-eddy simulations of atmospheric boundary layers under various stability and surface roughness conditions are performed to investigate the turbulence impact on wind turbines. In particular, the aeroelastic responses of the turbines are studied to characterize the fatigue loading of the turbulence present in the boundary layer and in the wake of the turbines. Two utility-scale 5 MW turbines that are separated by seven rotor diameters are placed in a 3 km by 3 km by 1 km domain. They are subjected to atmospheric turbulent boundary layer flow and data is collected on the structural response of the turbine components. The surface roughness was found to increase the fatigue loads while the atmospheric instability had a small influence. Furthermore, the downstream turbines yielded higher fatigue loads indicating that the turbulent wakes generated from the upstream turbines have significant impact.

Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Moriarty, P.; Jonkman, J.; Michalakes, J.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Ratios, Atmospheric CO2, Cape Grim In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1014 data Data Investigators Francey R. J. and C. E. Allison Description Since 1982, a continuous program of sampling atmospheric CO2 to determine stable isotope ratios has been maintained at the Australian Baseline Air Pollution Station, Cape Grim, Tasmania (40°, 40'56"S, 144°, 41'18"E). The process of in situ extraction of CO2 from air, the preponderance of samples collected in conditions of strong wind from the marine boundary layer of the Southern Ocean, and the determination of all isotope ratios relative to a common high purity CO2 reference gas with isotopic δ13C close to

399

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

400

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; /LPSC, Grenoble; Blondin, Stephane; /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Gorecki, Alexia; /LPSC, Grenoble; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

402

Attachment J TERMS AND CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attachment J TERMS AND CONDITIONS AWARD # PON-10-603 #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... 24 i #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. Grant Agreement This project is being funded with a grant from is comprised of the grant funding award, the Terms and Conditions, and all attachments. These Terms

403

Fuel conditioning process  

SciTech Connect

A fuel conditioning process and apparatus for use where natural gas is compressed by a field compressor driven by a natural gas powered engine. The fuel portion of the compressed raw natural gas is passed through an adsorption vessel containing an adsorbent material capable of adsorbing impurities. The outlet gas from the adsorption vessel is accumulated and mixed for averaging and controlling the heating value of the outlet gas used for fuel. Regeneration of the adsorption material, when employing multiple adsorption vessels, is accomplished by connecting one adsorption vessel to the suction side of the compressor, purified gas from another adsorption vessel in adsorption service is backflowed through the loaded adsorption vessel to desorb the previously adsorbed impurities, the flow of the compressed raw natural gas to the other adsorption vessel is terminated and the pressure within the two adsorption vessels is equalized. The regenerated adsorption vessel is then repressured with the compressed raw natural gas prior to returning it to the adsorption mode.

McGill, J. C.; Alley, J. R.; Coombs, D. W.

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

404

International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show retrievals of the aerosol properties from spectrally resolved solar measurements, the simulated and observed radiative fluxes at the surface, and outline factors that control the magnitude and variability of aerosol and radiative properties [8].

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

Atmospheric Pressure Low Current Plasma for Syngas Production from Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract – Atmospheric pressure low current arc discharge between graphite electrodes with conical geometry in liquid ethanol/water mixture was investigated. Syngas production was demonstrated over large experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on discharge aspects. It is shown from pictures that the behavior of low current arc discharge with consumable electrodes represents non-stationary plasma. The energetic properties of plasmas can be used to carry out many applications, particularly in discharge based systems. Recently, research interest focuses on the Non Thermal Plasma (NTP) treatment of hydrocarbons, alcohol, or biomass aimed to improve the yield of synthetic gas (syngas: H2+CO) production at low cost [1, 4]. Experiments were performed on a plasma reactor consisting of two graphite electrodes with conical shape

Ahmed Khacef; Khadija Arabi; Olivier Aubry; Jean Marie Cormier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer  

SciTech Connect

Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.

Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effect of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Changes on Tropical Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes on tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere system via oceanic and atmospheric processes. A suite of numerical simulations have been conducted and the results show that both oceanic and atmospheric circulation changes induced by AMOC changes can have a profound impact on tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) conditions, but their dominance varies in different parts of the tropical oceans. The oceanic process has a dominant control on SST and SSS response to AMOC changes in the South Tropical Atlantic, while the atmospheric teleconnection is mainly responsible for SST and SSS changes over the North Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the period of reduced AMOC. The finding has significant implication for the interpretation of the paleotemperature reconstructions over the southern Caribbean and the western Tropical Atlantic regions during the Younger Dryas. It suggests that the strong spatial inhomogeneity of the SST change revealed by the proxy records in these regions may be attributed to the competing oceanic and atmospheric processes that dominate the SST response. Similar mechanisms may also explain the reconstructed paleo-salinity change in the tropical Atlantic, which shows a basin-wide increase in SSS during the Younger Dryas, according to recent paleo climate studies. Finally, we show that atmospheric teleconnection induced by the surface cooling of the North Atlantic and the North Pacific in response to a weakened AMOC, is a leading physical mechanism that dictates the behavior of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response to AMOC changes. However, depending on its origin, the atmospheric teleconnection can affect ENSO variability in different ways. The atmospheric process associated with the North Atlantic cooling tends to enhance El Nino occurrence with a deepened mean thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific, whereas the atmospheric process associated with the North Pacific cooling tends to produce more La Nina events with a reduced mean thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific. Preliminary analysis suggests that the change in ENSO characteristics is associated with the change in internal atmospheric variability caused by the surface cooling in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Complex nature of the underlying dynamics concerning the effect of the AMOC on ENSO calls for further investigation into this problem.

Wan, Xiuquan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A comparison of the Monte Carlo and the flux gradient method for atmospheric diffusion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to model the dispersal of atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer, various methods of parameterizing turbulent diffusion have been employed. The purpose of this paper is to use a three-dimensional particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model to compare the Markov chain (Monte Carlo) method of statistical particle diffusion with the deterministic flux gradient (K-theory) method. The two methods are heavily used in the study of atmospheric diffusion under complex conditions, with the Monte Carlo method gaining in popularity partly because of its more direct application of turbulence parameters. The basis of comparison is a data set from night-time drainage flow tracer experiments performed by the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program at the Geysers geothermal region in northern California. The Atmospheric Diffusion Particle-In-Cell (ADPIC) model used is the main model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory emergency response program: Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC). As a particle model, it can simulate diffusion in both the flux gradient and Monte Carlo modes. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Lange, R.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fractionating Recalcitrant Lignocellulose at Modest Reaction Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effectively releasing the locked polysaccharides from recalcitrant lignocellulose to fermentable sugars is among the greatest technical and economic barriers to the realization of lignocellulose biorefineries because leading lignocellulose pre-treatment technologies suffer from low sugar yields, and/or severe reaction conditions, and/or high cellulase use, narrow substrate applicability, and high capital investment, etc. A new lignocellulose pre-treatment featuring modest reaction conditions (50 C and atmospheric pressure) was demonstrated to fractionate lignocellulose to amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and acetic acid by using a non-volatile cellulose solvent (concentrated phosphoric acid), a highly volatile organic solvent (acetone), and water. The highest sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis were attributed to no sugar degradation during the fractionation and the highest enzymatic cellulose digestibility ({approx}97% in 24 h) during the hydrolysis step at the enzyme loading of 15 filter paper units of cellulase and 60 IU of beta-glucosidase per gram of glucan. Isolation of high-value lignocellulose components (lignin, acetic acid, and hemicellulose) would greatly increase potential revenues of a lignocellulose biorefinery.

Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Ding, Shi-You [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Cui, Jing-Biao [Dartmouth College; Elander, Richard T. [Dartmouth College; Laser, Mark [Dartmouth College; Himmel, Michael [ORNL; McMillan, James R. [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Empirical Model of Aerosol Uplifting from the Arid Area Empirical Model of Aerosol Uplifting from the Arid Area Gorchakov, G.I., Shukurov, K.A., and Golitsyn, G.S., A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The model enables to make the estimates of the vertical fluxes of arid aerosol using measured data of the wind velocity. The model includes the following main elements: 1. The parameterization of the microstructure of the aerosol uplifted from the area. 2. Relationship between wind velocity and the submicron aerosol concentration. 3. The aerosol uplifting rates. It is found that there is the synchronism of the submicron and coarse aerosol fluctuation in convective conditions at the arid area. Vertical turbulent fluxes of the aerosol were determined regarding two regimes of aerosol

411

Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Aircraft Turbulence Encounters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe aircraft turbulence-atmospheric gravity wave events which occurred during a 2-day period over the Continental Divide. The waves are observed by two microbarograph networks an each side of the divide and last for several hours at a ...

A. J. Bedard Jr.; F. Canavero; F. Einaudi

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heat budget and satellite measurements of net radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Annual mean heat export from the zone 30°N–30°S amounts to 101 ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Baroclinic Modons as Prototypes for Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-layer quasi-geostrophic channel model on a ?-plane is used to investigate the properties of dipole eddies which may be relevant models for atmospheric blocking. It is shown that quasi-stationary equivalent barotropic dipole eddies, similar ...

K. Haines

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Accuracy of Atmospheric Energy Budgets from Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Issues relevant to achieving an accuracy of better than 10 W m?2 on 250-km scales for monthly means in the atmospheric energy balance are explored from the standpoint of the formulation and computational procedures using the National Centers for ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; David P. Stepaniak; Julie M. Caron

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Mathematics of Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gaussian plume model is a standard approach for studying the transport of airborne contaminants due to turbulent diffusion and advection by the wind. This paper reviews the assumptions underlying the model, its derivation from the advection-diffusion ... Keywords: Gaussian plume solution, advection-diffusion equation, atmospheric dispersion, contaminant transport, inverse problem, linear least squares

John M. Stockie

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Temperature stratification of the atmosphere of Arcturus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of the results of the investigations of the red giant star Arcturus is given. One-dimensional LTE modeling of the atmospheres of Arcturus and the Sun as a star is carried out on the basis of synthesis of the extended wings of the H and K Ca II lines. It is found that the local continuum in this spectral region is underestimated by an average of 12% in the atlases of Arcturus. The average deficit in UV absorption amounts to 43% for Arcturus whereas it is 9% for the Sun. For Arcturus the correction factor to the continuum opacity at the wavelengths of 390.0, 392.5, 395.0, 398.0, and 400.0 nm equals 2.20, 1.90, 1.70, 1.55, and 1.45. The model atmosphere of Arcturus obtained from the best-fit of the wings of the H and K Ca II lines corresponds to the model atmosphere with the fundamental parameters T_eff = 4286 K, log g = 1.66, and [Fe/H]=-0.52 derived by Ramirez and Allende Prieto (2011). The temperature stratification of Arcturus' atmosphere is presented in tabular form. To obtain more accurate...

Sheminova, V A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Atmospheric Heat Engines on Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The character of the Earth's atmospheric heat engine depends, inter alia, on the relatively tight linkage between surface fluxes of energy and of H20. On Mars, on the other hand, H2O-based latent heat fluxes are only a trivial fraction of total ...

J. R. Philip

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

Mathieu de Naurois

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

419

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Thermally driven escape from Pluto's atmosphere: A combined fluid/kinetic model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined fluid/kinetic model is developed to calculate thermally driven escape of N2 from Pluto's atmosphere for two solar heating conditions: no heating above 1450 km and solar minimum heating conditions. In the combined model, one-dimensional fluid equations are applied for the dense part of the atmosphere, while the exobase region is described by a kinetic model and calculated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Fluid and kinetic parts of the model are iteratively solved in order to maintain constant total mass and energy fluxes through the simulation region. Although the atmosphere was found to be highly extended, with an exobase altitude at ~6000 km at solar minimum, the outflow remained subsonic and the escape rate was within a factor of two of the Jeans rate for the exobase temperatures determined. This picture is drastically different from recent predictions obtained solely using a fluid model which, in itself, requires assumptions about atmospheric density, flow velocity and energy flux ca...

Tucker, O J; Deighan, J I; Volkov, A N; Johnson, R E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atmosphere Feedbacks during ENSO in a Coupled GCM with a Modified Atmospheric Convection Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The too diverse representation of ENSO in a coupled GCM limits one’s ability to describe future change of its properties. Several studies pointed to the key role of atmosphere feedbacks in contributing to this diversity. These feedbacks are ...

Eric Guilyardi; Pascale Braconnot; Fei-Fei Jin; Seon Tae Kim; Michel Kolasinski; Tim Li; Ionela Musat

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Atmospheric Energetics in the Wavelet Domain. Part II: Time-Averaged Observed Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wavelet energetics (WE) is a useful generalization of traditional wavenumber energetics, for analyzing atmospheric dynamics. WE is doubly indexed by wavenumber band j and location k. The interpretation is that 2 to the jth power is proportional ...

Aimé Fournier

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Characteristics of Atmospheric Transport Using Three Numerical Formulations for Atmospheric Dynamics in a Single GCM Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the sensitivity of a number of important archetypical tracer problems to the numerical method used to solve the equations of tracer transport and atmospheric dynamics. The tracers' scenarios were constructed to exercise the ...

Philip J. Rasch; Danielle B. Coleman; Natalie Mahowald; David L. Williamson; Shian-Jiann Lin; Byron A. Boville; Peter Hess

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities and specific methods for seeding and planting at each area. evegetation work is scheduled to commence during the first quarter of FY 2011 to minimize the amount of time that sites are unvegetated and more susceptible to invasion by non-native weedy annual species.

Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Racing for conditional independence inference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, we consider the computational aspects of deciding whether a conditional independence statement t is implied by a list of conditional independence statements L using the implication related to the method of structural imsets. ...

Remco R. Bouckaert; Milan Studený

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Atmospheric performance of the special-purpose Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thin-airfoil family  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), in cooperation with SeaWest Energy Group, has completed extensive atmospheric testing of the special-purpose SERI thin-airfoil family during the 1990 wind season. The purpose of this test program was to experimentally verify the predicted performance characteristics of the thin-airfoil family on a geometrically optimized blade, and to compare it to original-equipment blades under atmospheric wind conditions. The tests were run on two identical Micon 65/13 horizontal-axis wind turbines installed side-by-side in a wind farm. The thin-airfoil family 7.96 m blades were installed on one turbine, and AeroStar 7.41 m blades were installed on the other. This paper presents final performance results of the side-by-side comparative field test for both clean and dirty blade conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Tangler, J; Smith, B; Jager, D; Olsen, T

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Barrels per Calendar Day) (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

428

Energy conditions and their implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conditions and their implications Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint;#16;s (Los Alamos) Midwest Relativity 9 November 1999. #12; Abstract: The energy conditions of general- itational #12;elds and cosmological geometries. However, the energy conditions are beginning to look a lot

Visser, Matt

429

TECHNETIUM SORPTION BY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS UNDER REDUCING CONDITIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to measure Tc sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. Earlier studies were conducted and the experimental conditions were found not to simulate those of the facility. Through a five month subcontract with Clemson University, sorption of {sup 99}Tc to four cementitious materials was examined within an anaerobic glovebag targeting a 0.1% H2(g)/ 99.9% N{sub 2}(g) atmosphere. Early experiments based on Tc sorption and Eh indicated that 0.1% H{sub 2}(g) (a reductant) was necessary to preclude experimental impacts from O{sub 2}(g) diffusion into the glovebag. Preliminary data to date (up to 56 days) indicates that sorption of {sup 99}Tc to cementitious materials increased with increasing slag content for simulated saltstone samples. This is consistent with the conceptual model that redox active sulfide groups within the reducing slag facilitate reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). These experiments differ from previous experiments where a 2% H{sub 2}(g) atmosphere was maintained (Kaplan et al., 2011 (SRNL-STI-2010-00668)). The impact of the 2% H{sub 2}(g) reducing atmosphere on this data was examined and determined to cause the reduction of Tc in experimental samples without slag. In the present ongoing study, after 56 days, Tc sorption by the 50-year old cement samples (no slag) was undetectable, whereas Tc sorption in the cementitious materials containing slag continues to increase with contact time (measured after 1, 4, 8, 19 and 56 days). Sorption was not consistent with spike concentrations and steady state has not been demonstrated after 56 days. The average conditional K{sub d} value for the Vault 2 cementitious material was 6,362 mL/g (17% slag), for the TR547 Saltstone (45% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 1258 mL/g, and for TR545 (90% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 12,112 mL/g. It is anticipated that additional samples will be collected until steady state conditions are established to permit measuring more representative K{sub d} and solubility values under these experimental conditions.

Kaplan, D.; Estes, S.; Arai, Y.; Powell, B.

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp 1992.07.11 - 1993.02.28 Lead Scientist : Chuck Long Data Availability Final data available. For data sets, see below. Summary IOP completed. Description The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) was conducted to better understand the structure of the coupled system of the warm pool of the western Pacific Ocean. Hundreds of participants from dozens of countries took part in this experiment from November 1, 1992 through February 28, 1993. Campaign Data Sets

431

Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength in the Global Forecast System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operational coupled land–atmosphere forecast model from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is evaluated for the strength and characteristics of its coupling in the water cycle between land and atmosphere. Following the ...

Li Zhang; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Jiangfeng Wei; Zhichang Guo; Cheng-Hsuan Lu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Atmospheric Response to the Gulf Stream: Seasonal Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric response to the Gulf Stream front in sea surface temperature is investigated using high-resolution data from satellite observations and operational analysis and forecast. Two types of atmospheric response are observed with ...

Shoshiro Minobe; Masato Miyashita; Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Adaptive Multilevel Modeling of Land-Atmosphere Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adaptive multilevel methods allow full coupling of atmospheric and land surface hydrological models by preserving consistency between the large-scale (atmospheric) and the regional (land) components. The methodology was investigated for three ...

Ana Paula Barros

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Systematic Metastable Atmospheric Regime Identification in an AGCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the authors apply a recently developed clustering method for the systematic identification of metastable atmospheric regimes in high-dimensional datasets generated by atmospheric models. The novelty of this approach is that it ...

Christian Franzke; Illia Horenko; Andrew J. Majda; Rupert Klein

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere Title On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012...

436

A Simulated Climatology of Spectrally Decomposed Atmospheric Infrared Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation experiment is conducted to inquire into the mean climate state and likely trends in atmospheric infrared radiation spectra. Upwelling and downwelling spectra at five vertical levels from the surface to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) ...

Yi Huang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Hadley Cell Dynamics in a Virtually Dry Snowball Earth Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hadley cell of a virtually dry snowball Earth atmosphere under equinox insolation is studied in a comprehensive atmospheric general circulation model. In contrast to the Hadley cell of modern Earth, momentum transport by dry convection, which ...

Aiko Voigt; Isaac M. Held; Jochem Marotzke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Evolution Dynamics of Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Annual Cycle Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of ocean-atmosphere annual cycle variability is extracted from the revised Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set SSTs, surface winds, and the latent heat (LH) and net shortwave (SW) surface fluxes using the covariance-based ...

Sumant Nigam; Yi Chao

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Thermodynamic Foundation for Modeling the Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With advances in numerical modeling of the atmosphere, we have experienced that the return to the first principles of physics often enables a model to cope more easily with the complexities of the real atmosphere. The return to the primitive ...

Katsuyuki V. Ooyama

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Estimating Intensity of Atmospheric Ice Accretion on Stationary Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of various atmospheric parameters in determining atmospheric ice accretion intensity on structures near the ground is examined theoretically, with an emphasis on glaze formation. Methods are presented for calculating the icing rate on ...

Lasse Makkonen

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Direct Atmospheric Forcing of Geostrophic Eddies. Part II: Coherence Maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of stochastic atmospheric forcing of quasigeostrophic eddies is applied to calculate coherence maps, that is, the coherence between the oceanic response at one location and the atmospheric forcing at another location as a function of ...

Angelika Lippert; Peter Müller

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Destabilization of the Thermohaline Circulation by Atmospheric Eddy Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple proem models have been developed to investigate the role of atmosphere-ocean feedbacks in the stability of the current mode of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic. A positive feedback between the meridional atmospheric ...

Mototaka Nakamura; Peter H. Stone; Jochem Marotzke

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Estimates of Meridional Atmosphere and Ocean Heat Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New estimates of the poleward energy transport based on atmospheric reanalyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; Julie M. Caron

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Structure of the Atmosphere in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate water vapor transport in an atmosphere in radiative–convective equilibrium, a simplified dynamical convection model (DCM) was constructed that explicitly models moist convection and longwave radiation in a gray atmosphere. In the ...

Yoshiharu Iwasa; Yutaka Abe; Hiroshi Tanaka

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Interannual Variability of Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies in the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) established a framework to estimate the extent to which anomalies in the land surface state (e.g., soil moisture) can affect rainfall generation and other atmospheric ...

Zhichang Guo; Paul A. Dirmeyer

446

Variational Objective Analysis for Atmospheric Field Programs: A Model Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the variational objective analysis (VOA) for producing realistic diagnoses of atmospheric field program data. Simulations from the Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere ...

D. E. Waliser; J. A. Ridout; S. Xie; M. Zhang

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Coupled Atmosphere–Biophysics–Hydrology Models for Environmental Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formulation and implementation of LEAF-2, the Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model, which comprises the representation of land–surface processes in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is described. LEAF-2 is a prognostic ...

Robert L. Walko; Larry E. Band; Jill Baron; Timothy G. F. Kittel; Richard Lammers; Tsengdar J. Lee; Dennis Ojima; Roger A. Pielke Sr.; Chris Taylor; Christina Tague; Craig J. Tremback; Pier Luigi Vidale

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Implications of the Hydrostatic Assumption on Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The validity of the hydrostatic approximation is examined for use in predicting the dynamics of topographically generated atmospheric gravity waves (lee waves) propagating in an atmosphere with realistic wind shear. To isolate nonhydrostatic ...

Teddie L. Keller

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer has been developed to measure the atmospheric downwelling infrared radiance spectrum at the earth's surface with high absolute accuracy. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) ...

R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; F. A. Best; N. C. Ciganovich; R. G. Dedecker; T. P. Dirkx; S. C. Ellington; W. F. Feltz; R. K. Garcia; H. B. Howell; W. L. Smith; J. F. Short; D. C. Tobin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Atmospheric Solar Heating Rate in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmosphere is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Atmospheric Icing Climatologies of Two New England Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric icing climatologies of two New England mountaintops with different elevations are compared: Mount Mansfield in northern Vermont and Mount Washington in New Hampshire. Atmospheric icing, as measured with Rosemount ice detectors, is ...

Charles C. Ryerson

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

COLLOQUIUM: The Alfvénic Motions of the Sun's Outer Atmosphere...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: The Alfvnic Motions of the Sun's Outer Atmosphere Scott McIntosh National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)...

453

Accuracy of Atmospheric Angular Momentum Estimates from Operational Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern, high resolution atmospheric and geodetic data are finding increasing use in geophysical studies of the angular momentum balance of the earth-atmosphere system. Such studies require knowledge of the level of uncertainty associated with ...

Richard D. Rosen; Dayid A. Salstein; Alvin J. Miller; Klaus Arpe

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Multiscale Low-Frequency Circulation Modes in the Global Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, fundamental multiscale circulation modes in the global atmosphere are identified with the objective of providing better understanding of atmospheric low-frequency variabilities over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. With ...

K-M. Lau; P-J. Sheu; I-S. Kang

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Global Thermohaline Circulation. Part II: Sensitivity with Interactive Atmospheric Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid coupled ocean–atmosphere model is used to investigate the stability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to an increase in the surface freshwater forcing in the presence of interactive meridional transports in the atmosphere. The ocean ...

Xiaoli Wang; Peter H. Stone; Jochem Marotzke

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Dry-Entropy Budget of a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy budget has been a popular starting point for theories of the work, or dissipation, performed by moist atmospheres. For a dry atmosphere, the entropy budget provides a theory for the dissipation in terms of the imposed diabatic heat ...

David M. Romps

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean—Atmosphere Response Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite significant progress in the Tropical Ocean—Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, a number of major hurdles remain before the primary objective, prediction of the variability of the coupled ocean—atmosphere system on time scales of months to ...

Peter J. Webster; Roger Lukas

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Predictability Associated with Nonlinear Regimes in an Atmospheric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric regimes are midlatitude flow patterns that persist for periods of time exceeding a few days. Here, the authors analyzed the output of an idealized atmospheric model (QG3) to examine the relationship between regimes and predictability.

John M. Peters; Sergey Kravtsov; Nicholas T. Schwartz

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Acoustic Tomographic Monitoring of the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acoustic tomography is proposed as a method for monitoring near-surface atmospheric temperature and wind velocity fields. Basic issues relating to the feasibility and implementation of atmospheric tomography are discussed. Among these issues are ...

D. Keith Wilson; Dennis W. Thomson

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Sommerfeld radiation condition at threshold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove Besov space bounds of the resolvent at low energies in any dimension for a class of potentials that are negative and obey a virial condition with these conditions imposed at infinity only. We do not require spherical symmetry. The class of potentials includes in dimension $\\geq3$ the attractive Coulomb potential. There are two boundary values of the resolvent at zero energy which we characterize by radiation conditions. These radiation conditions are zero energy versions of the well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition.

Erik Skibsted

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Science DMZ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOAA NOAA About ESnet Overview ESnet Staff Governance Our Network Case Studies OSCARS Case Studies Science DMZ Case Studies Science DMZ CU Science DMZ Penn State & VTTI Science DMZ NOAA Science DMZ NERSC Science DMZ ALS Multi-facility Workflow LCLS ESnet Strategic Plan ESnet Organizational Chart ESnet History Science Requirements Careers Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Science DMZ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder houses the Earth System Research Lab, which supports a "reforecasting" project. The initiative involves running several decades of historical

462

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species CDIAC's data collection includes measurements of the following climate-relevant chemical species. A summary of recent greenhouse gas concentrations is also available. To determine how compounds are named, see the CDIAC "Name that compound" page. Butane (C4H10) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform (CHCl3) Deuterium (2H) Ethane (C2H6) Ethyl Nitrate (C2H5ONO2) Ethyne (C2H2) Fluoroform (CHF3) Halogenated Compounds (modern records) Halons (fluorocarbons) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) i-Propyl Nitrate (C3H7ONO2) Methane (CH4) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl3)

463

ORISE: Capabilities in Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities ORISE partners with NOAA to operate climate monitoring network U.S. Climate Reference Network (CRN) station in Hawaii The U.S. Climate Reference Network (CRN) consists of 121 stations throughout the continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii and Canada. The stations use highly accurate and reliable sensors and gauges to measure temperature, wind speed and precipitation. The network allows scientists to study the climate of an area over sustained periods, from 50 to 100 years. Pictured here is a CRN station at the Mauna Loa Slope Observatory in Hawaii. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) works closely with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to perform lower

464

Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Safety Analyses; GENII  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Workshop to Discuss Issues Regarding Deposition Workshop to Discuss Issues Regarding Deposition Velocity June 5-6, 2012 Jeremy Rishel Bruce Napier Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Safety Analyses: GENII Today's Presentation.... Will provide a high-level overview of the GENII codes. Will cover basic aspects of GENII's acute atmospheric transport model. Will review the GENII deposition model that is used to estimate the deposition velocity used in plume depletion. 2 GENII Development History 1988 - GENII V1 released ICRP-26/30/48 dosimetry 1990 - GENII V1.485 stabilized Current DOE Toolbox Version 1992 - GENII-S stochastic version 2004 - GENII V2 ICRP-72 age-dependent dosimetry Federal Guidance Report 13 risk factors

465

Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

466

Adsorption of Atmospheric Gases on Pu Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface adsorption represents a competition between collision and scattering processes that depend on surface energy, surface structure and temperature. The surface reactivity of the actinides can add additional complexity due to radiological dissociation of the gas and electronic structure. Here we elucidate the chemical bonding of gas molecules adsorbed on Pu metal and oxide surfaces. Atmospheric gas reactions were studied at 190 and 300 K using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of the Pu 4f and O 1s core-level states were studied as a function of gas dose rates to generate a set of Langmuir isotherms. Results show that the initial gas dose forms Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the Pu metal surface followed by the formation of PuO{sub 2} resulting in a layered oxide structure. This work represents the first steps in determining the activation energy for adsorption of various atmospheric gases on Pu.

Nelson, A J; Holliday, K S; Stanford, J A; Grant, W K; Erler, R G; Allen, P G; McLean, W; Roussel, P

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

467

Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

468

Year/PAD District Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation Vacuum Cracking Thermal Catalytic Cracking Fresh Recycled Catalytic Hydro- Cracking Catalytic Reforming Desulfurization...

469

Transient phenomena in the solar atmosphere and solar wind  

SciTech Connect

Observations of transient disturbances in the solar atmosphere are reviewed with emphasis on coronal mass ejection events. (JFP)

Gosling, J.T.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CORPORATION / Refiner / Location Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2011 Calendar Day

471

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CORPORATION / Refiner / Location Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2009 Calendar Day

472

Formation of Hydrogen Cottrell Atmosphere in Palladium: Theory ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Hydrogen Storage in Materials: Theory and Experiment. Presentation Title, Formation of Hydrogen Cottrell Atmosphere in Palladium: Theory and ...

473

Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric submicron aerosol . . . . . . . 2.3 Partitioningon SOA organic aerosol formation alkyl nitrate and secondaryPeroxy radical fate . . . . . . Aerosol . . . . . . . .

Rollins, Andrew Waite

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

475

West Coast (PADD 5) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

476

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

477

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

478

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

479

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

480

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "arid atmospheric conditions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

482

Nucleation and Growth of Atmospheric Particles  

SciTech Connect

New particle formation (NPF) in the atmospheric is a two-step process: Nucleation leads to the birth of stable nuclei that subsequently grow to sizes that can be detected and affect the atmosphere’s radiative properties. Our group is studying both of these processes. Our nucleation research is largely supported by NSF and involves measurements of neutral molecular clusters formed by nucleation with a new custom-designed mass spectrometer (the Cluster-CIMS) and measurements of nanoparticle size distributions as small as 1 nm with a new aerosol spectrometer (the DEG SMPS). These measurements are providing new insights into aspects of cluster behavior that affect nucleation rates. The U.S. DOE supports our research on nanoparticle growth rates. This research couples physical and chemical measurements of aerosol properties and behavior. The TDCIMS, which enables real-time measurements of composition for freshly nucleated particles as small as 8 nm and was developed with support from DOE, is the most important tool in this work. Our most important discoveries about processes that affect growth rates are summarized in a recent PNAS article (doi:10.1073/pnas.0912127107). In short, this work has shown that alkylammonium-carboxylate salts, formed, for example, by reactions between amines and carboxylic acids, account for 20–50% of the mass of freshly nucleated particles in locations that include Atlanta, Mexico City, Boulder, and Hyytiälä, while sulfates account for only about 10%. These newly discovered compounds help to explain the high growth rates of freshly nucleated particles that have been observed around the globe and help to explain why nucleation is an important atmospheric process, not just a scientific curiosity. Our poster will provide an overview of this work.

McMurry, P.; Kuang, C.; Barsanti, K.; Eisele, F.; Friedli, H.; Scheckman, J.; Titcombe, M.; Williams, B.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

484

INO as atmospheric and magic baseline detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a status report on the proposed India?based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We focus on the physics studies possible with an iron calorimeter detector (ICAL) at INO. Such a detector would make precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos in the first phase with the possibility of acting as a far?end detector of a future neutrino factory or beta beam. This talk was given at the 12th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories

D. Indumathi; The INO Collaboration

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

486

Total atmospheric emissivities for a tropical climate  

SciTech Connect

The total atmospheric flux emissivities as a function of water vapor optical depth are reported for meteorological condtions in Thailand. The water vapor optical depth was first calculated as a function of height up to 12 km from the annual average upper air pressures, temperature, and dew points at Bangkok. The flux emissivity was then computed using tabulated data for the flux emissivities of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone at 20/sup 0/C. (SPH)

Exell, R.H.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Natural Aerosols in the Global Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 N?ar det kjem til stykket ?Ar ut og ?ar inn har du site břygd yver břkene, du har samla deg meir kunnskap enn du treng til ni liv. N?ar det kjem til stykket, er det so lite som skal til, og det vesle har hjarta alltid visst. I Egypt hadde guden for lćrdom hovud som ei ape. Olav H. HaugeNatural aerosols in the global atmosphere

Alf Grini; Alf Grini

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)  

SciTech Connect

An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100{sup 0}C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Living off-grid in an arid environment without a well : can residential and commercial/industrial water harvesting help solve water supply problems?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our family of three lives comfortably off-grid without a well in an arid region ({approx}9 in/yr, average). This year we expect to achieve water sustainability with harvested or grey water supporting all of our needs (including a garden and trees), except drinking water (about 7 gallons/week). We discuss our implementation and the implication that for an investment of a few thousand dollars, many single family homes could supply a large portion of their own water needs, significantly reducing municipal water demand. Generally, harvested water is very low in minerals and pollutants, but may need treatment for microbes in order to be potable. This may be addressed via filters, UV light irradiation or through chemical treatment (bleach). Looking further into the possibility of commercial water harvesting from malls, big box stores and factories, we ask whether water harvesting could supply a significant portion of potable water by looking at two cities with water supply problems. We look at the implications of separate municipal water lines for potable and clean non-potable uses. Implications on changes to future building codes are explored.

Axness, Carl L.; Ferrando, Ana

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization. The proposed design conditions specific to the location and the application are drastically different than currently used single design conditions for all application and locations. Cooling load estimates fro two building located in Kuwait have been analyzed for the proposed and the current design conditions to highlight over- or under-sizing the air-conditioning (A/C) plant capacity. Finally, a number of recommendations are made for architects and designers to use proper design conditions to ensure year-round comfort and energy conservation.

Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos High School L Al NM 87544 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Presented at the PPPL Colloquium Sept. 17, 2008 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA LA-UR-08-06284 Outline of this talk *A discussion of ball lightning reports in nature *How can ball plasmas be made in the laboratory? *Detailed experiments on long lived free floating *Detailed experiments on long-lived free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas C i f l b b ll l i h "b ll *Comparison of laboratory ball plasmas with "ball lightning" *Summary U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA

492

Lightning, atmospheric electricity and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Temperature records indicate that a global warming of 0.5{minus}0.7{degrees}C has occurred over the past century (Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). Whether this trend is a result of increased trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, or simply a result of natural variability; is still not known. These temperature trends are derived from thousands of observations worldwide. However, these observations are concentrated largely over continental areas, and then mainly in the northern hemisphere`s populated regions. This northern hemisphere continental bias results in large uncertainties in estimates of global temperature trends. Due to the increasing evidence that the present buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may result in an additional global warming of 1-5{degrees}C by the year 2050 (IPCC, 1990), it is increasingly important to find afternative methods to monitor fluctuations in global surface temperatures. As shown by two recent studies (Williams, 1992; Price, 1993), the global atmospheric electric circuit may provide a promising afternative for monitoring future climate change.

Price, C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method...

Bolonkin, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Program Operations Plan. Atmospheric Chemistry Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) was initiated in 1991 to coordinate DOE`s university and federal-laboratory atmospheric-chemistry research, and to focus these efforts on national and international information requirements in the atmospheric-chemistry field. This Program Operations Plan describes the structure and vision of the effort designed to fulfill these needs, and is divided into two major components. The first of these is a Strategic Plan, which outlines the ACP`s rationale, objectives, and vision, and describes its products that are anticipated over a future ten-year period. Although based on realistic appraisals of goals that are attainable given the financial, material, and intellectual resources of the ACP community, this Strategic Plan does not describe these resources themselves. The second component of the Program Operations Plan, the Implementation Plan, deals directly with these resource considerations. As such it focuses on practical implementation of Strategic-Plan elements at the individual research institutions, the anticipated scientific contributions of these groups, and their coordination within the ACP. In contrast to the Strategic Plan, this Implementation Plan extends only five years into the future.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

Dignon, J.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.

T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Improving the performance scalability of the community atmosphere model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), which serves as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), is the most computationally expensive CCSM component in typical configurations. On current and next-generation leadership class ... Keywords: CAM, atmospheric modeling, massively parallel computing, performance, scalability

Arthur A. Mirin; Patrick H. Worley

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal cycle of the heating of the atmosphere is divided into a component due to direct solar absorption in the atmosphere and a component due to the flux of energy from the surface to the atmosphere via latent, sensible, and radiative heat ...

Aaron Donohoe; David S. Battisti

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Development of a 3D atmospheric radiative transfer model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 3D atmospheric radiative transfer model is established based on MODTRAN4. Moreover, the methods of calculating the ratio of atmospheric transmission, path radiation and single scattering solar radiation are presented. This 3D model is running by ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, atmospheric radiative transfer model, infrared radiation

Zhifeng Lu; Ge Li; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts Gaëlle Uzu, Sophie Sobanska of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead Pb-rich fallouts are studied. INTRODUCTION Particles emitted in the atmosphere present a large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de