National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for areas note oxygenated

  1. Note on Graphite Oxidation by Oxygen and Moisture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichner, Robert; Burchell, Timothy D; Contescu, Cristian I

    2009-02-01

    Simplified equations of graphite oxidation are reviewed for semi-infinite slab, finite slab, and cylinder geometries, using the principal assumptions of linearized oxidation kinetics and quasi-steady state oxidation profile. All equations are coupled to a general surface mass transfer boundary condition. The equations include those for oxidant concentration distribution, surface oxidation rate, burnoff profile, and oxidation efficiency. This review also covers some areas that may not be well recognized. The key role of the effective diffusivity is highlighted, with a brief review of measured values. The temperature-dependence of the surface oxidation rate is shown to be more complex than usually shown for the diffusion-affected zone. Assumption of linear kinetics permits ready estimation of equilibration time for development of the quasi-steady burnoff profile. In addition, approximations for the time-steady hydrogen concentration profiles are developed for the case of oxidation by H2O. All cited methods can be readily evaluated by spreadsheet calculation.

  2. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    07 Appendix B Data Sources Note 1. Production Monthly Data The data in this publication are taken from survey reports collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and the Office of Fossil Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The EIA is the independent statistical and analytical agency within the DOE. The FERC is an independent regulatory commission within the DOE that has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric

  3. Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Notes Notes Why the June 1995 ERSUG Meeting is Important Bill McCurdy describes below a competitive process through which a decision will be made by MICS Division (formerly the OSC) in the June, 1995 timeframe to: (1) possibly move NERSC to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and (2) redefine to some extent the mission of the Center. All of this would be effected within a significantly reduced cost envelope. The LLNL proposal to keep NERSC where it is and the LBL proposal may soon be

  4. Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Notes Notes Live Media Streaming via RealPlayer Media streaming of these lectures will be provided via RealPlayer. Users of Windows- or Macintosh-based computers will be able to see and hear the presentation by way of the following procedures. 1. Download and open the slide files onto your computer. 2. Make certain you have the current version of RealPlayer installed. These are available at the Real Free Player Download web site 3. Start the RealPlayer application, and then enter the following

  5. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

  6. Meeting Notes and Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Corporate Board Notes and Slides Notes from EM Corporate QA Board Tele-Conference - February 22, 2010 1 of 2 General: Attendance of voting board members was documented. All members were present or had a representative present on the call. Previous 5 Focus Areas: Dave Tuttel presented the proposed closeout of the previous 5 focus areas for the EM Corporate Board. * Focus Area 1 (Requirements Flow Down) - Board voted to close the focus area (unanimous) * Focus Area 2 (Adequate NQA-1 Suppliers) -

  7. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    941 OTS NOTE DATE: July 2, 1990 TO: W. Alexander Williams FROM : Don Mackenzie d%? SUBJECT: Elimination of 3 Facilities from NSRAP . + 9 Enclosed are elimination recommendations...

  8. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    c3 Alexander Williams FROM: Ed Mitchellcm SUBJECT: Babcock and Wilcox Elimination Recommendation The purpose of this note is to provide you with certain inf regarding the...

  9. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    * pp4 r G- .2- OTS NOTE DATE: April 24, 1991 TO: Alexander Williams FROM: Dan Stou tF L SUBJECT: American Potash and Chemical Company Elimination Recommendation The attached...

  10. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  11. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  12. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    @ 'Alexander Williams FROM: Ed Mitchellqm SUBJECT: W.R. Grace Elimination Recommendation The purpose of this note is to provide you with certain information regarding the recommendation to eliminate W.R. Grace Company (the former Heavy Minerals Company), Chicago,Illinois, from consideration as a site under FUSRAP. Enclosed is a memo dated July 9, 1990: FUSRAP Considered Site Recommendation, for W.R. Grace Company. It recommends elimination in accordance with FUSRAP protocol. Also enclosed is

  13. EDITORS NOTE:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EDITORS NOTE: This Strategic Plan covers the Department of Energy including the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Energy Information Administration, and the Power Marketing Administrations. As an independent regulatory agency, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) prepares separate documents. See their web page at: http://www.ferc.gov/about/strat-docs.asp. This document is also available on the Department of Energy's web site: http://www.energy.gov. This Strategic Plan was

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TECHNICAL NOTE Broadband extreme-ultraviolet survey spectrometer for short-time-scale experiments B. E. Chapman, D. J. Den Hartog, and R. J. Fonck A fast and inexpensive spectrometer system has been developed to record extreme-UV impurity spectra in a magnetic-fusion-research device. To simplify the vacuum system, light is passed out of the spectrom- eter's vacuum to the detector with a sodium-salicylate-coated, fiber-optic coupler. This coupler is positioned so that the focal field is nearly

  15. Notes for Visualization Requirememnts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Notes for Visualization Requirememnts Notes from June 5, 2002, Visualization Requirements for DOE-Sponsored Computational Science and Engineering Applications A DOE Workshop to Be ...

  16. Meeting Summary Notes

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    records check list: Information that should be requested by SOMD of receiving facility Medical records: Problem list: list of all past and current medical diagnosis and surgical procedures. Medication list Physical exam notes Lab and diagnostic testing results Pertinent HRP notes. (temporary removals, medical and psychological issues) Psychiatric records: A summary or actual note of the psychiatric or psychological evaluation

    Medical Records Checklist - September 14, 2010 Medical Records

  17. Calculation note review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramble, A.L.

    1996-09-30

    This document contains a review of the calculation notes which were prepared for the Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation.

  18. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  19. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  20. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  1. Note: Rapid reduction of graphene oxide paper by glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo, Zheng; Qian, Jiajing; Duan, Liangping; Qiu, Kunzan Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2015-05-15

    This note reports on a novel method for the rapid reduction of graphene oxide (GO) paper using a glow discharge plasma reactor. Glow discharge is produced and sustained between two parallel-plate graphite electrodes at a pressure of 240 mTorr. By exposing GO paper at the junction of negative-glow and Faraday-dark area for 4 min, the oxygen-containing groups can be effectively removed (C/O ratio increases from 2.6 to 7.9), while the material integrality and flexibility are kept well. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the as-obtained reduced GO paper can be potentially used for supercapacitor application.

  2. "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," ... "Notes: * NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on ...

  3. "January","NERC Regional Assesment Area"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, " ... "Notes: * NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on ...

  4. VOL2NOTE.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    B Explanatory Notes The following Explanatory Notes are provided to assist in understanding and interpreting the data presented in this publication. * Note 1. Petroleum Supply Reporting System * Note 2. Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System * Note 3. Technical Notes for Detailed Statistics Tables * Note 4. Domestic Crude Oil Production * Note 5. Export Data * Note 6. Quality Control and Data Revision * Note 7. Frames Maintenance * Note 8. Descriptive Monthly Statistics * Note 9. Practical

  5. Template:Note | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Note Note: Usage Method 1 The following displays the note icon and the word 'Note:'. You can follow this with whatever textimagesmarkup you like, and it works...

  6. Meeting Notes and Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tele-Conference - February 22, 2010 2 of 2 Approach for Remaining Focus Areas: Robert Murray presented a proposed approach to divide the remaining focus areas into three...

  7. Notes and Definitions

    Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

    Notes and Definitions This report tracks U.S. natural gas inventories held in underground storage facilities. The weekly stocks generally are the volumes of working gas as of the report date. The "net change" in reported stock levels reflects all events affecting working gas in storage, including injections, withdrawals, and reclassifications between base and working gas. The "implied flow" estimate represents movements of working natural gas into or out of underground

  8. RAP Meeting Transcribed Flip Chart Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flip Chart Notes February 15, 2012 Site-wide Permit Workshop May 3 1. Have "post-workshop" session to discuss HAB next steps 2. Recommend Ecology sponsors & facilitates Workshop - Ecology captures notes, but HAB members track issues of concern, too. 3. Web-ex for public when it fits 4. Pre-workshop meeting with HAB issue leaders (potential speakers) Page 1 300 Area HAB next steps... IM & Pam 1. Issue managers meet to review potential issues for HAB/committees 2. Bring back to

  9. Manhattan Project: Sources and Notes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOURCES AND NOTES Resources > Sources Below are the collected specific notes for the text and images used on the pages of this web site. For a discussion of the most important works on the Manhattan Project, see the "Suggested Readings." For a general discussion of the use of sources in this web site, see "A Note on Sources." To scan the sources and notes for various categories, choose from the list below. To view the sources and notes for a specific web page, see the

  10. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimate deep reservoir temperature Notes The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested. Methods are...

  11. Research Notes and Information References

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The RNS (Research Notes System) is a set of programs and databases designed to aid the research worker in gathering, maintaining, and using notes taken from the literature. The sources for the notes can be books, journal articles, reports, private conversations, conference papers, audiovisuals, etc. The system ties the databases together in a relational structure, thus eliminating data redundancy while providing full access to all the information. The programs provide the means for access andmore » data entry in a way that reduces the key-entry burden for the user. Each note has several data fields. Included are the text of the note, the subject classification (for retrieval), and the reference identification data. These data are divided into four databases: Document data - title, author, publisher, etc., fields to identify the article within the document; Note data - text and page of the note; Sublect data - subject categories to ensure uniform spelling for searches. Additionally, there are subsidiary files used by the system, including database index and temporary work files. The system provides multiple access routes to the notes, both structurally (access method) and topically (through cross-indexing). Output may be directed to a printer or saved as a file for input to word processing software.« less

  12. Appendix A Explanatory Notes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    April 2016 100 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and West Virginia) were added to the EIA-914 data collection and are reported individually. The remaining states/areas (Alabama, Arizona, Federal Offshore Pacific, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Virginia) are grouped in the "Other States" category. The sum of

  13. Aeromagnetic Survey At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kawaihae Area Exploration Technique Aeromagnetic Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The aeromagnetic data noted above refer to a low-level...

  14. F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Area

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area (Dollars per Barrel) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 ...

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Spot Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel, Products in Dollars per Gallon) Period: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product by Area 05/02/16 05/03/16 05/04/16 05/05/16 05/06/16 05/09/16 View History Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 44.75 43.65 43.77 44.33 44.58 43.45 1986-2016 Brent - Europe 45.82 43.09 43.08 44.39 44.60 42.43 1987-2016 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, Regular

  16. OpenEI Community - notes

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more

    http:en.openei.orgcommunityblognotes-callcomments notes Linked Open Data Workshop in Washington, D.C. Fri, 28 Sep 2012 00:57:30 +0000 Jweers 521 at...

  17. GETEM Manuals and Revision Notes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please refer to these manuals and revision notes prior to downloading and running the Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Because this is a beta version, you are urged to...

  18. AIRMaster+ Release Notes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AIRMaster+ (Version 1.2.7) Release Notes PDF icon Release Notes (Version 1.2.7) More Documents & Publications AIRMaster+ Software Tool Brochure AIRMaster+ User Manual AIRMaster+ ...

  19. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    "Weekly Imports Report". EIA Forms & Instructions . Explanatory Notes and Detailed Methods Report . Explanatory Notes Preliminary data collected weekly. See U.S. Imports by...

  20. Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these lectures will be provided via RealPlayer. Users of Windows- or Macintosh-based computers will be able to see and hear the presentation by way of the following procedures. 1....

  1. Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accomodations at Argonne The Argonne contact person for the NUG Meeting is Mike Minkoff of the Mathematics and Computer Science Division. His phone number is (630) 252-7234. Last ...

  2. Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a primary topic of discussion was the issue of the processing capabilities of the PVP cluster. Since the upgrade of the batch system processors to SV1s, some concern has been...

  3. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  4. Lecture Notes - Summer 2016 Cyclotron Institute REU Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REU Lecture Notes (links to notes will be provided when they become available) -->

  5. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  6. Meeting Summary Notes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation notes from meeting on Convention on Supplementary Compensation PDF icon Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation More Documents & Publications Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost

  7. EM QA Working Group September 2011 Notes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting minutes and notes from the EM QA Working Group video conference meeting held in September 2011.

  8. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  9. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  10. "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Summer"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    peak load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," ... "Notes: * NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on ...

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  12. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  13. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  14. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  15. EM QA Working Group September 2011 Notes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    suspectcounterfeit items, software QA, and corrective actions? Bob also noted that we need to be diligent in the understanding and use of the metrics to avoid potential issues ...

  16. Property:ExplorationNotes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the property "ExplorationNotes" Showing 1 page using this property. R RAPIDOverviewGeothermalExplorationCalifornia + The Geothermal Resources Prospecting Permit (PRC...

  17. NOTES AND COMMENTS REVERE COPPER AR! BRASS DETROIT, MICHIGAN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    * .t-* . * * - -. _ _ ,.. .I AIT. 4 NOTES AND COMMENTS REVERE COPPER AR! BRASS DETROIT, MICHIGAN A preliminary (screening) survey was conducted in several areas of the Revere Copper and Brass Facility, 5851 W. Jefferson Street, Detroit, Michigan. The survey was conducted by the ANL Radiological Survey Group on April 22, 1981. The Survey Group, consisting of W. Smith, R. Mundis, K. Flynn (all of ANI), and E. Jascewsky (DOE-CH) met on site with J. Evans (Safety Engineer), D. Tratt (Asst.

  18. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  19. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  20. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  1. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  2. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency.

  3. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with ... Hydrogen The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water; ...

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Key Terms Definition Hydrogen The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water; exists also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other ...

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... reformulated or conventional based on emissions performance and the intended end use in ... products, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, pentanes plus, petroleum coke, and waxes. ...

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline....

  8. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    For details, see Technical Note 3 in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales report. All Other Sales for all other energy-consuming sectors not included elsewhere. Commercial An ...

  10. Manhattan Project: A Note on Sources

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A NOTE ON SOURCES Resources > Note on Sources The text for this web site is a combination of original material and adaptations from previous publications of the Department of Energy (including contractors), its predecessor agencies (primarily the Atomic Energy Commission and the Manhattan Engineer District), and other government agencies. Adaptations run the gamut from summaries to close paraphrases to text being taken directly. This material was gathered and adapted for use by the DOE's

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  12. Exploratory Well At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Faulder 1991 Conceptual Geological Model compilation and literature review of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes Exploratory drilling in...

  13. Aeromagnetic Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Faulder 1991 Conceptual Geological Model compilation and literature review of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes Aeromagnetic intensity...

  14. Ground Gravity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Faulder 1991 Conceptual Geological Model compilation and literature review of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes Gravity modeling and...

  15. Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Faulder 1991 Conceptual Geological Model compilation and literature review of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes P-wave passive seismic...

  16. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    over a longer period of time Notes The permanent 18-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the seismically active Coso geothermal area, California, provides...

  17. Core Holes At Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Steamboat Springs Area Exploration Technique Core Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to...

  18. Core Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1979) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Compare microcracks between Coso and Raft River geothermal areas Notes Microcracks were observed in core samples from Coso. Both...

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Thermal gradient wells were drilled for initial exploration and assessment of the North Brawley Geothermal Area. Notes Union Oil Company...

  20. Isotopic Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Deuterium and...

  1. Isotopic Analysis At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Based on the above discussion,...

  3. Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Ten water samples were collected...

  4. Geothermometry At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Based on the above discussion,...

  5. Self Potential At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of this survey was to locate areas of shallow geothermal activity which could be linked to faults that serve as pathways for geothermal fluids. Notes This survey was...

  6. Magnetotellurics At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southwest Rift And South Flank Area Exploration Technique Magnetotellurics Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Magnetotelluric Imaging, G....

  7. Spontaneous Potential At Fort Bidwell Area (Laney, 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Fort Bidwell Area Exploration Technique Spontaneous Potential Well Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Magnetotelluric Imaging, G....

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Indonesia Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Improving Exploration Models of...

  9. Refraction Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Laney, 2005) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Hot Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley....

  10. Refraction Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley....

  11. Ground Gravity Survey At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Lake City Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The...

  12. Rock Sampling At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Neal Hot Springs and the surrounding areas. This study was conducted by a geophysics field camp from the Colorado School of Mines. Notes Geochemical FingerprintingXRF...

  13. Multispectral Imaging At Salton Sea Area (Reath, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor ASTER Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes ASTER References K. A. Reath,...

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging At Salton Sea Area (Reath, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Area Exploration Technique Hyperspectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor SEBASS Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes SEBASS References K. A. Reath, M....

  15. Hyperspectral Imaging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field Area Exploration Technique Hyperspectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor AVIRIS Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geology and Geophysics of...

  16. Multispectral Imaging At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Littlefield...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor ASTER Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes ASTER airborne remote sensing....

  17. SWIR at Steamboat Springs Geothermal Area (Kruse 2012) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique SWIR Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor MASTER, ASTER, AVIRIS Usefulness useful DOE-funding none Notes Analysis of the SWIR...

  18. Aerial Photography At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Fumarolic and hot springs activity Notes Color photography has the greatest utility in locating areas of presently active thermal...

  19. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

  1. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  2. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting Notes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting Notes Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting Notes PDF icon Spring 2013 ... FUPWG Spring 2013 Report and Presentations Federal Utility Partnership Working Group ...

  3. PIA - Savannah River Operations Office Lotus Domino/Notes System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lotus DominoNotes System PDF icon PIA - Savannah River Operations Office Lotus DominoNotes System More Documents & Publications PIA - DOE Savannah River Operations Office PRISM ...

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Terminal A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products which has a total bulk storage capacity of 50,000 barrels or more and/or receives petroleum products by tanker, barge, or pipeline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate

  6. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholander, Peter E.

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  7. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  8. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  9. Notes on beam dynamics in linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstern, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    A collection of notes, on various aspects of beam dynamics in linear accelerators, which were produced by the author during five years (1975 to 1980) of consultation for the LASL Accelerator Technology (AT) Division and Medium-Energy Physics (MP) Division is presented.

  10. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  11. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Public Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE Public Notes Page Back to the Publications Page

  12. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  13. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray ...

  14. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-02-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  15. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  16. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

  17. Explanatory notes for research cell efficiency records

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60904-3 edition 2 or ASTM G173. The reference temperature is 25C and the area is the cell total area or the area defined by an aperture. Cell efficiency results are provided...

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  2. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  3. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  4. LLW notes. Volume 11, No.8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  5. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Shale Gas Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Shale Gas Natural gas produced from organic (black) shale formations. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas Explanatory Notes Shale Gas production data collected in conjunction with proved reserves data on Form EIA-23 are unofficial. Official Shale Gas production data from Form EIA-895 can be found in Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and

  7. labNotes | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LabNotes March 2016 Three NETL Science and Engineering Ambassadors to Participate in Spring Course Three NETL employees, Ale Hakala, Paul Ohodnicki, and Steven Bossart will participate as Science and Engineering Ambassadors for the 2016 spring semester course, "Energy: Science, Society and, Communication," presented by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and the University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) as part of the Science and Engineering Ambassadors program, developed by the National Academies

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Other Products Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Product Prices by Sales Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline (Finished) A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Gas Plant Operator Any firm,

  10. HSEP Committee Meeting - Transcribed Flipchart Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipchart Notes August 8, 2013 Safety Culture Next Steps 1. Continue to get periodic briefings from SCIPT - progress on action items, contractor engagement, etc. 2. Get update on HSS review Page 1 DS Tanks/Flammable Gas - Next Steps 1. Update after DOE report on tank flow rate monitoring is available (Jan/Feb) 2. Tom w/follow up with concerns about pressurization alarms Page 2 Emergency Preparedness/Response: Input - Strategies for Awareness 1. Use real examples when trying to increase

  11. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phase membranes have been evaluated for structural properties. An increasing crack growth resistance was observed for the membranes heat-treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} with increasing crack length. The combined effect of thermal and elastic mismatch stresses on the crack path was studied and the fracture behavior of the dual phase composite at the test conditions was analyzed. Ceramic/metal (C/M) seals are needed to form a leak-tight interface between the OTM and a nickel-base super alloy. It was concluded that Ni-based brazing alloys provided the best option in terms of brazing temperature and final operating conditions after analyzing several possible brazing systems. A mechanical testing procedure has been developed. This model was tested with model ceramic/metal systems but it is expected to be useful for testing concentric perovskite/metal seals.

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  13. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  14. The art and science of magnet design: Selected notes of Klaus Halbach. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    This volume contains a compilation of 57 notes written by Dr. Klaus Halbach selected from his collection of over 1650 such documents. It provides an historic snapshot of the evolution of magnet technology and related fields as the notes range from as early as 1965 to the present, and is intended to show the breadth of Dr. Halbach`s interest and ability that have long been an inspiration to his many friends and colleagues. As Halbach is an experimental physicist whose scientific interests span many areas, and who does his most innovative work with pencil and paper rather than at the workbench or with a computer, the vast majority of the notes in this volume were handwritten and their content varies greatly--some reflect original work or work for a specific project, while others are mere clarifications of mathematical calculations or design specifications. As the authors converted the notes to electronic form, some were superficially edited and corrected, while others were extensively re-written to reflect current knowledge and notation. The notes are organized under five categories which reflect their primary content: Beam Position Monitors, (bpm), Current Sheet Electron Magnets (csem), Magnet Theory, (thry), Undulators and Wigglers (u-w), and Miscellaneous (misc). Within the category, they are presented chronologically starting from the most recent note and working backwards in time.

  15. eNews Note of Appreciation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3 Issue 25 ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter September 2013 A Note of Appreciation Reeta Garber The ASC Program would like to recognize Reeta Garber for her leadership in designing and developing programmatic communications tools and activities and to wish her the very best as she retires (again) to begin a new phase in her life. Since 1998 Reeta has supported the ASC Program as an important member of the core team responsible for spreading the word about DOE/NNSA laboratory and Federal efforts in

  16. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  17. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  18. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  19. Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation notes from meeting on Convention on Supplementary Compensation PDF icon Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation More Documents & Publications Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost

  20. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  1. Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex of Photosynthesis Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  3. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  4. Research Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Areas Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions ⇒ Navigate Section Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions Biosciences The Biosciences Area forges multidisciplinary teams to solve national challenges in energy, environment and health issues; and to advance the engineering of biological systems for sustainable manufacturing. Biosciences Area research is coordinated through three divisions and is enabled by Berkeley

  5. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  6. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EIA) Form EIA-819, "Monthly Biofuel and Oxygenate Report," is used to collect data on ethanol production capacity, as well as stocks, receipts, inputs, production, and blending of...

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-10-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

  8. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  9. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  10. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The area of a gas reservoir considered proved includes: (1) that portion delineated by drilling and defined by gas -- oil andor gas -- water contacts, if any; and (2) the ...

  12. RAP Committee Meeting - Transcribed Flipchart Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 8, 2013 Follow Up 1. Send 300 Area advice to committee for final consensus review 2. SAME for 100 F advice 3. SAME for LTS advice 4. Future discussion of GW questions...

  13. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and field data is effective for determining geothermal areas Notes Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the spaceborne ASTER instrument was used to detect surface temperature...

  14. Conceptual Model At Coso Geothermal Area (2005-2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Determine most productive areas of geothermal field using stress and faulting analysis to develop a geomechanical model Notes New geologic mapping and...

  15. Rock Sampling At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Mt Ranier Area Exploration Technique Rock Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes This paper relies...

  16. Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Toksoz, Et Al, 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Cove Fort Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes We...

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  18. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  19. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI`s low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

  1. Sample Memorandum to Reactivate a Directive Placed on Hold (NOTE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sample Memorandum to Reactivate a Directive Placed on Hold (NOTE: Per Office of Executive Secretariat procedures, please use Calibri, 12 point font for this memorandum.) (Effective...

  2. Bay Area

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8%2A en NNSA to Conduct Aerial Radiological Surveys Over San Francisco, Pacifica, Berkeley, And Oakland, CA Areas http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesamsca

  3. Research Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in diverse research areas such as cell biology, lithography, infrared microscopy, radiology, and x-ray tomography. Time-Resolved These techniques exploit the pulsed nature of...

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  5. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  6. Conceptual Model At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Waibel, 1987...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and becoming more complex over the years. Notes This model focused on reservoir permeability and its relation to stress. The concept was that an area of high permeability was...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Two electrical resistivity survey lines were run in the project area: a southern east-west line along Caliche Road, and a northern...

  8. Field Mapping At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Neal Hot Springs and the surrounding areas. This study was conducted by a geophysics field camp from the Colorado School of Mines. Notes Geologic field mapping was done...

  9. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  10. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19,...

  11. DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting notes from the Fall 2011 Durability Working Group (DWG) Meeting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program. Notes also include a summary of progress on action items from the Spring 2011 DWG meeting.

  12. RAP Committee Meeting - Transcribed Flipchart Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 6, 2013 100-N RI/FS and Proposed Plan Draft A - Next Steps * IMs = Dale*, Dan, Shelley * Expect Ecology comments back September 9 □ Proposal - present Round Robin summary at Sept. Board meeting as attachment to chair letter * Possibility for advice in future (post-Sept. sometime, when timely, prior to Rev. 0) Page 1 Groundwater Modeling - Next Steps * IMs = Liz, Shelley, Dale* * 300 Area groundwater modeling IM = Shelley * Proposal: Focus on 100-N groundwater modeling o Policy-level *

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Area Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Area Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  16. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  17. PLEASE NOTE THURSDAY DATE - COLLOQUIUM: Professor Ralph Roskies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 23, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium PLEASE NOTE THURSDAY DATE - COLLOQUIUM: Professor Ralph Roskies - "Big Data at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center" ...

  18. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of

  19. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science

  20. Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extinction/Survival Probability (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron Extinction/Survival Probability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron Extinction/Survival Probability The expected or mean neutron number (or density) provides an adequate characterization of the neutron population and its dynamical excursions in most neutronic applications, in

  1. Publisher's Note: Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Determination of the Fermi Constant to Part-per-Million Precision [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 041803 (2011)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Publisher's Note: Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant to Part-per-Million Precision [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 041803 (2011)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant to Part-per-Million Precision [Phys. Rev.

  2. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Onboard Storage Tank Workshop Notes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Storage Tank Workshop Notes U.S. Department of Energy Onboard Storage Tank Workshop Notes These notes and action items were derived from the Onboard Storage Tank Workshop ...

  4. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  5. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  6. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.; Berg, John M.; Crowder, Mark L.

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  7. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  8. The mechanisms of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and evolution reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries A mechanistic understanding of the oxygen reductionevolution reaction in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. ...

  9. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  10. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  11. Tribal Consultation and Stakeholder Outreach Meeting Notes and Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategy on the Arctic Region (NSAR) - Ten Year Renewable Energy Strategy Tribal Consultation and Stakeholder Outreach Meeting Notes and Analysis Prepared by Denali Daniels and Associates, Inc. Fall 2014 Office of Indian Energy Table o f C ontents Executive S ummary .............................................................................................................................................. 2 --- 6 Background

  12. EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

  13. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  14. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Sander, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  15. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  16. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Radoslav Adzic Co-workers: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Stoyan Bliznakov, Yun Cai, Yu Zhang, ...

  17. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Schiller Park, Illinois Zip: 60176 Product: Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References: Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

  18. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  19. LLW Notes, Volume 9, Number 6. October 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A1. Notes and Sources Tables Chapter 1: Greenhouse gas emissions overview Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008, DOE/EIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December 2009). Global warming potentials: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical

  1. NETL LabNotes | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NETL LabNotes Archive SEPTEMBER 2014 Advanced Manufacturing Builds a Better Fuel Cell AUGUST 2014 Researchers Use Waste Slag to Create Energy and Cut Emissions JULY 2014 Corrosion Testing using Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers NETL's Corrosion Erosion Facility Tests Materials in Severe Environments JUNE 2014 Deepwater Oil Production through Thick and Thin May 2014 NETL-Boston Scientific Coronary Stent Alloy Applications Expand Surface Science: Cleaning up Syngas to Reach

  2. Application note : using open source schematic capture tools with Xyce.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  3. Microsoft Word - Final TEC Notes_April 2005.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (D0E) TRANSPORTATION EXTERNAL COORDINATION WORKING GROUP (TEC) MEETING April 4-5, 2005 Phoenix, Arizona Meeting Notes Part I - Opening Remarks (April 4) Welcome and Meeting Overview Introduction Judith Holm, DOE Office of National Transportation (ONT), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), called the meeting to order and welcomed the participants. She reviewed the agenda and called special attention to the plenary sessions being held in the afternoon.

  4. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  5. U.S. Oxygenate Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By: Product Area May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 View History Fuel Ethanol 29,666 29,684 30,256 29,621 28,543 30,139 1981-2015 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 1,634...

  6. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  7. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  8. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  10. COLLOQUIUM: NOTE SPECIAL DATE - THURSDAY: Unique Vulnerability of the New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    York/New Jersey Metro Region to Hurricane Destruction - A New Perspective Based on Recent Research on Irene 2011 and Sandy 2012 | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab February 28, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: NOTE SPECIAL DATE - THURSDAY: Unique Vulnerability of the New York/New Jersey Metro Region to Hurricane Destruction - A New Perspective Based on Recent Research on Irene 2011 and Sandy 2012 Professor Nicholas K. Coch Queens College CUNY In the last two years. the

  11. Notes from Financial and Physical Oil Market Linkages

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes from Financial and Physical Oil Market Linkages August 24, 2011 Session 1: 9:30 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Paper Title: Does 'Paper Oil' Matter? Presenter: Michel Robe, American University Discussant: James Smith, Southern Methodist University Paper Abstract We construct a uniquely detailed, comprehensive dataset of trader positions in U.S. energy futures markets. We find considerable changes in the make-up of the open interest between 2000 and 2010 and show that these changes impact asset pricing.

  12. V-147: IBM Lotus Notes Mail Client Lets Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: IBM Lotus Notes Mail Client Lets Remote Users Execute Java Applets V-147: IBM Lotus Notes Mail Client Lets Remote Users Execute Java Applets May 2, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis...

  13. V-229: IBM Lotus iNotes Input Validation Flaws Permit Cross-Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    V-229: IBM Lotus iNotes Input Validation Flaws Permit Cross-Site Scripting Attacks August ... Addthis Related Articles V-211: IBM iNotes Multiple Vulnerabilities U-198: IBM Lotus ...

  14. EnPI V4.0 Release Notes and Known Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    notes and known issues for the Energy Performance Indicator (EnPI) Tool v4.0. PDF icon EnPI Release Notes and Known Issues More Documents & Publications EnPI V4.0 User Manual

  15. Transport Policy Note-Bangladesh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Bangladesh Sector Energy Focus Area Transportation Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Background analysis Website http:...

  16. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1998-01-01

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  17. Simulation studies of diesel engine performance with oxygen enriched air and water emulsified fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.N.; Baker, D. ); Sekar, R.R.; Siambekos, C.T.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation code of a turbocharged, turbocompound diesel engine was modified to study the effects of using oxygen-enriched combustion air and water-emulsified diesel fuels. Oxygen levels of 21 percent to 40 percent by volume in the combustion air were studied. Water content in the fuel was varied from 0 percent to 50 percent mass. Simulation studies and a review and analysis of previous work in this area led to the following conclusions about expected engine performance and emissions: the power density of the engine is significantly increased by oxygen enrichment. Ignition delay and particulate emissions are reduced. Combustion temperatures and No{sub x} emissions are increased with oxygen enrichment but could be brought back to the base levels by introducing water in the fuel. The peak cylinder pressure which increases with the power output level might result in mechanical problems with engine components. Oxygen enrichment also provides an opportunity to use cheaper fuel such as No. 6 diesel fuel. Overall, the adverse effects of oxygen enrichment could be countered by the addition of water and it appears that an optimum combination of water content, oxygen level, and base diesel fuel quality may exist. This could yield improved performance and emissions characteristics compared to a state-of-the-art diesel engine. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  19. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  20. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion; Industrial Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the combustion air or vacuum pressure swing adsorption units to remove some of the ... the cost of oxygen or of the vacuum pressure swing adsorption unit in the calculations. ...

  1. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-03-27 OSTI Identifier: 1126640 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28233 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 247th ACS National

  2. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of

  3. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  4. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)." PDF icon BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Contiguous Platinum

  5. V-211: IBM iNotes Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: IBM iNotes Multiple Vulnerabilities V-211: IBM iNotes Multiple Vulnerabilities August 5, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in IBM Lotus iNotes PLATFORM: IBM iNotes 9.x ABSTRACT: IBM iNotes has two cross-site scripting vulnerabilities and an ActiveX Integer overflow vulnerability REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA54436 IBM Security Bulletin 1645503 CVE-2013-3027 CVE-2013-3032 CVE-2013-3990 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High DISCUSSION: 1) Certain input related

  6. V-229: IBM Lotus iNotes Input Validation Flaws Permit Cross-Site Scripting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attacks | Department of Energy 9: IBM Lotus iNotes Input Validation Flaws Permit Cross-Site Scripting Attacks V-229: IBM Lotus iNotes Input Validation Flaws Permit Cross-Site Scripting Attacks August 28, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Several vulnerabilities were reported in IBM Lotus iNotes PLATFORM: IBM Lotus iNotes 8.5.x ABSTRACT: IBM Lotus iNotes 8.5.x contains four cross-site scripting vulnerabilities REFERENCE LINKS: Security Tracker Alert ID 1028954 IBM Security Bulletin 1647740

  7. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  8. Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boston Massachusetts http cleantechboston com Greater Boston Area Consortium for Energy Efficiency Consortium for Energy Efficiency North Washington St Boston Massachusetts http...

  9. Institution Name Institution Name Address Place Zip Notes Website...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Avenue Cambridge Massachusetts http web mit edu eel Greater Boston Area MIT Energy Science and Engineering Laboratory MIT Energy Science and Engineering Laboratory...

  10. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & ...

  11. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction ...

  12. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  13. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for ...

  14. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with ...

  15. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  16. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel ...

  17. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable...

  18. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel

  19. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell

  20. 300 Area - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  1. 200 Area - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  2. 700 Area - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  3. 100 Area - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  4. Physics Thrust Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thrust Areas Physics Thrust Areas Physics Division serves the nation through its broad portfolio of fundamental and applied research. Quality basic science research: critical ...

  5. AREA 5 RWMS CLOSURE

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    153 CLOSURE STRATEGY NEVADA TEST SITE AREA 5 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SITE Revision 0 ... Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management ...

  6. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  7. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-12-07

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 micrometer inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon ‘halo’ deposition due to secondary electrons (SE) from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.

  8. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-12-07

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 micrometer inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits ofmore » focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon ‘halo’ deposition due to secondary electrons (SE) from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.« less

  9. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

  10. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  11. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.

    1984-01-01

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  12. Oxidation of platinum nickel nanowires to improve durability of oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Dameron, Arrelaine; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, the impact of heat treating platinum-coated nickel (Pt-Ni) nanowires in oxygen is examined to determine the effect on oxygen reduction (ORR) activity and durability. Pt-Ni nanowires exhibit promising ORR mass activities (3 times greater than Pt nanoparticles, 1.5 times greater than U.S. Department of Energy target) both before and after potential cycling for all but the highest annealing temperatures explored. The annealing of Pt-Ni nanowires in oxygen with increasing temperature is found to reduce surface area and ORR activity in comparison to the untreated material, but also reduces activity losses following durability testing. Following potential cycling, unannealedmore » Pt-Ni nanowires show significant losses in surface area (23%) and specific activity (18%) while Pt-Ni nanowires annealed at 200°C show modest increases in surface area (2%) and specific activity (6%) after potential cycling. Increasing annealing temperatures also show a clear trend of decreasing Ni dissolution rates. While oxygen annealing has shown the ability to improve durability of Pt-Ni nanowires, significant Ni dissolution was observed in all samples and suggests oxide passivation while showing promise for improved durability, when employed by itself is insufficient to prevent all contamination concerns involving Ni dissolution.« less

  13. PVMRW2013 Wed., Feb. 27, 10:00 Discussion notes: | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PVMRW2013 Wed., Feb. 27, 10:00 Discussion notes: We hear that the dampl heat test causes failures that are not representative of field failure... PDF icon...

  14. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ``Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility`` issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan.

  15. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Coleman, Gerald Nelson; Robel, Wade James

    2008-12-16

    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  16. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  17. Technical Area 21

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Area 21 Technical Area 21 Technical Area 21 was the site of chemical research for refining plutonium and plutonium metal production from 1945 to 1978. August 1, 2013 Technical Area 21 in 2011 Technical Area 21 in 2011 Technical Area 21 (TA-21), also known as DP Site was the site of chemical research for refining plutonium and plutonium metal production from 1945 to 1978. Between 2008 and 2011, MDAs B, U, and V were excavated and removed. 24 buildings were demolished in 2010 and 2011

  18. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) + O{sub 3}(?) ? 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  19. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  20. PVMRW2013 Discussion notes. Tues. Feb. 26, 5:30 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    do see some bad diodes going into the field... PDF icon discussionnotes_tues_530.pdf More Documents & Publications PVMRW2013 Discussion notes: Tues. Feb. 26: 10:45 PVMRW2013 Discussion notes Tues. Feb. 26 2013, 2:30 On the Occurrence of Thermal Runaway in Diode in the J-Box

  1. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

  2. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

  3. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  4. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R.; Bond, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  5. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  6. Impact of interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic structure in superconducting Fe 1 + y Te O x thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of interstitial oxygen...

  7. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping ...

  8. Oxygen Catalysis: The Other Half of the Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.

    2008-10-01

    Artificial photosynthesis--splitting water with light--is an attractive way to make hydrogen, but what happens to the oxygen? A catalyst that aids in the efficient production of gaseous oxygen improves the viability of this approach.

  9. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 13159553.pdf (405 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen

  10. Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on local lattice parameter measurements by scanning transmission electron microscopy. ... Subject: Oxygen Stoichimetry; Vacancy Ordering; Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy ...

  11. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

  12. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

  14. Inner Area Principles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inner Area Principles The Inner Area principles proposed by the Tri-Parties are a good beginning toward consideration of what kind of approach will be needed to remedy the problems of the Central Plateau. However, the Board feels that some principles have been overlooked in the preparation of these. [1] While it has been generally agreed that designated waste disposal facilities of the Inner Area (like ERDF and IDF) would not be candidates for remediation. What happened to the remedial approach

  15. Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

    2014-11-25

    A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

  16. Platinum-Coated Nickel Nanowires as Oxygen-Reducing Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M; Larsen, Brian A; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Cullen, David A; Diercks, David R; Neyerlin, Kenneth C; Kocha, Shyam S; Pivovar, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-coated nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) are synthesized by the partial spontaneous galvanic displacement of NiNWs, with a diameter of 150 250 nm and a length of 100 200 m. PtNiNWs are electrochemically characterized for oxygen reduction (ORR) in rotating disk electrode half-cells with an acidic electrolyte and compared to carbon-supported Pt (Pt/HSC) and a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Like other extended surface catalysts, the nanowire morphology yields significant gains in ORR specific activity compared to Pt/HSC. Unlike other extended surface approaches, the resultant materials have yielded exceptionally high surface areas, greater than 90 m2 gPt 1. These studies have found that reducing the level of Pt displacement increases Pt surface area and ORR mass activity. PtNiNWs produce a peak mass activity of 917 mA mgPt 1, 3.0 times greater than Pt/HSC and 2.1 times greater than the U.S. Department of Energy target for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell activity.

  17. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore » a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  18. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithiumoxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  19. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  20. Operational feasibility of underwater Stirling engine systems using oxygen-seawater extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The exploration of the oceans whether for societal, commercial, scientific or military reasons requires efficient and cost effective underwater vehicles. In turn, these vessels require efficient means of producing on board power for the propulsion and hotel load requirements of long endurance missions. The Stirling engine, because of its inherent closed-cycle operation, has long been an attractive candidate for underwater use and now has proved its reliability and maintainability in the arduous environment of a naval submarine application. More recently the Stirling has been considered for use in small long endurance unmanned underwater vessels (UUVs). However, with these type of vehicles the need to carry an on board oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design problems. The concept of using multi-stage vehicles with disposable energy pods has been explored and appears attractive although a major change in submarine design philosophy will be required if such vehicles are to launched from submarines. Another approach is to use a more space efficient source of oxygen. As seawater contains dissolved oxygen then if this source could be utilized to meet all or at least part of the engine`s need than a major design problem could be overcome. In this paper the findings of an initial study into the use of membranes or artificial gill techniques to provide oxygen for a Stirling powered DARPA type vehicle are presented. It has been found that only in certain sea areas is the concept of oxygen extraction feasible for use with power systems. Even in situations where there are sufficient levels of dissolved oxygen the gill system approach appears to have limited utility for UUV applications and a number of practical problems still need to be addressed.

  1. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  2. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  3. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence determination of a waste tank criticality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-02

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis forcriticality consequences for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report(FSAR). Criticality scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  4. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-09

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  5. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  6. PVMRW2013 Discussion notes: Tues. Feb. 26: 10:45 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    If the mechanical properties of the parts of the module... PDF icon discussionnotes_tues_1045.pdf More Documents & Publications PVMRW2013 Discussion notes Tues. Feb. 26 2013, 2:30

  7. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence determination of a waste tank criticality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for criticality consequences for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Criticality scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  8. CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clothes dryer
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer CEMMetricsandTechnicalNote71410.pdf Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

  9. Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aluto Langano Geothermal Area Aluto Langano Geothermal Area East African Rift System Ethiopian Rift Valley Major Normal Fault Basalt MW K Amatitlan Geothermal Area Amatitlan...

  10. Note: On the wavelength dependence of the intensity calibration factor of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    extreme ultraviolet spectrometer determined with profile measurement of bremsstrahlung continuum (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Note: On the wavelength dependence of the intensity calibration factor of extreme ultraviolet spectrometer determined with profile measurement of bremsstrahlung continuum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Note: On the wavelength dependence of the intensity calibration factor of extreme ultraviolet spectrometer determined with profile measurement of

  11. Publisher's Note: ScGaN alloy growth by molecular beam epitaxy: Evidence

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a metastable layered hexagonal phase [Phys. Rev. B 70, 193309 (2004)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Publisher's Note: ScGaN alloy growth by molecular beam epitaxy: Evidence for a metastable layered hexagonal phase [Phys. Rev. B 70, 193309 (2004)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: ScGaN alloy growth by molecular beam epitaxy: Evidence for a metastable layered hexagonal phase [Phys. Rev. B 70, 193309 (2004)] No abstract prepared. Authors: Constantin, Costel

  12. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  15. Focus Area 3 Deliverables

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 - Commercial Grade item and Services Dedication Implementation and Nuclear Services Office of Environmental Management And Energy Facility Contractors Group Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan Project Focus Area Task # and Description Deliverable Project Area 3-Commercial Grade Item and Services Dedication 3.1-Complete a survey of selected EM contractors to identify the process and basis for their CGI dedication program including safety classification of items being dedicated for

  16. Hanford 300 Area ROD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area ROD Briefing to the Hanford Advisory Board March 6, 2014 Larry Gadbois -- EPA Recap of the 300 Area ROD Primary new concept -- Uranium Sequestration: * Purpose: Accelerate restoration of groundwater uranium contamination. * Protect groundwater from downward leaching from the vadose zone (overlying soil). * Add phosphate to chemically bond with uranium into geologically stable autunite. Does not dissolve. * Dissolve phosphate in water, apply at ground surface, inject into the ground,

  17. Strategic Focus Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic Focus Areas Lockheed Martin on behalf of Sandia National Laboratories will consider grant requests that best support the Corporation's strategic focus areas and reflect effective leadership, fiscal responsibility and program success. Education: K-16 Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) programs that are focused on reducing the achievement gap. Lockheed Martin dedicates 50% of its support to STEM education programs & activities. Customer & Constituent Relations:

  18. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  19. AmeriFlux US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area. Site Description - Old growth forest consisting primarily of sugar maple and eastern hemlock. Note that a small lake to the north and data analyses suggest that wind direction screening is appropriate (see Desai, A.R., Bolstad, P.V., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., and Carey, E.V., 2005. Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper midwest, USA. Ag. For. Met. 128(1-2): 33-55 (doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004). Site was chosen to represent an end member representative of the upland forests in the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. (Note, however, that old growth forests are not found within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint.)

  20. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  1. METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, J.P.

    1962-02-27

    A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

  2. OLED area illumination source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  3. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 24, 2017 Title: Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory

  4. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  5. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrode Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," originally held on March 12, 2013. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of

  6. Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Print Monday, 11 April 2016 14:29 As information bits of 0s and 1s are stored in crosspoint tantalum oxide memristors, or resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells, nanoscale-resolution in operando x-ray transmission spectromicroscopy is used to directly observe oxygen

  7. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts can dissolve. When used...

  8. Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate...

  9. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen ...

  10. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Date: Tuesday, March 12, 2013 Innovation for Our Energy Future Shyam S. Kocha: NREL Yannick ...

  11. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  12. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Freeland, John W.; Eres, Gyula; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Mitra, Chandrima; Meyer, Tricia L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, the ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 °C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by ≈30%, resulting inmore » a tunable oxygen deficient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.« less

  13. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as...

  14. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock ...

  15. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an ...

  16. The Electronic Structure of Oxygen Atom Vacancy and Hydroxyl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Electronic Structure of Oxygen Atom Vacancy and Hydroxyl Impurity Defects on Titanium Dioxide (110) Surface Introducing a charge into a solid such as a metal oxide ...

  17. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  18. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    theory plus Hubbard U investigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in HfOsub 2: A density functional theory ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  2. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Hsiao, Mark C.; Wallman, P. Henrik; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    1999-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO.sub.x reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts.

  3. Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building...

  4. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building...

  5. Kinetics of oxygen surface exchange on epitaxial Ruddlesden-Popper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kinetics of oxygen surface exchange on epitaxial Ruddlesden-Popper phases and correlations to first-principles descriptors Citation Details In-Document Search This content will ...

  6. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  7. Oxidation State and Interfacial Effects on Oxygen Vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Vacancies in Tantalum Pentoxide. Abstract not provided. Authors: Bondi, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1184499 Report...

  8. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  9. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  10. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  11. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  13. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  14. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  15. Publisher's Note: "Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer" [Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 102407 (2015)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Publisher's Note: "Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer" [Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 102407 (2015)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: "Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer" [Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 102407 (2015)] No abstract prepared.

  16. Publisher's Note: High-spin lifetime measurements in the N=Z nucleus {sup

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    72}Kr [Phys. Rev. C 75, 041301(R) (2007)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Publisher's Note: High-spin lifetime measurements in the N=Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr [Phys. Rev. C 75, 041301(R) (2007)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: High-spin lifetime measurements in the N=Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr [Phys. Rev. C 75, 041301(R) (2007)] No abstract prepared. Authors: Andreoiu, C. ; Svensson, C. E. ; Afanasjev, A. V. ; Austin, R. A. E. ; Carpenter, M. P. ; Dashdorj, D. ; Finlay,

  17. A note from Howard H. Baker, Jr. | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A note from Howard H. ... A note from Howard H. Baker, Jr. Posted: February 11, 2013 - 3:49pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 2 | 2013 "I remember visiting Oak Ridge at the height of its construction. The town had grown up out of corn fields in super secrecy. My dad and I didn't know its purpose, but we knew it involved important, vital work. That vitally important work continues today. For 70 years Y-12, in particular, has served the nation as a reservoir of talent and insight. The very

  18. Property:AreaGeology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area C Chena Geothermal Area Coso Geothermal Area D Desert Peak...

  19. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Huang, Tao

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  20. Effects of oxygen and catalyst on tetraphenylborate decomposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies indicate that palladium catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Oxygen inhibits the reaction at low temperature (25 C), presumably by preventing activation of the catalyst. The present study investigated oxygen's inhibiting effectiveness at higher temperature (45 C) and catalyst concentrations.

  1. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  2. Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Romano, Anthony J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

  3. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  4. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; Garcia-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; et al

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computationalmore » studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.« less

  5. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T.; Breitkopf, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  6. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  7. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    work site by the National Lead Company of Ohio (NLO), an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) prime contractor. The data sheets indicate that the former Baker-Perkins Company...

  8. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... characteristics of uranium metal, DuPont (as agent for Manhattan Engineering ... prior to completion of this work, DuPont placed Purchase Order RPG-800 l2 with ...

  9. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    FUSRAP NJ.18 Exxon Research and Engineering Company The Former Standard Oil Development Company Linden, New Jersey Site Function In the spring of 1942, Standard Oil Development ...

  10. Explanatory Notes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    data at a State level on 14 petroleum products for various retail and wholesale marketing categories. The Form EIA-782B collects resellerretailer monthly price and volume...

  11. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2, 1990 TO: W. Alexander Williams FROM: Don Mackenzie &d> SUBJECT: Elimination of 3 Facilities from FUSRAP Enclosed are elimination recommendations for Vitro Chemical Co.,...

  12. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    January 15, 1991 TO: Alexander Williams FROM: Dan Stout@ SUBJECT: Gruen Watch Company Consideration Recommendation Attached for your review is a consideration recommendation for...

  13. OTS NOTE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Source Material q Residue 0 Natural Radioactive Material from Non-Nuclear Activities 0 Man-Made 0 Other--- Comment ---...

  14. Explanatory Notes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    complete enumera- tion has the same nonsampling errors as the sample survey. The sampling error, or standard error of the estimate, is a measure of the variability among the...

  15. Bay Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit History Bay Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Bay Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Bay Area 1.2 Research and Development...

  16. Rockies Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rockies Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Rockies Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Rockies Area 1.2 Research and Development...

  17. Texas Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Texas Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Texas Area 1.2 Research and Development Institutions in the...

  18. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  19. Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ,v*Zy- i , . r ,v * -i S # Af [, (e- . - o -A tl }r- 0 v-" l^~4~S J l ^-)^ I^U^ck iM clti ^ <p< ^^i~oeii ^' Western Area Power Administration Follow-up to Nov. 25, 2008 Transition Meeting Undeveloped Transmission Right-of-Way Western has very little undeveloped transmission right-of-way. There is a 7-mile right- of-way between Folsom, CA and Roseville, CA where Western acquired a 250' wide right-of-way but is only using half of it. Another line could be built parallel to Western's

  20. Focus Area Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The information provided was consolidated from the original five focus areas for the EM Corporate QA Board. The status of QAP/QIP approvals etc. was accurate at the time of posting; however, additional approvals may have been achieved since that time. If you have any questions about the information provided, please contact Bob Murray at robert.murray@em.doe.gov Task # Task Description Status 1.1 Develop a brief questionnaire to send out to both commercial and EM contractors to describe their

  1. Site Monitoring Area Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOepatents Site Map Site Map Home Basic Search Advanced Search DOEPatents FAQ About DOEpatents Site Map DOEpatents Feedback Website Policies/Important Links

    Site Map Site Map Home Basic Search Advanced Search Data Explorer FAQ About Data Explorer Site Map Data Explorer Feedback Website Policies/Important Links

    Site Map Site Map Home Audio Search Fielded Search About FAQ Site Map Contact Us Website Policies/Important Links

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  2. Resilient Electric Distribution Grid R&D Workshop- June 11, 2014- Breakout Sessions Notes and Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 11, 2014, the Department of Energy held a half-day workshop to identify key R&D activities for enhancing the resilience of electric distribution grids to natural disasters. Notes and reports from two concurrent breakout sessions are available for download.

  3. PVMRW2013 Wed., Feb. 27, 1:45 Discussion notes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    It could be useful to mix UVA and UVB and test the effects of both at the same time... PDF icon discussionnotes_weds_145.pdf More Documents & Publications PVMRW2013 Wed., Feb. 27, 10:00 Discussion notes: PVMRW2013 Wed., Feb. 27, 3:00 Final Discussion

  4. Aviation Safety Officer Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... It should be noted that the competencies of management and leadership, general technical knowledge, regulations, administrative capability, and assessment and oversight are all ...

  5. Aviation Manager Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... It should be noted that the competencies of management and leadership, general technical knowledge, regulations, administrative capability, and assessment and oversight are all ...

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - DOE O 413 3B Brief v9 with key points in notes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    [Read-Only] | Department of Energy DOE O 413 3B Brief v9 with key points in notes [Read-Only] Microsoft PowerPoint - DOE O 413 3B Brief v9 with key points in notes [Read-Only] PDF icon Microsoft PowerPoint - DOE O 413 3B Brief v9 with key points in notes [Read-Only] More Documents & Publications Example BCP Template Microsoft PowerPoint - DOE O 413 3B Brief v9 with key points in notes [Read-Only] CD-2, Approve Performance Baseline External Independent Review (EIR) Standard Operating

  7. Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles"" Workshop, December 10-11, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These notes provide information about the Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels workshop in December 2009.

  8. Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

  9. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  10. T-1 Training Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-07

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  11. T-1 Training Area

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-09

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  12. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  13. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  14. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  15. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  16. Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid-oxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel-cell cathode materials on the subunit-cell level (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid-oxide fuel-cell cathode materials on the subunit-cell level Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid-oxide fuel-cell cathode materials on the subunit-cell level Oxygen vacancy distributions and dynamics directly control the operation of solid-oxide fuel cells and are

  17. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  18. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  19. Southwest Area Corridor Map | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southwest Area Corridor Map Southwest Area Corridor Map A map of the southwest area corridor. PDF icon Southwest Area Corridor Map More Documents & Publications Southwest Area ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  2. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Miller, A. Keith; Cornelius, Christopher J.

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  3. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The...

  4. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Armstrong, M R; Zaug, J M; Grant, C D; Crowhurst, J C; Bastea, S 75...

  5. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR ...

  6. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  7. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  8. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  9. Missing Oxygen Atoms Are Key to Robust Spintronic Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Missing Oxygen Atoms Are Key to Robust Spintronic Material Missing Oxygen Atoms Are Key to Robust Spintronic Material Print Friday, 01 April 2016 11:44 The endless pursuit of faster, more energy-efficient computers has led to the emergence of the field of spintronics, where the manipulation and detection of electron spins are utilized in electronic circuits. A particular class of materials called dilute magnetic oxides are promising candidates for spintronics applications because they exhibit

  10. Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions Authors: Hergert, H. ; Binder, S. ; Calci, A. ; Langhammer, J. ; Roth, R. Publication Date: 2013-06-10 OSTI Identifier: 1102833 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  11. Sulfur Resistant Electrodes for Zirconia Oxygen Sensors - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Sulfur Resistant Electrodes for Zirconia Oxygen Sensors Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTerbium-Yttrium-zirconium oxide (Tb-YSZ) is high-temperature, sulfur-resistant material for manufacture of electrodes for oxygen (O2) sensors. The Tb-YSZ sensor is resistant to sulfur and other acidic compounds present in exhaust gases and offers increased lifetime, stability, and accuracy over O2 sensors on the market

  12. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  13. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  14. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  15. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1149544 Report Number(s):

  16. Publisher's Note: New mechanism for the top-bottom mass hierarchy [Phys.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rev. D 70, 055006 (2004)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New mechanism for the top-bottom mass hierarchy [Phys. Rev. D 70, 055006 (2004)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: New mechanism for the top-bottom mass hierarchy [Phys. Rev. D 70, 055006 (2004)] No abstract prepared. Authors: Hashimoto, Michio ; Kanemura, Shinya Publication Date: 2004-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 20698190 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review. D,

  17. Publisher's Note: Phase effects from the general neutrino Yukawa matrix on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lepton flavor violation [Phys. Rev. D 72, 055012 (2005)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase effects from the general neutrino Yukawa matrix on lepton flavor violation [Phys. Rev. D 72, 055012 (2005)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: Phase effects from the general neutrino Yukawa matrix on lepton flavor violation [Phys. Rev. D 72, 055012 (2005)] No abstract prepared. Authors: Kanemura, Shinya ; Matsuda, Koichi ; Ota, Toshihiko ; Shindou, Tetsuo ; Takasugi,

  18. COLLOQUIUM - NOTE SPECIAL TIME OF 3:15PM: Savannah River National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory: Underpinning Critical National Missions | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab May 15, 2013, 3:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM - NOTE SPECIAL TIME OF 3:15PM: Savannah River National Laboratory: Underpinning Critical National Missions Dr. Jeff Griffin Savannah River National Laboratory The Cold War mission of the Savannah River Site in South Carolina was to produce nuclear materials for the national defense. Since the Cold War ended, SRS has continued to ensure United

  19. COLLOQUIUM - PLEASE NOTE SPECIAL DATE/TIME: The Magnetospheric MultiScale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mission Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab February 21, 2013, 10:30am to 12:00pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM - PLEASE NOTE SPECIAL DATE/TIME: The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection Professor Roy Torbert University of New Hampshire Presentation: File TC21FEB2013_RBTorbert_COMPRESSED.pptx In late fall 2014, NASA will launch the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study the kinetic physics of magnetic

  20. Impact of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity for Platinum Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Wang, H.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-30

    The impact of model membrane degradation compounds on the relevant electrochemical parameters for the oxygen reduction reaction (i.e. electrochemical surface area and catalytic activity), was studied for both polycrystalline Pt and carbon supported Pt electrocatalysts. Model compounds, representing previously published, experimentally determined polymer electrolyte membrane degradation products, were in the form of perfluorinated organic acids that contained combinations of carboxylic and/or sulfonic acid functionality. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids of carbon chain length C1 – C6 were found to have an impact on electrochemical surface area (ECA). The longest chain length acid also hindered the observed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance, resulting in a 17% loss in kinetic current (determined at 0.9 V). Model compounds containing sulfonic acid functional groups alone did not show an effect on Pt ECA or ORR activity. Lastly, greater than a 44% loss in ORR activity at 0.9V was observed for diacid model compounds DA-Naf (perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa-5-sulfonic pentanoic) acid) and DA-3M (perfluoro(4-sulfonic butanoic) acid), which contained both sulfonic and carboxylic acid functionalities.

  1. Impact of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity for Platinum Electrocatalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Wang, H.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-30

    The impact of model membrane degradation compounds on the relevant electrochemical parameters for the oxygen reduction reaction (i.e. electrochemical surface area and catalytic activity), was studied for both polycrystalline Pt and carbon supported Pt electrocatalysts. Model compounds, representing previously published, experimentally determined polymer electrolyte membrane degradation products, were in the form of perfluorinated organic acids that contained combinations of carboxylic and/or sulfonic acid functionality. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids of carbon chain length C1 – C6 were found to have an impact on electrochemical surface area (ECA). The longest chain length acid also hindered the observed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance, resultingmore » in a 17% loss in kinetic current (determined at 0.9 V). Model compounds containing sulfonic acid functional groups alone did not show an effect on Pt ECA or ORR activity. Lastly, greater than a 44% loss in ORR activity at 0.9V was observed for diacid model compounds DA-Naf (perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa-5-sulfonic pentanoic) acid) and DA-3M (perfluoro(4-sulfonic butanoic) acid), which contained both sulfonic and carboxylic acid functionalities.« less

  2. Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen breathing, oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity, and persistent photovoltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurwitz, Ron; Cohen, Rotem; Shalish, Ilan

    2014-01-21

    ZnO surfaces adsorb oxygen in the dark and emit CO{sub 2} when exposed to white light, reminiscent of the lungs of living creatures. We find that this exchange of oxygen with the ambient affects the integrity of the ZnO surface. Thus, it forms a basis for several interesting surface phenomena in ZnO, such as photoconductivity, photovoltage, and gas sensing, and has a role in ZnO electrical conduction. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on ZnO nanowires, we observed a decomposition of ZnO under white light and formation of oxygen-depleted surface, which explains photoconductivity by the electron donation of oxygen vacancies. Our findings suggest that the observed decomposition of the ZnO lattice may only take place due to photon-induced reduction of ZnO by carbon containing molecules (or carbo-photonic reduction), possibly from the ambient gas, accounting in a consistent way for both the reduced demands on the energy required for decomposition and for the observed emission of lattice oxygen in the form of CO{sub 2}. The formation of oxygen-vacancy rich surface is suggested to induce surface delta doping, causing accumulation of electrons at the surface, which accounts for both the increase in conductivity and the flattening of the energy bands. Using surface photovoltage spectroscopy in ultra high vacuum, we monitored changes in the deep level spectrum. We observe a wide optical transition from a deep acceptor to the conduction band, which energy position coincides with the position of the so called green luminescence in ZnO. This green transition disappears with the formation of surface oxygen vacancies. Since the oxygen vacancies are donors, while the green transition involves surface acceptors, the results suggest that the initial emission of oxygen originates at the defect sites of the latter, thereby eliminating each other. This suggests that the green transition originates at surface Zn vacancy acceptors. Removing an oxygen atom from a Zn vacancy completes the vacancy to become a full ZnO molecule vacancy, which does not produce deep levels. Our results explain why ZnO finds use as an electrical detector for oxygen and for carbon containing gas molecules. They may also shed new light on photocatalytic uses of ZnO. It is suggested that similar surface phenomena may affect other semiconducting oxides.

  3. Focus Areas | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus Areas FA 1: Diversifying Supply FA 2: Developing Substitutes FA 3: Improving Reuse and Recycling FA 4: Crosscutting Research...

  4. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrienko, Daniil A. Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  6. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leadsmore » to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.« less

  7. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  8. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  9. DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The National Corridors are comprised of two geographic areas where consumers are adversely affected by transmission capacity constraints or congestion. DOE has made each National ...

  10. Cove Fort Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cove Fort Geothermal Area (Redirected from Cove Fort Geothermal Area - Vapor) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Cove Fort Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area...

  11. Blue Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Redirected from Blue Mountain Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area...

  12. Stillwater Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stillwater Geothermal Area (Redirected from Stillwater Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Stillwater Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  13. Chena Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chena Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Chena Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 2.1 Chena Area...

  14. Salton Sea Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salton Sea Geothermal Area (Redirected from Salton Sea Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Salton Sea Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  15. Heber Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heber Geothermal Area (Redirected from Heber Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Heber Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  16. Property:GeothermalArea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area + Babadere Geothermal Project + Tuzla Geothermal Area + Bacman 1 GEPP + Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + Bacman 2 GEPP + Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + Bacman...

  17. PPPL Area Map | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL Area Map View Larger Map

  18. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Geothermal Area (Redirected from Desert Peak Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Desert Peak Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  19. Influence of Intrinsic Hole Concentration on Oxygen Sensing Properties of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hot-Spot Based Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}Ceramics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Intrinsic Hole Concentration on Oxygen Sensing Properties of Hot-Spot Based Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}Ceramics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Intrinsic Hole Concentration on Oxygen Sensing Properties of Hot-Spot Based Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}Ceramics We report oxygen sensing behavior

  20. CRADA Final Report: Ionically Conductive Membranes Oxygen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J.

    2001-10-29

    Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in a collaborative effort with Praxair Corporation developed a bench-top oxygen separation unit capable of producing ultra-high purity oxygen from air. The device is based on thin-film electrolyte technology developed at LBNL as part of a solid oxide fuel cell program. The two teams first demonstrated the concept using planar ceramic disks followed by the development of tubular ceramic structures for the bench-top unit. The highly successful CRADA met all technical milestones on time and on budget. Due to the success of this program the industrial partner and the team at LBNL submitted a grant proposal for further development of the unit to the Advanced Technology Program administered by the National Institute of Standar~s. This proposal was selected for funding, and now the two teams are developing a precommercial oxygen separation unit under a 3-year, $6 million dollar program.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  3. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  4. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  5. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  6. Neutron Physics. A Revision of I. Halpern's notes on E. Fermi's lectures in 1945

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Beckerley, J.G.

    1951-10-16

    In the Fall of 1945 a course in Neutron Physics was given by Professor Fermi as part of the program of the Los Alamos University. The course consisted of thirty lectures most of which were given by Fermi. In his absence R.F. Christy and E. Segre gave several lectures. The present revision is based upon class notes prepared by I. Halpern with some assistance by B.T. Feld and issued first as document LADC 255 and later with wider circulation as MDDC 320.

  7. Note: Design principles of a linear array multi-channel effusive metal-vapor atom source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, B.; Majumder, A.; Thakur, K. B.; Das, A. K.

    2013-10-15

    Atomic beams can easily be produced by allowing atoms to effuse through a channel. In an earlier investigation [A. Majumder et al., Vacuum 83, 989 (2009)], we had designed, fabricated, and characterized an effusive metal-vapor source using collinear-array of multi-channel. In this note, we describe the theoretical basis of designing the source. Atom density in atomic beam has been estimated using a set of analytical expressions for long-channel operated in transparent mode. Parametric studies on aspect ratio of channel, inter-channel separation, beam width, and vertical distance from the source are carried out. They are useful in providing physical picture and optimizing design parameters.

  8. Hanford Advisory Board FY2014 Work Plan - "A" List - Facilitator notes o

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilitator notes on midyear status for RAP-lead topics (updated 4/30/14) These are the priority topics that the Board is expected to take action on in FY2014, as agreed to by the TPA and the Board. The timing of these topics drives the need for committee meetings. Their status may change to "topics of interest" if they are delayed or deferred, and if there is agreement to do so among the EIC and Agency Liaisons. Adopted by Consensus, September 6, 2013 Page 1 of 12 Priority Topics -

  9. Summary Notes from 5 March 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Long-Term Grout Performance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6, 2008 Page 1 of 6 Summary Notes from 5 March 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Long-Term Grout Performance Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 5 March 2008. Representatives from Department of Energy- Savannah River (DOE-SR), Department of Energy-Idaho (DOE-ID), Department of Energy-Richland (DOE-RL), Department of Energy-River Protection

  10. Attachment 1 - PIC Transcribed Flip Chart Notes Final Meeting Summary Page 12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - PIC Transcribed Flip Chart Notes Final Meeting Summary Page 12 Public Involvement Committee September 4, 2013 Strategic Planning: Quarters by month * Q1: Oct. - Dec. * Q2: Jan - March * Q3: April - June * Q4: July - Sept. Page 1 Strategic Planning: 2014 Topics (Interactive activity) * = priority topic for discussion at meeting; �= priority for future discussion | Quarter prioritized for discussion (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) * 100-F Proposed Plan | *** Q2 * 100 D-H Proposed Plan * Draft Land

  11. Migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial cluste (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial cluste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial cluste Understanding the migration kinetics of radiation- Authors: Xian-Ming Bai ; Anter El-Azab ; Jianguo Yu ; Todd R. Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1083247 Report Number(s): INL/JOU-13-29349 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC07-05ID14517 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Physics: Condensed

  12. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  13. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked

  14. Beryllium Facilities & Areas - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlled Facilities that have been Demolished Outdoor Areas where Beryllium Contamination has been Identified Hanford Projects and Facilities - Descriptions Former Hanford...

  15. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  16. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  17. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routbort, Jules L.; Singh, Dileep; Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Spirig, John V.; Akbar, Sheikh

    2011-11-15

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  18. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  19. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Sen; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A plasma needle is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  20. Electrochemical oxygen reduction catalysed by Ni3(hexaiminotriphenylene)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miner, Elise M.; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Surendranath, Yogesh; Dinca, Mircea

    2016-03-08

    Control over the architectural and electronic properties of heterogeneous catalysts poses a major obstacle in the targeted design of active and stable non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we introduce Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP=2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as an intrinsically conductive metal-organic framework which functions as a well-defined, tunable oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in alkaline solution. Ni3(HITP)2 exhibits oxygen reduction activity competitive with the most active non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts and stability during extended polarization. The square planar Ni-N4 sites are structurally reminiscent of the highly active and widely studied non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts containing M-N4 units.more » Ni3(HITP)2 and analogues thereof combine the high crystallinity of metal-organic frameworks, the physical durability and electrical conductivity of graphitic materials, and the diverse yet well-controlled synthetic accessibility of molecular species. As a result, such properties may enable the targeted synthesis and systematic optimization of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts as components of fuel cells and electrolysers for renewable energy applications.« less

  1. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  2. Why SRS Matters - L Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-28

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features L Area's mission and operations.

  3. Why SRS Matters - E Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Steve; Mooneyhan, Verne; Tempel, Kevin; Bullington, Michele

    2015-03-09

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features E Area's mission and operations.

  4. Why SRS Matters - F Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Steve; Tadlock, Bill; Beeler, Dewitt; Gardner, Curt

    2015-02-17

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features F Area's mission and operations.

  5. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  6. AREA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... based upon a literal reading of the compliance procedure in Part II page 3 of the DOE audit Guidance which states costs must be paid before the reimbursement request is made. ...

  7. AREA

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or if they need to add this to their audit they have performed yearly by a public accounting firm. 316 audits are essentially A-133 audits for for-profit entities. They DO...

  8. Pt monolayer shell on nitrided alloy core — A path to highly stable oxygen reduction catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Jue; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Yang, Tae -Hyun; Park, Gu -Gon; Zhang, Chengxu; Chen, Guangyu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-07-22

    The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of themore » PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.« less

  9. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA weremore » more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.« less

  10. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA were more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.

  11. Pt monolayer shell on nitrided alloy core — A path to highly stable oxygen reduction catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jue; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Yang, Tae -Hyun; Park, Gu -Gon; Zhang, Chengxu; Chen, Guangyu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-07-22

    The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of the PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.

  12. Vital area analysis using sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, D.W.; Francis, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    This report describes the use of the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) for vital area analysis. Several concepts are introduced which enable the analyst to construct more efficient SETS user programs to perform vital area analysis. The advantages of performing the transformation of variables without first determining the minimal cut sets of the fault tree are discussed. A ''bottom-up'' approach to solving a fault tree is presented. The techniques described for vital area analysis are also suitable and efficient for many kinds of common cause analysis.

  13. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  14. Table 5.17 Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 1977-2011 (Thousand Barrels, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 1977-2011 (Thousand Barrels, Except as Noted) Year Foreign Crude Oil Receipts Domestic Crude Oil Receipts Withdrawals End-of-Year Stocks Days of Petroleum Net Imports 4 Imported by SPR Imported by Others 1,2 Purchases Exchanges 2 Sales Exchanges Quantity Percent of Crude Oil 3 Stocks Percent of Total Petroleum Stocks 1977 7,540 0 370 [5] 0 0 0 7,455 2.1 0.6 1 1978 58,798 0 0 0 0 0 66,860 17.8 5.2 8 1979 24,434 0 4 0 0 0 91,191 21.2 6.8 11 1980 16,067 0 1,296 0 0 0

  15. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  16. Meeting notes of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) futures group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, M.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the notes from the ten meetings. The group charter is: (1) to identify and characterize the range of possibilities and necessities for keeping the HFIR operating for at least the next 15 years; (2) to identify and characterize the range of possibilities for enhancing the scientific and technical utility of the HFIR; (3) to evaluate the benefits or impacts of these possibilities on the various scientific fields that use the HFIR or its products; (4) to evaluate the benefits or impacts on the operation and maintenance of the HFIR facility and the regulatory requirements; (5) to estimate the costs, including operating costs, and the schedules, including downtime, for these various possibilities; and one possible impact of proposed changes may be to stimulate increased pressure for a reduced enrichment fuel for HFIR.

  17. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  18. Manhattan Project: Tech Area Gallery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    All of the photographs below are of the "Tech Area" at Los Alamos during or shortly after the wartime years. If you have a fast internet connection, you may wish to click here for ...

  19. Manhattan Project: Tech Area Gallery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    All of the photographs below are of the "Tech Area" at Los Alamos during or shortly after the wartime years. If this page is taking a long time to load, click here for a photo ...

  20. Fire in a contaminated area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-28

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  1. Progress Update: M Area Closure

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cody, Tom

    2012-06-14

    A progress update of the Recovery Act at work at the Savannah River Site. The celebration of the first area cleanup completion with the help of the Recovery Act.

  2. Security Area Vouching and Piggybacking

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-05

    Establishes requirements for the Department of Energy (DOE) Security Area practice of "vouching" or "piggybacking" access by personnel. DOE N 251.40, dated 5-3-01, extends this directive until 12-31-01.

  3. Carlsbad Area Office Executive Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 1998 Carlsbad Area Office Executive Summary The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to CAO, WIPP site operations, transportation, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program (NTP). The

  4. CENTRAL NEVPJJA SUPPLEMENTAL TEST AREA

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    r r r r r r t r r t r r r * r r r r r r CENTRAL NEVPJJA SUPPLEMENTAL TEST AREA ,FACILITY RECORDS 1970 UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMlSSION NEVADA OPERATIONS OFFICE LAS VEGAS, NEVADA September 1970 Prepared By Holmes & Narver. Inc. On-Continent Test Division P.O. Box 14340 Las Vegas, Nevada 338592 ...._- _._--_ .. -- - - - - - - .. .. - .. - - .. - - - CENTRAL NEVPJJA SUPPLEMENTAL TEST AREA FACILITY RECORDS 1970 This page intentionally left blank - - .. - - - PURPOSE This facility study has

  5. Variable area fuel cell cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

  6. EA-1936: Proposed Changes to Parcel ED-1 Land Uses, Utility Infrastructure, and Natural Area Management Responsibility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed modifications to the allowable land uses, utility infrastructure, and Natural Area management responsibility for Parcel ED-1. The purpose of the modifications is to enhance the development potential of the Horizon Center business/industrial park, while ensuring protection of the adjacent Natural Area. The area addressed by the proposed action was evaluated for various industrial/business uses in the Environmental Assessment Addendum for the Proposed Title Transfer of Parcel ED-1, DOE/EA-1113-A.

  7. Java - Dieng Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Java - Dieng Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Java - Dieng Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  8. Java - Kamojang Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Java - Kamojang Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Java - Kamojang Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  9. Java - Darajat Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Java - Darajat Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Java - Darajat Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  10. Research Subject Areas for IGPPS Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Subject Areas Research Subject Areas for IGPPS Proposals High quality, cutting-edge science in the areas of astrophysics, space physics, solid planetary geoscience, and...

  11. Sacramento Area Technology Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sacramento Area Technology Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sacramento Area Technology Alliance Name: Sacramento Area Technology Alliance Address: 5022 Bailey Loop Place:...

  12. Wild Rose Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wild Rose Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Wild Rose Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory...

  13. Dixie Valley Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Dixie Valley Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 2.1 U.S. Department...

  14. Dixie Valley Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dixie Valley Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Dixie Valley Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 2.1...

  15. Alum Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Alum Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  16. Aurora Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aurora Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Aurora Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  17. Berln Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berln Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Berln Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  18. Stillwater Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stillwater Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Stillwater Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  19. Krafla Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Krafla Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Krafla Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  20. Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Salt Wells Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 2.1 Salt...

  1. Rye Patch Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rye Patch Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Rye Patch Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory...

  2. Amedee Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amedee Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Amedee Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  3. Miravalles Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Miravalles Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Miravalles Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  4. Oita Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oita Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Oita Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  5. Cove Fort Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cove Fort Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Cove Fort Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory...

  6. Geysers Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geysers Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geysers Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and...

  7. Larderello Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Larderello Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Larderello Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  8. Butte Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Butte Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Butte Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  9. Honey Lake Geothermal Area | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honey Lake Geothermal Area Honey Lake Geothermal Area The Honey Lake geothermal area is located in Lassen County, California and Washoe County, Nevada. There are three geothermal ...

  10. Chocolate Mountains Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chocolate Mountains Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Chocolate Mountains Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  11. Great Basin Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Great Basin Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Great Basin Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3...

  12. Mcgee Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mcgee Mountain Geothermal Area (Redirected from Mcgee Mountain Area) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT McGee Mountain Geothermal Area Retrieved from "http:...

  13. Geothermal resource area 11, Clark County area development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 11 includes all of the land in Clark County, Nevada. Within this area are nine geothermal anomalies: Moapa Area, Las Vegas Valley, Black Canyon, Virgin River Narrows, Roger's Springs, Indian Springs, White Rock Springs, Brown's Spring, and Ash Creek Spring. All of the geothermal resources in Clark County have relatively low temperatures. The highest recorded temperature is 145{sup 0}F at Black Canyon. The temperatures of the other resources range from 70 to 90{sup 0}F. Because of the low temperature of the resources and, for the most part, the distance of the resources from any population base, the potential for the development of the resources are considered to be somewhat limited.

  14. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  15. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction and methanol oxidation reactions (Conference) | SciTech Connect and methanol oxidation reactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-04-28 OSTI Identifier: 1129839 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28235 DOE Contract Number:

  16. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction and methanol oxidation reactions (Conference) | SciTech Connect and methanol oxidation reactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  17. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction (Conference) | SciTech Connect reaction and methanol oxidation reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-04-28 OSTI Identifier: 1129838 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28232 DOE

  18. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction (Conference) | SciTech Connect reaction and methanol oxidation reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service.

  19. Observing Oxygen Atoms Move during Information Storage in Tantalum Oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Memristors | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Observing Oxygen Atoms Move during Information Storage in Tantalum Oxide Memristors Saturday, April 30, 2016 Memristor technology, or resistive random access memory (RRAM), is a frontrunner for next generation computer memory, owing to the promise of long endurance, low power, nanoscale device size and fast operation.1 Memristor devices are typically made of a transition metal oxide sandwiched between two metallic electrodes, and

  20. Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N

    2009-11-30

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)