Cluster formation probability in the trans-tin and trans-lead nuclei
K. P. Santhosh; R. K. Biju; Sabina Sahadevan
2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
Within our fission model, the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) cluster formation probabilities are calculated for different clusters ranging from carbon to silicon for the parents in the trans-tin and trans- lead regions. It is found that in trans-tin region the 12^C, 16^O, 20^Ne and 24^Mg clusters have maximum cluster formation probability and lowest half lives as compared to other clusters. In trans-lead region the 14^C, 18, 20^O, 23^F, 24,26^Ne, 28,30^Mg and 34^Si clusters have the maximum cluster formation probability and minimum half life, which show that alpha like clusters are most probable for emission from trans-tin region while non-alpha clusters are probable from trans-lead region. These results stress the role of neutron proton symmetry and asymmetry of daughter nuclei in these two cases.
Kravtsov, V. V. [Instituto de AstronomIa, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)], E-mail: vkravtsov@ucn.cl
2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper aims at demonstrating, for the first time, very probable universal peculiarities of the evolution of stars in the lower red giant branch (RGB) of Galactic globular clusters (GCs), reflected in two corresponding dips in the luminosity functions (LFs). By relying on the database of Hubble Space Telescope photometry of GCs, we analyze the lower RGB LFs of a sample of 18 GCs in a wide metallicity range, {delta}[Fe/H] {approx} 1.9 dex. We first show that in the F555W-(F439W-F555W) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the lower RGB of GCs, except for the most metal-poor of them, frequently shows an apparent 'knee'. It reveals itself as a fairly abrupt change of the RGB slope. At the same luminosity level, the RGB LFs show a feature in the form of a more or less pronounced dip. We find that the magnitude difference between the RGB base and the given feature is, on average, around {delta} F555W{sup dip} {sub base}{approx} 1.4 mag. It shows a marginal variation with metallicity, if any, comparable to the error. At the same time, the magnitude difference between the dip and the RGB bump, {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip}, decreases with increasing metallicity and falls within the range 0.8 {approx}< {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip} {approx}< 1.7 mag. Generalized LFs (GLFs) have been obtained for three subsamples of GCs within limited metallicity ranges and with different horizontal branch (HB) morphology. They reproduce the 'knee-related' dip that is statistically significant in two of the GLFs. This feature turns out to be more pronounced in the GLFs of GCs with either the blue or red HB morphology than with the intermediate one. The same GLFs also reveal an additional probable universal dip. It shows up below the RGB bump at {delta} F555W slightly increasing from {approx}0.3 to {approx}0.5 mag with increasing metallicity. Also, the statistical significance of this 'prebump' dip increases, on average, toward higher metallicity. Except for the well known RGB bump, no other universal features corresponding to those found here were so far empirically revealed or theoretically predicted in the lower RGB of GCs.
Open Clusters IC 4665 and Cr 359 and a Probable Birthplace of the Pulsar PSR B1929+10
V. V. Bobylev
2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the epicyclic approximation, we have simulated the motion of the young open star clusters IC 4665 and Collinder 359. The separation between the cluster centers is shown to have been minimal 7 Myr ago, 36 pc. We have established a close evolutionary connection between IC 4665 and the Scorpius-Centaurus association -- the separation between the centers of these structures was $\\approx200$ pc 15 Myr ago. In addition, the center of IC 4665 at this time was near two well-known regions of coronal gas: the Local Bubble and the North Polar Spur. The star HIP 86768 is shown to be one of the candidates for a binary (in the past) with the pulsar PSR B1929+10. At the model radial velocity of the pulsar $V_r= 2\\pm50$ km s$^{-1}$, a close encounter of this pair occurs in the vicinity of IC 4665 at a time of -1.1 Myr. At the same time, using currently available data for the pulsar B1929+10 at its model radial velocity $V_r=200\\pm50$ km s$^{-1}$, we show that the hypothesis of Hoogerwerf et al. (2001) about the breakup of the $\\zeta$Oph--B1929+10 binary in the vicinity of Upper Scorpius (US) about 0.9 Myr ago is more plausible.
Mapping the formation areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study
Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul
2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {MoV/VI154/176} archetypes, and a {MoV/VI368} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to mapping the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the formation of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {MoV/VI368} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates.
Probability Primer 1 Running head: PROBABILITY PRIMER
Yuille, Alan L.
provides the opportunity to draw upon work in computer science, engineering, mathematics, and statisticsProbability Primer 1 Running head: PROBABILITY PRIMER A Primer on Probabilistic Inference Thomas L. Griffiths Department of Psychology University of California, Berkeley Alan Yuille Department of Statistics
Tungsten Cluster Migration on Nanoparticles: Minimum Energy Pathway and Migration Mechanism
Chen, Dong; Hu, Wangyu; Gao, Fei; Deng, Huiqiu; Sun, Lixian
2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Transition state searches have been employed to investigate the migration mechanisms of W clusters on W nanoparticles, and to determine the corresponding migration energies for the possible migration paths of these clusters. The tungsten clusters containing up to four adatoms are found to prefer 2D-compact structures with relatively low binding energies. The effect of interface and vertex regions on the migration behavior of the clusters is significantly strong, as compared to that of nanoparticle size. The migration mechanisms are quite different when the clusters are located at the center of the nanoparticle and near the interface or vertex areas. Near the interfaces and vertex areas, the substrate atoms tend to participate in the migration processes of the clusters, and can join the adatoms to form a larger cluster or lead to the dissociation of a cluster via the exchange mechanism, which results in the adatom crossing the facets. The lowest energy paths are used to be determined the energy barriers for W cluster migrations (from 1- to 4-atoms) on the facets, edges and vertex regions. The calculated energy barriers for the trimers suggest that the concerted migration is more probable than the successive jumping of a single adatom in the clusters. In addition, it of interest to note that the dimer shearing is a dominant migration mechanism for the tetramer, but needs to overcome a relatively higher migration energy than other clusters.
Competing contact processes on homogeneous networks with tunable clusterization
Rybak, Marcin
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate two homogeneous networks: the Watts-Strogatz network and the random Erdos-Renyi network, the latter with tunable clustering coefficient $C$. The network is an area of two competing contact processes, where nodes can be in two states, S or D. A node S becomes D with probability 1 if at least two its mutually linked neighbours are D. A node D becomes S with a given probability $p$ if at least one of its neighbours is S. The competition between the processes is described by a phase diagram, where the critical probability $p_c$ depends on the clustering coefficient $C$. For $p>p_c$ the rate of state S increases in time, seemingly to dominate in the whole system. Below $p_c$, the contribution of D-nodes remains finite. The numerical results, supported by mean field approach, indicate that the transition is discontinuous.
Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Cluster Velocity Statistics
Suman Bhattacharya; Arthur Kosowsky
2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Future microwave sky surveys will have the sensitivity to detect the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from moving galaxy clusters, thus providing a direct measurement of their line-of-sight peculiar velocity. We show that cluster peculiar velocity statistics applied to foreseeable surveys will put significant constraints on fundamental cosmological parameters. We consider three statistical quantities that can be constructed from a cluster peculiar velocity catalog: the probability density function, the mean pairwise streaming velocity, and the pairwise velocity dispersion. These quantities are applied to an envisioned data set which measures line-of-sight cluster velocities with normal errors of 100 km/s for all clusters with masses larger than $10^{14}$ solar masses over a sky area of up to 5000 square degrees. A simple Fisher matrix analysis of this survey shows that the normalization of the matter power spectrum and the dark energy equation of state can be constrained to better than 10 percent, and the Hubble constant and the primordial power spectrum index can be constrained to a few percent, independent of any other cosmological observations. We also find that the current constraint on the power spectrum normalization can be improved by more than a factor of two using data from a 400 square degree survey and WMAP third-year priors. We also show how the constraints on cosmological parameters changes if cluster velocities are measured with normal errors of 300 km/s.
A deep cluster survey in Chandra archival data. First results
W. Boschin
2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z
I present the first results of a search for clusters of galaxies in Chandra ACIS pointed observations at high galactic latitude with exposure times larger than 10 ks. The survey is being carried out using the Voronoi Tessellation and Percolation technique, which is particularly suited for the detection and accurate quantification of extended and/or low surface brightness emission in X-ray imaging observations. A new catalogue of 36 cluster candidates has been created from 5.55 square degrees of surveyed area. Five of these candidates have already been associated to visible enhancements of the projected galaxy distribution in low deepness DSS-II fields and are probably low-to moderate redshift systems. Three of the candidates have been identified in previous ROSAT-based surveys. I show that a significative fraction (30-40%) of the candidate clusters are probably intermediate to high redshift systems. In this paper I publish the catalogue of these first candidate clusters. I also derive the number counts of clusters and compare it with the results of deep ROSAT-based cluster surveys.
Constraints on Cluster Formation from Old Globular CLuster Systems
Dean E. McLaughlin
2000-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
The properties of old globular cluster systems (GCSs) in galaxy halos offer unique insight into the physical processes that conspire to form any generic star cluster, at any epoch. Presented here is a summary of the information obtained from (1) the specific frequencies (total populations) and spatial structures (density vs. galactocentric radius) of GCSs in early-type galaxies, as they relate to the efficiency (or probability) of bound cluster formation, and (2) the fundamental role of a scaling between cluster mass and energy among Galactic globulars in setting their other structural correlations, and the possible implications for star formation efficiency as a function of mass in gaseous protoclusters.
PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE M33 STAR CLUSTER SYSTEM
San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Aparicio, Antonio, E-mail: izaskun@astro.ufl.ed, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.ed, E-mail: antapaj@iac.e [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n. E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)
2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a catalog of 2990 extended sources in a 1{sup 0} x 1{sup 0} area centered on M33 using the MegaCam camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The catalog includes 599 new candidate stellar clusters, 204 previously confirmed clusters, 1969 likely background galaxies, and 218 unknown extended objects. We present ugriz integrated magnitudes of the candidates and confirmed star clusters (SCs) as well as the full width at half maximum, ellipticity, and stellarity. Based on the properties of the confirmed SCs, we select a sub-sample of highly probable clusters composed of 246 objects. The integrated photometry of the complete cluster catalog reveals a wide range of colors of -0.4 < (g - r) < 1.5 and -1.0 < (r - i) < 1.0 with no obvious cluster subpopulations. Comparisons with models of simple stellar populations suggest a large range of ages some as old as {approx}10 Gyr. In addition, we find a sequence in the color-color diagrams that deviates from the expected direction of evolution. This feature could be associated with very young clusters (<10{sup 7} yr) possessing significant nebular emission. Analysis of the radial density distribution suggests that the cluster system of M33 has suffered from significant depletion possibly due to interactions with M31. We also detect a gap in the cluster distribution in the color-color diagram at (g - r) {approx_equal} 0.3 and (u - g) {approx_equal} 0.8. This gap could be interpreted as an evolutionary effect. This complete catalog provides promising targets for deep photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to study the structure and star formation history of M33.
Probability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes
Olofsson, Peter
, science, and engineering students. Other than the basic probability theory, my goal was to in- cludeProbability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes Peter Olofsson A Wiley-Interscience Publication had been teaching a course on calculus-based probability and statistics mainly for mathematics
Membership Probability via Control Field Colour-Magnitude Decontamination
Corradi, Wagner J B; Santos, Joao F C
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The open clusters fundamental physical parameters are important tools to understand the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk and as grounding tests for star formation and evolution models. However only a small fraction of the known open clusters in the Milky Way has precise determination of distance, reddening, age, metallicity, radial velocity and proper motion. One of the major problems in determining these parameters lies on the difficulty to separate cluster members from field stars and to assign membership. We propose a decontamination method by employing 2MASS data in the encircling region of the clusters NGC1981, NGC2516, NGC6494 and M11. We present a decontaminated CMD of these objects showing the membership probabilities and structural parameters as derived from King profile fitting.
Are Cluster Dwarfs Recycled Galaxies?
Christopher J. Conselice
2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
Although cluster dwarf galaxies are often neglected due to their faintness, recent observations demonstrate that they are critical for understanding the physical processes behind galaxy and cluster formation. Dwarfs are the most common galaxy type and are particularly abundant in clusters. Recent observational results suggest that dwarfs in dense environments do not all form early in the universe, as expected from hierarchical structure formation models. Many of these systems appear to be younger and more metal rich than dwarfs in lower density areas, suggesting they are possibly created by a tidal process. Several general galaxy cluster observations, including steep luminosity functions and the origin of intracluster light, are natural outcomes of these processes.
The Cluster SZ -- Mass Correlation
Christopher A. Metzler
1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
N-body + hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters are used to demonstrate a correlation between galaxy cluster mass and the strength of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect induced by the cluster. The intrinsic scatter in the correlaton is larger than seen in the cluster mass -- X-ray temperature correlation, but smaller than seen in the correlation between mass (or temperature) and X-ray luminosity, as expected. Using the convergence to self-similarity of cluster structure at larger radii, a simple area-averaged SZ value derived from mock SZ maps also correlates well with mass; the intrinsic scatter in this correlation is comparable to that seen in simulations for the mass -- temperature correlation. Such a relation may prove a powerful tool for estimating cluster masses at higher redshifts.
Probable Inference and Quantum Mechanics
Grandy, W. T. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States)
2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
In its current very successful interpretation the quantum theory is fundamentally statistical in nature. Although commonly viewed as a probability amplitude whose (complex) square is a probability, the wavefunction or state vector continues to defy consensus as to its exact meaning, primarily because it is not a physical observable. Rather than approach this problem directly, it is suggested that it is first necessary to clarify the precise role of probability theory in quantum mechanics, either as applied to, or as an intrinsic part of the quantum theory. When all is said and done the unsurprising conclusion is that quantum mechanics does not constitute a logic and probability unto itself, but adheres to the long-established rules of classical probability theory while providing a means within itself for calculating the relevant probabilities. In addition, the wavefunction is seen to be a description of the quantum state assigned by an observer based on definite information, such that the same state must be assigned by any other observer based on the same information, in much the same way that probabilities are assigned.
Outage probability at finite SNR
Akçaba, Cemal
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, we present a technique to reduce the outage probability of a single user multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel when a sub-optimal transceiver architecture is used. We show that in slow-fading ...
Joint probabilities and quantum cognition
Acacio de Barros, J. [Liberal Studies, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)
2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantumlike response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.
THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE
Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zeimann, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Masci, Frank J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Wright, Edward L. [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z {approx} 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z {approx}> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.
Muetterties, Earl L.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 11 Wiley Huetterties and C. M.Submitted to the Journal of Organometallic ChemistryCLUSTER CHEMISTRY Earl L. Muetterties TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY May
Fusion Probability in Dinuclear System
Juhee Hong
2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z
Fusion can be described by the time evolution of a dinuclear system with two degrees of freedom, the relative motion and transfer of nucleons. In the presence of the coupling between two collective modes, we solve the Fokker-Planck equation in a locally harmonic approximation. The potential of a dinuclear system has the quasifission barrier and the inner fusion barrier, and the escape rates can be calculated by the Kramers' model. To estimate the fusion probability, we calculate the quasifission rate and the fusion rate. We investigate the coupling effects on the fusion probability and the cross section of evaporation residue.
Quantum correlations; quantum probability approach
W. A. Majewski
2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
This survey gives a comprehensive account of quantum correlations understood as a phenomenon stemming from the rules of quantization. Centered on quantum probability it describes the physical concepts related to correlations (both classical and quantum), mathematical structures, and their consequences. These include the canonical form of classical correlation functionals, general definitions of separable (entangled) states, definition and analysis of quantumness of correlations, description of entanglement of formation, and PPT states. This work is intended both for physicists interested not only in collection of results but also in the mathematical methods justifying them, and mathematicians looking for an application of quantum probability to concrete new problems of quantum theory.
Logic Programming, Abduction and Probability
Poole, David
Logic Programming, Abduction and Probability: a top-down anytime algorithm for estimating prior, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z2 poole@cs.ubc.ca March 17, 1993 Abstract Probabilistic Horn abduction logically. The relationship be- tween probabilistic Horn abduction and logic programming is at two levels
MACHINE MONITORING USING PROBABILITY THRESHOLDS
Pollock, Stephen
MACHINE MONITORING USING PROBABILITY THRESHOLDS AND SYSTEM OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Stephen M and Jeffrey M. Alden G.M. R&D Center Warren, MI 48090 IOE Tech Report 95-14 #12;1. Introduction We a discrete-part production machine, with the objective of effectively determining when to shut the machine
The APM/Matched-Filter Cluster Catalog
Wataru Kawasaki
1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
A catalog of nearby clusters in the 5800 deg$^2$ area in the southern Galactic cap is constructed by applying a matched-filter cluster-finding algorithm to the sample of 3.3 million galaxies from the APM Galaxy Survey. I have preliminarily detected more than 4000 cluster candidates with estimated redshift of less than 0.2 and with richness similar to those of ACO clusters. Generally, a good correspondence is found between the nearest cluster candidates in our catalog and the ACO clusters which have measured redshift. While the ACO catalog becomes incomplete at z>0.08, the completeness limit of our cluster catalog reaches z=0.15.
Sm Transition Probabilities and Abundances
J. E. Lawler; E. A. Den Hartog; C. Sneden; J. J. Cowan
2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 212 odd-parity levels of Sm II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier-transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for more than 900 lines of Sm II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Sm II transition probabilities using modern methods. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Sm abundance, log epsilon = 1.00 +/- 0.03, from 26 lines. The spectra of three very metal-poor, neutron-capture-rich stars also have been analyzed, employing between 55 and 72 Sm II lines per star. The abundance ratios of Sm relative to other rare earth elements in these stars are in agreement, and are consistent with ratios expected from rapid neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (the r-process).
Sharir, Micha
Data Compression K Image Processing Center for Geometric Computing Motivation Geometric Clustering = function of frequency of word w i in ff: K What is the distance between two documents ff and fi? ffl d (shell) problem. K Cylinder fitting Center for Geometric Computing Statistical Estimators Geometric
Black holes in young stellar clusters
Goswami, Sanghamitra; Kiel, Paul; Rasio, Frederic A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present theoretical models for stellar black hole (BH) properties in young, massive star clusters. Using a Monte Carlo code for stellar dynamics, we model realistic star clusters with N ? 5 × 10{sup 5} stars and significant binary fractions (up to 50%) with self-consistent treatments of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. We compute the formation rates and characteristic properties of single and binary BHs for various representative ages, cluster parameters, and metallicities. Because of dynamical interactions and supernova (SN) kicks, more single BHs end up retained in clusters compared to BHs in binaries. We also find that the ejection of BHs from a cluster is a strong function of initial density. In low-density clusters (where dynamical effects are negligible), it is mainly SN kicks that eject BHs from the cluster, whereas in high-density clusters (initial central density ? {sub c}(0) ? 10{sup 5} M {sub ?} pc{sup –3} in our models) the BH ejection rate is enhanced significantly by dynamics. Dynamical interactions of binary systems in dense clusters also modify the orbital period and eccentricity distributions while increasing the probability of a BH having a more massive companion.
Wide field imaging of distant clusters
T. Treu
2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
Wide field imaging is key to understanding the build-up of distant clusters and their galaxy population. By focusing on the so far unexplored outskirts of clusters, where infalling galaxies first hit the cluster potential and the hot intracluster medium, we can help separate cosmological field galaxy evolution from that driven by environment. I present a selection of recent advancements in this area, with particular emphasis on Hubble Space Telescope wide field imaging, for its superior capability to deliver galaxy morphologies and precise shear maps of distant clusters.
Lectures on probability and statistics
Yost, G.P.
1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
These notes are based on a set of statistics lectures delivered at Imperial College to the first-year postgraduate students in High Energy Physics. They are designed for the professional experimental scientist. We begin with the fundamentals of probability theory, in which one makes statements about the set of possible outcomes of an experiment, based upon a complete a priori understanding of the experiment. For example, in a roll of a set of (fair) dice, one understands a priori that any given side of each die is equally likely to turn up. From that, we can calculate the probability of any specified outcome. We finish with the inverse problem, statistics. Here, one begins with a set of actual data (e.g., the outcomes of a number of rolls of the dice), and attempts to make inferences about the state of nature which gave those data (e.g., the likelihood of seeing any given side of any given die turn up). This is a much more difficult problem, of course, and one's solutions often turn out to be unsatisfactory in one respect or another.
Gd Transition Probabilities and Abundances
E. A. Den Hartog; J. E. Lawler; C. Sneden; J. J. Cowan
2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 49 even-parity and 14 odd-parity levels of Gd II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 611 lines of Gd II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Gd II transition probabilities and the first using a high performance Fourier transform spectrometer. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Gd abundance, log epsilon = 1.11 +/- 0.03. Revised Gd abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, and HD 115444. The resulting Gd/Eu abundance ratios are in very good agreement with the solar-system r-process ratio. We have employed the increasingly accurate stellar abundance determinations, resulting in large part from the more precise laboratory atomic data, to predict directly the Solar System r-process elemental abundances for Gd, Sm, Ho and Nd. Our analysis of the stellar data suggests slightly higher recommended values for the r-process contribution and total Solar System values, consistent with the photospheric determinations, for the elements for Gd, Sm, and Ho.
PHAT Stellar Cluster Survey. II. Andromeda Project Cluster Catalog
Johnson, L Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Wallace, Matthew L; Simpson, Robert J; Lintott, Chris J; Kapadia, Amit; Skillman, Evan D; Caldwell, Nelson; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Beerman, Lori C; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Sarajedini, Ata
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We construct a stellar cluster catalog for the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey using image classifications collected from the Andromeda Project citizen science website. We identify 2,753 clusters and 2,270 background galaxies within ~0.5 deg$^2$ of PHAT imaging searched, or ~400 kpc$^2$ in deprojected area at the distance of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). These identifications result from 1.82 million classifications of ~20,000 individual images (totaling ~7 gigapixels) by tens of thousands of volunteers. We show that our crowd-sourced approach, which collects >80 classifications per image, provides a robust, repeatable method of cluster identification. The high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope images resolve individual stars in each cluster and are instrumental in the factor of ~6 increase in the number of clusters known within the survey footprint. We measure integrated photometry in six filter passbands, ranging from the near-UV to the near-IR. PHAT clusters span a range of ~8 ma...
Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances
J. E. Lawler; E. A. Den Hartog; Z. E. Labby; C. Sneden; J. J. Cowan; I. I. Ivans
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf/La) = -0.13 +/- 0.02 (sigma = 0.06) and log epsilon (Hf/Eu) = +0.04 +/- 0.02 (sigma = 0.06). The observed average stellar abundance ratio of Hf/Eu and La/Eu is larger than previous estimates of the solar system r-process-only value, suggesting a somewhat larger contribution from the r-process to the production of Hf and La. The newly determined Hf values could be employed as part of the chronometer pair, Th/Hf, to determine radioactive stellar ages.
Incorporating Contact Network Structure in Cluster Randomized Trials
Staples, Patrick C; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Whenever possible, the efficacy of a new treatment, such as a drug or behavioral intervention, is investigated by randomly assigning some individuals to a treatment condition and others to a control condition, and comparing the outcomes between the two groups. Often, when the treatment aims to slow an infectious disease, groups or clusters of individuals are assigned en masse to each treatment arm. The structure of interactions within and between clusters can reduce the power of the trial, i.e. the probability of correctly detecting a real treatment effect. We investigate the relationships among power, within-cluster structure, between-cluster mixing, and infectivity by simulating an infectious process on a collection of clusters. We demonstrate that current power calculations may be conservative for low levels of between-cluster mixing, but failing to account for moderate or high amounts can result in severely underpowered studies. Power also depends on within-cluster network structure for certain kinds of i...
Study of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters Under Multivariate Statistical Paradigm
Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar; Davoust, Emmanuel; Mondal, Saptarshi; Sharina, Margarita
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An objective classification of the globular clusters of NGC 5128 has been carried out by using a model-based approach of cluster analysis. The set of observable parameters includes structural parameters, spectroscopically determined Lick indices and radial velocities from the literature. The optimum set of parameters for this type of analysis is selected through a modified technique of Principal Component Analysis, which differs from the classical one in the sense that it takes into consideration the effects of outliers present in the data. Then a mixture model based approach has been used to classify the globular clusters into groups. The efficiency of the techniques used is tested through the comparison of the misclassification probabilities with those obtained using the K-means clustering technique. On the basis of the above classification scheme three coherent groups of globular clusters have been found. We propose that the clusters of one group originated in the original cluster formation event that coin...
Modeling Prostate Cancer Detection Probability, with Applications
Serfling, Robert
investigating causes and treatments. Robert Serfling Modeling Prostate Cancer Detection Probability cancer present as well as tumor nodule sizes, to judge clinical significance before treatment selectionModeling Prostate Cancer Detection Probability, with Applications Robert Serfling1 University
Optimization Online - Classification with Guaranteed Probability of ...
Marco C. Campi
2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 18, 2009 ... Classification with Guaranteed Probability of Error. Marco C. ... Category 3: Applications -- Science and Engineering (Statistics ). Citation:.
Geographic Resource Map of Frozen Pipe Probabilities
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Presentation slide details a resource map showing the probability of frozen pipes in the geographic United States.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate, Ocean and SeaClotClusterHopper
Notes on Probability Peter J. Cameron
Banaji,. Murad
will need the statistical tables. · Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences by Jay L. De use instead are: · Probability and Statistics in Engineering and Management Science by W. W. Hines probabilistic ideas in statistical inference and modelling, and the study of stochastic processes. Probability
Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences
Oren, Shmuel S.
Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences http://journals.cambridge.org/PES Additional services for Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences: Email alerts: Click here Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences / Volume 8 / Issue 02 / April 1994, pp 287 290 DOI
area nasicon structures: Topics by E-print Network
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Clifford algebra, which generalizes spin. Matej Pavsic 2006-11-08 53 Convergence and cluster structures in EU area according to fluctuations in macroeconomic indices CERN...
Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe
2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Leakage of CO{sub 2} out of the designated storage region via faults is a widely recognized concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The probability of such leakage can be separated into the probability of a plume encountering a fault and the probability of flow along such a fault. In the absence of deterministic fault location information, the first probability can be calculated from regional fault population statistics and modeling of the plume shape and size. In this study, fault statistical parameters were measured or estimated for WESTCARB's Phase III pilot test injection in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Combining CO{sub 2} plume model predictions with estimated fault characteristics resulted in a 3% probability that the CO{sub 2} plume will encounter a fault fully offsetting the 180 m (590 ft) thick seal. The probability of leakage is lower, likely much lower, as faults with this offset are probably low-permeability features in this area.
Turbulent Particle Acceleration in the Diffuse Cluster Plasma
J. A. Eilek; J. C. Weatherall
1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
In situ particle acceleration is probably occuring in cluster radio haloes. This is suggested by the uniformity and extent of the haloes, given that spatial diffusion is slow and that radiative losses limit particle lifetimes. Stochastic acceleration by plasma turbulence is the most likely mechanism. Alfven wave turbulence has been suggested as the means of acceleration, but it is too slow to be important in the cluster environment. We propose, instead, that acceleration occurs via strong lower-hybrid wave turbulence. We find that particle acceleration will be effective in clusters if only a small fraction of the cluster energy density is in this form.
redMaPPer IV: Photometric Membership Identification of Cluster Galaxies with 1% Precision
Rozo, Eduardo; Becker, Matthew; Reddick, Rachel M; Wechsler, Risa H
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In order to study the galaxy population of galaxy clusters with photometric data one must be able to accurately discriminate between cluster members and non-members. The redMaPPer cluster finding algorithm treats this problem probabilistically. Here, we utilize SDSS and GAMA spectroscopic membership rates to validate the redMaPPer membership probability estimates for clusters with $z\\in[0.1,0.3]$. We find small - but correctable - biases, sourced by three different systematics. The first two were expected a priori, namely blue cluster galaxies and correlated structure along the line of sight. The third systematic is new: the redMaPPer template fitting exhibits a non-trivial dependence on photometric noise, which biases the original redMaPPer probabilities when utilizing noisy data. After correcting for these effects, we find exquisite agreement ($\\approx 1\\%$) between the photometric probability estimates and the spectroscopic membership rates, demonstrating that we can robustly recover cluster membership est...
Problems with Objective Probability for Conditionals What Bennett Means by Objective Probability
Fitelson, Branden
Problems with Objective Probability for Conditionals What Bennett Means by Objective Probability Objective probability is any sort of probability which demands inter- subjective agreement. Bennett Bennett introduces this as a three place relation, R(P,Q,n), between a proposition P, body of evidence Q
Analogue of the quantum total probability rule from Paraconsistent bayesian probability theory
R. Salazar; C. Jara-Figueroa; A. Delgado
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
We derive an analogue of the quantum total probability rule by constructing a probability theory based on paraconsistent logic. Bayesian probability theory is constructed upon classical logic and a desiderata, that is, a set of desired properties that the theory must obey. We construct a new probability theory following the desiderata of Bayesian probability theory but replacing the classical logic by paraconsistent logic. This class of logic has been conceived to handle eventual inconsistencies or contradictions among logical propositions without leading to the trivialisation of the theory. Within this Paraconsistent bayesian probability theory it is possible to deduce a new total probability rule which depends on the probabilities assigned to the inconsistencies. Certain assignments of values for these probabilities lead to expressions identical to those of Quantum mechanics, in particular to the quantum total probability rule obtained via symmetric informationally complete positive- operator valued measure.
Probability and Quantum Paradigms: the Interplay
Kracklauer, A. F. [Bauhaus Universitaet, PF 2040, 99401 Weimar (Germany)
2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z
Since the introduction of Born's interpretation of quantum wave functions as yielding the probability density of presence, Quantum Theory and Probability have lived in a troubled symbiosis. Problems arise with this interpretation because quantum probabilities exhibit features alien to usual probabilities, namely non Boolean structure and non positive-definite phase space probability densities. This has inspired research into both elaborate formulations of Probability Theory and alternate interpretations for wave functions. Herein the latter tactic is taken and a suggested variant interpretation of wave functions based on photo detection physics proposed, and some empirical consequences are considered. Although incomplete in a few details, this variant is appealing in its reliance on well tested concepts and technology.
Bayesian Probabilities and the Histories Algebra
Thomas Marlow
2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
We attempt a justification of a generalisation of the consistent histories programme using a notion of probability that is valid for all complete sets of history propositions. This consists of introducing Cox's axioms of probability theory and showing that our candidate notion of probability obeys them. We also give a generalisation of Bayes' theorem and comment upon how Bayesianism should be useful for the quantum gravity/cosmology programmes.
Quantum Statistical Mechanics. III. Equilibrium Probability
Phil Attard
2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Given are a first principles derivation and formulation of the probabilistic concepts that underly equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. The transition to non-equilibrium probability is traversed briefly.
Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area...
purpose of this study was to identify probable recharge areas and length of time for groundwater discharge from the Kilauea rift zones. Interpretations were based on isotropic...
Analytical Study of Thermonuclear Reaction Probability Integrals
M. A. Chaudhry; H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai
2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
An analytic study of the reaction probability integrals corresponding to the various forms of the slowly varying cross-section factor $S(E)$ is attempted. Exact expressions for reaction probability integrals are expressed in terms of the extended gamma functions.
Literature Review on Spectral Clustering
Chen, Mengna
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Guan & Kulis. Kernel k-means, Spectral Clustering andspectral clustering and k-means clustering and spectralRelationship with kernel K-means algorithm …………………………………………
Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents
McClure, J. D.
1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.
PALC: Extending ALC ABoxes with Probabilities
JĂ¤ger, Gerhard
on description logics can be found in [BCM+ 03] and [BKW03]. For many applications it is important to extend on probabilities on terminological axioms, see for example [BKW03, Hei94, KLP97]. Notable exceptions are [Jae94, GL
Cumulative Probability of Blast Fragmentation Effect
Oleg Mazonka
2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents formulae for calculation of cumulative probability of effect made by blast fragments. Analysis with Mott distribution, discrete fragment enumeration, spatial non-uniformity, numerical issues, and a generalisation for a set of effects are also discussed.
Cumulative Probability of Blast Fragmentation Effect
Mazonka, Oleg
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents formulae for calculation of cumulative probability of effect made by blast fragments. Analysis with Mott distribution, discrete fragment enumeration, spatial non-uniformity, numerical issues, and a generalisation for a set of effects are also discussed.
Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density
Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Glavan, Drazen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.
A Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects
Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"
, new data centers in the Seattle area are forecast to increase the city's power demands by 25 percentA Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects Eun Jung Kim, Member, IEEE--Designing energy-efficient clusters has recently become an important concern to make these systems economically
Confirming EIS Clusters. Multi-object Spectroscopy
A. Biviano; M. Ramella; W. Boschin; S. Bardelli; M. Scodeggio; L. N. da Costa; L. F. Olsen; M. Nonino; S. Borgani; M. Girardi
1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z
Using EFOSC2 at the 3.6m ESO telescope, we obtained redshifts for 68 galaxies in the field of six cluster candidates from the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The cluster candidates were selected in the EIS patches C and D and have estimated mean redshifts between z=0.5 and z=0.7. In the six candidate cluster fields, we identify possible systems of galaxies in the redshift space. The likelihoods of these systems are established by comparison with random resamplings of the Canada-France Redshift Surveys, and using the redshift distribution expected from Postman et al.'s luminosity function, with Poggianti's K- and evolutionary-corrections. Four of the six candidate EIS clusters are found to correspond to a real system in the redshift space, with > 95 % probability. Two of them have a mean redshift in agreement with the estimate from the matched filter algorithm, while the other two have a significantly smaller redshift. The independent analysis of the V-I vs. I color-magnitude diagrams for five of our six cluster fields, supports our conclusions based on the spectroscopic data.
Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project
DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)
1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.
Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium
Çelik, Gültekin, E-mail: gultekin@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Selçuk University, Campus 42049 Konya (Turkey); Gökçe, Yasin; Y?ld?z, Murat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT). We have employed numerical non-relativistic Hartree–Fock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii and the necessary energy values have been taken from the compilation at NIST. The results obtained with the present method agree very well with the Coulomb approximation results given by Caves (1975). Moreover, electric quadrupole transition probability values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using the WBEPMT.
Probability of Slowroll Inflation in the Multiverse
I-Sheng Yang
2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z
Slowroll after tunneling is a crucial step in one popular framework of the multiverse---false vacuum eternal inflation (FVEI). In a landscape with a large number of fields, we provide a heuristic estimation for its probability. We find that the chance to slowroll is exponentially suppressed, where the exponent comes from the number of fields. However, the relative probability to have more e-foldings is only mildly suppressed as $N_e^{-\\alpha} $ with $\\alpha\\sim3$. Base on these two properties, we show that the FVEI picture is still self-consistent and may have a strong preference between different slowroll models.
Nejdl, Wolfgang
Recap Clustering: Introduction Clustering in IR K-means Evaluation How many clusters? Introduction;Recap Clustering: Introduction Clustering in IR K-means Evaluation How many clusters? Overview 1 Recap 2 Clustering: Introduction 3 Clustering in IR 4 K-means 5 Evaluation 6 How many clusters? SchÂ¨utze: Flat
Nagaev, Sergei V.
. Among classical probabilities are those by S.N. Bernstein (see [1, III, Â§3, Theorem 18]) and Bennet [2) decrease exponentially as x for all summand forming the sum n j=1 Xj. As to the Bennet] is adjacent to the BennetÂHoeffding inequality. That was rather a limited list of probability inequalities
Nagaev, Sergei V.
. Among classical probabilities are those by S.N. Bernstein (see [1, III, Â§3, Theorem 18]) and Bennet [2(X j > x) decrease exponentially as x ## for all summand forming the sum # n j=1 X j . As to the Bennet] is adjacent to the Bennet--Hoe#ding inequality. That was rather a limited list of probability inequalities
Logic Programming, Abduction and Probability David Poole
Poole, David
Logic Programming, Abduction and Probability David Poole Department of Computer Science, University 5485 Abstract Probabilistic Horn abduction is a simple frameÂ work to combine probabilistic and logical abduction and logic proÂ gramming is at two levels. At the first level probabilistic Horn abduction
How to determine threat probabilities using ontologies and Bayesian networks
How to determine threat probabilities using ontologies and Bayesian networks [Extended Abstract Business Austria Vienna, Austria neubauer@securityresearch.ac.at ABSTRACT The subjective threat probability- and Bayesian-based approach for determining asset-specific and comprehensible threat probabilities
Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities
Beersma, Jules
Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities Jules Beersma #12;Promotor: Prof. dr. A Onderzoekschool (BBOS) #12;Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities Extreme hydro
The 60% Efficient Diesel Engine: Probably, Possible, Or Just...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
The 60% Efficient Diesel Engine: Probably, Possible, Or Just a Fantasy? The 60% Efficient Diesel Engine: Probably, Possible, Or Just a Fantasy? 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...
Properties of liquid clusters in large-scale molecular dynamics nucleation simulations
Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)
2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
We have performed large-scale Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous vapor-to-liquid nucleation, with 10{sup 9} atoms. This large number allows us to resolve extremely low nucleation rates, and also provides excellent statistics for cluster properties over a wide range of cluster sizes. The nucleation rates, cluster growth rates, and size distributions are presented in Diemand et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 74309 (2013)], while this paper analyses the properties of the clusters. We explore the cluster temperatures, density profiles, potential energies, and shapes. A thorough understanding of the properties of the clusters is crucial to the formulation of nucleation models. Significant latent heat is retained by stable clusters, by as much as ?kT = 0.1? for clusters with size i = 100. We find that the clusters deviate remarkably from spherical—with ellipsoidal axis ratios for critical cluster sizes typically within b/c = 0.7 ± 0.05 and a/c = 0.5 ± 0.05. We examine cluster spin angular momentum, and find that it plays a negligible role in the cluster dynamics. The interfaces of large, stable clusters are thinner than planar equilibrium interfaces by 10%?30%. At the critical cluster size, the cluster central densities are between 5% and 30% lower than the bulk liquid expectations. These lower densities imply larger-than-expected surface areas, which increase the energy cost to form a surface, which lowers nucleation rates.
Maximum Margin Clustering for State Decomposition of Metastable Systems
Wu, Hao
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
When studying a metastable dynamical system, a prime concern is how to decompose the phase space into a set of metastable states. Unfortunately, the metastable state decomposition based on simulation or experimental data is still a challenge. The most popular and simplest approach is geometric clustering which is developed based on the classical clustering technique. However, the prerequisites of this approach are: (1) data are obtained from simulations or experiments which are in global equilibrium and (2) the coordinate system is appropriately selected. Recently, the kinetic clustering approach based on phase space discretization and transition probability estimation has drawn much attention due to its applicability to more general cases, but the choice of discretization policy is a difficult task. In this paper, a new decomposition method designated as maximum margin metastable clustering is proposed, which converts the problem of metastable state decomposition to a semi-supervised learning problem so that...
Clustering versus non-clustering phase synchronizations
Liu, Shuai [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhan, Meng, E-mail: zhanmeng@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Clustering phase synchronization (CPS) is a common scenario to the global phase synchronization of coupled dynamical systems. In this work, a novel scenario, the non-clustering phase synchronization (NPS), is reported. It is found that coupled systems do not transit to the global synchronization until a certain sufficiently large coupling is attained, and there is no clustering prior to the global synchronization. To reveal the relationship between CPS and NPS, we further analyze the noise effect on coupled phase oscillators and find that the coupled oscillator system can change from CPS to NPS with the increase of noise intensity or system disorder. These findings are expected to shed light on the mechanism of various intriguing self-organized behaviors in coupled systems.
MultiCriteria Clustering & Classification
Libre de Bruxelles, Université
An Extension of the K-Means' algorithm MultiCriteria Ordered Clustering 6 MCDA Classification : Sorting MCDACriteria Comparison : motivation A MCDA approach for grouping problems 5 MCDA Clustering Multicriteria Clustering
Law of total probability Sequences of events
Adler, Robert J.
{Second black} = P{Second red} and sum is 1! 3 #12;' & $ % Example 2: Poisonned chocolates · k chocolates in a box of N are poisoned. 2 chocolates are are drawn at random. What is the probability that the second chocolate is poisoned? P{2nd poison} = P{2nd poison|1st poison}P{1st poison} + P{2nd poison|1st OK}P{1st OK
SCFG in CNF Probability distribution over
Ageno, Alicia
: - += Ă?Ă?= rq, 1k 1ij rq,p,rqp Bk)(j,Ij)(i,Ik)(i,I #12;SCFG in CNF Outside probability : Op(i,j) = P(A1 * w1(j,k) Ă? Ii(j,k) = P(A1 * w1 ... wn, Ai * wj+1 ... wk |G ) = P(w1n , Ai jk |G) NLP statistical parsing 54 So
Optimum phase space probabilities from quantum tomography
Roy, Arunabha S., E-mail: roy.arunabha@gmail.com [King's College, London (United Kingdom); Roy, S. M., E-mail: smroy@hbcse.tifr.res.in [HBCSE, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We determine a positive normalised phase space probability distribution P with minimum mean square fractional deviation from the Wigner distribution W. The minimum deviation, an invariant under phase space rotations, is a quantitative measure of the quantumness of the state. The positive distribution closest to W will be useful in quantum mechanics and in time frequency analysis. The position-momentum correlations given by the distribution can be tested experimentally in quantum optics.
Free Energy Changes, Fluctuations, and Path Probabilities
William G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover
2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
We illustrate some of the static and dynamic relations discovered by Cohen, Crooks, Evans, Jarzynski, Kirkwood, Morriss, Searles, and Zwanzig. These relations link nonequilibrium processes to equilibrium isothermal free energy changes and to dynamical path probabilities. We include ideas suggested by Dellago, Geissler, Oberhofer, and Schoell-Paschinger. Our treatment is intended to be pedagogical, for use in an updated version of our book: Time Reversibility, Computer Simulation, and Chaos. Comments are very welcome.
Pion-capture probabilities in organic molecules
Jackson, D.F.; Lewis, C.A.; O'Leary, K.
1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Experimental results are presented for atomic-capture probabilities of negative pions in organic molecules. The data are analyzed in terms of atomic and molecular models. This analysis shows that the Fermi-Teller law (Z law) and its modifications do not give an adequate description of the data, but that a mesomolecular model together with hydrogen transfer contains the features essential to fit the data. Clear evidence is given for chemical effects in the pion-capture process.
Bertsch, G.F. [Institute for Nuclear Theory and Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Institute for Nuclear Theory and Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yabana, K. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21 (Japan)
1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the magnetic-moment distribution of ferromagnetic clusters under conditions where the magnetic moment is aligned with the internal cluster axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for the moment distribution and the adiabatic average moment induced in low fields. The result differs from the low-field Langevin function by a factor 2/3.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press Releases 2014References by WebsitehomeResearch Areas
Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated
Sergey Aleksandrovich Varganov
2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms to tens of atoms. Therefore, they are quantum objects. Some qualitative information about the geometries of such clusters can be obtained with classical empirical methods, for example geometry optimization using an empirical Lennard-Jones potential. However, to predict their accurate geometries and other physical and chemical properties it is necessary to solve a Schroedinger equation. If one is not interested in dynamics of clusters it is enough to solve the stationary (time-independent) Schroedinger equation (H{Phi}=E{Phi}). This equation represents a multidimensional eigenvalue problem. The solution of the Schroedinger equation is a set of eigenvectors (wave functions) and their eigenvalues (energies). The lowest energy solution (wave function) corresponds to the ground state of the cluster. The other solutions correspond to excited states. The wave function gives all information about the quantum state of the cluster and can be used to calculate different physical and chemical properties, such as photoelectron, X-ray, NMR, EPR spectra, dipole moment, polarizability etc. The dimensionality of the Schroedinger equation is determined by the number of particles (nuclei and electrons) in the cluster. The analytic solution is only known for a two particle problem. In order to solve the equation for clusters of interest it is necessary to make a number of approximations and use numerical methods.
A PROBABILITY COLLECTIVES APPROACH TO WEIGHTED CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS FOR AD HOC NETWORKS
Ross, Kevin
personnel or soldiers on the battlefield. It is an inefficient use of power, battery life, and bandwidth
Boehringer, Hans
8. Particle Diffusion and Acceleration #12; #12; Proceedings of the Workshop: ``Diffuse Thermal. Feretti & P. Schuecker, MPE Report 271, pp. 249253 Turbulent Particle Acceleration in the Diffuse Cluster Abstract. In situ particle acceleration is probably occur ing in cluster radio haloes. This is suggested
Angular clustering in the SUMSS radio survey
Chris Blake; Tom Mauch; Elaine M. Sadler
2003-10-05T23:59:59.000Z
We measure the angular correlation function of radio galaxies selected by the 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS). We find that the characteristic imprint of large-scale structure is clearly detectable, and that the survey is very uniform. Through comparison with similar analyses for other wide-area radio surveys - the 1400 MHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the 325 MHz Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) - we are able to derive consistent angular clustering parameters, including a steep slope for the clustering function, $w(\\theta) \\propto \\theta^{-1.1}$. We revise upwards previous estimates of the NVSS clustering amplitude, and find no evidence for dependence of clustering properties on radio frequency. It is important to incorporate the full covariance matrix when fitting parameters to the measured correlation function. Once the redshift distribution for mJy radio galaxies has been determined, these projected clustering measurements will permit a robust description of large-scale structure at $z \\sim 0.8$, the median redshift of the sources.
Spin Glass Computations and Ruelle's Probability Cascades
Louis-Pierre Arguin
2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Parisi functional, appearing in the Parisi formula for the pressure of the SK model, as a functional on Ruelle's Probability Cascades (RPC). Computation techniques for the RPC formulation of the functional are developed. They are used to derive continuity and monotonicity properties of the functional retrieving a theorem of Guerra. We also detail the connection between the Aizenman-Sims-Starr variational principle and the Parisi formula. As a final application of the techniques, we rederive the Almeida-Thouless line in the spirit of Toninelli but relying on the RPC structure.
Snell Envelope with Small Probability Criteria
Del Moral, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Del-Moral@inria.fr; Hu, Peng, E-mail: Peng.Hu@inria.fr [Universite de Bordeaux I, Centre INRIA Bordeaux et Sud-Ouest and Institut de Mathematiques de Bordeaux (France); Oudjane, Nadia, E-mail: Nadia.Oudjane@edf.fr [EDF R and D Clamart (France)
2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new algorithm to compute the Snell envelope in the specific case where the criteria to optimize is associated with a small probability or a rare event. This new approach combines the Stochastic Mesh approach of Broadie and Glasserman with a particle approximation scheme based on a specific change of measure designed to concentrate the computational effort in regions pointed out by the criteria. The theoretical analysis of this new algorithm provides non asymptotic convergence estimates. Finally, the numerical tests confirm the practical interest of this approach.
Sampling with unequal probabilities and without replacement
Kleibrink, Ronald Gus
1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. APPENDIX REFERENCES 29 iv LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. PAGE Selection of n=4 from a Population of N=9 units Cumulative sizes, selection probabilities and y/x ratios for th N=9 samples from the Population of N=9 blocks Permutations for N=4 items Rand.... om permutati. ons for N=8 items Rand. om permutations for N=12 items 18 20 Number of applications of operations for N=9 24 Neans and correlations of three Populations considered 30 Var iances of estimates for Populations N=9, 13, 2...
Clustering in nuclear environment
G. Röpke
2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
The properties of few-body clusters (mass number $A \\le 4$) are modified if they are immersed in a nuclear medium. In particular, Pauli blocking that reflects the antisymmetrization of the many-body wave function is responsible for the medium modification of light clusters and the dissolution with increasing density. A more consistent description is given with takes also the contribution of correlations in the continuum into account. The relation between cluster formation in warm dense matter and in nuclear structure is discussed.
Delgado, Mercedes
This article examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. We focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in ...
A Panoramic Mid-infrared Survey of Two Distant Clusters
J. E. Geach; Ian Smail; R. S. Ellis; S. M. Moran; G. P. Smith; T. Treu; J. -P. Kneib; A. C. Edge; T. Kodama
2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z
(abridged) We present panoramic Spitzer MIPS 24um observations covering 9x9Mpc (25'x25') fields around two massive clusters, Cl0024+16 and MS0451-03, at z=0.39 and z=0.55. Our observations cover a very wide range of environments within these clusters, from high-density regions around the cores out to the turn-around radius. Cross-correlating the mid-infrared catalogs with deep optical and near-infrared imaging of these fields, we investigate the optical/near-infrared colors of the mid-infrared sources. We find excesses of mid-infrared sources with optical/near-infrared colors expected of cluster members in the two clusters and test this selection using spectroscopically confirmed 24um members. The much more significant excess is associated with Cl0024+16, whereas MS0451-03 has comparatively few mid-infrared sources. The mid-infrared galaxy population in Cl0024+16 appears to be associated with dusty star-forming galaxies (typically redder than the general cluster population by up to A_V~1-2 mags) rather than emission from dusty tori around active galactic nuclei (AGN) in early-type hosts. The inferred total-infrared star-formation rates in Cl0024+16 are typically >5x greater than those found from a similar Halpha survey, indicating significant obscured activity in the cluster population. We find evidence for strong evolution of the level of dust-obscured star-formation in dense environments out to z=0.5, analogous to the rise in fraction of optically-selected star-forming galaxies seen in clusters and the field out to similar redshifts. However, there are clearly significant cluster-to-cluster variations in the populations of mid-infrared sources, probably reflecting differences in the intracluster media and recent dynamical evolution of these systems.
Open Cluster Open Cluster Open Cluster A group of several thousand stars
Bechtold, Jill
Open Cluster Open Cluster Open Cluster A group of several thousand stars which formed within the same nebula. The Pleides, or Seven Sisters, are the most visible stars in this cluster in the Milky Way. Mass:10-10,000 SM StarPower Points: 11 A group of several thousand stars which formed within the same
Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in the BPA Control Area
Lu, Shuai; Brothers, Alan J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Makarov, Yuri V.
2010-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
This report investigated the uncertainties with the operations of the power system and their contributions to tail events, especially under high penetration of wind. A Bayesian network model is established to quantify the impact of these uncertainties on system imbalance. The framework is presented for a decision support tool, which can help system operators better estimate the need for balancing reserves and prepare for tail events.
Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task One Report
Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.
2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
This is a report for task one of the tail event analysis project for BPA. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, the imbalance between generation and load becomes very significant. This type of events occurs infrequently and appears on the tails of the distribution of system power imbalance; therefore, is referred to as tail events. This report analyzes what happened during the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) reliability event on February 26, 2008, which was widely reported because of the involvement of wind generation. The objective is to identify sources of the problem, solutions to it and potential improvements that can be made to the system. Lessons learned from the analysis include the following: (1) Large mismatch between generation and load can be caused by load forecast error, wind forecast error and generation scheduling control error on traditional generators, or a combination of all of the above; (2) The capability of system balancing resources should be evaluated both in capacity (MW) and in ramp rate (MW/min), and be procured accordingly to meet both requirements. The resources need to be able to cover a range corresponding to the variability of load and wind in the system, additional to other uncertainties; (3) Unexpected ramps caused by load and wind can both become the cause leading to serious issues; (4) A look-ahead tool evaluating system balancing requirement during real-time operations and comparing that with available system resources should be very helpful to system operators in predicting the forthcoming of similar events and planning ahead; and (5) Demand response (only load reduction in ERCOT event) can effectively reduce load-generation mismatch and terminate frequency deviation in an emergency situation.
OPTICAL COLORS OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER CORE
Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Morrison, Heather L. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Feldmeier, John J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Janowiecki, Steven, E-mail: csr10@case.ed [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)
2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
We continue our deep optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster using the CWRU Burrell Schmidt telescope by presenting B-band surface photometry of the core of the Virgo cluster in order to study the cluster's intracluster light (ICL). We find ICL features down to {mu}{sub B} {approx}29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, confirming the results of Mihos et al., who saw a vast web of low surface brightness streams, arcs, plumes, and diffuse light in the Virgo cluster core using V-band imaging. By combining these two data sets, we are able to measure the optical colors of many of the cluster's low surface brightness features. While much of our imaging area is contaminated by galactic cirrus, the cluster core near the cD galaxy, M87, is unobscured. We trace the color profile of M87 out to over 2000'', and find a blueing trend with radius, continuing out to the largest radii. Moreover, we have measured the colors of several ICL features which extend beyond M87's outermost reaches and find that they have similar colors to the M87's halo itself, B - V {approx}0.8. The common colors of these features suggest that the extended outer envelopes of cD galaxies, such as M87, may be formed from similar streams, created by tidal interactions within the cluster, that have since dissolved into a smooth background in the cluster potential.
Some Considerations on the Probability of Nuclear Fission
Vandenbosch, Robert; Seaborg, Glenn T.
1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
om THE PROBABILITY OF NUCLEAR FISSION Robert Vandenbosch andON TRE PROBABILITY OF NUCLEAR FISSION O E Contents Abstractf is the fission threshold, and the nuclear temperature T is
A Framework for Verification of Software with Time and Probabilities
Oxford, University of
verification techniques are able to establish sys- tem properties such as "the probability of an airbag failing quantitative properties. These might include, for example, "the probability of an airbag failing to deploy
On Transformations between Probability and Spohnian Disbelief Functions
Giang, Phan H.; Shenoy, Prakash P.
1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we analyze the relationship between probability and Spohn's theory for representation of uncertain beliefs. Using the intuitive idea that the more probable a proposition is, the more believable it is, we ...
Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.
Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P.; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Becker, Matthew; Annis, James
2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.
Practical Statistical Thinking Probability: The Language of Statistics
Practical Statistical Thinking Probability: The Language of Statistics Essentials of Statistics and Probability Dhruv Sharma May 22, 2007 Department of Statistics, NC State University dbsharma@ncsu.edu SAMSI Undergrad Workshop Dhruv Sharma Essentials of Statistics and Probability #12;Practical Statistical Thinking
Chapter 1 The Nature of Probability and Statistics
Hong, Don
Chapter 1 The Nature of Probability and Statistics 1.1 Introduction Definition. Statistics based on probability theory. This chapter introduces the basic concepts of probability and statistics by answering questions like: Â· what are the branches of statistics Â· what are data Â· how are samples selected 1
Path-transformations in probability and representation theory
Jordan, Jonathan
Path-transformations in probability and representation theory Neil O'Connell University of Warwick Biane and Philippe Bougerol Neil O'Connell Path-transforms in probability and rep. theory #12;Pitman is a three-dimensional Bessel process. Neil O'Connell Path-transforms in probability and rep. theory #12;The
Control rod cluster arrangement
Orr, W.L.; Doshi, P.K.; Mildrum, C.M.; Freeman, T.R.
1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section.
Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L. [Now at Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Swain West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Bertin, G.; Zocchi, A., E-mail: bianchini@mpia.de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
Internal rotation is thought to play a major role in the dynamics of some globular clusters. However, in only a few cases has internal rotation been studied by the quantitative application of realistic and physically justified global models. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of the photometry and three-dimensional kinematics of {omega} Cen, 47 Tuc, and M15, by means of a recently introduced family of self-consistent axisymmetric rotating models. The three clusters, characterized by different relaxation conditions, show evidence of differential rotation and deviations from sphericity. The combination of line-of-sight velocities and proper motions allows us to determine their internal dynamics, predict their morphology, and estimate their dynamical distance. The well-relaxed cluster 47 Tuc is interpreted very well by our model; internal rotation is found to explain the observed morphology. For M15, we provide a global model in good agreement with the data, including the central behavior of the rotation profile and the shape of the ellipticity profile. For the partially relaxed cluster {omega} Cen, the selected model reproduces the complex three-dimensional kinematics; in particular, the observed anisotropy profile, characterized by a transition from isotropy to weakly radial anisotropy and then to tangential anisotropy in the outer parts. The discrepancy found for the steep central gradient in the observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile and for the ellipticity profile is ascribed to the condition of only partial relaxation of this cluster and the interplay between rotation and radial anisotropy.
Thermodynamics of clusterized matter
Ad. R. Raduta; F. Gulminelli
2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics of clusterized matter is studied in the framework of statistical models with non-interacting cluster degrees of freedom. At variance with the analytical Fisher model, exact Metropolis simulation results indicate that the transition from homogeneous to clusterized matter lies along the $\\rho=\\rho_0$ axis at all temperatures and the limiting point of the phase diagram is not a critical point even if the surface energy vanishes at this point. Sensitivity of the inferred phase diagram to the employed statistical framework in the case of finite systems is discussed by considering the grand-canonical and constant-pressure canonical ensembles. A Wigner-Seitz formalism in which the fragment charge is neutralized by an uniform electron distribution allows to build the phase diagram of neutron star matter.
BK-type inequalities and generalized random-cluster representations
Berg, J van den
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, van den Berg and Jonasson gave the first substantial extension of the BK inequality for non-product measures: they proved that, for k-out-of-n measures, the probability that two increasing events occur disjointly is at most the product of the two individual probabilities. We show several other extensions and modifications of the BK inequality.In particular, we prove that the antiferromagnetic Ising Curie-Weiss model satisfies the BK inequality for all increasing events. We prove that this also holds for the Curie-Weiss model with three-body interactions under the so-called Negative Lattice Condition. For the ferromagnetic Ising model we show that the probability that two events occur `cluster-disjointly' is at most the product of the two individual probabilities, and we give a more abstract form of this result for arbitrary Gibbs measures. The above cases are derived from a general abstract theorem whose proof is based on an extension of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn random-cluster representation for all pr...
Transition probabilities and measurement statistics of postselected ensembles
Tobias Fritz
2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
It is well-known that a quantum measurement can enhance the transition probability between two quantum states. Such a measurement operates after preparation of the initial state and before postselecting for the final state. Here we analyze this kind of scenario in detail and determine which probability distributions on a finite number of outcomes can occur for an intermediate measurement with postselection, for given values of the following two quantities: (i) the transition probability without measurement, (ii) the transition probability with measurement. This is done for both the cases of projective measurements and of generalized measurements. Among other constraints, this quantifies a trade-off between high randomness in a projective measurement and high measurement-modified transition probability. An intermediate projective measurement can enhance a transition probability such that the failure probability decreases by a factor of up to 2, but not by more.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
to the Site Monitoring Area (SMA) The Site Monitoring Area sampler Control measures (best management practices) installed at the Site Monitoring Area Structures such as...
Wildlife Management Areas (Minnesota)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Certain areas of the State are designated as wildlife protection areas and refuges; new construction and development is restricted in these areas.
Spectral Clustering for Complex Settings
Wang, Xiang
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and T. Li. Integrated KL (K-means - Laplacian) clustering: Aschemes, such as K-means, hierarchical clustering, densityclustering algorithms such as K-means can only find a local
Logistics clusters : prevalence and impact
Rivera Virgüez, Myriam Liliana
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Governments around the world are investing significant resources in the development and expansion of logistics clusters. This dissertation analyzes the cluster phenomenon focusing on four topics. First, it develops a ...
Nonparametric Bayesian analysis of some clustering problems
Ray, Shubhankar
2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
it useful for clustering problems where the number of clusters is unknown. We develop nonparametric Bayesian models for two different clustering problems, namely functional and graphical clustering. We propose a nonparametric Bayes wavelet model...
Clustering Chain Additional options
Linial, Michal
ProtoClass -rationale and concept ProtoNet in brief AND BEYOND: Functional roadmap in Proto-ŕ-vis InterPro, SCOP, FSSP etc #12;6 ProtoClass Road-Maps A horizontal view provides `distances' between clusters. Those are the basis for creating Road-Maps. We test the biological content of those road maps
The Globular Cluster Luminosity Function
Dean E. McLaughlin
2003-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
The main aspects of the globular cluster luminosity function needing to be explained by a general theory of cluster formation are reviewed, and the importance of simultaneously understanding globular cluster systematics (the fundamental plane) within such a theory is pointed out.
Derivatized gold clusters and antibody-gold cluster conjugates
Hainfeld, J.F.; Furuya, F.R.
1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be as small as 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies, Fab' or F(ab')[sub 2] fragments are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. The gold clusters may contain 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 55 or 67 gold atoms in their inner core. The clusters may also contain radioactive gold. The antibody-cluster conjugates are useful in electron microscopy applications as well as in clinical applications that include imaging, diagnosis and therapy. 7 figs.
Origin of the drastic decrease of fusion probability in superheavy mass region
Y. Aritomo; M. Ohta
2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z
The fusion-fission process in the superheavy mass region is studied systematically by solving the time evolution of nuclear shape in three-dimensional deformation space using the Langevin equation. By analyzing the trajectory in the deformation space, we identify the critical area when the trajectory's destination is determined to be the fusion or the quasi-fission process. It is also clarified that the potential landscape around the critical area is crucial for estimating the fusion probability, and its dependence on the atomic number is presented.
G E O M A T I C A USING CLUSTERING METHODS IN
. In this paper, we give a detailed discussion of different types of clustering methods from a data mining surveillance, spatial epidemiology, population genetics, landscape ecology, crime analysis, as well as in many analysis in GIS. Various clustering methods have been proposed in both the area of spatial data mining
A Conditional Fuzzy Clustering with Adaptive Method A. Elmzabi1,2
Zeitouni, Karine
in data mining and pattern recognition areas. Fuzzy clustering allows natural grouping of data in a large cluster corresponds to a Mamdani fuzzy rule. The second step optimizes the fuzzy model parameters by using data set and provides a basis for constructing rule-based fuzzy model. Chiu developed a fuzzy
Efficient speaker verification using Gaussian mixture model component clustering.
De Leon, Phillip L. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); McClanahan, Richard D.
2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In speaker verification (SV) systems that employ a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to make decisions on a supervector derived from Gaussian mixture model (GMM) component mean vectors, a significant portion of the computational load is involved in the calculation of the a posteriori probability of the feature vectors of the speaker under test with respect to the individual component densities of the universal background model (UBM). Further, the calculation of the sufficient statistics for the weight, mean, and covariance parameters derived from these same feature vectors also contribute a substantial amount of processing load to the SV system. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes clusters of GMM-UBM mixture component densities in order to reduce the computational load required. In the adaptation step we score the feature vectors against the clusters and calculate the a posteriori probabilities and update the statistics exclusively for mixture components belonging to appropriate clusters. Each cluster is a grouping of multivariate normal distributions and is modeled by a single multivariate distribution. As such, the set of multivariate normal distributions representing the different clusters also form a GMM. This GMM is referred to as a hash GMM which can be considered to a lower resolution representation of the GMM-UBM. The mapping that associates the components of the hash GMM with components of the original GMM-UBM is referred to as a shortlist. This research investigates various methods of clustering the components of the GMM-UBM and forming hash GMMs. Of five different methods that are presented one method, Gaussian mixture reduction as proposed by Runnall's, easily outperformed the other methods. This method of Gaussian reduction iteratively reduces the size of a GMM by successively merging pairs of component densities. Pairs are selected for merger by using a Kullback-Leibler based metric. Using Runnal's method of reduction, we were able to achieve a factor of 2.77 reduction in a posteriori probability calculations with no loss in accuracy when the original UBM consisted of 256 component densities. When clustering was implemented with a 1024 component UBM, we achieved a computation reduction of 5 with no loss in accuracy and a reduction by a factor of 10 with less than 2.4% relative loss in accuracy.
Using the central VAX cluster at ANL
Caruthers, C.M.; Vote, S.L. [eds.; Lifka, D.A.; Raffenetti, R.C.
1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report is a manual that discusses the following topics on the Central Vax Cluster at ANL: What the Central Vax Cluster is; how the Vax Cluster works; operational policies; getting started; using tapes; printing on the Vax Cluster; developing programs in VMS; using the X window system on the Central Vax Cluster; and using Central Vax Cluster file sharing services.
R. J. H. Dunn; A. C. Fabian; G. B. Taylor
2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
We extend our earlier work on cluster cores with distinct radio bubbles, adding more active bubbles, i.e. those with Ghz radio emission, to our sample, and also investigating ``ghost bubbles,'' i.e. those without GHz radio emission. We have determined k, which is the ratio of the total particle energy to that of the electrons radiating between 10 MHz and 10 GHz. Constraints on the ages of the active bubbles confirm that the ratio of the energy factor, k, to the volume filling factor, f lies within the range 1 < k/f < 1000. In the assumption that there is pressure equilibrium between the radio-emitting plasma and the surrounding thermal X-ray gas, none of the radio lobes has equipartition between the relativistic particles and the magnetic field. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the data led to the conclusion that there are not enough bubbles present in the current sample to be able to determine the shape of the population. An analysis of the ghost bubbles in our sample showed that on the whole they have higher upper limits on k/f than the active bubbles, especially when compared to those in the same cluster. A study of the Brightest 55 cluster sample shows that 17, possibly 20, clusters required some form of heating as they have a short central cooling time, t_cool < 3 Gyr, and a large central temperature drop, T_centre/T_outer< 1/2. Of these between 12 (70 per cent) and 15 (75 per cent), contain bubbles. This indicates that the duty cycle of bubbles is large in such clusters and that they can play a major role in the heating process.
Wildlife Management Areas (Florida)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Certain sites in Florida are designated as wildlife management areas, and construction and development is heavily restricted in these areas.
Physical component analysis of galaxy cluster weak gravitational lensing data
Phil Marshall
2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
We present a novel approach for reconstructing the projected mass distribution of clusters of galaxies from sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularised using knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters: trial mass distributions are constructed from N physically-motivated components, each of which has the universal density profile and characteristic geometry observed in simulated clusters. The parameters of these components are assumed to be distributed \\emph{a priori} in the same way as they are in the simulated clusters. Sampling mass distributions from the components' parameters' posterior probability density function allows estimates of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of components is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reflecting the quality of the simulated data used in this work. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realisation, and succeed in recovering the input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. We comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and their implications, and discuss the extension of the method to include strong lensing information.
Reasonable conditions for joint probabilities of non-commuting observables
Holger F. Hofmann
2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
In the operator formalism of quantum mechanics, the density operator describes the complete statistics of a quantum state in terms of d^2 independent elements, where d is the number of possible outcomes for a precise measurement of an observable. In principle, it is therefore possible to express the density operator by a joint probability of two observables that cannot actually be measured jointly because they do not have any common eigenstates. However, such joint probabilities do not refer to an actual measurement outcome, so their definition cannot be based on a set of possible events. Here, I consider the criteria that could specify a unique mathematical form of joint probabilities in the quantum formalism. It is shown that a reasonable set of conditions results in the definition of joint probabilities by ordered products of the corresponding projection operators. It is pointed out that this joint probability corresponds to the quasi probabilities that have recently been observed experimentally in weak measurements.
PROTOSTARS AND STARS IN THE CORONET CLUSTER: AGE, EVOLUTION, AND CLUSTER STRUCTURE
Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Kainulainen, Jouni [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Roccatagliata, Veronica, E-mail: sicilia@mpia.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present new optical spectroscopy with the FLAMES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), near-IR imaging with VLT/HAWK-I, and 870 {mu}m mapping with APEX/LABOCA of the Coronet cluster. The optical data allow us to estimate spectral types, extinction, and the presence of accretion in 6 more M-type members, in addition to the 12 that we had previously studied. The submillimeter maps and near-IR data reveal the presence of nebular structures and high extinction regions, which are in some cases associated to known IR, optical, and X-ray sources. Most star formation is associated to two elongated structures crossing in the central part of the cluster. Placing all the 18 objects with known spectral types and extinction in an H-R diagram suggests that the cluster is younger than previously thought (<2 Myr, and probably {approx}0.5-1 Myr). The new age estimate is in agreement with the evolutionary status of the various protostars in the region and with its compactness (<1.3 pc across), but results in a conflict with the low disk and accretion fraction (only 50%-65% of low-mass stars appear to have protoplanetary disks, and most transitional and homologously depleted disks are consistent with no accretion) and with the evolutionary features observed in the mid-IR spectra and spectral energy distributions of the disks.
MAS 108 Probability I Test 11 November 2005, 16101655
Bailey, R. A.
) For which values of p are they more likely to have 2 boys than 3 boys? 3 #12;4 (15 marks) A fish is caught at random on the Great Barrier Reef. The probability that the fish is striped is 7/20; the probability that the fish is luminous is 1/5; and the probability that the fish is both striped and luminuous is 1/20. Find
Origin of probabilities and their application to the multiverse
Albrecht, Andreas
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We argue using simple models that all successful practical uses of probabilities originate in quantum fluctuations in the microscopic physical world around us, often propagated to macroscopic scales. Thus we claim there is no physically verified fully classical theory of probability. We comment on the general implications of this view, and specifically question the application of classical probability theory to cosmology in cases where key questions are known to have no quantum answer.
New probability table treatment in MCNP for unresolved resonances
Carter, L.L. [Carter M.C. Analysis, Richland, WA (United States); Little, R.C.; Hendricks, J.S.; MacFarlane, R.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
An upgrade for MCNP has been implemented to sample the neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance range using probability tables. These probability tables are generated with the cross section processor code NJOY, by using the evaluated statistical information about the resonances to calculate cumulative probability distribution functions for the microscopic total cross section. The elastic, fission, and radiative capture cross sections are also tabulated as the average values of each of these partials conditional upon the value of the total. This paper summarizes how the probability tables are utilized in this MCNP upgrade and compares this treatment with the approximate smooth treatment for some example problems.
Finite n Largest Eigenvalue Probability Distribution Function of Gaussian Ensembles
Leonard N. Choup
2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we focus on the finite n probability distribution function of the largest eigenvalue in the classical Gaussian Ensemble of n by n matrices (GEn). We derive the finite n largest eigenvalue probability distribution function for the Gaussian Orthogonal and Symplectic Ensembles and also prove an Edgeworth type Theorem for the largest eigenvalue probability distribution function of Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble. The correction terms to the limiting probability distribution are expressed in terms of the same Painleve II functions appearing in the Tracy-Widom distribution.
Sensible Quantum Mechanics: Are Probabilities only in the Mind?
Don N. Page
1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum mechanics may be formulated as {\\it Sensible Quantum Mechanics} (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic except conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued {\\it awareness operators}. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency-type probabilities for many actually existing sets. These probabilities generally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum ``probabilities'' for a single set of alternatives. {\\it Probabilism}, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an {\\it aesthemamorphic myth}.
Oscillations in probability distributions for stochastic gene expression
Petrosyan, K. G., E-mail: pkaren@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Hu, Chin-Kun, E-mail: huck@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The phenomenon of oscillations in probability distribution functions of number of components is found for a model of stochastic gene expression. It takes place in cases of low levels of molecules or strong intracellular noise. The oscillations distinguish between more probable even and less probable odd number of particles. The even-odd symmetry restores as the number of molecules increases with the probability distribution function tending to Poisson distribution. We discuss the possibility of observation of the phenomenon in gene, protein, and mRNA expression experiments.
A collision probability analysis of the double-heterogeneity problem
Hebert, A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Yvette (France))
1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
A practical collision probability model is presented for the description of geometries with many levels of heterogeneity. Regular regions of the macrogeometry are assumed to contain a stochastic mixture of spherical grains or cylindrical tubes. Simple expressions for the collision probabilities in the global geometry are obtained as a function of the collision probabilities in the macro- and microgeometries. This model was successfully implemented in the collision probability kernel of the APOLLO-1, APOLLO-2, and DRAGON lattice codes for the description of a broad range of reactor physics problems. Resonance self-shielding and depletion calculations in the microgeometries are possible because each microregion is explicitly represented.
Sarro, L M; Aerts, C; López, M
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Context. Discovery of new variability classes in large surveys using multivariate statistics techniques such as clustering, relies heavily on the correct understanding of the distribution of known classes as point processes in parameter space. Aims. Our objective is to analyze the correspondence between the classical stellar variability types and the clusters found in the distribution of light curve parameters and colour indices of stars in the CoRoT exoplanet sample. The final aim is to help in the identification on new types of variability by first identifying the well known variables in the CoRoT sample. Methods. We apply unsupervised classification algorithms to identify clusters of variable stars from modes of the probability density distribution. We use reference variability databases (Hipparcos and OGLE) as a framework to calibrate the clustering methodology. Furthermore, we use the results from supervised classification methods to interpret the resulting clusters. Results.We interpret the clusters in ...
The Architecture of Ant-Based Clustering to improve Topographic Mapping
behind ant-based clustering is that autonomous stochastic agents, called ants, move data objects on a low stochastic agents, called ants, that move input samples x X from m(x) to new location m (x). #12;Ants might. Probabilities for picking and dropping are computed using the average similarity x(i) between x X and input sam
Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : II. Atomic and Cluster Scale Models.
Lechman, Jeremy B.; Takato, Yoichi (State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY)
2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Understanding the interaction of aerosol particle clusters/flocs with surfaces is an area of interest for a number of processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, and powder manufacturing as well as in steam-tube rupture in nuclear power plants. Developing predictive capabilities for these applications involves coupled phenomena on multiple length and timescales from the process macroscopic scale ({approx}1m) to the multi-cluster interaction scale (1mm-0.1m) to the single cluster scale ({approx}1000 - 10000 particles) to the particle scale (10nm-10{micro}m) interactions, and on down to the sub-particle, atomic scale interactions. The focus of this report is on the single cluster scale; although work directed toward developing better models of particle-particle interactions by considering sub-particle scale interactions and phenomena is also described. In particular, results of mesoscale (i.e., particle to single cluster scale) discrete element method (DEM) simulations for aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls are presented. The particle-particle interaction model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular package in the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Additionally, as mentioned, results from atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations are also described as a means of developing higher fidelity models of particle-particle interactions. Ultimately, the results from these and other studies at various scales must be collated to provide systems level models with accurate 'sub-grid' information for design, analysis and control of the underlying systems processes.
A Fuzzy Clustering Approach to Word Sense Discrimination
Sahay, Sundeep
areas of pattern recognition as image processing and computer vision. However, we argue that fuzzy1 A Fuzzy Clustering Approach to Word Sense Discrimination ERIK VELLDAL This paper describes are construed as fuzzy sets, and the words are assigned varying degrees of membership with respect to the vari
Numerical wave optics and the lensing of gravitational waves by globular clusters
Andrew J. Moylan; David E. McClelland; Susan M. Scott; Antony C. Searle; G. V. Bicknell
2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the possible effects of gravitational lensing by globular clusters on gravitational waves from asymmetric neutron stars in our galaxy. In the lensing of gravitational waves, the long wavelength, compared with the usual case of optical lensing, can lead to the geometrical optics approximation being invalid, in which case a wave optical solution is necessary. In general, wave optical solutions can only be obtained numerically. We describe a computational method that is particularly well suited to numerical wave optics. This method enables us to compare the properties of several lens models for globular clusters without ever calling upon the geometrical optics approximation, though that approximation would sometimes have been valid. Finally, we estimate the probability that lensing by a globular cluster will significantly affect the detection, by ground-based laser interferometer detectors such as LIGO, of gravitational waves from an asymmetric neutron star in our galaxy, finding that the probability is insignificantly small.
Decision Making for Inconsistent Expert Judgments Using Negative Probabilities
J. Acacio de Barros
2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we provide a simple random-variable example of inconsistent information, and analyze it using three different approaches: Bayesian, quantum-like, and negative probabilities. We then show that, at least for this particular example, both the Bayesian and the quantum-like approaches have less normative power than the negative probabilities one.
Proof of the outage probability conjecture for MISO channels
Abbe, Emmanuel; Telatar, Emre
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In Telatar 1999, it is conjectured that the covariance matrices minimizing the outage probability for MIMO channels with Gaussian fading are diagonal with either zeros or constant values on the diagonal. In the MISO setting, this is equivalent to conjecture that the Gaussian quadratic forms having largest tale probability correspond to such diagonal matrices. We prove here the conjecture in the MISO setting.
Revised Transition Probabilities for Fe XXV Relativistic CI Calculations
Johnson, Walter R.
Revised Transition Probabilities for Fe XXV Relativistic CI Calculations W. R. Johnson1 and U are provided for transition probabilities between fine-structure components of levels with n 6 in FeXXV. Earlier published data for transitions between fine-structure levels in FeXXV is found to in error
Announced Dynamic Access Probability protocol for next generation wireless networks
Levy, Hanoch
Announced Dynamic Access Probability protocol for next generation wireless networks Z. NAOR #3; H probability. Keywords: wireless networks, multiple access, MAC #3; naorz@post.tau.ac.il y hanoch@cs.tau.ac.il 1 #12; 1 Introduction Wireless networks are rapidly expanding. Future satellite-based networks
SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN RANK-ONE PERTURBATION PROBLEMS
Poltoratski, Alexei
SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN RANK-ONE PERTURBATION PROBLEMS with changing boundary condition. The general question of perturbation theory can be stated as follows the effect of rank-one perturbations on the asymptotics of the so-called survival probability. This notion
IS THERE A DUTCH BOOK ARGUMENT FOR PROBABILITY KINEMATICS?*
Armendt, Brad
( A / Ei) PROB( Ei) ). So if (1) holds and (2) is violated, PROB will be incoherent and open to a Dutch probability kinematics will leave the agent open to a Dutch Book. Paul Teller (1973) has reported David Lewis violations of probability kinematics leave an agent open to a Dutch Book under assumptions little different
Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America
Dai, Aiguo
. Jones, A. Dai, S. Biner, D. Caya, and K. Winger (2010), Probability distributions of land surface wind distribution used for estimation of wind climate and annual winProbability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America Yanping He,1 Adam Hugh
MA 747, Spring 2012 Probability and Stochastic Process II
Ito, Kazufumi
MA 747, Spring 2012 Probability and Stochastic Process II Lecture Notes and Reference book The course will be based on the lecture notes and the reference book: Stochastic Processes, S.R.S. Varadhan theory needed for advanced applications in stochastic processes. It provides the basic probability theory
A statistical analysis of personnel contaminations in 200 Area facilities
Wagner, M.A.; Stoddard, D.H.
1983-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
This study determined the frequency statistics of personnel contaminations in 200 Area facilities. These statistics are utilized in probability calculations for contamination risks, and are part of an effort to provide reliable information for use in safety studies. Data for this analysis were obtained from the 200 Area and the Tritium Area Fault Tree Data Banks and were analyzed with the aid of the STATPAC computer code.
Phil Arras; Ira Wasserman
1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
We explore the possibility that massive black holes comprise a significant fraction of the dark matter of our galaxy by studying the dissolution of galactic globular clusters bombarded by them. In our simulations, we evolve the clusters along a sequence of King models determined by changes of state resulting from collisions with the black holes. The results divide naturally into regimes of `small' and `large' black hole mass. `Small' black holes do not destroy clusters in single collisions; their effect is primarily cumulative, leading to a relation between $\\mbh$ and $\\fhalo$, the fraction of the halo in black holes of mass $\\mbh$, which is $\\fhalo\\mbh < $ constant (up to logarithmic corrections). For $\\fhalo=1$, we find $\\mbh \\simless 10^{3} \\msun$ by requiring survival of the same clusters studied by Moore (1993), who neglected cluster evolution, mass loss, and stochasticity of energy inputs in his estimates, but reached a similar conclusion. `Large' black holes may not penetrate a cluster without disrupting it; their effect is mainly catastrophic (close collisions), but also partly cumulative (distant collisions). In the large $\\mbh$ limit, $\\fhalo$ (but not $\\mbh$) can be constrained by computing the probability that a cluster survives a combination of close, destructive encounters and distant, nondestructive encounters. We find that it is unlikely that $\\fhalo \\simgreat 0.3$ by requiring 50 per cent survival probability for Moore's clusters over $10^{10}$ years.
Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Barrado, D; Moraux, E; Bouvier, J; Cuillandre, J -C; Berihuete, A; Olivares, J; Beletsky, Y
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 millions unique sources in a region encompassing $\\approx$80deg$^{2}$ centered around the Pleiades cluster. We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades, and measure the mass and luminosity function of the cluster. Using the probabilistic selection method described in Sarro+2014, we identify high probability members in the DANCe ($i\\ge$14mag) and Tycho-2 ($V\\lesssim$12mag) catalogues, and study the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. We find a total of 2109 high probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to $\\approx$0.025M$_{\\odot}$. The size, sensitivity and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Our census supersedes ...
Graph partitioning advance clustering technique
Madhulatha, T Soni
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.
Cluster structures in Oxygen isotopes
N. Furutachi; M. kimura; A. Doté; Y. Kanada-En'yo; S. oryu
2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cluster structure of 16O,18O and 20O is investigated by the antisymmettrized molecular dynamics (AMD) plus generator coordinate method (GCM). We have found the K^{\\pi}=0$_2^+$ and 0$_1^-$ rotational bands of 18O that have the prominent 14C+\\alpha cluster structure. Clustering systematics becomes richer in 20O. We suggest the K^{\\pi}=0$_2^+$ band that is the mixture of the 12C+\\alpha+4n and 14C+6He cluster structures, and the K^{\\pi}=0$_1^-$ band that has the 14C+6He cluster structure. The K^{\\pi}=0$_3^+$ and 0$_2^-$ bands that have the prominent 16C+\\alpha cluster structure are also found.
Western Area Power Administration
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29-30, 2011 2 Agenda * Overview of Western Area Power Administration * Post-1989 Loveland Area Projects (LAP) Marketing Plan * Energy Planning and Management Program * Development...
Globular Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies
Bryan W. Miller
2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
Recent work on globular cluster systems in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group is reviewed. Recent large imaging surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope and follow-up spectroscopy with 8-m class telescopes now allow us to compare the properties of massive star clusters in a wide range of galaxy types and environments. This body of work provides important constraints for theories of galaxy and star cluster formation and evolution.
Large Area Vacuum Deposited Coatings
Martin, Peter M.
2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
It's easy to make the myriad of types of large area and decorative coatings for granted. We probably don't even think about most of them; the low-e and heat mirror coatings on our windows and car windows, the mirrors in displays, antireflection coatings on windows and displays, protective coatings on aircraft windows, heater coatings on windshields and aircraft windows, solar reflectors, thin film solar cells, telescope mirrors, Hubble mirrors, transparent conductive coatings, and the list goes on. All these products require large deposition systems and chambers. Also, don't forget that large batches of small substrates or parts are coated in large chambers. In order to be cost effective hundreds of ophthalmic lenses, automobile reflectors, display screens, lamp reflectors, cell phone windows, laser reflectors, DWDM filters, are coated in batches.
PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY
Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lang, Dustin, E-mail: lcjohnso@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others
2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin{sup 2}). This work presents results derived from the first {approx}25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include {approx}2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.
From clusters to clouds | EMSL
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
experimental data to quantum chemical calculations of cluster dissociation thermodynamics and determined that loss of either an ammonia molecule or an ammonium bisulfate...
RUNNING HEAD: Balkanization of Probability Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic Inferences
Yu, Alex
RUNNING HEAD: Balkanization of Probability Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic;Balkanization of Probability 2 Abstract Many research-related classes in social sciences present probability;Balkanization of Probability 3 Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic Inferences Introduction Use
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate, Ocean and SeaClotCluster
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate, Ocean and SeaClotClusterHopper
Origin of probabilities and their application to the multiverse
Andreas Albrecht; Daniel Phillips
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
We argue using simple models that all successful practical uses of probabilities originate in quantum fluctuations in the microscopic physical world around us, often propagated to macroscopic scales. Thus we claim there is no physically verified fully classical theory of probability. We comment on the general implications of this view, and specifically question the application of classical probability theory to cosmology in cases where key questions are known to have no quantum answer. We argue that the ideas developed here may offer a way out of the notorious measure problems of eternal inflation.
Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology
Walter, M.Todd
Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology Implications for Water Quality Risk hydrology was developed and applied to the New York City (NYC) water supply watersheds. According and are therefore hydrologically sensitive with respect to their potential to transport contaminants to perennial
Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : model and implementation.
Lechman, Jeremy B.
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this report a model for simulating aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls is presented. The model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular (DEM) package within the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Modeling the interactions of small particles is relevant to a number of applications (e.g., soils, powders, colloidal suspensions, etc.). Modeling the behavior of aerosol particles during agglomeration and cluster dynamics upon impact with a wall is of particular interest. In this report we describe preliminary efforts to develop and implement physical models for aerosol particle interactions. Future work will consist of deploying these models to simulate aerosol cluster behavior upon impact with a rigid wall for the purpose of developing relationships for impact speed and probability of stick/bounce/break-up as well as to assess the distribution of cluster sizes if break-up occurs. These relationships will be developed consistent with the need for inputs into system-level codes. Section 2 gives background and details on the physical model as well as implementations issues. Section 3 presents some preliminary results which lead to discussion in Section 4 of future plans.
AREA COORDINATOR RESIDENTIAL EDUCATION
Bordenstein, Seth
AREA COORDINATOR RESIDENTIAL EDUCATION VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE The Office of Housing and Residential Education at Vanderbilt University is seeking applicants for an Area Coordinator. The Area Coordinator is responsible for assisting in the management and operation of a residential area
Incremental Hierarchical Clustering of Text Documents
Gordon, Geoffrey J.
distribution is demonstrated. 1 Introduction Document clustering is an effective tool to manage informationIncremental Hierarchical Clustering of Text Documents by Nachiketa Sahoo Adviser: Jamie Callan May 5, 2006 Abstract Incremental hierarchical text document clustering algorithms are important
Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection
Meyer, Ryan M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Lareau, John P.; Anderson, Michael T.
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.
Beta-hypergeometric probability distribution on symmetric matrices
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Beta-hypergeometric probability distribution on symmetric matrices A. Hassairi , M. Masmoudi, O. Regaig Sfax University Tunisia. Running title: Beta-hypergeometric distribution Abstract : Some remarkable properties of the beta distribution are based on relations in- volving independence between beta
BayesDB : querying the probable implications of tabular data
Baxter, Jay
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
BayesDB, a Bayesian database table, lets users query the probable implications of their tabular data as easily as an SQL database lets them query the data itself. Using the built-in Bayesian Query Language (BQL), users ...
Objective Probability as a Guide to the World Michael Strevens
Strevens, Michael
will find its way back to the egg in just the right form that the egg will be reconstituted, and will leap. If quantum mechanics is probabilistic then objective probabilities are everywhere. Even if quantum mechanics
Inductive inference based on probability and Matthew Weber
Osherson, Daniel
Inductive inference based on probability and similarity Matthew Weber Princeton University Daniel in the Bayesian sense (Tentori et al., 2007), or as Weber acknowledges support from an NSF graduate research
Net quark number probability distribution near the chiral crossover transition
Kenji Morita; Bengt Friman; Krzysztof Redlich; Vladimir Skokov
2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate properties of the probability distribution of the net quark number near the chiral crossover transition in the quark-meson model. The calculations are performed within the functional renormalization group approach, as well as in the mean-field approximation. We find, that there is a substantial influence of the underlying chiral phase transition on the properties of the probability distribution. In particular, for a physical pion mass, the distribution which includes the effect of mesonic fluctuations, differs considerably from both, the mean-field and Skellam distributions. The latter is considered as a reference for a non-critical behavior. A characteristic feature of the net quark number probability distribution is that, in the vicinity of the chiral crossover transition in the O(4) universality class, it is narrower than the corresponding mean-field and Skellam function. We study the volume dependence of the probability distribution, as well as the resulting cumulants, and discuss their approximate scaling properties.
Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with inexact probability distribution
Hamadameen, Abdulqader Othman [Optimization, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, UTM (Malaysia); Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, UTM (Malaysia)
2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
This study deals with multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with uncertainty probability distribution which are defined as fuzzy assertions by ambiguous experts. The problem formulation has been presented and the two solutions strategies are; the fuzzy transformation via ranking function and the stochastic transformation when ?{sup –}. cut technique and linguistic hedges are used in the uncertainty probability distribution. The development of Sen’s method is employed to find a compromise solution, supported by illustrative numerical example.
MTH 164 Practice Exam 4 -Probability Theory Spring 2008
Garcia-Puente, Luis David
) black A) 2 3 B) 1 3 C) 2 5 D) 1 2 1) Find the probability. 2) A bag contains 6 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 1 green marble. What is the probability that a randomly selected marble is not blue? A) 7 10 has 22 students, 12 girls and 10 boys. Two students must be selected at random to be in the fall play
Connection probability for random graphs with given degree sequence
Xinping Xu
2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, the classical configuration model for random graphs with given degree distribution has been extensively used as a null model in contraposition to real networks with the same degree distribution. In this paper, we briefly review the applications of this model and derive analytical expression for connection probability by the expanding coefficient method. We also use our expanding coefficient method to obtain the connection probability for the directed configuration model.
Semiclassical Approach to Survival Probability at Quantum Phase Transitions
Wen-ge Wang; Pinquan Qin; Lewei He; Ping Wang
2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z
We study the decay of survival probability at quantum phase transitions (QPT). The semiclassical theory is found applicable in the vicinities of critical points with infinite degeneracy. The theory predicts a power law decay of the survival probability for relatively long times in systems with d=1 and an exponential decay in systems with sufficiently large d, where d is the degrees of freedom of the underlying classical dynamics. The semiclassical predictions are checked numerically in four models.
The resonance absorption probability function for neutron and multiplicative integral
V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; S. I. Kosenko; S. A. Chernegenko
2012-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
The analytical approximations for the moderating neutrons flux density like Fermi spectra, widely used in reactor physics, involve the probability function for moderating neutron to avoid the resonant absorption obtained using some restrictive assumptions regarding the acceptable resonances width. By means of multiplicative integral (Volterra integral) theory for a commutative algebra an analytical expression for the probability function is obtained rigorously without any restrictive assumptions.
Relative Ages of Globular Clusters
Thomas H. Puzia
2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
Ages of extragalactic globular clusters can provide valuable insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. In this contribution the photometric methods of age dating old globular cluster systems are summarised. The spectroscopic approach is reviewed with an emphasis of the right choice of age diagnostics. We present a new method of quantifying the relatively best age-sensitive spectroscopic index given the quality of a data set and a certain theoretical stellar synthesis model. The relatively best diagnostic plot is constructed from the set of Lick indices and used to age date globular clusters in several early-type galaxies which are part of a large spectroscopic survey of extragalactic globular cluster systems. We find that, independently of host galaxy, metal-poor ([Fe/H] 8 Gyr) and coeval. Metal-rich clusters show a wide range of ages from ~15 down to a few Gyr.
Additive Manufacturing Cluster Strategy | ornl.gov
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Additive Manufacturing Cluster Strategy SHARE Additive Manufacturing Cluster Strategy As the nation's premier research laboratory, ORNL is one of the world's most capable resources...
Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...
Analyzing geographic clustered response
Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.
1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES
Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.
Wetland Preservation Areas (Minnesota)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
A wetland owner can apply to the host county for designation of a wetland preservation area. Once designated, the area remains designated until the owner initiates expiration, except where a state...
The BMW Deep X-ray Cluster Survey
L. Guzzo; A. Moretti; S. Campana; S. Covino; I. Dell'Antonio; D. Lazzati; M. Longhetti; E. Molinari; M. R. Panzera; G. Tagliaferri
2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly describe the main features of the Brera Multi-Wavelet (BMW) survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. Cluster candidates are selected from the general BMW catalogue of 20,000 sources based exclusively on their X-ray extension. Contrary to common wisdom, a clever selection of the HRI energy channels allows us to significantly reduce the background noise, thus greatly improving the ability to detect low surface-brightness sources as clusters. The resulting sample of ~250 candidates shows a very good sky coverage down to a flux \\~3x10^-14 erg/s/cm^2 ([0.5-2.0] keV band), i.e comparable to existing PSPC-based deep survey, with a particularly interesting area of ~100 sq.deg. around fluxes ~10^-13 erg/s/cm^2, i.e. where highly-luminous, rare systems at z~0.6-1 can be detected. At the same time, the superior angular resolution of the instrument should avoid biases against intrinsically small systems, while easing the identification process (e.g. by spotting blends and AGN contaminants). While about 20% of the candidates are already identified with groups/clusters at z0.5) bonafide cluster counterpart for ~80% of the targets.
Mirkin, Boris
1 Intelligent choice of the number of clusters in K-Means clustering: an experimental study The issue of determining "the right number of clusters" in K-Means has attracted considerable interest of the cluster recovery. The subjects of our interest are two versions of the "intelligent" K-Means method, ik
Protected Areas Stacy Philpott
Gottgens, Hans
· Convention of Biological Diversity, 1992 #12;IUCN Protected Area Management Categories Ia. Strict Nature. Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI. Managed Resource Protected Area #12;Ia. Strict Nature Preserves and Ib. Wilderness Areas · Natural preservation · Research · No · No #12;II. National Parks · Ecosystem protection
New South Wales, University of
Catheter Lab Boiler House Main Entry Short Street ChapelStreet Vehicle Exit 23. Gray Street Car ParkingService Entry Waste Handling Area Delivery Area Admissions Entrance Inquiries Desk Cafeteria Coffee in July 2000 Vehicle Entry Emergency Main Entrance TOKOGARAHRAILWAYSTATION LEGEND Areas under construction
Demonstration Integrated Knowledge-Based System for Estimating Human Error Probabilities
Auflick, Jack L.
1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is currently comprised of at least 40 different methods that are used to analyze, predict, and evaluate human performance in probabilistic terms. Systematic HRAs allow analysts to examine human-machine relationships, identify error-likely situations, and provide estimates of relative frequencies for human errors on critical tasks, highlighting the most beneficial areas for system improvements. Unfortunately, each of HRA's methods has a different philosophical approach, thereby producing estimates of human error probabilities (HEPs) that area better or worse match to the error likely situation of interest. Poor selection of methodology, or the improper application of techniques can produce invalid HEP estimates, where that erroneous estimation of potential human failure could have potentially severe consequences in terms of the estimated occurrence of injury, death, and/or property damage.
Cluster Selection and the Evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
D. J. Burke; C. A. Collins; R. G. Mann
2000-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
The K-band Hubble diagram of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) is presented for a large, X-ray selected cluster sample extending out to z = 0.8. The controversy over the degree of BCG evolution is shown to be due to sample selection, since the BCG luminosity depends upon the cluster environment. Selecting only the most X-ray luminous clusters produces a BCG sample which shows, under the assumption of an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, significantly less mass growth than that predicted by current semi-analytic galaxy formation models, and significant evidence of any growth only if the dominant stellar population of the BCGs formed relatively recently (z <= 2.6).
Some Applications of the Fractional Poisson Probability Distribution
Nick Laskin
2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
Physical and mathematical applications of fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have discovered and developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers. Appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been applied to evaluate skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A new representation of Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been obtained. A representation of Schlafli polynomials in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. A new representations of Mittag-Leffler function involving fractional Bell polynomials and fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been discovered. Fractional Stirling numbers of the first kind have been introduced and studied. Two new polynomial sequences associated with fractional Poisson probability distribution have been launched and explored. The relationship between new polynomials and the orthogonal Charlier polynomials has also been investigated. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of quantum optics, the theory of combinatorial numbers and the theory of orthogonal polynomials of discrete variable.
Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmeja, Stefan [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, P.O. Box 11337, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States); Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio [Dipartimento di Fisica 'Enrico Fermi', Universita di Pisa, largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa I-56127 (Italy)
2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction ({approx}60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of {approx}2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last {approx}5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was formed first and rapidly started dissolving into its immediate ambient environment, possibly ejecting also massive stars found away from its center. Star formation continued in sub-clusters of a larger stellar agglomeration, introducing an age spread of the order of 2.5 Myr among the PMS populations.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS
PETERSEN SW
2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
{sm_bullet} Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage {sm_bullet} Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to <48 parts per billion (ppb) in aquifer (drinking water standard) - Large plumes with isolated areas of high chromium concentrations (> 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas
Functional Clustering in Nested Designs Abel Rodriguez
West, Mike
-spline fitting coupled with k-means clustering; Tarpey & Kinateder (2003), who apply k-means clustering via functional data that employ spline representations; Garc´ia-Escudero & Gordaliza (2005), where the robust k-means profile for each woman. #12;Functional Clustering in Nested Designs 3 with k-means clustering; Heard et al
Simulation and Estimation of Extreme Quantiles and Extreme Probabilities
Guyader, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.guyader@uhb.fr [Universite Rennes 2 (France); Hengartner, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Information Sciences Group (United States); Matzner-Lober, Eric [Universite Rennes 2 (France)
2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Let X be a random vector with distribution {mu} on Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup d} and {Phi} be a mapping from Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup d} to Double-Struck-Capital-R . That mapping acts as a black box, e.g., the result from some computer experiments for which no analytical expression is available. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to estimate a tail probability given a quantile or a quantile given a tail probability. The algorithm improves upon existing multilevel splitting methods and can be analyzed using Poisson process tools that lead to exact description of the distribution of the estimated probabilities and quantiles. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated in a problem related to digital watermarking.
Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters
Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.
The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union
Escher, Christine
The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union Student Leadership and Involvement Student Media Something New @ OSU #12;Access Diversity "Leadership/Citizenship" Community Connection Health & Wellness Housing & Dining Administrative Leadership #12;Student Leadership & Involvement SLI-Activities Program Club
Multi-source contingency clustering
Bouvrie, Jacob V
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis examines the problem of clustering multiple, related sets of data simultaneously. Given datasets which are in some way connected (e.g. temporally) but which do not necessarily share label compatibility, we ...
Rien van de Weygaert
2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the intimate relationship between the filamentary features and the rare dense compact cluster nodes in this network, via the large scale tidal field going along with them, following the cosmic web theory developed Bond et al. The Megaparsec scale tidal shear pattern is responsible for the contraction of matter into filaments, and its link with the cluster locations can be understood through the implied quadrupolar mass distribution in which the clusters are to be found at the sites of the overdense patches. We present a new technique for tracing the cosmic web, identifying planar walls, elongated filaments and cluster nodes in the galaxy distribution. This will allow the practical exploitation of the concept of the cosmic web towards identifying and tracing the locations of the gaseous WHIM. These methods, the Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimator (DTFE) and the Morphology Multiscale Filter (MMF) find their basis in computational geometry and visualization.
Some Results in the Hyperinvariant Subspace Problem and Free Probability
Tucci Scuadroni, Gabriel H.
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
[X]!C given by a(Xk) = ?(ak); k2N where C[X] denotes the set of complex polynomials in the indeterminate X. If A is a C -algebra, ? a state on A, and a = a , then by the Riesz representation theorem, a determines a probability measure on R which we will also... denote by a. That is, a is the unique compactly supported Borel probability measure on R which 4 satis es Z R tkd a(t) = ?(ak); k2N: The joint distribution of a family (ai)i2I of non-commutative random variables in (A;?) is the linear map (ai) : Ch...
Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys
Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram
2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
have identified probability distortions. The majority have 85 shown that monkeys are risk seeking for small rewards (McCoy and Platt, 2005; 86 O’Neill and Schultz, 2010; Kim et al., 2012; So and Stuphorn, 2012; Lak et al., 2014; 87... and magnitude (So 90 and Stuphorn, 2012; Raghuraman and Padoa-Schioppa, 2014), or by holding 91 probability constant and changing the magnitude (McCoy and Platt, 2005; Kim et al., 92 2012; Yamada et al., 2013; Lak et al., 2014; Stauffer et al., 2014...
Kolmogorov Algorithmic Complexity and its Probability Interpretation in Quantum Gravity
V. D. Dzhunushaliev
1997-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
The quantum gravity has great difficulties with application of the probability notion. In given article this problem is analyzed according to algorithmic viewpoint. According to A.N. Kolmogorov, the probability notion can be connected with algorithmic complexity of given object. The paper proposes an interpretation of quantum gravity, according to which an appearance of something corresponds to its Kolmogorov's algorithmic complexity. By this viewpoint the following questions are considered: the quantum transition with supplementary coordinates splitting off, the algorithmic complexity of the Schwarzschild black hole is estimated, the redefinition of the Feynman path integral, the quantum birth of the Euclidean Universe with the following changing of the metric signature.
Surface spin flip probability of mesoscopic Ag wires.
Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.
2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
Spin relaxation in mesoscopic Ag wires in the diffusive transport regime is studied via nonlocal spin valve and Hanle effect measurements performed on Permalloy/Ag lateral spin valves. The ratio between momentum and spin relaxation times is not constant at low temperatures. This can be explained with the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism by considering the momentum surface relaxation time as being temperature dependent. We present a model to separately determine spin flip probabilities for phonon, impurity and surface scattering and find that the spin flip probability is highest for surface scattering.
The Measure for the Multiverse and the Probability for Inflation
Miao Li; Yi Wang
2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the measure problem in the framework of inflationary cosmology. The measure of the history space is constructed and applied to inflation models. Using this measure, it is shown that the probability for the generalized single field slow roll inflation to last for $N$ e-folds is suppressed by a factor $\\exp(-3N)$, and the probability for the generalized $n$-field slow roll inflation is suppressed by a much larger factor $\\exp(-3nN)$. Some non-inflationary models such as the cyclic model do not suffer from this difficulty.
Coverage Properties of the Target Area in Wireless Sensor Networks
Zuyev, Sergei
1 Coverage Properties of the Target Area in Wireless Sensor Networks Xiaoyun Li, Member, IEEE is developed for the probability of sensing coverage in a wireless sensor network with randomly deployed sensor examined. These results will have applications in planning and design tools for wireless sensor networks
Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)
2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).
Adhesive Gravitational Clustering
Thomas Buchert; Alvaro Dominguez
2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
The notion of `adhesion' has been advanced for the phenomenon of stabilization of large-scale structure emerging from gravitational instability of a cold medium. Recently, the physical origin of adhesion has been identified: a systematic derivation of the equations of motion for the density and the velocity fields leads naturally to the key equation of the `adhesion approximation' - however, under a set of strongly simplifying assumptions. In this work, we provide an evaluation of the current status of adhesive gravitational clustering and a clear explanation of the assumptions involved. Furthermore, we propose systematic generalizations with the aim to relax some of the simplifying assumptions. We start from the general Newtonian evolution equations for self-gravitating particles on an expanding Friedmann background and recover the popular `dust model' (pressureless fluid), which breaks down after the formation of density singularities; then we investigate, in a unified framework, two other models which, under the restrictions referred to above, lead to the `adhesion approximation'. We apply the Eulerian and Lagrangian perturbative expansions to these new models and, finally, we discuss some non-perturbative results that may serve as starting points for workable approximations of non-linear structure formation in the multi-stream regime. In particular, we propose a new approximation that includes, in limiting cases, the standard `adhesion model' and the Eulerian as well as Lagrangian first-order approximations.
INTEGRAL observations of Galaxy Clusters
Goldoni, P; Laurent, P; Cassé, M; Paul, J; Sarazin, C L
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cluster of galaxies are the largest concentrations of visible mass in the Universe and therefore a fundamental topic of cosmology and astrophysics. Recent radio, EUV, and X-ray observations suggest that clusters contain large populations of diffuse nonthermal relativistic and/or superthermal particles. These particles may be produced by acceleration in cluster merger shocks, AGNs, and/or supernovae in cluster galaxies. Models for the nonthermal populations in clusters indicate that they should produce substantial hard X-ray and $\\gamma$ luminosities. The possible role of nonthermal particles in the dynamics of clusters is one of the greatest uncertainties in their use as cosmological probes. INTEGRAL offers, for the first time, the possibility of simultaneous medium resolution imaging (~ 12 arcmin) and high resolution spectroscopy (DeltaE/E ~ 2 keV @ 1.3 MeV) with exceptional sensitivity in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. The spatial resolution will allow discrete sources, such as AGNs, to be separated fr...
Cosmography with cluster strong lensing
James Gilmore; Priyamvada Natarajan
2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
By stacking an ensemble of strong lensing clusters, we demonstrate the feasibility of placing constraints on the dark energy equation of state. This is achieved by using multiple images of sources at two or more distinct redshift planes. The sample of smooth clusters in our simulations is based on observations of massive clusters and the distribution of background galaxies is constructed using the Hubble Deep Field. Our source distribution reproduces the observed redshift distribution of multiply imaged sources in Abell 1689. The cosmology recovery depends on the number of image families with known spectroscopic redshifts and the number of stacked clusters. Our simulations suggest that constraints comparable to those derived from other competing established techniques on a constant dark energy equation of state can be obtained using 10 to 40 clusters with 5 or more families of multiple images. We have also studied the observational errors in the image redshifts and positions. We find that spectroscopic redshifts and high resolution {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images are required to eliminate confidence contour relaxation relative to the ideal case in our simulations. This suggests that the dark energy equation of state, and other cosmological parameters, can be constrained with existing {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of lensing clusters coupled with dedicated ground-based arc spectroscopy.
Internal gettering by metal alloy clusters
Buonassisi, Anthony (San Diego, CA); Heuer, Matthias (Berkeley, CA); Istratov, Andrei A. (Albany, CA); Pickett, Matthew D. (Berkeley, CA); Marcus, Mathew A. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Piedmont, CA)
2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention relates to the internal gettering of impurities in semiconductors by metal alloy clusters. In particular, intermetallic clusters are formed within silicon, such clusters containing two or more transition metal species. Such clusters have melting temperatures below that of the host material and are shown to be particularly effective in gettering impurities within the silicon and collecting them into isolated, less harmful locations. Novel compositions for some of the metal alloy clusters are also described.
Some Remarks on Extragalactic Globular Clusters
Tom Richtler
2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
I comment (in a review fashion) on a few selected topics in the field of extragalactic globular clusters with strong emphasis on recent work. The topics are: bimodality in the colour distribution of cluster systems, young massive clusters, and the brightest old clusters. Globular cluster research, perhaps more than ever, has lead to important (at least to astronomers) progress and problems in galaxy structure and formation.
A Serendipitous Deep Cluster Survey from ROSAT--PSPC pointed observations
P. Rosati
1995-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
We present a deep X-ray selected sample of galaxy clusters which has been created from a serendipitous search in ROSAT-PSPC deep pointed observations at high galactic latitude. This survey, hereafter known as the ROSAT Deep Cluster Survey (RDCS), is being carried out utilizing a wavelet-based detection algorithm which, unlike other detection methods, is not biased against extended, low surface brightness sources. It is a flux-diameter limited sample that extends the X-ray flux limit of previous cluster surveys by more than one order of magnitude ($F_X \\ge 1\\cdot 10^{-14}\\rm erg\\, cm^{-2}s^{-1}$). The first results of the on-going optical follow-up program indicate a high success rate of identification. At the present, 38 clusters out of 80 candidates have been identified on a 26 deg$^2$ surveyed area. Recently measured redshifts confirm the nature of these systems as low-moderate redshift groups ($z\\simeq 0.2-0.3$) and intermediate to high redshift clusters ($z\\simeq 0.4-0.7$). We show X-ray and optical images of several clusters identified to date, discuss the X-ray properties of the sample and present preliminary results on the redshift distribution. The final sample will include $\\sim 100$ clusters covering and area of $\\sim 40$ deg$^2$.
The Annals of Probability 2007, Vol. 35, No. 1, 131
SeppĂ¤lĂ¤inen, Timo
operates as follows. An environment is chosen from the distribution P and fixed for all time. Pick probability distribution Pz(dX,d) = P z (dX)P(d) on walks and environments is called the joint annealed law IN A RANDOM ENVIRONMENT WITH A FORBIDDEN DIRECTION BY FIRAS RASSOUL-AGHA AND TIMO SEPPĂ?LĂ?INEN1 University
Generic Degraded Congiguration Probability Analysis for DOE Codisposal Waste Package
S.F.A. Deng; M. Saglam; L.J. Gratton
2001-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
In accordance with the technical work plan, ''Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c), this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is developed for the purpose of screening out degraded configurations for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) types. It performs the degraded configuration parameter and probability evaluations of the overall methodology specified in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000, Section 3) to qualifying configurations. Degradation analyses are performed to assess realizable parameter ranges and physical regimes for configurations. Probability calculations are then performed for configurations characterized by k{sub eff} in excess of the Critical Limit (CL). The scope of this document is to develop a generic set of screening criteria or models to screen out degraded configurations having potential for exceeding a criticality limit. The developed screening criteria include arguments based on physical/chemical processes and probability calculations and apply to DOE SNF types when codisposed with the high-level waste (HLW) glass inside a waste package. The degradation takes place inside the waste package and is long after repository licensing has expired. The emphasis of this AMR is on degraded configuration screening and the probability analysis is one of the approaches used for screening. The intended use of the model is to apply the developed screening criteria to each DOE SNF type following the completion of the degraded mode criticality analysis internal to the waste package.
STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBABILITY OF DETECTION FOR AUTOMATED EDDY CURRENT
STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBABILITY OF DETECTION FOR AUTOMATED EDDY CURRENT NONDESTRUCTIVE for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA Abstract: Eddy current inspection is widely response collected using our motion controlled eddy current inspection system, are used in the analysis
Local Privacy and Minimax Bounds: Sharp Rates for Probability Estimation
Jordan, Michael I.
. Jordan1,2 Martin J. Wainwright1,2 1 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 2Local Privacy and Minimax Bounds: Sharp Rates for Probability Estimation John C. Duchi1 Michael I Department of Statistics University of California, Berkeley {jduchi
Probability Distribution of Curvatures of Isosurfaces in Gaussian Random Fields
Paulo R. S. Mendonca; Rahul Bhotika; James V. Miller
2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
An expression for the joint probability distribution of the principal curvatures at an arbitrary point in the ensemble of isosurfaces defined on isotropic Gaussian random fields on Rn is derived. The result is obtained by deriving symmetry properties of the ensemble of second derivative matrices of isotropic Gaussian random fields akin to those of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble.
On the probability and spatial distribution of ocean surface currents
Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"
Corresponding author address: Yosef Ashkenazy, Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben- GurionOn the probability and spatial distribution of ocean surface currents Yosef Ashkenazy Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel Hezi Gildor The Fredy
Word learning, phonological short-term memory, phonotactic probability and
Gupta, Prahlad
for thinking about various types of studies of word learning. We then review a number of themes that in recent as a useful organizing scheme for thinking about various types of studies of word learning. In §2, we reviewWord learning, phonological short-term memory, phonotactic probability and long-term memory
Protein structure determination using a database of interatomic distance probabilities
Phillips, George N. Jr.
determination and molecular modeling. An energy function, or database potential, is derived from distributionsProtein structure determination using a database of interatomic distance probabilities MICHAEL E for Advanced Science and Technology and National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS A probable spawning aggregation of the leather bass
of herbivores that facilitate leather bass predation on benthic fishes and crustaceans (Montgomery, 1975). Of the 122 reef fish species in Revillagigedo recorded on scuba dives in February 2006, the leather bassBRIEF COMMUNICATIONS A probable spawning aggregation of the leather bass Dermatolepis dermatolepis
Assignment 1, Probability and Distribution September 10, 2011
Shihada, Basem
Assignment 1, Probability and Distribution September 10, 2011 Question 1 Exponential distribution is an important distribution in this course. We will be using it quite frequently in our future lectures. Suppose a non-negative real valued random variable X obeys an exponential distribution with parameter µ. That is
Outage Probability Analysis of Distributed Reception with Hard Decision Exchanges
Brown III, Donald R.
Outage Probability Analysis of Distributed Reception with Hard Decision Exchanges Rui Wang, D. Richard Brown III, Min Ni Dept. of Electrical and Computer Eng. Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 Email: {rwang,drb,minni@wpi.edu} Upamanyu Madhow Dept. of Electrical
Evaluating the small deviation probabilities for subordinated Levy processes
Shi, Zhan
Evaluating the small deviation probabilities for subordinated LÂ´evy processes Werner Linde and Zhan and Linde [7]) that the small deviation problem for Z is equivalent to the problem of estimating the entropy recent progresses (Samorodnitsky [13], Simon [16]Â[17], Ishikawa [3], Li and Linde [8], Lifshits
Spin flip probability of electron in a uniform magnetic field
Hammond, Richard T. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27703 (United States)
2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
The probability that an electromagnetic wave can flip the spin of an electron is calculated. It is assumed that the electron resides in a uniform magnetic field and interacts with an incoming electromagnetic pulse. The scattering matrix is constructed and the time needed to flip the spin is calculated.
1997 by M. Kostic Ch.4: Probability and Statistics
Kostic, Milivoje M.
1 Â©1997 by M. Kostic Ch.4: Probability and Statistics Variations due to: Â· Measurement System. Â©1997 by M. Kostic Statistical Measurement Theory Â· Sample - a set of measured data Â· Measurand - measured variable Â· (True) mean value: (x') xmean #12;2 Â©1997 by M. Kostic Mean Value and Uncertainty x
Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Implications of Personal Probability for Induction
Barrett, Jeffrey A.
Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Implications of Personal Probability for Induction Author(s): Leonard J. Savage Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 64, No. 19, Sixty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division (Oct. 5, 1967), pp. 593-607 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc
Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution
Laskin, Nick [TopQuark Inc., Toronto, Ontario M6P 2P2 (Canada)
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been introduced and applied to evaluate the skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A representation of the Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of the quantum optics and the theory of combinatorial numbers.
A converse Lyapunov theorem for asymptotic stability in probability
Hespanha, Joăo Pedro
1 A converse Lyapunov theorem for asymptotic stability in probability A.R. Teel, J.P. Hespanha, A. Subbaraman Abstract A converse Lyapunov theorem is established for discrete-time stochastic systems with non implies the existence of a continuous Lyapunov function, smooth outside of the attractor, that decreases
Groundwater Management Areas (Texas)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This legislation authorizes the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the Texas Water Development Board to establish Groundwater Management Areas to provide for the conservation,...
Riparian Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management Handbook
Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"
..............................................................................................................19 Bruce Hoagland, Oklahoma Biological Survey and the University of Oklahoma Forest Management Riparian Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management Handbook E-952 Oklahoma Cooperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oklahoma Conservation Commission Management Handbook #12
The self-enrichment of galactic halo globular clusters : a clue to their formation ?
G. Parmentier; E. Jehin; P. Magain; C. Neuforge; A. Noels; A. A. Thoul
1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a model of globular cluster self-enrichment. In the protogalaxy, cold and dense clouds embedded in the hot protogalactic medium are assumed to be the progenitors of galactic halo globular clusters. The massive stars of a first generation of metal-free stars, born in the central areas of the proto-globular cluster clouds, explode as Type II supernovae. The associated blast waves trigger the expansion of a supershell, sweeping all the material of the cloud, and the heavy elements released by these massive stars enrich the supershell. A second generation of stars is born in these compressed and enriched layers of gas. These stars can recollapse and form a globular cluster. This work aims at revising the most often encountered argument against self-enrichment, namely the presumed ability of a small number of supernovae to disrupt a proto-globular cluster cloud. We describe a model of the dynamics of the supershell and of its progressive chemical enrichment. We show that the minimal mass of the primordial cluster cloud required to avoid disruption by several tens of Type II supernovae is compatible with the masses usually assumed for proto-globular cluster clouds. Furthermore, the corresponding self-enrichment level is in agreement with halo globular cluster metallicities.
DETECTION OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER PHOTOMETRY OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819
Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Bruntt, Hans; Mosser, BenoIt; Barban, Caroline; Goupil, Marie-Jo [LESIA, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, 92195 Meudon (France); Stevens, Ian R.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Hekker, Saskia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Brown, Timothy M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Arentoft, Torben [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ballot, Jerome [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Toulouse-Tarbes, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 av E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); GarcIa, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mathur, Savita [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)] (and others)
2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Asteroseismology of stars in clusters has been a long-sought goal because the assumption of a common age, distance, and initial chemical composition allows strong tests of the theory of stellar evolution. We report results from the first 34 days of science data from the Kepler Mission for the open cluster NGC 6819-one of the four clusters in the field of view. We obtain the first clear detections of solar-like oscillations in the cluster red giants and are able to measure the large frequency separation, {delta}{nu}, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power, {nu}{sub max}. We find that the asteroseismic parameters allow us to test cluster membership of the stars, and even with the limited seismic data in hand, we can already identify four possible non-members despite their having a better than 80% membership probability from radial velocity measurements. We are also able to determine the oscillation amplitudes for stars that span about 2 orders of magnitude in luminosity and find good agreement with the prediction that oscillation amplitudes scale as the luminosity to the power of 0.7. These early results demonstrate the unique potential of asteroseismology of the stellar clusters observed by Kepler.
The host galaxy cluster of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050509B
Pedersen, K; Hjorth, J; Starling, R; Castro-Cerón, J M; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Jakobsson, P; Sollerman, J; Watson, D
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The first arcsecond localization of a short gamma-ray burst, GRB 050509B, has enabled detailed studies of a short burst environment. We here report on studies of the environment of GRB 050509B using the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The XRT error circle of the burst overlaps with an elliptical galaxy in the cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916. Based on the measured X-ray flux of the cluster we estimate that the probability for a chance superposition of GRB 050509B and a cluster at least as X-ray bright as this cluster is $< 2\\times 10^{-3}$, presenting the first strong case of a short burst located in a cluster of galaxies. We also consider the case for GRB 050509B being located behind ZwCl 1234.0+02916 and gravitationally lensed. From the velocity dispersion of the elliptical galaxy and the temperature of hot intracluster gas, we model the mass distribution in the elliptical galaxy and the cluster, and calculate the gravitational lensing magnification within the XRT error circle. We find that, if GRB0505...
Modeling highway travel time distribution with conditional probability models
Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL] [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL] [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL] [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ABSTRACT Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Freight Management and Operations, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has developed performance measures through the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. Under this program, travel speed information is derived from data collected using wireless based global positioning systems. These telemetric data systems are subscribed and used by trucking industry as an operations management tool. More than one telemetric operator submits their data dumps to ATRI on a regular basis. Each data transmission contains truck location, its travel time, and a clock time/date stamp. Data from the FPM program provides a unique opportunity for studying the upstream-downstream speed distributions at different locations, as well as different time of the day and day of the week. This research is focused on the stochastic nature of successive link travel speed data on the continental United States Interstates network. Specifically, a method to estimate route probability distributions of travel time is proposed. This method uses the concepts of convolution of probability distributions and bivariate, link-to-link, conditional probability to estimate the expected distributions for the route travel time. Major contribution of this study is the consideration of speed correlation between upstream and downstream contiguous Interstate segments through conditional probability. The established conditional probability distributions, between successive segments, can be used to provide travel time reliability measures. This study also suggests an adaptive method for calculating and updating route travel time distribution as new data or information is added. This methodology can be useful to estimate performance measures as required by the recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP 21).
Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...
Zone Mesozoic granite granodiorite Aurora Geothermal Area Aurora Geothermal Area Walker Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region MW Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area Beowawe Hot...
1 KEYWORDS: geospatial clustering, web service, Web GIS, spatial data mining, clustering 1 in disease surveillance, spatial epidemiology, population genetics, landscape ecology, crime analysis
Ionization of Water Clusters is Mediated by Exciton Energy Transfer from Argon Clusters
Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid
2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z
The exciton energy deposited in an argon cluster, (Arn ,< n=20>) using VUV radiation is transferred to softly ionize doped water clusters, ((H2O)n, n=1-9) leading to the formation of non-fragmented clusters. Following the initial excitation, electronic energy is channeled to ionize the doped water cluster while evaporating the Ar shell, allowing identification of fragmented and complete water cluster ions. Examination of the photoionization efficiency curve shows that cluster evaporation from excitons located above 12.6 eV are not enough to cool the energized water cluster ion, and leads to their dissociation to (H2O)n-2H+ (protonated) clusters.
Bayesian Model Based Clustering Procedures John W. Lau
Green, Peter
of classical approaches, such as hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering procedures, Bayesian a comparison of the statistical performance of the (approximate) optimal clustering with earlier methods
AGN Physics from QSO Clustering
Scott Croom; Brian Boyle; Tom Shanks; Phil Outram; Robert Smith; Lance Miller; Nicola Loaring; Suzanne Kenyon; Warrick Couch
2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
We review the current status of QSO clustering measurements, particular with respect to their relevance in understanding AGN physics. Measurements based on the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ) find a scale length for QSO clustering of s_0=5.76(+0.17-0.27) h-1 Mpc at a redshift ~1.5, very similar to low redshift galaxies. There is no evidence of evolution in the clustering of QSOs from z~0.5 to z~2.2. This lack of evolution and low clustering amplitude suggests a short life time for AGN activity of the order ~10^6-10^7 years. Large surveys such at the 2QZ and SDSS also allow the the study of QSO environments in 3D for the first time (at least at low redshift), early results from this work seem to show no difference between the environments of QSOs and normal galaxies. Future studies e.g. measuring clustering as a function of black hole mass, and deep QSO surveys should provide further insight into the formation and evolution of AGN.
Confirming EIS Clusters. Optical and Infrared Imaging
L. F. Olsen; H. E. Jorgensen; M. Scodeggio; L. da Costa; R. Rengelink; M. Nonino; A. Biviano; M. Ramella; W. Boschin
1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
Clusters of galaxies are important targets in observationally cosmology, as they can be used both to study the evolution of the galaxies themselves and to constrain cosmological parameters. Here we report on the first results of a major effort to build up a sample of distant galaxy clusters to form the basis for further studies within those fields. We search for simultaneous overdensities in color and space to obtain supporting evidence for the reality of the clusters. We find a confirmation rate for EIS clusters of 66%, suggesting that a total of about 80 clusters with z>=0.6 are within reach using the EIS cluster candidates.
Nuclear Star Clusters and Bulges
Cole, David R
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nuclear star clusters are among the densest stellar systems known and are common in both early- and late-type galaxies. They exhibit scaling relations with their host galaxy which may be related to those of supermassive black holes. These may therefore help us to unravel the complex physical processes occurring at the centres of galaxies. The properties of nuclear stellar systems suggest that their formation requires both dissipational and dissipationless processes. They have stellar populations of different ages, from stars as old as their host galaxy to young stars formed in the last 100 Myr. Therefore star formation must be happening either directly in the nuclear star cluster or in its vicinity. The secular processes that fuel the formation of pseudobulges very likely also contributes to nuclear star cluster growth.
Are Cluster Magnetic Fields Primordial ?
Robi Banerjee; Karsten Jedamzik
2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
We present results of a detailed and fully non-linear numerical and analytical investigation of magnetic field evolution from the very earliest cosmic epochs to the present. We find that, under reasonable assumptions concerning the efficiency of a putative magnetogenesis era during cosmic phase transitions, surprisingly strong magnetic fields 10^{-13} - 10^{-11} Gauss, on comparatively small scales 100 pc - 10 kpc may survive to the present. Building on prior work on the evolution of magnetic fields during the course of gravitational collapse of a cluster, which indicates that pre-collapse fields of 4\\times 10^{-12} Gauss extant on small scales may suffice to produce clusters with acceptable Faraday rotation measures, we question the widely hold view that cluster magnetic fields may not be entirely of primordial origin.
Probability distribution functions in the finite density lattice QCD
S. Ejiri; Y. Nakagawa; S. Aoki; K. Kanaya; H. Saito; T. Hatsuda; H. Ohno; T. Umeda
2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
We study the phase structure of QCD at high temperature and density by lattice QCD simulations adopting a histogram method. We try to solve the problems which arise in the numerical study of the finite density QCD, focusing on the probability distribution function (histogram). As a first step, we investigate the quark mass dependence and the chemical potential dependence of the probability distribution function as a function of the Polyakov loop when all quark masses are sufficiently large, and study the properties of the distribution function. The effect from the complex phase of the quark determinant is estimated explicitly. The shape of the distribution function changes with the quark mass and the chemical potential. Through the shape of the distribution, the critical surface which separates the first order transition and crossover regions in the heavy quark region is determined for the 2+1-flavor case.
Systematics of fusion probability in "hot" fusion reactions
Ning Wang; Junlong Tian; Werner Scheid
2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z
The fusion probability in "hot" fusion reactions leading to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei is investigated systematically. The quasi-fission barrier influences the formation of the super-heavy nucleus around the "island of stability" in addition to the shell correction. Based on the quasi-fission barrier height obtained with the Skyrme energy-density functional, we propose an analytical expression for the description of the fusion probability, with which the measured evaporation residual cross sections can be reproduced acceptably well. Simultaneously, some special fusion reactions for synthesizing new elements 119 and 120 are studied. The predicted evaporation residual cross sections for 50Ti+249Bk are about 10-150fb at energies around the entrance-channel Coulomb barrier. For the fusion reactions synthesizing element 120 with projectiles 54Cr and 58Fe, the cross sections fall to a few femtobarns which seems beyond the limit of the available facilities.
Probabilities in the landscape: The decay of nearly flat space
Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Lippert, Matthew [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA and University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States)
2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss aspects of the problem of assigning probabilities in eternal inflation. In particular, we investigate a recent suggestion that the lowest energy de Sitter vacuum in the landscape is effectively stable. The associated proposal for probabilities would relegate lower energy vacua to unlikely excursions of a high entropy system. We note that it would also imply that the string theory landscape is experimentally ruled out. However, we extensively analyze the structure of the space of Coleman-De Luccia solutions, and we present analytic arguments, as well as numerical evidence, that the decay rate varies continuously as the false vacuum energy goes through zero. Hence, low-energy de Sitter vacua do not become anomalously stable; negative and zero-cosmological constant regions cannot be neglected.
Simple and Compact Expressions for Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities in Matter
Minakata, Hisakazu
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We reformulate perturbation theory for neutrino oscillations in matter with an expansion parameter related to the ratio of the solar to the atmospheric Delta m^2 scales. Unlike previous works, we use a renormalized basis in which certain first-order effects are taken into account in the zeroth-order Hamiltonian. Using this perturbation theory we derive extremely compact expressions for the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter. We find, for example, that the $\
MAS 108 Probability I Continuous random variables Summary
Bailey, R. A.
when a number is chosen at random from the interval [a,b], with all values equally likely. Â· p.d.f. f if x > b. Â· E(X) = (a+b)/2, Var(X) = (b-a)2/12. Normal random variable N(Âµ,2) (Lindley and Scott, TableMAS 108 Probability I Continuous random variables Summary Uniform random variable U[a,b] Â· Occurs
Kale, Ruta; Cassano, Rossella; Giacintucci, Simona; Bardelli, sandro; Dallacasa, Daniele; Zucca, Elena
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) show exceptional properties over the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Their special location at the centres of galaxy clusters raises the question of the role of the environment on their radio properties. To decouple the effect of the galaxy mass and of the environment in their statistical radio properties, we investigate the possible dependence of the occurrence of radio loudness and of the fractional radio luminosity function on the dynamical state of the hosting cluster. We studied the radio properties of the BCGs in the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS). We obtained a statistical sample of 59 BCGs, which was divided into two classes, depending on the dynamical state of the host cluster, i.e. merging (M) and relaxed (R). Among the 59 BCGs, 28 are radio-loud, and 31 are radio--quiet. The radio-loud sources are located favourably located in relaxed clusters (71\\%), while the reverse is true for the radio-quiet BCGs, mostly located in merging systems (81\\%). The fraction...
Evaluations of Structural Failure Probabilities and Candidate Inservice Inspection Programs
Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Simonen, Fredric A.
2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The work described in this report applies probabilistic structural mechanics models to predict the reliability of nuclear pressure boundary components. These same models are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative programs for inservice inspection to reduce these failure probabilities. Results of the calculations support the development and implementation of risk-informed inservice inspection of piping and vessels. Studies have specifically addressed the potential benefits of ultrasonic inspections to reduce failure probabilities associated with fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking. Parametric calculations were performed with the computer code pc-PRAISE to generate an extensive set of plots to cover a wide range of pipe wall thicknesses, cyclic operating stresses, and inspection strategies. The studies have also addressed critical inputs to fracture mechanics calculations such as the parameters that characterize the number and sizes of fabrication flaws in piping welds. Other calculations quantify uncertainties associated with the inputs calculations, the uncertainties in the fracture mechanics models, and the uncertainties in the resulting calculated failure probabilities. A final set of calculations address the effects of flaw sizing errors on the effectiveness of inservice inspection programs.
What is the probability that radiation caused a particular cancer
Voelz, G.L.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Courts, lawyers, health physicists, physicians, and others are searching for a credible answer to the question posed in the title of this paper. The cases in which the question arises frequently stem from an individual that has cancer and they, or their next-of-kin, are convinced that a past radiation exposure - usually small - is responsible for causing it. An arithmetic expression of this problem is simple: the probability of causation by the radiation dose in question is equal to the risk of cancer from the radiation dose divided by the risk of cancer from all causes. The application of risk factors to this equation is not so simple. It must involve careful evaluation of the reliability of and variations in risk coefficients for development of cancer due to radiation exposure, other carcinogenic agents, and natural causes for the particular individual. Examination of our knowledge of these various factors indicates that a large range in the answers can result due to the variability and imprecision of the data. Nevertheless, the attempts to calculate and the probability that radiation caused the cancer is extremely useful to provide a gross perspective on the probability of causation. It will likely rule in or out a significant number of cases despite the limitations in our understandings of the etiology of cancer and the risks from various factors. For the remaining cases, a thoughtful and educated judgment based on selected data and circumstances of the case will also be needed before the expert can develop and support his opinion.
The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey XVI: a cluster inventory
Davies, J I; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Clemens, M; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Fritz, J; Fuller, C; Pappalardo, C; Hughes, T M; Madden, S; Smith, M W L; Verstappen, J; Vlahakis, C
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Herschel FIR observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The far-infrared SEDs are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is over dense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (beta) temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and HI data to show that Virgo is over dense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20 respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is about 0.7 solar and 50% of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole the mass density of stars in galaxies is 8 times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies,...
How Many Clusters? Which Clustering Method? Answers Via
Raftery, Adrian
much more closely than single-link (nearest-neighbour) or standard k-means, in the absence of any on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC); unlike significance tests, this allows comparison of more than two a clustering methodology based on multivariate normal mixtures in which the BIC is used for direct comparison
CLUSTER LENSING PROFILES DERIVED FROM A REDSHIFT ENHANCEMENT OF MAGNIFIED BOSS-SURVEY GALAXIES
Coupon, Jean; Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Broadhurst, Tom, E-mail: coupon@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveys, totaling 5000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift toward the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition, we find similar but noisier behavior for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey, we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M{sub 200} {approx} 1.4-1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} for the optically detected cluster samples, and M{sub 200} {approx} 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration.
300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION
BORGHESE JV
2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
{sm_bullet} Uranium fuel production {sm_bullet} Test reactor and separations experiments {sm_bullet} Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex {sm_bullet} .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities
Decontamination & decommissioning focus area
NONE
1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.
The Mass Profile of the Coma Galaxy Cluster
M. J. Geller; Antonaldo Diaferio; M. J. Kurtz
1999-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
We use a new redshift survey complete to m_R=15.4 within 4.25 deg from the center of the Coma cluster to measure the mass profile of the cluster to r=5.5 Mpc/h. We extend the profile to r=10 Mpc/h with a further sample complete to m_R=15.4 in 42% of the area within a 10 deg radius and to m_{Zw}=15.5 in the remaining area. Galaxies within this region are falling onto the cluster on moderately radial orbits and thus do not satisfy virial equilibrium. Nonetheless, identification of the caustics in redshift space provides an estimate of the gravitational potential at radius r and hence of the system mass, M(<10 Mpc/h)=(1.65+-0.41)10^{15} M_\\odot/h (1-sigma error). Previous mass estimates derived from optical and X-ray observations are limited to r<2.5 Mpc/h. Our mass profile is consistent with these estimates but extends to distances four times as large. Over the entire range, the mass increases with r at the rate expected for a Navarro, Frenk & White (1997) density profile.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum ReservesThrust Areas Physics Thrust Areas
Perspectives for logistics clusters development in Russia
Tantsuyev, Andriy
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis is a normative work aimed at identifying locations in Russia with high, medium and unclear potentials for logistics cluster development. As a framework this work uses four different models of logistics clusters: ...
Agglomerative Clustering via Maximum Incremental Path Integral
Wang, Xiaogang
clusters into small ones. Numerous algorithms have been proposed, such as k-means [2], spectral clustering of the algorithm based on absorbing random walk is provided. Experimental comparison on toy data and imagery data
Performance Characterization of Clustering Algorithms for Colour Image Segmentation
Whelan, Paul F.
techniques (K-Means clustering, Fuzzy C- Means clustering and Adaptive K-Means clustering) that are applied algorithms: K-Means, Fuzzy C-Means and Adaptive K-Means (also called clustering by competitive agglomeration
PageRank Based Clustering of Hypertext Document Collections
Avrachenkov, Konstantin
are K-means clustering, Informa- tion Bottleneck based clustering and Contextual Document Clustering with high modularity and coverage. The comparison of the PRC algorithm with two content based clustering
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
George, Glyn
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Problem Set 2 to 1 on". What is the engineer's probability for this event? Odds of "7 to 1 on": r = 7 probability 7 1 Solutions [Introduction to Probability; odds, Venn diagrams, decision trees] 1. Draw a decision tree
Visualization of Tokamak Operational Spaces Through the Projection of Data Probability Distributions
Visualization of Tokamak Operational Spaces Through the Projection of Data Probability Distributions
MODEL-FREE MULTI-PROBE LENSING RECONSTRUCTION OF CLUSTER MASS PROFILES
Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
Lens magnification by galaxy clusters induces characteristic spatial variations in the number counts of background sources, amplifying their observed fluxes and expanding the area of sky, the net effect of which, known as magnification bias, depends on the intrinsic faint-end slope of the source luminosity function. The bias is strongly negative for red galaxies, dominated by the geometric area distortion, whereas it is mildly positive for blue galaxies, enhancing the blue counts toward the cluster center. We generalize the Bayesian approach of Umetsu et al. for reconstructing projected cluster mass profiles, by incorporating multiple populations of background sources for magnification-bias measurements and combining them with complementary lens-distortion measurements, effectively breaking the mass-sheet degeneracy and improving the statistical precision of cluster mass measurements. The approach can be further extended to include strong-lensing projected mass estimates, thus allowing for non-parametric absolute mass determinations in both the weak and strong regimes. We apply this method to our recent CLASH lensing measurements of MACS J1206.2-0847, and demonstrate how combining multi-probe lensing constraints can improve the reconstruction of cluster mass profiles. This method will also be useful for a stacked lensing analysis, combining all lensing-related effects in the cluster regime, for a definitive determination of the averaged mass profile.
LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret
1999-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black and white photographs provide a partial record of some excavations, including trenches, building basements, and material lay-down yards. Estimates of excavation depth and width can be made, but these estimates are not accurate enough to pinpoint the exact location where the disturbedhmdisturbed interface is located (e.g., camera angles were such that depths and/or widths of excavations could not be accurately determined or estimated). In spite of these limitations, these photographs provide essential information. Aerial and historic low-level photographs have captured what appears to be backfill throughout much of the eastern portion of the 300 Area-near the Columbia River shoreline. This layer of fill has likely afforded some protection for the natural landscape buried beneath the fill. This assumption fits nicely with the intermittent and inadvertent discoveries of hearths and stone tools documented through the years in this part of the 300 Area. Conversely, leveling of sand dunes appears to be substantial in the northwestern portion of the 300 Area during the early stages of development. o Project files and engineer drawings do not contain information on any impromptu but necessary adjustments made on the ground during project implementation-after the design phase. Further, many projects are planned and mapped but never implemented-this information is also not often placed in project files. Specific recommendations for a 300 Area cultural resource monitoring strategy are contained in the final section of this document. In general, it is recommended that monitoring continue for all projects located within 400 m of the Columbia River. The 400-m zone is culturally sensitive and likely retains some of the most intact buried substrates in the 300 Area.
Cluster Dynamics in a Circulating Fluidized Bed
Guenther, C.P.; Breault, R.W.
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
A common hydrodynamic feature in industrial scale circulating fluidized beds is the presence of clusters. The continuous formation and destruction of clusters strongly influences particle hold-up, pressure drop, heat transfer at the wall, and mixing. In this paper fiber optic data is analyzed using discrete wavelet analysis to characterize the dynamic behavior of clusters. Five radial positions at three different axial locations under five different operating were analyzed using discrete wavelets. Results are summarized with respect to cluster size and frequency.
An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator
Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.
2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z
Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.
DESIGN OF CLUSTERED SUPERSCALAR MICROARCHITECTURES
Parcerisa, Joan-Manuel
DESIGN OF CLUSTERED SUPERSCALAR MICROARCHITECTURES Joan-Manuel Parcerisa Departament d'Arquitectura SUPERSCALAR MICROARCHITECTURES Joan-Manuel Parcerisa Departament d'Arquitectura de Computadors Universitat aprĂ¨s tantes coses sobre l'ofici de la recerca, i sobre l'arquitectura de computadors al llarg d
Russell, Lynn
COSMOS Cluster 3 Summer 2010 Clouds in a Glass of Root Beer Instructor: Prof. Lynn Russell Teaching and Physics J.H. Seinfeld and S.N. Pandis, 1997 Clouds in a Glass of Beer: Simple Experiments in Atmospheric) to observe the difference in carbonation of water and root beer 2) to form clouds in root beer using
Gravitational `Convergence' and Cluster Masses
Tom Broadhurst
1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two colour photometry of the cluster A1689 reveals a `relative magnification-bias' between lensed blue and red background galaxies, arising from a dependence of the faint galaxy count-slope on colour. The colour distribution is skewed blueward of the far field, allowing us to measure the cluster magnification and to understand the notorious blueness of large arcs. We show that the magnification information can be combined with the usual image distortion measurements to isolate the local `convergence' component of lensing and hence derive the projected mass. This is achieved through a simple local relation between the convergence and the observables, which can be applied generally over the surface a cluster. In the weak lensing limit, the convergence reduces to a dependence on the magnification alone, so that in the outskirts of clusters the surface-density of matter is obtained directly from the surface-density of background galaxies. Hence, useful lensing work requires colour information but not necessarily good seeing. Interestingly, convergence varies slowly at high redshift, saturating at a level depending on the Horizon distance, allowing a useful model-independent measurement of the Global Geometry.
Daisuke Nagai; Andrey V. Kravtsov
2003-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters (Vikhlinin et. al., 2001). These features, called ``cold fronts'', are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >2 over 10-50 kpc, accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM), if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter (CDM) models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging sub-cluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are non-equilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the intracluster medium in the vicinity of the front.
Modeling the Energy Efficiency of Heterogeneous Clusters
Teo, Yong-Meng
are an alternative for energy-efficient clusters [18], [20], [23]. On the contrary, other researchersModeling the Energy Efficiency of Heterogeneous Clusters Lavanya Ramapantulu, Bogdan Marius Tudor analyze the energy efficiency of mixing high-performance and low-power nodes in a cluster. Using a model
Clustering with the Fisher Score Koji Tsuda,
clustering with the Fisher score, K-Means type methods are obviously inappropriate because they make use such as biological sequences [2] are especially challenging, because efficient clustering algorithms e.g. K-Means [6 of unnecessary nuisance dimensions. So K-Means type clustering [6] is obviously inappropriate because it takes
A GMBCG galaxy cluster catalog of 55,880 rich clusters from SDSS DR7
Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; /Fermilab /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /UC, Santa Barbara /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Caltech /Brookhaven
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.
A GMBCG Galaxy Cluster Catalog of 55,424 Rich Clusters from SDSS DR7
Hao, Jiangang; /Fermilab; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U.; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara /LBL, Berkeley; Rozo, Eduardo; /Chicago U.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Siegel, Seth R.; /Michigan U.; Becker, Matthew; /Chicago U.; Busha, Michael; /SLAC; Gerdes, David; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David E.; /Fermilab; Sheldon, Erin; /Brookhaven
2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.
Oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters: An ab initio molecular dynamics study
Alnemrat, Sufian; Hooper, Joseph P., E-mail: jphooper@nps.edu [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 (United States)
2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
We report Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of ligand-protected aluminum clusters that form a prototypical cluster-assembled material. These clusters contain a small aluminum core surrounded by a monolayer of organic ligand. The aromatic cyclopentadienyl ligands form a strong bond with surface Al atoms, giving rise to an organometallic cluster that crystallizes into a low-symmetry solid and is briefly stable in air before oxidizing. Our calculations of isolated aluminum/cyclopentadienyl clusters reacting with oxygen show minimal reaction between the ligand and O{sub 2} molecules at simulation temperatures of 500 and 1000 K. In all cases, the reaction pathway involves O{sub 2} diffusing through the ligand barrier, splitting into atomic oxygen upon contact with the aluminum, and forming an oxide cluster with aluminum/ligand bonds still largely intact. Loss of individual aluminum-ligand units, as expected from unimolecular decomposition calculations, is not observed except following significant oxidation. These calculations highlight the role of the ligand in providing a steric barrier against oxidizers and in maintaining the large aluminum surface area of the solid-state cluster material.
Detection of Galaxy Clusters with the XMM-Newton Large Scale Structure Survey
Piacentine, J.
2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
For many years the power of counting clusters of galaxies as a function of their mass has been recognized as a powerful cosmological probe; however, they are only now beginning to acquire data from dedicated surveys with sufficient sky coverage and sensitivity to measure the cluster population out to distances where the dark energy came to dominate the Universe's evolution. This project uses the XMM X-ray telescope to scan a large area of sky, detecting the X-ray photons from the hot plasma that lies in the deep potential wells of massive clusters of galaxies. These clusters appear as extended (not point-like) objects, each providing just a few hundred photons in a typical observation. The detection of extended sources in such a low signal-to-noise situation is an important problem in astrophysics: they propose to solve it by using as much prior information as possible, translating their experience with well-measured clusters to define a ''template'' cluster that can be varied and matched to the features seen in the XMM images. using analysis code, that can be straightforwardly adapted to this problem: the template was defined, and then the method applied to real XMM data. Presented are the findings based on the software's ability to distinguish astronomical objects in a series of test runs and finally on real XMM data. The results of these series of experiments suggests a level of confidence for the software to be used in future endeavors to identify clusters.
A New Method for the Detection of Galaxy Clusters in X-Ray Surveys
Piacentine, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Peterson, J.R.; Andersson, K.E.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
For many years the power of counting clusters of galaxies as a function of their mass has been recognized as a powerful cosmological probe; however, we are only now beginning to acquire data from dedicated surveys with sufcient sky coverage and sensitivity to measure the cluster population out to distances where the dark energy came to dominate the Universe’s evolution. One such survey uses the XMM X-ray telescope to scan a large area of sky, detecting the X-ray photons from the hot plasma that lies in the deep potential wells of massive clusters of galaxies. These clusters appear as extended (not point-like) objects, each providing just a few hundred photons in a typical observation. The detection of extended sources in such a low signal-to-noise situation is an important problem in astrophysics: we attempt to solve it by using as much prior information as possible, translating our experience with wellmeasured clusters to define a “template” cluster that can be varied and matched to the features seen in the XMM images. In this work we adapt an existing Monte Carlo analysis code for this problem. Two detection templates were dened and their suitability explored using simulated data; the method was then applied to a publically avalable XMM observation of a “blank” field. Presented are the encouraging results of this series of experiments, suggesting that this approach continue to be developed for future cluster-identication endeavours.
Dynamics of two-cluster systems in phase space
Lashko, Yu A; Vasilevsky, V S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a phase-space representation of quantum state vectors for two-cluster systems. Density distributions in the Fock--Bargmann space are constructed for bound and resonance states of $^{6,7}$Li and $^{7,8}$Be, provided that all these nuclei are treated within a microscopic two-cluster model. The density distribution in the phase space is compared with those in the coordinate and momentum representations. Bound states realize themselves in a compact area of the phase space, as also do narrow resonance states. We establish the quantitative boundaries of this region in the phase space for the nuclei under consideration. Quantum trajectories are demonstrated to approach their classical limit with increasing energy.
Dynamics of two-cluster systems in phase space
Yu. A. Lashko; G. F. Filippov; V. S. Vasilevsky
2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present a phase-space representation of quantum state vectors for two-cluster systems. Density distributions in the Fock--Bargmann space are constructed for bound and resonance states of $^{6,7}$Li and $^{7,8}$Be, provided that all these nuclei are treated within a microscopic two-cluster model. The density distribution in the phase space is compared with those in the coordinate and momentum representations. Bound states realize themselves in a compact area of the phase space, as also do narrow resonance states. We establish the quantitative boundaries of this region in the phase space for the nuclei under consideration. Quantum trajectories are demonstrated to approach their classical limit with increasing energy.
2011 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference
Lai-Sheng Wang
2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
Small particles have been at the heart of nanoscience since the birth of the field and now stand ready to make significant contributions to the big challenges of energy, health and sustainability. Atomic clusters show exquisite size-dependent electronic and magnetic properties and offer a new level of control in catalyses, sensors and biochips; functionalised nanocrystals offer remarkable optical properties and diverse applications in electronic devices, solar energy, and therapy. Both areas are complemented by a raft of recent advances in fabrication, characterization, and performance of a diversity of nanomaterials from the single atom level to nanowires, nanodevices, and biologically-inspired nanosystems. The goal of the 2011 Gordon Conference is thus to continue and enhance the interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, fundamental scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. A single conference covering all aspects of nanoscience from fundamental issues to applications has the potential to create new ideas and stimulate cross fertilization. The meeting will therefore provide a balance among the three sub-components of the conference, true to its title, with a selection of new topics added to reflect rapid advances in the field. The open atmosphere of a Gordon conference, emphasizing the presentation of unpublished results and extensive discussions, is an ideal home for this rapidly developing field and will allow all participants to enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Historically, this Gordon conference has been oversubscribed, so we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Given the important role students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate several talks of this kind from young investigators.
ATCOM: Automatically Tuned Collective Communication System for SMP Clusters
Meng-Shiou Wu
2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
Conventional implementations of collective communications are based on point-to-point communications, and their optimizations have been focused on efficiency of those communication algorithms. However, point-to-point communications are not the optimal choice for modern computing clusters of SMPs due to their two-level communication structure. In recent years, a few research efforts have investigated efficient collective communications for SMP clusters. This dissertation is focused on platform-independent algorithms and implementations in this area. There are two main approaches to implementing efficient collective communications for clusters of SMPs: using shared memory operations for intra-node communications, and overlapping inter-node/intra-node communications. The former fully utilizes the hardware based shared memory of an SMP, and the latter takes advantage of the inherent hierarchy of the communications within a cluster of SMPs. Previous studies focused on clusters of SMP from certain vendors. However, the previously proposed methods are not portable to other systems. Because the performance optimization issue is very complicated and the developing process is very time consuming, it is highly desired to have self-tuning, platform-independent implementations. As proven in this dissertation, such an implementation can significantly out-perform the other point-to-point based portable implementations and some platform-specific implementations. The dissertation describes in detail the architecture of the platform-independent implementation. There are four system components: shared memory-based collective communications, overlapping mechanisms for inter-node and intra-node communications, a prediction-based tuning module and a micro-benchmark based tuning module. Each component is carefully designed with the goal of automatic tuning in mind.
Jamming probabilities for a vacancy in the dimer model
V. S. Poghosyan; V. B. Priezzhev; P. Ruelle
2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
Following the recent proposal made by Bouttier et al [Phys. Rev. E 76, 041140 (2007)], we study analytically the mobility properties of a single vacancy in the close-packed dimer model on the square lattice. Using the spanning web representation, we find determinantal expressions for various observable quantities. In the limiting case of large lattices, they can be reduced to the calculation of Toeplitz determinants and minors thereof. The probability for the vacancy to be strictly jammed and other diffusion characteristics are computed exactly.
Sample size for logistic regression with small response probability
Whittemore, A S
1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Fisher information matrix for the estimated parameters in a multiple logistic regression can be approximated by the augmented Hessian matrix of the moment generating function for the covariates. The approximation is valid when the probability of response is small. With its use one can obtain a simple closed form estimate of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the maximum likelihood parameter estimates, and thus approximate sample sizes needed to test hypotheses about the parameters. The method is developed for selected distributions of a single covariate, and for a class of exponential-type distributions of several covariates. It is illustrated with an example concerning risk factors for coronary heart disease.
Universal Probability Distribution Function for Bursty Transport in Plasma Turbulence
Sandberg, I. [National Technical University of Athens, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, Athens 15773 (Greece); National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, Penteli 15236 (Greece); Benkadda, S. [France-Japan Magnetic Fusion Laboratory, LIA 336/UMR 6633 CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France); Garbet, X. [I.R.F.M., CEA Cadarache, St Paul-Les-Durance 13108 (France); Ropokis, G. [National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, Penteli 15236 (Greece); Hizanidis, K. [National Technical University of Athens, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, Athens 15773 (Greece); Castillo-Negrete, D. del [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)
2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z
Bursty transport phenomena associated with convective motion present universal statistical characteristics among different physical systems. In this Letter, a stochastic univariate model and the associated probability distribution function for the description of bursty transport in plasma turbulence is presented. The proposed stochastic process recovers the universal distribution of density fluctuations observed in plasma edge of several magnetic confinement devices and the remarkable scaling between their skewness S and kurtosis K. Similar statistical characteristics of variabilities have been also observed in other physical systems that are characterized by convection such as the x-ray fluctuations emitted by the Cygnus X-1 accretion disc plasmas and the sea surface temperature fluctuations.
Probability Tables for Mendelian Ratios with Small Numbers.
Warwick, B. L. (Bruce L.)
1932-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Agronomist R. H. Wyche, B. S., Superintendent No. 14. Sonora, Sutton-Edwards Counties **H. M. Beachell. B. S., Jr., Agronomist W H. Dameron Superintendent No. 5, Temple, Bell County: I. B. bough ton,'^. V. M., Veterinarian Henry Dunlavy, M. S... Coefficients / -expysP" 1 1 Probability - als (5). The coefficient is represented by or converted to I r l n-r (?4)3(%) 4(e7/e4)(1/4) 2 2 '- our terms where n equals the number in the sample, D the num- ID IR* ber of dominants, and R the number...
Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)
2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News linkThermalInner Area Principles The Inner Area
Periodic Cluster Mutations and Related Integrable Maps
Allan P Fordy
2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
One of the remarkable properties of cluster algebras is that any cluster, obtained from a sequence of mutations from an initial cluster, can be written as a Laurent polynomial in the initial cluster (known as the "Laurent phenomenon"). There are many nonlinear recurrences which exhibit the Laurent phenomenon and thus unexpectedly generate integer sequences. The mutation of a typical quiver will not generate a recurrence, but rather an erratic sequence of exchange relations. How do we "design" a quiver which gives rise to a given recurrence? A key role is played by the concept of "periodic cluster mutation", introduced in 2009. Each recurrence corresponds to a finite dimensional map. In the context of cluster mutations, these are called "cluster maps". What properties do cluster maps have? Are they integrable in some standard sense? In this review I describe how integrable maps arise in the context of cluster mutations. I first explain the concept of "periodic cluster mutation", giving some classification results. I then give a review of what is meant by an integrable map and apply this to cluster maps. Two classes of integrable maps are related to interesting monodromy problems, which generate interesting Poisson algebras of functions, used to prove complete integrability and a linearisation. A connections to the Hirota-Miwa equation is explained.
Measurement of the Fusion Probability, PCN, for Hot Fusion Reactions
R. Yanez; W. Loveland; J. S. Barrett; L. Yao; B. B. Back; S. Zhu; T. L. Khoo
2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
Background: The cross section for forming a heavy evaporation residue in fusion reactions depends on the capture cross section, the fusion probability, PCN, i.e., the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve inside the fission saddle point to form a completely fused system rather than re-separating (quasifission), and the survival of the completely fused system against fission. PCN is the least known of these quantities. Purpose: To measure PCN for the reaction of 101.2 MeV 18O, 147.3 MeV 26Mg, 170.9 MeV 30Si and 195.3 MeV 36S with 197Au. Methods: We measured the fission fragment angular distributions for these reactions and used the formalism of Back to deduce the fusion-fission and quasifission cross sections. From these quantities we deduced PCN for each reaction. Results: The values of PCN for the reaction of 101.2 MeV 18O, 147.3 MeV 26Mg, 170.9 MeV 30Si and 195.3 MeV 36S with 197Au are 0.66, 1.00, 0.06, 0.13, respectively. Conclusions: The new measured values of PCN agree roughly with the semi-empirical system- atic dependence of PCN upon fissility for excited nuclei.
PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III
Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.
2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict the probability of corrosion in ASTM A537 in varying solutions as shown in Figure 1. The mixture/amount model takes into account not only the ratio (or mixture) of inhibitors and aggressive species, but also the total concentration (or amount) of species in a solution. Historically, the ratio was the only factor taken into consideration in the development of the current chemistry control program. During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to refine the mixture/amount model by further investigating the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions. The results of FY09, as shown in Figure 2, quantified the probability for a corrosion free outcome for combinations of nitrate and nitrite. The FY09 data predict probabilities up to 70%. Additional experimental data are needed to increase the probability to an acceptable percentage.
PROTECTED AREAS AMENDMENTS AND.
as critical fish and wildlife habitat. The "protected areas" amendment is a major step in the Council's efforts to rebuild fish and wildlife populations that have been damaged by hydroelectric development. Low also imposed significant costs. The Northwest's fish and wildlife have suffered extensive losses
Aalberts, Daniel P.
MSL ENTERANCE LOBBY ELEV STAIRS SSL-019 REFERENCE AREA SSL-021 GROUP STUDY SSL-018 STUDY ROOM SSL-029 SSL-020 COPY ROOM SSL-022 GROUP STUDY SSL-026 STACKS SSL-023 GROUP STUDY SSL-024 GROUP STUDY SSL TBL-014 TBL-014A STAIRS SSL-007 GIS/ WORKROOM SSL-011 SSL-008 SSL-009 SSL-010 SSL-014 SSL-017 STAIRS
Subsurface contaminants focus area
NONE
1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.
NONE
1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.
Statistics of black hole radiance and the horizon area spectrum
Bekenstein, Jacob D
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The statistical response of a Kerr black hole to incoming quantum radiation has heretofore been studied by the methods of maximum entropy or quantum field theory in curved spacetime. Neither approach pretends to take into account the quantum structure of the black hole itself. To address this last issue we calculate here the conditional probability distribution associated with the hole's response by assuming that the horizon area has a discrete quantum spectrum, and that its quantum evolution corresponds to jumps between adjacent area eigenvalues, possibly occurring in series, with consequent emission or absorption of quanta, possibly in the same mode. This "atomic" model of the black hole is implemented in two different ways and recovers the previously calculated radiation statistics in both cases. The corresponding conditional probably distribution is here expressed in closed form in terms of an hypergeometric function.
Demirel, Melik C.
Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis Overview The goal was to provide Pratt & Whitney with a detailed finitePENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney Engine Low Pressure 3D cloud data to useable CAD model Use finite element analysis to determine the areas of highest
User-Friendly Clustering for Atmospheric Data Analysis Benjamin J. Anderson
Musicant, Dave
-2a clustering algorithm. We present in this paper a comparison of the well-known K-means algorithm-2a algorithm in this domain, K- means is faster, more scalable, and considerably easier and for those who develop software in particular, our work shows that in an important application area K-means
Cluster synchronization induced by one-node clusters in networks with asymmetric negative couplings
Zhang, Jianbao [School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)] [School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ma, Zhongjun, E-mail: mzj1234402@163.com [School of Mathematics and Computing Science, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)] [School of Mathematics and Computing Science, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhang, Gang [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)] [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with the problem of cluster synchronization in networks with asymmetric negative couplings. By decomposing the coupling matrix into three matrices, and employing Lyapunov function method, sufficient conditions are derived for cluster synchronization. The conditions show that the couplings of multi-node clusters from one-node clusters have beneficial effects on cluster synchronization. Based on the effects of the one-node clusters, an effective and universal control scheme is put forward for the first time. The obtained results may help us better understand the relation between cluster synchronization and cluster structures of the networks. The validity of the control scheme is confirmed through two numerical simulations, in a network with no cluster structure and in a scale-free network.
Clustering Fossils in Solid Inflation
Mohammad Akhshik
2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tensor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quardupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter, we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We argue that imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.
DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Interest Electric Transmission Corridors DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors October 2, 2007 - 11:12am Addthis...
Pair extended coupled cluster doubles
Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreoever, pEC...
Binary Frequencies in Globular Clusters
Ji, Jun
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Binary stars are predicted to have an important role in the evolution of globular clusters, so we obtained binary fractions for 35 globular clusters that were imaged in the F606W and F814W with the ACS on the Hubble Space Telescope. When compared to the values of prior efforts (Sollima et al. 2007; Milone et al. 2012), we find significant discrepancies, despite each group correcting for contamination effects and having performed the appropriate reliability tests. The most reliable binary fractions are obtained when restricting the binary fraction to q > 0.5. Our analysis indicates that the range of the binary fractions is nearly an order of magnitude for the lowest dynamical ages, suggesting that there is a broad distribution in the binary fraction at globular cluster formation. Dynamical effects also appears to decrease the core binary fractions by a factor of two over a Hubble time, but this is a weak relationship. We confirm a correlation from previous work that the binary fraction within the core radius d...
Cabrera-Ziri, I; Longmore, S N; Brogan, C; Hollyhead, K; Larsen, S S; Whitmore, B; Johnson, K; Chandar, R; Henshaw, J D; Davies, B; Hibbard, J E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Some formation scenarios that have been put forward to explain multiple populations within Globular Clusters (GCs) require that the young massive cluster have large reservoirs of cold gas within them, which is necessary to form future generations of stars. In this paper we use deep observations taken with Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) to assess the amount of molecular gas within 3 young (50-200 Myr) massive (~10^6 Msun) clusters in the Antennae galaxies. No significant CO(3--2) emission was found associated with any of the three clusters. We place upper limits for the molecular gas within these clusters of ~1x10^5 Msun (or cool gas within young massive clusters at these ages.
How to Determine the Probability of the Higgs Boson Detection
Alexander Unzicker
2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
The Higgs boson is the most important, though yet undiscovered ingredient of the standard model of particle physics. Its detection is therefore one of the most important goals of high energy physics that can guide future research in theoretical physics. Enormous efforts have been undertaken to prove the existence of the Higgs boson, and the physics community is excitedly awaiting the restart of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. But how sure can we be that the Higgs exits at all? The German philosopher Immanuel Kant recommended betting at such controversial questions, and Stephen Hawking announced a $100 bet against the Higgs. But seriously, online prediction markets, which are a generalized form of betting, do provide the best possible probability estimates for future events. It is proposed that the scientific community uses this platforms for evaluation. See also an online description www.Bet-On-The-Higgs.com.
Net-proton probability distribution in heavy ion collisions
P. Braun-Munzinger; B. Friman; F. Karsch; K. Redlich; V. Skokov
2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
We compute net-proton probability distributions in heavy ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas model. The model results are compared with data taken by the STAR Collaboration in Au-Au collisions at sqrt(s_{NN})= 200 GeV for different centralities. We show that in peripheral Au-Au collisions the measured distributions, and the resulting first four moments of net-proton fluctuations, are consistent with results obtained from the hadron resonance gas model. However, data taken in central Au-Au collisions differ from the predictions of the model. The observed deviations can not be attributed to uncertainties in model parameters. We discuss possible interpretations of the observed deviations.
Bayesian failure probability model sensitivity study. Final report
Not Available
1986-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
The Office of the Manager, National Communications System (OMNCS) has developed a system-level approach for estimating the effects of High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) on the connectivity of telecommunications networks. This approach incorporates a Bayesian statistical model which estimates the HEMP-induced failure probabilities of telecommunications switches and transmission facilities. The purpose of this analysis is to address the sensitivity of the Bayesian model. This is done by systematically varying two model input parameters--the number of observations, and the equipment failure rates. Throughout the study, a non-informative prior distribution is used. The sensitivity of the Bayesian model to the noninformative prior distribution is investigated from a theoretical mathematical perspective.
Seismic pulse propagation with constant Q and stable probability distributions
Francesco Mainardi; Massimo Tomirotti
2010-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
The one-dimensional propagation of seismic waves with constant Q is shown to be governed by an evolution equation of fractional order in time, which interpolates the heat equation and the wave equation. The fundamental solutions for the Cauchy and Signalling problems are expressed in terms of entire functions (of Wright type) in the similarity variable and their behaviours turn out to be intermediate between those for the limiting cases of a perfectly viscous fluid and a perfectly elastic solid. In view of the small dissipation exhibited by the seismic pulses, the nearly elastic limit is considered. Furthermore, the fundamental solutions for the Cauchy and Signalling problems are shown to be related to stable probability distributions with index of stability determined by the order of the fractional time derivative in the evolution equation.
Probability-theoretical analog of the vector Lyapunov function method
Nakonechnyi, A.N.
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The main ideas of the vector Lyapunov function (VLF) method were advanced in 1962 by Bellman and Matrosov. In this method, a Lyapunov function and a comparison equation are constructed for each subsystem. Then the dependences between the subsystems and the effect of external noise are allowed for by constructing a vector Lyapunov function (as a collection of the scalar Lyapunov functions of the subsystems) and an aggregate comparison function for the entire complex system. A probability-theoretical analog of this method for convergence analysis of stochastic approximation processes has been developed. The abstract approach proposed elsewhere eliminates all restrictions on the system phase space, the system trajectories, the class of Lyapunov functions, etc. The analysis focuses only on the conditions that relate sequences of Lyapunov function values with the derivative and ensure a particular type (mode, character) of stability. In our article, we extend this approach to the VLF method for discrete stochastic dynamic systems.
Matter-enhanced transition probabilities in quantum field theory
Ishikawa, Kenzo, E-mail: ishikawa@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Tobita, Yutaka
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The relativistic quantum field theory is the unique theory that combines the relativity and quantum theory and is invariant under the Poincaré transformation. The ground state, vacuum, is singlet and one particle states are transformed as elements of irreducible representation of the group. The covariant one particles are momentum eigenstates expressed by plane waves and extended in space. Although the S-matrix defined with initial and final states of these states hold the symmetries and are applied to isolated states, out-going states for the amplitude of the event that they are detected at a finite-time interval T in experiments are expressed by microscopic states that they interact with, and are surrounded by matters in detectors and are not plane waves. These matter-induced effects modify the probabilities observed in realistic situations. The transition amplitudes and probabilities of the events are studied with the S-matrix, S[T], that satisfies the boundary condition at T. Using S[T], the finite-size corrections of the form of 1/T are found. The corrections to Fermi’s golden rule become larger than the original values in some situations for light particles. They break Lorentz invariance even in high energy region of short de Broglie wave lengths. -- Highlights: •S-matrix S[T] for the finite-time interval in relativistic field theory. •S[T] satisfies the boundary condition and gives correction of 1/T . •The large corrections for light particles breaks Lorentz invariance. •The corrections have implications to neutrino experiments.
Scientific and Natural Areas (Minnesota)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Certain scientific and natural areas are established throughout the state for the purpose of preservation and protection. Construction and new development is prohibited in these areas.
Analysis of the probability distribution of photocount number of the onemode stochastic radiation
Yu. P. Virchenko; N. N. Vitokhina
2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
The Mandel probability distribution of one-mode stochastic radiation photocounts is analized. Approximations of n-photon registration probabilities with guaranteed accuracy are obtained in the case when the registration time is sufficiently small.
Wang, Yinhai
Estimating Rear-End Accident Probabilities at Signalized Intersections: An Occurrence intersections, rear-end accidents are frequently the predominant accident type. These accidents result from to this deceleration. This paper mathematically represents this process, by expressing accident probability
Defining Classes of Influences for the Acquisition of Probability Constraints for Bayesian Networks
Utrecht, Universiteit
Linda C. van der Gaag and Eveline M. Helsper 1 Abstract. The task of eliciting all probabilities, eveline}@cs.uu.nl 2 PRELIMINARIES A Bayesian network is a model of a joint probability distribution
Clustering and Uncertainty in Perfect Chaos Systems
Sergey A. Kamenshchikov
2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this investigation was to derive strictly new properties of chaotic systems and their mutual relations. The generalized Fokker-Planck equation with a non stationary diffusion has been derived and used for chaos analysis. An anomalous transport turned out to be natural property of this equation. A nonlinear dispersion of the considered motion allowed to find a principal consequence: a chaotic system with uniform dynamic properties tends to unstable clustering. Small fluctuations of particles density increase by time and form attractors and stochastic islands even if the initial transport properties have uniform distribution. It was shown that an instability of phase trajectories leads to the nonlinear dispersion law and consequently to a space instability. A fixed boundary system was considered, using a standard Fokker-Planck equation. We have derived that such a type of dynamic systems has a discrete diffusive and energy spectra. It was shown that phase space diffusion is the only parameter that defines a dynamic accuracy in this case. The uncertainty relations have been obtained for conjugate phase space variables with account of transport properties. Given results can be used in the area of chaotic systems modelling and turbulence investigation.
The BMW Deep X-ray Cluster Survey
Guzzo, L; Campana, S; Covino, S; Dell'Antonio, I P; Lazzati, D; Longhetti, M; Molinari, E; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly describe the main features of the Brera Multi-Wavelet (BMW) survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. Cluster candidates are selected from the general BMW catalogue of 20,000 sources based exclusively on their X-ray extension. Contrary to common wisdom, a clever selection of the HRI energy channels allows us to significantly reduce the background noise, thus greatly improving the ability to detect low surface-brightness sources as clusters. The resulting sample of ~250 candidates shows a very good sky coverage down to a flux \\~3x10^-14 erg/s/cm^2 ([0.5-2.0] keV band), i.e comparable to existing PSPC-based deep survey, with a particularly interesting area of ~100 sq.deg. around fluxes ~10^-13 erg/s/cm^2, i.e. where highly-luminous, rare systems at z~0.6-1 can be detected. At the same time, the superior angular resolution of the instrument should avoid biases against intrinsically small systems, while easing the identification process (e.g...
The WARPS Survey: VI. Galaxy Cluster and Source Identifications from Phase I
E. S. Perlman; D. J. Horner; L. R. Jones; C. A. Scharf; H. Ebeling; G. Wegner; M. Malkan
2002-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
We present in catalog form the optical identifications for objects from the first phase of the Wide Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey (WARPS). WARPS is a serendipitous survey of relatively deep, pointed ROSAT observations for clusters of galaxies. The X-ray source detection algorithm used by WARPS is Voronoi Tessellation and Percolation (VTP), a technique which is equally sensitive to point sources and extended sources of low surface brightness. WARPS-I is based on the central regions of 86 ROSAT PSPC fields, covering an area of 16.2 square degrees. We describe here the X-ray source screening and optical identification process for WARPS-I, which yielded 34 clusters at 0.06
Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, Carmen; Davies, Matthew L; Fabian, Andy C; Feroz, Farhan; Franzen, Thomas M O; Grainge, Keith J B; Hobson, Michael P; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; N., Anthony N Lasenby; Pooley, Guy G; Russell, Helen R; Sanders, Jeremy S; Saunders, Richard D E; Scaife, Anna M M; Schammel, Michel P; Scott, Paul F; Shimwell, Timothy W; Titterington, David J; Waldram, Elizabeth M; Zwart, Jonathan T L
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present 13.9-18.2 GHz observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect towards A2146 using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI). The cluster is detected with a peak SNR ratio of 13 sigma in the radio source subtracted map. Comparison of the SZ and X-ray images suggests that they both have extended regions which lie approximately perpendicular to one another, with their emission peaks significantly displaced. These features indicate non-uniformities in the distributions of the gas temperature and pressure, indicative of a cluster merger. We use a Bayesian cluster analysis to explore the high-dimensional parameter space of the cluster-plus-sources model to obtain cluster parameter estimates in the presence of radio point sources, receiver noise and primordial CMB anisotropy; the probability of SZ + CMB primordial structure + radio sources + receiver noise to CMB + radio sources + receiver noise is 3 x 10^{6}:1. We compare the results from three different cluster models. Our preferred model exploits the o...
Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.
The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion
Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO{sub 2} mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but our quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, we also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and ``splintering.`` Two causal relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive database including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength (fragility) curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10{sup {minus}3} for all scenarios considered. Sensitivity analyses did not show any areas of large sensitivity.
Systematics of delayed neutron emission probabilities in medium mass nuclides (fission products)
Nir-El, Y
1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The systematic behavior of emission probabilities was found to be determined by the nuclear pairing and the mass region of the precursor. The derivation of the systematics is based on a simplification of the general formula of the emission probability. The comparison made with the available experimental data leads to a semi- empirical formula for delayed neutron probabilities. This formula was used for the prediction of unknown values of emission probabilities for unidentified precursors.
1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 608, Probability and Statistics for Ocean Engineers
Frandsen, Jannette B.
1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 608, Probability and Statistics for Ocean Engineers 2-spectra, and practical applications in ocean engineering. Pre: 607 or consent. 4. Prerequisites Calculus Probability and ocean engineering. 7. Topics Covered Random Variables Monte Carlo Methods Probability Density Functions
MTH734U-MTHM012 Topics in Probability & Stochastic Processes
Stark, Dudley
MTH734U-MTHM012 Topics in Probability & Stochastic Processes Problem Sheet 9 1. Consider the 2 probabilities Pi,j(t) for i, j S. (c) Determine the limiting probabilities i for i S. 3. Sam Lacker) What is the generator matrix G? (b) What is the long-run proportion of time Sam is able to study? (c
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
George, Glyn
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Some Practice surviving a current of 3 µA for 2 hours is "4 to 1 against". What is the engineer's probability for this event? (b) An engineer states that the probability of another prototype microchip surviving a current
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
George, Glyn
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Problem Set 5 Probability distributions, expectation, variance 1. A discrete function of x is defined by ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 8 3 4 1, 1 0 0 otherwis x p x x e = - + = = (a) Verify that p(x) is a well-defined probability
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
George, Glyn
ENGI 4421 Probability and Statistics Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Problem Set 2 MN for 25 years is "7 to 1 on". What is the engineer's probability for this event? 3. The event E [Introduction to Probability; odds, Venn diagrams, decision trees] 1. Draw a decision tree, involving choice
Atomic Transition Probabilities of Silicon. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera...
Magee, Joseph W.
Atomic Transition Probabilities of Silicon. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera... and L. I. Atomic Transition Probabilities, Vol. II: Sodium through Cal- cium, NSRDS-NBS Vol. 22 U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1969 . Atomic transition probabilities have been critically evaluated and compiled
von Neumann algebras and Free Probability RMS meeting, ISI Bengaluru, May 13 2009
Sunder, V S
von Neumann algebras and Free Probability RMS meeting, ISI Bengaluru, May 13 2009 V.S. Sunder von Neumann algebras and Free Probability RMS meeting, ISI Bengaluru, M #12;Groups and algebras Groups: V.S. Sunder IMSc, Chennai von Neumann algebras and Free Probability RMS meeting, ISI Bengaluru, M
Oct 30th & 31st Clustering review
Mitchell, Tom
CLUSTERING Oct 30th & 31st Daegun Won #12;Outline Â·Clustering review Â· K-means Â· GMM Â· Hierarchical clustering Â·Examples #12;K-means & GMM #12;K-means Â· #12;K-means (2) Â·Linear decision boundary Â· Voronoi #12;LET'S SEE SOME EXAMPLES! #12;K-means Â seed choice? #12;Oops! #12;K-means Â·What's the effect
Smith, Graham P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ebeling, Harald; Ma, Cheng-Jiun [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Limousin, Marceau; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jauzac, Mathilde [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS-Universite Aix-Marseille, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Swinbank, A. M.; Richard, Johan; Edge, Alastair C.; Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Jullo, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sand, David J., E-mail: gps@star.sr.bham.ac.u [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of MACS J1149.5+2223, an X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at z = 0.544 discovered by the Massive Cluster Survey. The data reveal at least seven multiply imaged galaxies, three of which we have confirmed spectroscopically. One of these is a spectacular face-on spiral galaxy at z = 1.491, the four images of which are gravitationally magnified by 8 approx< mu approx< 23. We identify this as an L* (M{sub B} approx = -20.7), disk-dominated (B/T approx< 0.5) galaxy, forming stars at approx6 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We use a robust sample of multiply imaged galaxies to constrain a parameterized model of the cluster mass distribution. In addition to the main cluster dark matter halo and the bright cluster galaxies, our best model includes three galaxy-group-sized halos. The relative probability of this model is P(N{sub halo} = 4)/P(N{sub halo} < 4) >= 10{sup 12} where N{sub halo} is the number of cluster/group-scale halos. In terms of sheer number of merging cluster/group-scale components, this is the most complex strong-lensing cluster core studied to date. The total cluster mass and fraction of that mass associated with substructures within R <= 500 kpc, are measured to be M{sub tot} = (6.7 +- 0.4) x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun} and f{sub sub} = 0.25 +- 0.12, respectively. Our model also rules out recent claims of a flat density profile at approx>7sigma confidence, thus highlighting the critical importance of spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged galaxies when modeling strong-lensing clusters. Overall our results attest to the efficiency of X-ray selection in finding the most powerful cluster lenses, including complicated merging systems.
Large area bulk superconductors
Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Field, Michael B. (Jersey City, NJ)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarshipSpiralingSecurity217,354Strategic Focus Areas Lockheed
Globular Cluster Formation in M82
S. J. Lipscy; P. Plavchan
2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
We present high resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR; 11.7 and 17.65 micron) maps of the central 400 pc region of the starburst galaxy M82. Seven star forming clusters are identified which together provide ~ 15% of the total mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy. Combining the mid-IR data with thermal radio measurements and near- and mid-IR line emission, we find that these young stellar clusters have inferred masses and sizes comparable to globular clusters. At least 20% of the star formation in M82 is found to occur in super-star clusters.
Multiphoton ionization of large water clusters
Apicella, B., E-mail: apicella@irc.cnr.it [Combustion Research Institute, IRC–C.N.R., P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Li, X. [Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Passaro, M. [CNISM and Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production Department, University of Naples “Federico II,” P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Spinelli, N. [CNISM and Physics Department, University of Naples “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80124 Napoli (Italy); Wang, X. [SPIN–C.N.R., Via Cintia, 80124 Napoli (Italy)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Water clusters are multimers of water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. In the present work, multiphoton ionization in the UV range coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry has been applied to water clusters with up to 160 molecules in order to obtain information on the electronic states of clusters of different sizes up to dimensions that can approximate the bulk phase. The dependence of ion intensities of water clusters and their metastable fragments produced by laser ionization at 355 nm on laser power density indicates a (3+1)-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process. It also explains the large increase of ionization efficiency at 355 nm compared to that at 266 nm. Indeed, it was found, by applying both nanosecond and picosecond laser ionization with the two different UV wavelengths, that no water cluster sequences after n = 9 could be observed at 266 nm, whereas water clusters up to m/z 2000 Th in reflectron mode and m/z 3000 Th in linear mode were detected at 355 nm. The agreement between our findings on clusters of water, especially true in the range with n > 10, and reported data for liquid water supports the hypothesis that clusters above a critical dimension can approximate the liquid phase. It should thus be possible to study clusters just above 10 water molecules, for getting information on the bulk phase structure.
The Impact of Rotation on Cluster Dynamics
Christian Boily
2000-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
The evolution of rotating, isolated clusters of stars up to core-collapse is investigated with n-body numerical codes. The simulations start off from axisymmetric generalisations of King profiles, with added global angular momentum. In this contribution I report on results obtained for two sets of single-mass cluster simulations. These confirm the more rapid evolution of even mildly-rotating clusters. A model is presented with rotational energy comparable to omega-Centauri's; it reaches core-collapse in less than half the time required for non-rotating model clusters.
Optimization of synchronization in gradient clustered networks
Xingang Wang; Liang Huang; Ying-Cheng Lai; Choy Heng Lai
2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
We consider complex clustered networks with a gradient structure, where sizes of the clusters are distributed unevenly. Such networks describe more closely actual networks in biophysical systems and in technological applications than previous models. Theoretical analysis predicts that the network synchronizability can be optimized by the strength of the gradient field but only when the gradient field points from large to small clusters. A remarkable finding is that, if the gradient field is sufficiently strong, synchronizability of the network is mainly determined by the properties of the subnetworks in the two largest clusters. These results are verified by numerical eigenvalue analysis and by direct simulation of synchronization dynamics on coupled-oscillator networks.
Alberto Moretti; Luigi Guzzo; Sergio Campana; Stefano Covino; Davide Lazzati; Marcella Longhetti; Emilio Molinari; Maria Rosa Panzera; Gianpiero Tagliaferri; Ian Dell'Antonio
2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.
Moretti, A; Campana, S; Covino, S; Lazzati, D; Longhetti, M; Molinari, E; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G; Dell'Antonio, I P; Moretti, Alberto; Guzzo, Luigi; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Lazzati, Davide; Longhetti, Marcella; Molinari, Emilio; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Antonio, Ian Dell'
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.
Christoph Fritsch; Thomas Buchert
1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss implications of the fundamental plane parameters of clusters of galaxies derived from combined optical and X-ray data of a sample of 78 nearby clusters. In particular, we investigate the dependence of these parameters on the dynamical state of the cluster. We introduce a new concept of allocation of the fundamental plane of clusters derived from their intrinsic morphological properties, and put some theoretical implications of the existence of a fundamental plane into perspective.
Contreras, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127, Bologna (Italy); Catelan, M. [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Smith, H. A.; Kuehn, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pritzl, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI 54901 (United States); Borissova, J. [Departamento de Fisica y AstronomIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de ValparaIso, Ave. Gran Bretana 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, ValparaIso (Chile)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present new time-series CCD photometry, in the B and V bands, for the moderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.3) Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC 6266). The present data set is the largest obtained so far for this cluster and consists of 168 images per filter, obtained with the Warsaw 1.3 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory and the 1.3 m telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, in two separate runs over the time span of 3 months. The procedure adopted to detect the variable stars was the optimal image subtraction method (ISIS v2.2), as implemented by Alard. The photometry was performed using both ISIS and Stetson's DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME package. We have identified 245 variable stars in the cluster fields that have been analyzed so far, of which 179 are new discoveries. Of these variables, 133 are fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab), 76 are first overtone (RRc) pulsators, 4 are type II Cepheids, 25 are long-period variables (LPVs), 1 is an eclipsing binary, and 6 are not yet well classified. Such a large number of RR Lyrae stars places M62 among the top two most RR Lyrae-rich (in the sense of total number of RR Lyrae stars present) globular clusters known in the Galaxy, second only to M3 (NGC 5272) with a total of 230 known RR Lyrae stars. Since this study covers most but not all of the cluster area, it is not unlikely that M62 is in fact the most RR Lyrae-rich globular cluster in the Galaxy. In like vein, thanks to the time coverage of our data sets, we were also able to detect the largest sample of LPVs known so far in a Galactic globular cluster. We analyze a variety of Oosterhoff type indicators for the cluster, including mean periods, period distribution, Bailey diagrams, and Fourier decomposition parameters (as well as the physical parameters derived therefrom). All of these indicators clearly show that M62 is an Oosterhoff type I system. This is in good agreement with the moderately high metallicity of the cluster, in spite of its predominantly blue horizontal branch morphology-which is more typical of Oosterhoff type II systems. We thus conclude that metallicity plays a key role in defining Oosterhoff type. Finally, based on an application of the 'A-method', we conclude that the cluster RR Lyrae stars have a similar He abundance as M3, although more work on the temperatures of the M62 RR Lyrae is needed before this result can be conclusively established.
Megan Donahue
2006-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
I review the literature's census of the cold gas in clusters of galaxies. Cold gas here is defined as the gas that is cooler than X-ray emitting temperatures (~10^7 K) and is not in stars. I present new Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of Abell 2597 (PI: Sparks) that reveal significant amounts of warm dust and star formation at the level of 5 solar masses per year. This rate is inconsistent with the mass cooling rate of 20 +/- 5 solar masses per year inferred from a FUSE [OVI] detection.
Detecting Climate Change in Multivariate Time Series Data by Novel Clustering and Cluster Tracing Aachen University, Germany {kremer, guennemann, seidl}@cs.rwth-aachen.de Abstract--Climate change can series, and trace the clusters over time. A climate pattern is categorized as a changing pattern
Agglomerative Fuzzy K-Means Clustering Algorithm with Selection of Number of Clusters
Cheung, Yiu-ming
Agglomerative Fuzzy K-Means Clustering Algorithm with Selection of Number of Clusters Mark Junjie--In this paper, we present an agglomerative fuzzy K-Means clustering algorithm for numerical data, an extension to the standard fuzzy K-Means algorithm by introducing a penalty term to the objective function to make
Optimal interval clustering: Application to Bregman clustering and statistical mixture learning
Nielsen, Frank
clustering of n scalar elements into k pairwise disjoint intervals. This case includes 1D Euclidean k-means- hood. Index Terms--Clustering, dynamic programming, k-means, Bregman divergences, statistical mixtures is the celebrated k-means [1] that seeks to minimize the sum of intra-cluster variances by prescribing beforehand
Hilbert's Sixth Problem: Descriptive Statistics as New Foundations for Probability
Johnson, Joseph F
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Hay esbozas tras las cuales las probabilidades se cuentan como la fundaci\\'on de la teor\\'\\i a matem\\'atica de las estad\\'\\i sticas. Mas la significaci\\'on f\\'\\i sica de las probabilidades matem\\'aticas son oscuros, muy poco entendidos. Parecer\\'\\i a mejor que las probabilidades f\\'\\i sicas sean fundadas en las estad\\'\\i sticas descriptivas de datos fisicales. Se trate una teor\\'\\i a que as\\'\\i responde a una cuestiona de Hilbert propuesta en su Problema N\\'umero Seis, la axiomatizaci\\'on de la F\\'\\i sica. Est\\'a basada en la auto-correlaci\\'on de los series temporales. Casi todas de las funciones de auto-correlaci\\'on de las trayector\\'\\i as de un sistema din\\'amico lineal (de lo cual el n\\'umero de sus grados de libertad sea bastante grande) son todas aproximadamente iguales, no importan las condiciones iniciales, a\\'un si el sistema no sea erg\\'odico, como conjetur\\'o Khintchine en 1943. Usually, the theory of probability has been made the foundation for the theory of statistics. But the physical significa...
Parameterizing deep convection using the assumed probability density function method
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Storer, R. L.; Griffin, B. M.; Höft, J.; Weber, J. K.; Raut, E.; Larson, V. E.; Wang, M.; Rasch, P. J.
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to their coarse horizontal resolution, present-day climate models must parameterize deep convection. This paper presents single-column simulations of deep convection using a probability density function (PDF) parameterization. The PDF parameterization predicts the PDF of subgrid variability of turbulence, clouds, and hydrometeors. That variability is interfaced to a prognostic microphysics scheme using a Monte Carlo sampling method.The PDF parameterization is used to simulate tropical deep convection, the transition from shallow to deep convection over land, and midlatitude deep convection. These parameterized single-column simulations are compared with 3-D reference simulations. The agreement is satisfactory except when the convective forcing is weak.more »The same PDF parameterization is also used to simulate shallow cumulus and stratocumulus layers. The PDF method is sufficiently general to adequately simulate these five deep, shallow, and stratiform cloud cases with a single equation set. This raises hopes that it may be possible in the future, with further refinements at coarse time step and grid spacing, to parameterize all cloud types in a large-scale model in a unified way.« less
Financial derivative pricing under probability operator via Esscher transfomation
Achi, Godswill U., E-mail: achigods@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Abia State Polytechnic Aba, P.M.B. 7166, Aba, Abia State (Nigeria)
2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of pricing contingent claims has been extensively studied for non-Gaussian models, and in particular, Black- Scholes formula has been derived for the NIG asset pricing model. This approach was first developed in insurance pricing{sup 9} where the original distortion function was defined in terms of the normal distribution. This approach was later studied6 where they compared the standard Black-Scholes contingent pricing and distortion based contingent pricing. So, in this paper, we aim at using distortion operators by Cauchy distribution under a simple transformation to price contingent claim. We also show that we can recuperate the Black-Sholes formula using the distribution. Similarly, in a financial market in which the asset price represented by a stochastic differential equation with respect to Brownian Motion, the price mechanism based on characteristic Esscher measure can generate approximate arbitrage free financial derivative prices. The price representation derived involves probability Esscher measure and Esscher Martingale measure and under a new complex valued measure ? (u) evaluated at the characteristic exponents ?{sub x}(u) of X{sub t} we recuperate the Black-Scholes formula for financial derivative prices.
Delayed neutron emission probabilities of Li-F nuclides
Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Hensley, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Delayed neutron emission probabilities (P{sub n}) have been measured for 18 nuclides ranging from {sup 9}Li to {sup 25}F. Neutron-rich nuclides were produced by reaction of 800 MeV p on a {sup 232}Th target at the LAMPF accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Recoil nuclides were individually identified as to their mass, nuclear charged, and ionic charge by use of the Time-of-Flight Isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer. The distribution of time intervals between the arrival of a specific ion and the subsequent detection of a neutron was determined. The P{sub n} was calculated from the total number of ions observed, the initial neutron count rate, the neutron counting efficiency, and the half-life. The technique is shown to be valid for half-lives ranging from 10 ms ({sup 15}B) to 4 s ({sup 17}N) and for P{sub n} values as low as 0.3% ({sup 13}B). Delayed neutron emission has been measured for {sup 12}Be, {sup 14}B, {sup 17}C, {sup 18}N, {sup 21}N, and {sup 25}F for the first time. A small branch for beta-delayed two-neutron emission was observed in {sup 15}B (P{sub 2n} = 0.4 {plus minus} 0.2%). 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Very Small Array observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in nearby galaxy clusters
Katy Lancaster; Ricardo Genova-Santos; Nelson Falcon; Keith Grainge; Carlos Gutierrez; Ruediger Kneissl; Phil Marshall; Guy Pooley; Rafael Rebolo; Jose-Alberto Rubino-Martin; Richard D. E. Saunders; Elizabeth Waldram; Robert A. Watson
2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present VSA observations (~34GHz) on scales ~20 arcmin towards a complete, X-ray-flux-limited sample of seven clusters at redshift z<0.1. Four have significant SZ detections in the presence of CMB primordial anisotropy. We use a bayesian MCMC method for inference from the VSA data, with X-ray priors on cluster positions and temperatures, and radio priors on sources. We make assumptions of beta-model gas distributions and of hydrostatic equilibrium, to evaluate probability densities for the gas mass and total mass out to r_200. Our combined estimate of the gas fraction is 0.08^{+0.06}_{-0.04}h^{-1} The random errors are poor (note that the errors are higher than would have been obtained with the usual chi-squared method) but the control of bias is good. We have described the MCMC analysis method specifically in terms of SZ but hope the description will be of more general use. We find that the effects of primordial CMB contamination tend to be similar in the estimates of both the gas mass and total mass over our narrow range of angular scales, so that there is little effect of primordials on the gas fraction determination. Using our total mass estimates we find a normalisation of the mass-temperature relation based on the profiles from the VSA cluster pressure maps that is in good agreement with recent M-T determinations from X-ray cluster measurements.
Merging and splitting of clusters in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the KLOE detector
Zdebik, Jaroslaw
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The work was carried out in the framework of the KLOE collaboration studying the decays of the phi meson produced in the DAFNE accelerator in the collisions of electron and positron. The main aim of this thesis was investigation of the influence of the merging and splitting of clusters in decays with the high multiplicity of gamma quanta, which are at most biased by these effects. For this aim we implemented the full geometry and realistic material composition of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in FLUKA package. The prepared Monte Carlo based simulation program permits to achieve a fast generation of the detector response separately for each interested reaction. The program was used to study the reconstruction efficiency with the KLOE clustering algorithm as a function of the photocathode quantum efficiency. It was also used to investigate merging and splitting probabilities as a function of the quantum efficiency. The conducted studies indicated that the increase of quantum efficiency does not improve...
Demixing cascades in cluster crystals
Nigel B. Wilding; Peter Sollich
2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
In a cluster crystal, each lattice site is occupied by multiple soft-core particles. As the number density is increased at zero temperature, a `cascade' of isostructural phase transitions can occur between states whose site occupancy differs by unity. For low but finite temperature, each of these transitions terminates in a critical point. Using tailored Monte Carlo simulation techniques we have studied such demixing cascades in systems of soft particles interacting via potentials of the generalized exponential form $u(r)=\\epsilon\\exp[-(r/\\sigma)^n]$. We have estimated the critical parameters of the first few transitions in the cascade as a function of the softness parameter $n$. The critical temperature and pressure exhibit non-monotonic behaviour as $n$ is varied, although the critical chemical potential remains monotonic. The trends for the pressure and chemical potential are confirmed by cell model calculations at zero temperature. As $n\\to 2^+$, all the transitions that we have observed are preempted by melting although we cannot rule out that clustering transitions survive at high density.
Critical Path and Area Based Scheduling of Parallel Task Graphs on Heterogeneous Platforms
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Critical Path and Area Based Scheduling of Parallel Task Graphs on Heterogeneous Platforms Tchimou research has been done in the context of single homogeneous clus- ters, heterogeneous platforms have become) a novel "virtual" cluster methodology for handling platform het- erogeneity; (ii) a novel task placement
None
2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.
None
2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.
Adsorption, Desorption, and Clustering H20 on Pt (111). | EMSL
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Desorption, and Clustering H20 on Pt (111). Adsorption, Desorption, and Clustering H20 on Pt (111). Abstract: The adsorption, desorption, and clustering behavior of H20 on Pt(111)...
Au34-: A Fluxional Core-Shell Cluster. | EMSL
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Au34-: A Fluxional Core-Shell Cluster. Au34-: A Fluxional Core-Shell Cluster. Abstract: Among the large Aun – clusters for n > 20, the photoelectron spectra of Au34...
Consensus Clustering Algorithms: Comparison and Refinement Andrey Goder
Filkov, Vladimir
-deterministic clustering algorithms, e.g. K-means, are sensitive to the choice of the initial seed clusters; running K-meansConsensus Clustering Algorithms: Comparison and Refinement Andrey Goder Vladimir Filkov Computer
When Network Coding improves the Performances of Clustered Wireless Networks
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
When Network Coding improves the Performances of Clustered Wireless Networks that significantly increases the performances of clustering algorithms in wireless multi-hop networks-XOR coding; wireless multi-hop networks; clustering I. INTRODUCTION Partitioning nodes
Knowledge-based cluster development in India : opportunities and challenges
Singla, Chandan Dev
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Knowledge-based industries tend to cluster. The nature of activities illustrate the importance of networks and virtual and proximity aspects of clustering. Review of existing literature brings out the advantages of clustering ...
Dynamics of excess electrons in atomic and molecular clusters
Young, Ryan Michael
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Time-Resolved Dynamics in Acetonitrile Cluster Anions (CH 3Time-resolved dynamics in acetonitrile clusters anions (CH 3resolved dynamics in acetonitrile clusters anions (CH 3 CN)
THE APM CLUSTER SURVEY: CLUSTER DETECTION AND LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE
G. B. Dalton
1995-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
The APM Cluster Survey was based on a modification of Abell's original classification scheme for galaxy clusters. Here we discuss the results of an investigation of the stability of the statistical properties of the cluster catalogue to changes in the selection parameters. For a poor choice of selection parameters we find clear indications of line-of-sight clusters, but there is a wide range of input parameters for which the statistical properties of the catalogue are stable. We conclude that clusters selected in this way are indeed useful as tracers of large-scale structure.
Functional Area Assessments Project Charter Workstream Name Functional Area Assessments
Sheridan, Jennifer
with Huron on detailed project plan. Subject Experts Subject Expert Role Functional leadership Administrative1 of 2 Functional Area Assessments Project Charter Workstream Name Functional Area Assessments - Internal Budgeting - Human Resources These diagnostics will be performed using interviews, surveys, data
Multiparty-controlled remote preparation of four-qubit cluster-type entangled states
Dong Wang; Liu Ye; Sabre Kais
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
We present a strategy for implementing multiparty-controlled remote state preparation (MCRSP) for a family of four-qubit cluster-type states with genuine entanglements while employing, Greenberg-Horne-Zeilinger-class states as quantum channels. In this scenario, the encoded information is transmitted from the sender to a spatially separated receiver via the control of multi-party. Predicated on the collaboration of all participants, the desired state can be entirely restored within the receiver's place with high success probability by application of appropriate local operations and necessary classical communication . Moreover, this proposal for MCRSP can be faithfully achieved with unit total success probability when the quantum channels are distilled to maximally entangled ones.
Energy Accounting and Control on HPC clusters
Lefčvre, Laurent
Energy Accounting and Control on HPC clusters Yiannis Georgiou R&D Software Engineer #12;Objectives Issues that we wanted to deal with: Measure power and energy consumption on HPC clusters Attribute power and energy data to HPC components Calculate the energy consumption of jobs in the system Extract power
Clustering Web Search Results Using Fuzzy Ants
Gent, Universiteit
Clustering Web Search Results Using Fuzzy Ants Steven Schockaert,* Martine De Cock, Chris Cornelis and Uncertainty Modelling Research Unit, Krijgslaan 281 (S9), B-9000 Gent, Belgium Algorithms for clustering Web existing approaches and illustrates how our algorithm can be applied to the problem of Web search results
Cluster Parallel Loops Part I. Preliminaries
Kaminsky, Alan
;14Â2 BIG CPU, BIG DATA he massively parallel Bitcoin mining program in Chapter 13 still doesn't take full advantage of the cluster's parallel processing capabilities. Each Bitcoin mining task uses all the cores on just one node. So on the 10-node tardis cluster, I have to mine 10 or more Bitcoins to fully utilize
An Experimental Comparison of Kernel Clustering Methods
Masulli, Francesco
, Support Vec- tor Clustering, and three standard methods: K-means, FCM-I, and FCM-II. The motiva- tion. #12;2. Methods 2.1. K-means This is the standard K-means clustering algorithm [13], included to be equal, while for m close to one we obtain crisp memberships as in K-means. By a Lagrangian approach
STELLAR ENCOUNTER RATE IN GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS
Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C., E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB, T5K 1V4 (Canada)
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The high stellar densities in the cores of globular clusters cause significant stellar interactions. These stellar interactions can produce close binary mass-transferring systems involving compact objects and their progeny, such as X-ray binaries and radio millisecond pulsars. Comparing the numbers of these systems and interaction rates in different clusters drives our understanding of how cluster parameters affect the production of close binaries. In this paper we estimate stellar encounter rates ({Gamma}) for 124 Galactic globular clusters based on observational data as opposed to the methods previously employed, which assumed 'King-model' profiles for all clusters. By deprojecting cluster surface brightness profiles to estimate luminosity density profiles, we treat 'King-model' and 'core-collapsed' clusters in the same way. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of uncertainties in various observational parameters (distance, reddening, surface brightness) on {Gamma}, producing the first catalog of globular cluster stellar encounter rates with estimated errors. Comparing our results with published observations of likely products of stellar interactions (numbers of X-ray binaries, numbers of radio millisecond pulsars, and {gamma}-ray luminosity) we find both clear correlations and some differences with published results.
PHOTOIONIZED TOF MASS SPECTROMETRY OF ATOMIC CLUSTERS
Maruyama, Shigeo
for sev eral cluster sou rce nozzle condition s. Heliu m gas pressu re at the tim e of v aporization of solid m aterial played the key role in cluster size range obtain ed. Th e effect of pressu re was thorou
Projection-based curve clustering Benjamin AUDER
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the re- liability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k
Scale Height Evolution of Star Clusters
Froebrich, Dirk
0) Introduction 1) The FSR Cluster Sample 2) Photometric Decontamination 3) Old Clusters 4) Distance/Background decontamination adaptation of the (Bonatto & Bica 2007) decontamination procedure #12;Fore/Background decontamination adaptation of the (Bonatto & Bica 2007) decontamination procedure calculate CCM distance between
Regional Innovation Clusters September 25 , 2012
Levinson, David M.
prosperity Find, birth, build and celebrate clusters Improve the business environment Connect the dots by Professor Michael E. Porter and Monitor Company Group, L.P. -- Confidential -- CAM Q BMW Spartanburg #12 Automotive Cluster #12;Timken Technology Center Carroll A. Campbell Graduate Engineering Center IBMOracle BMW
M31 Globular Clusters in the HST Archive: I. Cluster Detection and Completeness
P. Barmby; J. P. Huchra
2001-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
Globular clusters at the distance of M31 have apparent angular sizes of a few arcseconds. While many M31 GCs have been detected and studied from ground-based images, the high spatial resolution of HST allows much more robust detection and characterization of star cluster properties. We present the results of a search of 157 HST/WFPC2 images of M31: we found 82 previously-cataloged globular cluster candidates as well as 32 new globular cluster candidates and 20 open cluster candidates. We present images of the new candidates and photometry for all clusters. We assess existing cluster catalogs' completeness and use the results to estimate the total number of GCs in M31 as 460+/-70. The specific frequency is S_N = 1.2+/-0.2 and the mass specific frequency T = 2.4+/-0.4; these values are at the upper end of the range seen for spiral galaxies.
Soeren S. Larsen; Tom Richtler
1999-02-19T23:59:59.000Z
Using ground-based UBVRI+Halpha CCD photometry we have been carrying out a search for young massive star clusters (YMCs) in a sample consisting of 21 nearby spiral galaxies. We find a large variety concerning the richness of the cluster systems, with some galaxies containing no YMCs at all and others hosting very large numbers of YMCs. Examples of galaxies with poor cluster systems are NGC 300 and NGC 4395, while the richest cluster systems are found in the galaxies NGC 5236, NGC 2997 and NGC 1313. The age distributions of clusters in these galaxies show no obvious peaks, indicating that massive star clusters are formed as an ongoing process rather than in bursts. This is in contrast to what is observed in starbursts and merger galaxies. The radial distributions of clusters follow the Halpha surface brightness. For the galaxies in our sample there is no correlation between the morphological type and the presence of YMCs
IP Profiling via Service Cluster Membership Vectors
Bartoletti, A
2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
This study investigates the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a system of compact IP behavioral profiles as a robust means of computer anomaly definition and detection. These profiles are based upon the degree to which a system's (IP's) network traffic is distributed among stable characteristic clusters derived of the aggregate session traffic generated by each of the major network services. In short, an IP's profile represents its degree of membership in these derived service clusters. The goal is to quantify and rank behaviors that are outside of the statistical norm for the services in question, or present significant deviation from profile for individual client IPs. Herein, we establish stable clusters for accessible features of common session traffic, migrate these clusters over time, define IP behavior profiles with respect to these clusters, migrate individual IP profiles over time, and demonstrate the detection of IP behavioral changes in terms of deviation from profile.
Clustering attributed graphs: models, measures and methods
Bothorel, Cecile; Magnani, Matteo; Micenkova, Barbora
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Clustering a graph, i.e., assigning its nodes to groups, is an important operation whose best known application is the discovery of communities in social networks. Graph clustering and community detection have traditionally focused on graphs without attributes, with the notable exception of edge weights. However, these models only provide a partial representation of real social systems, that are thus often described using node attributes, representing features of the actors, and edge attributes, representing different kinds of relationships among them. We refer to these models as attributed graphs. Consequently, existing graph clustering methods have been recently extended to deal with node and edge attributes. This article is a literature survey on this topic, organizing and presenting recent research results in a uniform way, characterizing the main existing clustering methods and highlighting their conceptual differences. We also cover the important topic of clustering evaluation and identify current open ...
Computer System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute Program...
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System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute Program Description The Computer System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute (CSCNSI) is a focused technical enrichment...
Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Accepted Manuscript: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene Citation Details Title: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on...
Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distributio...
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Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distribution between Crystalline and Impurity Amorphous Regions. Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite...
Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...
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Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...
Approximating K-means-type clustering via semidefinite programming
Jiming Peng
2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
Apr 22, 2005 ... Approximating K-means-type clustering via semidefinite ... Abstract: One of the fundamental clustering problems is to assign $n$ points into $k$ ...
ClusterSculptor: Software for Expert-Steered Classification of...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
and intuitive framework to aid scientists in data classification. ClusterSculptor uses k-means as the overall clustering engine, but allows tuning its parameters interactively,...
Analysis of a Cluster Strategy for Near Term Hydrogen Infrastructure...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
a Cluster Strategy for Near Term Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout in Southern California Analysis of a Cluster Strategy for Near Term Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout in Southern...
acid gene cluster: Topics by E-print Network
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the application of a novel clustering algorithm, Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of...
arom gene cluster: Topics by E-print Network
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the application of a novel clustering algorithm, Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of...
almt1 gene cluster: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
the application of a novel clustering algorithm, Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of...
All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands...
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Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in Chemistry. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in...
High performance computing: Clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions
Dongarra, Jack; Sterling, Thomas; Simon, Horst; Strohmaier, Erich
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and Jim Gray, “High Performance Computing: Crays, Clusters,The Marketplace of High-Performance Computing”, ParallelHigh Performance Computing Clusters, Constellations, MPPs,
Optimization of the Coupled Cluster Implementation in NWChem...
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the Coupled Cluster Implementation in NWChem on Petascale Parallel Architectures. Optimization of the Coupled Cluster Implementation in NWChem on Petascale Parallel Architectures....
Quantum Implementation of Unitary Coupled Cluster for Simulating Molecular Electronic Structure
Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Shuaining; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Yung, Man-Hong; Kim, Kihwan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum simulation represents an efficient solution to a certain classically intractable problem in various research area including quantum chemistry. The central problem of quantum chemistry is to determine the electronic structure and the ground-state energy of atoms and molecules. The exact classical calculation of the problem is demanding even for molecules with moderate size due to the "exponential catastrophe." To deal with such quantum chemistry problem, the coupled-cluster methods have been successfully developed, which are considered to be the current "gold standard" in classical computational chemistry. However, the coupled-cluster ansatz is built with non-unitary operation, which leads to drawbacks such as lacking variational bound of ground-state energy. The unitary version of the coupled-cluster methods would perfectly address the problem, whereas it is classically inefficient without proper truncation of the infinite series expansion. It has been a long-standing challenge to build an efficient c...
Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...
Boundary Waters Canoe Area (Minnesota)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Boundary Waters Canoe Area occupies a large section of northern Minnesota, and is preserved as a primitive wilderness area. Construction and new development is prohibited. A map of the...
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Delay Distribution Analysis of Wireless Personal Area Networks Pangun Park1, Piergiuseppe Di Marco2, Carlo Fischione2 and Karl Henrik Johansson2 Abstract-- Characterizing the network delay distribution of the probability distribution of the network delay. The probability distribution of the delay is a function
Communication in Home Area Networks
Wang, Yubo
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
used in area like smart buildings, street light controls andbuilding. This section focuses on HAN design to address two smart
THREE-CLUSTER NUCLEAR MOLECULES
D. N. Poenaru; B. Dobrescu; W. Greiner
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-center phenomenological model able to explain, at least from a qualitative point of view, the difference in the observed yield of a particle-accompanied fission and that of binary fission was developed. It is derived from the liquid drop model under the assumption that the aligned configuration, with the emitted particle between the light and heavy fragment is obtained by increasing continuously the separation distance, while the radii of the light fragment and of the light particle are kept constant. During the first stage of the deformation one has a two-center evolution until the neck radius becomes equal to the radius of the emitted particle. Then the three center starts developing by decreasing with the same amount the two tip distances. In such a way a second minimum, typical for a cluster molecule, appears in the deformation energy. Examples are presented for 240 Pu parent nucleus emitting ?-particles and 14 C in a ternary process. 1
2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC
Lai-Sheng Wang
2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Because of the important role that students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate to select several posters from young investigators for oral presentations.
Development of an integrated system for estimating human error probabilities
Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Morzinski, J.A.
1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project had as its main objective the development of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), knowledge-based expert system that would provide probabilistic estimates for potential human errors within various risk assessments, safety analysis reports, and hazard assessments. HRA identifies where human errors are most likely, estimates the error rate for individual tasks, and highlights the most beneficial areas for system improvements. This project accomplished three major tasks. First, several prominent HRA techniques and associated databases were collected and translated into an electronic format. Next, the project started a knowledge engineering phase where the expertise, i.e., the procedural rules and data, were extracted from those techniques and compiled into various modules. Finally, these modules, rules, and data were combined into a nearly complete HRA expert system.
Wang, Xiaoming
The general area of geophysical fluid mechanics is truly interdisciplinary. Ideas from statistical and oceans. In this book, the basic ideas of geophysics, probability theory, information theory, nonlinear Spot. The various competing approaches of equilibrium statistical mechanics for geophysical flows
Effects of $?$-cluster breaking on 3$?$ cluster structures in $^{12}$C
Tadahiro Suhara; Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo
2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
To clarify the effects of $\\alpha$-cluster breaking on 3$\\alpha$ cluster structures in $^{12}$C, we investigate $^{12}$C using a hybrid model that combines the Brink-Bloch cluster model with the $p_{3/2}$ subshell closure wave function. We have found that $\\alpha$-cluster breaking caused by spin-orbit force significantly changes cluster structures of excited $0^{+}$ states through orthogonality to lower states. Spatially developed cluster components of the $0^{+}_{2}$ state are reduced. The $0^{+}_{3}$ state changes from a vibration mode in the bending motion of three $\\alpha$ clusters to a chain-like 3$\\alpha$ structure having an open triangle configuration. As a result of these structure changes of $0^{+}$ states, the band assignment for the $2^{+}_{2}$ state is changed by the $\\alpha$-cluster breaking effect. Namely, in model calculations without the $\\alpha$-cluster breaking effect, the $0^{+}_{2}$ state is assigned to be the band-head of the $2^{+}_{2}$ state. However, when we incorporate $\\alpha$-cluster breaking caused by the spin-orbit force, the $0^{+}_{3}$ state is regarded as the band-head of the $2^{+}_{2}$ state.
Jet Veto Clustering Logarithms Beyond Leading Order
Simone Alioli; Jonathan R. Walsh
2014-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
Many experimental analyses separate events into exclusive jet bins, using a jet algorithm to cluster the final state and then veto on jets. Jet clustering induces logarithmic dependence on the jet radius R in the cross section for exclusive jet bins, a dependence that is poorly controlled due to the non-global nature of the clustering. At jet radii of experimental interest, the leading order (LO) clustering effects are numerically significant, but the higher order effects are currently unknown. We rectify this situation by calculating the most important part of the next-to-leading order (NLO) clustering logarithms of R for any 0-jet process, which enter as $O(\\alpha_s^3)$ corrections to the cross section. The calculation blends subtraction methods for NLO calculations with factorization properties of QCD and soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). We compare the size of the known LO and new NLO clustering logarithms and find that the impact of the NLO terms on the 0-jet cross section in Higgs production is small. This brings clustering effects under better control and may be used to improve uncertainty estimates on cross sections with a jet veto.
The Formation History of Globular Clusters
Dean E. McLaughlin
2000-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
The properties of old globular cluster systems in galaxy halos are used to infer quantitative constraints on aspects of generic star (cluster) formation. First, the spatial distribution of globulars in three large galaxies, together with trends in total cluster population vs. galaxy luminosity for 97 early-type systems plus the halo of the Milky Way, imply that bound stellar clusters formed with a universal efficiency throughout early protogalaxies: by mass, always 0.26% of star-forming gas was converted into globulars rather than halo field stars. That this fraction is so robust in the face of extreme variations in local and global galaxy environment suggests that any parcel of gas needs primarily to exceed a relative density threshold in order to form a bound cluster of stars. Second, it is shown that a strict, empirical scaling of total binding energy with luminosity and Galactocentric position is a defining equation for a fundamental plane of Galactic globular clusters. The characteristics of this plane, which subsumes all other observable correlations between the structural parameters of globulars, provide a small but complete set of facts that must be explained by theories of cluster formation and evolution in the Milky Way. It is suggested that the E_b(L,r_{\\rm gc}) relation specifically resulted from star formation efficiencies having been systematically higher inside more massive protoglobular gas clumps.
Comment on "Measurement of 2- and 3-Nucleon Short-Range Correlation Probabilities in Nuclei"
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News; Hen, Or [Tel Aviv University
2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Comment on 'Measurement of 2- and 3-nucleon short range correlation probabilities in nuclei' shows how the reported three-nucleon plateau was likely due to resolution effects.
Double-Slit Experiment and Quantum Theory Event-Probability Interpretation
G. Quznetsov
2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
In this article the propagation of pointlike event probabilities in space is considered. Double-Slit experiment is described in detail. New interpretation of Quantum Theory is formulated.
Online Spectral Clustering on Network Streams
Jia, Yi
2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
.3.1 First Order Approximation (FOA) Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7.3.2 Eigen Perturbation Theory Based Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 7.3.2.1 General Eigen Perturbation Theory (GEPT) Approach . . . 111 7.3.2.2 Enhanced Eigen Perturbation... of an evolving graph with two snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7.2 The clustering results of the evolving graph in Figure 7.1 by using SC-FOA . 110 xi 7.3 The clustering results of the evolving graph in Figure 7.1 by using FOA . . . 111 7.4 The clustering...
Cluster state quantum computing in optical fibers
Yasaman Soudagar; Felix Bussieres; Guido Berlin; Suzanne Lacroix; Jose M. Fernandez; Nicolas Godbout
2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
A scheme for the implementation of the cluster state model of quantum computing in optical fibers, which enables the feedforward feature, is proposed. This scheme uses the time-bin encoding of qubits. Following previously suggested methods of applying arbitrary one-qubit gates in optical fibers, two different ways for the realization of fusion gate types I and II for cluster production are proposed: a fully time-bin based encoding scheme and a combination of time-bin and polarization based encoding scheme. Also the methods of measurement in any desired bases for the purpose of the processing of cluster state computing for both these encodings are explained.
Method for assaying clustered DNA damages
Sutherland, Betsy M.
2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.
Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area
JOHNSON, D.M.
2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.
Energy-and Area-Efficient Architectures through Application Clustering and
Brooks, David
applications is a promising approach to yield highly energy-efficient designs for embedded systems. This work
DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...
twelve years. The Mid-Atlantic Area National Corridor includes certain counties in Ohio, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and all of New Jersey,...
area spoil area: Topics by E-print Network
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populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 25 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...
Food Cluster: A Strategy for Job Growth in North
Minnesota, University of
with Aeroponics Business Requires low-skill labor Faster production cycle Reduced material & energy costs 16 #12, commercial urban ag. business to anchor the food cluster 3. Find smaller urban farming businesses to serve Cluster Businesses Recommendations 2 #12;Business Clusters Drive Economic Growth · Business Cluster
Secure Two-Party k-Means Clustering Rafail Ostrovsky
Ostrovsky, Rafail
Secure Two-Party k-Means Clustering Paul Bunn Rafail Ostrovsky Abstract The k-Means Clustering. To date there have been numerous attempts to create specific multiparty k-means clustering protocols a Two-Party k-Means Clustering Protocol that guarantees privacy, and is more efficient than utilizing
Performance impact of dynamic parallelism on different clustering algorithms
Taufer, Michela
will be measured using two well-known clustering algorithms that exhibit data dependencies: the K-means clustering and the hierarchical clustering. K-means has a sequential data dependence wherein iterations occur in a linear fashion drawbacks of CUDA 5's new dynamic parallelism feature. Keywords: K-means, Divisive hierarchical clustering
Spectral Embedded Clustering Feiping Nie1,2
Xu, Dong
methods, such as spectral clustering, Clustering with local and global regularization, K-means and Discrimi- native K-means. The experiments on many real- world data sets show that SEC significantly out- performs the existing spectral clustering methods as well as K-means clustering related methods. 1
The globular cluster system of M31
P. Jablonka
2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
This review presents the current status of our knowledge of M31 star clusters. Given the broadness of the subject, I chose to focus on some of its aspects which are not covered by the other participants in this conference.
Classification and clustering problems in microarray analysis
Tseng, George C. "Chien-Cheng"
-based · Distance-based 3. Estimating # of clusters 4. Methods & comparison · Hierarchical, K-means, SOM, Tight & comparison · Linear & quadratic discriminant, CART, SVM 3. Gene (feature) selection · Ranking, Recursive
UCD Candidates in the Hydra Cluster
Elizabeth Wehner; William Harris
2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
NGC 3311, the giant cD galaxy in the Hydra cluster (A1060), has one of the largest globular cluster systems known. We describe new Gemini GMOS (g',i') photometry of the NGC 3311 field which reveals that the red, metal-rich side of its globular cluster population extends smoothly upward into the mass range associated with the new class of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs (UCDs). We identify 29 UCD candidates with estimated masses > 6x10^6 solar masses and discuss their characteristics. This UCD-like sequence is the most well defined one yet seen, and reinforces current ideas that the high-mass end of the globular cluster sequence merges continuously into the UCD sequence, which connects in turn to the E galaxy structural sequence.
Customer Data Clustering using Data Mining Technique
Rajagopal, Dr Sankar
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Classification and patterns extraction from customer data is very important for business support and decision making. Timely identification of newly emerging trends is very important in business process. Large companies are having huge volume of data but starving for knowledge. To overcome the organization current issue, the new breed of technique is required that has intelligence and capability to solve the knowledge scarcity and the technique is called Data mining. The objectives of this paper are to identify the high-profit, high-value and low-risk customers by one of the data mining technique - customer clustering. In the first phase, cleansing the data and developed the patterns via demographic clustering algorithm using IBM I-Miner. In the second phase, profiling the data, develop the clusters and identify the high-value low-risk customers. This cluster typically represents the 10-20 percent of customers which yields 80% of the revenue.
Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy | ornl.gov
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy ORNL has a 40-year history in R&D on fiber-reinforced composite materials, and has been leading DOE's low-cost carbon fiber initiative for more than...
Flagship Cluster Hiring Initiative Computational Science
Allen, Gabrielle
Flagship Cluster Hiring Initiative Computational Science: Advancing Research, Society and the Economy Gabrielle Allen (PI) Thomas Sterling (Presenter/co-PI) Department of Computer Science Center for Computation & Technology #12;Computational Science: Advancing Research, Society and the Economy, External
Adaptively refined large eddy simulations of clusters
Maier, A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J C
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a numerical scheme for modelling unresolved turbulence in cosmological adaptive mesh refinement codes. As a first application, we study the evolution of turbulence in the intra-cluster medium and in the core of a galaxy cluster. Simulations with and without subgrid scale model are compared in detail. Since the flow in the ICM is subsonic, the global turbulent energy contribution at the unresolved length scales is smaller than 1% of the internal energy. We find that the production of turbulence is closely correlated with merger events occurring in the cluster environment, and its dissipation locally affects the cluster energy budget. Because of this additional source of dissipation, the core temperature is larger and the density is smaller in the presence of subgrid scale turbulence than in the standard adiabatic run, resulting in a higher entropy core value.
Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds
T. Padmanabhan
2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)
NGC 7789: AN OPEN CLUSTER CASE STUDY
Overbeek, Jamie C.
We have obtained high-resolution spectra of 32 giants in the open cluster NGC 7789 using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO Hydra spectrograph. We explore differences in atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances caused ...
Nuclear clusters with Halo Effective Field Theory
Renato Higa
2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
After a brief discussion of effective field theory applied to nuclear clusters, I present the aspect of Coulomb interactions, with applications to low-energy alpha-alpha and nucleon-alpha scattering.
Shocks and cold fronts in galaxy clusters
Maxim Markevitch; Alexey Vikhlinin
2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Table of contents (abridged): COLD FRONTS Origin and evolution of merger cold fronts Cold fronts in cluster cool cores . . . Simulations of gas sloshing. Origin of density discontinuity. . . . Effect of sloshing on cluster mass estimates and cooling flows. Zoology of cold fronts COLD FRONTS AS EXPERIMENTAL TOOL Velocities of gas flows Thermal conduction and diffusion across cold fronts Stability of cold fronts . . . Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Possible future measurements using cold fronts . . . Plasma depletion layer and magnetic field. Effective viscosity of ICM. SHOCK FRONTS AS EXPERIMENTAL TOOL Cluster merger shocks Mach number determination Front width Mach cone and reverse shock? Test of electron-ion equilibrium . . . Comparison with other astrophysical plasmas Shocks and cluster cosmic ray population . . . Shock acceleration. Compression of fossil electrons. . . . Yet another method to measure intracluster magnetic field.
Co-Clustering with Generative Models
Golland, Polina
2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we present a generative model for co-clustering and develop algorithms based on the mean field approximation for the corresponding modeling problem. These algorithms can be viewed as generalizations of the ...
Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cold Hydrated Sulfate Clusters...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
sulfate clusters SO42-(H2O)n (n ) 4-7) at 12 K and ab initio studies to understand the structures and dynamics of these unique solvated systems. A significant increase of...
The 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference/Gordon Research Seminar
Krauss, Todd D. [University of Rochester
2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
The fundamental properties of small particles and their potential for groundbreaking applications are among the most exciting areas of study in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon ResearchConference and Gordon Research Seminar synthesize contributions from these inter-related fields that reflect the pivotal role of nano-particles at the interface between these disciplines. Size-dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties offer prospects for applications in many fields, and possible solutions for many of the grand challenges facing energy generation, consumption, delivery, and storage in the 21st century. The goal of the 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar is to continue the historical interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, basic scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC/GRS traditionally brings together the leading scientific groups that have made significant recent advances in one or more fundamental nanoscience or nanotechnology areas. Broad interests of the DOE BES and Solar Photochemistry Program addressed by this meeting include the areas of solar energy to fuels conversion, new photovoltaic systems, fundamental characterization of nanomaterials, magnetism, catalysis, and quantum physics. The vast majority of speakers and attendees will address either directly the topic of nanotechnology for photoinduced charge transfer, charge transport, and catalysis, or will have made significant contributions to related areas that will impact these fields indirectly. These topics have direct relevance to the mission of the DOE BES since it is this cutting-edge basic science that underpins our energy future.
Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters
Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste
2013-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.
Contribution of White Dwarfs to Cluster Masses
Ted von Hippel
1998-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
I present a literature search through 31 July 1997 of white dwarfs (WDs) in open and globular clusters. There are 36 single WDs and 5 WDs in binaries known among 13 open clusters, and 340 single WDs and 11 WDs in binaries known among 11 globular clusters. From these data I have calculated WD mass fractions for four open clusters (the Pleiades, NGC 2168, NGC 3532, and the Hyades) and one globular cluster (NGC 6121). I develop a simple model of cluster evolution that incorporates stellar evolution but not dynamical evolution to interpret the WD mass fractions. I augment the results of my simple model with N-body simulations incorporating stellar evolution (Terlevich 1987; de la Feunte Marcos 1996; Vesperini & Heggie 1997). I find that even though these clusters undergo moderate to strong kinematical evolution the WD mass fraction is relatively insensitive to kinematical evolution. By comparing the cluster mass functions to that of the Galactic disk, and incorporating plausibility arguments for the mass function of the Galactic halo, I estimate the WD mass fraction in these two populations. I assume the Galactic disk is ~10 Gyrs old (Winget et al. 1987; Liebert, Dahn, & Monet 1988; Oswalt et al. 1996) and that the Galactic halo is ~12 Gyrs old (Reid 1997b; Gratton et al. 1997; Chaboyer et al. 1998), although the WD mass fraction is insensitive to age in this range. I find that the Galactic halo should contain 8 to 9% (alpha = -2.35) or perhaps as much as 15 to 17% (alpha = -2.0) of its stellar mass in the form of WDs. The Galactic disk WD mass fraction should be 6 to 7% (alpha = -2.35), consistent with the empirical estimates of 3 to 7% (Liebert, Dahn, & Monet 1988; Oswalt et al. 1996). (abridged)
The Efficiency of Globular Cluster Formation
Dean E. McLaughlin
1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
(Abridged): The total populations of globular cluster systems (GCSs) are discussed in terms of their connection to the efficiency of globular cluster formation---the mass fraction of star-forming gas that was able to form bound stellar clusters rather than isolated stars or unbound associations---in galaxy halos. Observed variations in GCS specific frequencies (S_N=N_gc/L_gal), both as a function of galactocentric radius in individual systems and globally between entire galaxies, are reviewed in this light. It is argued that trends in S_N do not reflect any real variation in the underlying efficiency of cluster formation; rather, they result from ignoring the hot gas in many large ellipticals. This claim is checked and confirmed in each of M87, M49, and NGC 1399, for which existing data are combined to show that the volume density profile of globular clusters, rho_cl, is directly proportional to the sum of (rho_gas+rho_stars) at large radii. The constant of proportionality is the same in each case: epsilon=0.0026 +/- 0.0005 in the mean. This is identified with the globular cluster formation efficiency. The implication that epsilon might have had a universal value is supported by data on the GCSs of 97 early-type galaxies, on the GCS of the Milky Way, and on the ongoing formation of open clusters. These results have specific implications for some issues in GCS and galaxy formation, and they should serve as a strong constraint on more general theories of star and cluster formation.
Feedback from Clustered Sources During Reionization
Roban Hultman Kramer; Zoltan Haiman; S. Peng Oh
2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
The reionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift (z > 6) was likely strongly shaped by several global feedback processes. Because the earliest ionizing sources formed at the locations of the rare density peaks, their spatial distribution was strongly clustered. Here we demonstrate that this clustering significantly boosts the impact of feedback processes operating at high redshift. We build a semi-analytical model to include feedback and clustering simultaneously, and apply this model to the suppression of star-formation in minihalos due to photoionization. The model is built on the excursion-set-based formalism of Furlanetto, Zaldarriaga and Hernquist (2004), which incorporates the clustering of ionizing sources, and which we here extend to include suppression of star formation in minihalos. We find that clustering increases the mean HII bubble size by a factor of several, and it dramatically increases the fraction of minihalos that are suppressed, by a factor of up to 60 relative to a randomly distributed population. This enhanced suppression can significantly reduce the electron scattering optical depth, as required by the three-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). We argue that source clustering is likely to similarly boost the importance of a variety of other feedback mechanisms.
Free floating planets in stellar clusters?
Kester W. Smith; Ian A. Bonnell
2001-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
We have simulated encounters between planetary systems and single stars in various clustered environments. This allows us to estimate the fraction of systems liberated, the velocity distribution of the liberated planets, and the separation and eccentricity distributions of the surviving bound systems. Our results indicate that, for an initial distribution of orbits that is flat in log space and extends out to 50AU, 50% of the available planets can be liberated in a globular cluster, 25% in an open cluster, and less than 10% in a young cluster. These fractions are reduced to 25%, 12% and 2% if the initial population extends only to 20AU. Furthermore, these free-floating planets can be retained for longer than a crossing time only in a massive globular cluster. It is therefore difficult to see how planets, which by definition form in a disc around a young star, could be subsequently liberated to form a significant population of free floating substellar objects in a cluster.
Electron attenuation in free, neutral ethane clusters
Winkler, M.; Harnes, J.; Břrve, K. J., E-mail: Knut.Borve@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, NO-5007 Bergen (Norway); Myrseth, V. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, NO-5007 Bergen (Norway)
2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
The electron effective attenuation length (EAL) in free, neutral ethane clusters has been determined at 40 eV kinetic energy by combining carbon 1s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical lineshape modeling. More specifically, theory is employed to form model spectra on a grid in cluster size (N) and EAL (?), allowing N and ? to be determined by optimizing the goodness-of-fit ?{sup 2}(N, ?) between model and observed spectra. Experimentally, the clusters were produced in an adiabatic-expansion setup using helium as the driving gas, spanning a range of 100–600 molecules in mean cluster size. The effective attenuation length was determined to be 8.4?±?1.9 Ĺ, in good agreement with an independent estimate of 10 Ĺ formed on the basis of molecular electron-scattering data and Monte Carlo simulations. The aggregation state of the clusters as well as the cluster temperature and its importance to the derived EAL value are discussed in some depth.
Communication in Home Area Networks
Wang, Yubo
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and implementation of smart home energy management systemsStandard Technologies for Smart Home Area Networks EnablingInteroperability framework for smart home systems”, Consumer
Microstructure of two-phase random media. I. The n-point probability functions
Torquato, Salvatore
Department ofMechanical Engineering. General Motors Institute. Flint. Michigan 48502 G. Stell Departments ofMechanical Engineering and Chemistry. State University ofNew York at Stony Brook. Stony Brook. New York 11794 (Received be characterized by a set of general n -point probability functions, which give the probability of finding
Recalculated probability of M !!!!!! 7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Recalculated probability of M !!!!!! 7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey Tom Parsons U); KEYWORDS: earthquake probability, Sea of Marmara, seismic hazard, Turkey, stress interaction, North of Marmara, Turkey, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B05304, doi:10.1029/2003JB002667. 1. Introduction [2] The North
Electrical Estimation of Conditional Probability for Maximum-likelihood Based PMD Mitigation
Zweck, John
Xi, T¨ulay Adali, and John Zweck Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering UniversityElectrical Estimation of Conditional Probability for Maximum-likelihood Based PMD Mitigation Wenze probability density functions in the presence of both all-order PMD and ASE noise are estimated electronically
Beta oscillations correlate with the probability of perceiving rivalrous visual stimuli
Beta oscillations correlate with the probability of perceiving rivalrous visual stimuli Department large changes in power in the beta range (14Â30 Hz) at the time of a perceptual switch. More importantly, during a stable perception, beta power correlates with the probability of a perception. Specifically
Ultra-LowEnergy Computingwith Noise: Energy-Performance-Probability Trade-offs*
with a probability p. Thispaper investigates the trade-o$s between the energy, pet$ormance and probability of these challenges are achieving noise immunity (see Shepard 1201, Natori and Sano [14]) and low-energy consumption the trade-offs between energy consumption, performance and p, the parameters that we vary are the supply
Statistical Image Modeling with the Magnitude Probability Density Function of Complex Wavelet
Oraintara, Soontorn
Statistical Image Modeling with the Magnitude Probability Density Function of Complex Wavelet the probability density function (pdf) of the magnitude of complex wavelet coefficients with the assump- tion Statistical image modeling in the wavelet domain is of inter- est in recent years due to the ability
PROBABILITY OF CORRECT SELECTION OF GAMMA VERSUS GE OR WEIBULL VERSUS GE BASED ON
Kundu, Debasis
PROBABILITY OF CORRECT SELECTION OF GAMMA VERSUS GE OR WEIBULL VERSUS GE BASED ON LIKELIHOOD RATIO proposes the use of likelihood ratio statistic in choosing between gamma and GE models or between Weibull and GE models. Probability of correct selec- tions are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations for various
Atomic Transition Probabilities of Aluminum. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera...
Magee, Joseph W.
Atomic Transition Probabilities of Aluminum. A Critical Compilation D. E. Kellehera... and L. I This compilation is the second in a series of updates to Atomic Transition Probabili- ties, Sodium through Calcium, published in 1969 by Wiese et al. Atomic Transition Probabilities, Vol. II, Vol. II: Sodium through Calcium
Probably the best simple PID tuning rules in the world Sigurd Skogestad
Skogestad, Sigurd
Probably the best simple PID tuning rules in the world Sigurd Skogestad #3; Department of Chemical This is the version distributed at the meeting where the ZN-PID tunings (probably incorrectly) are assumed to be given PID tuning rules of Rivera, Morari and Skogestad (1986) which have achieved widespread industrial
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2014 699 Outage Probability in
Zhou, Xiangyun "Sean"
transform of a cumulative distribution and (ii) a reference link power gain-based framework which exploits the distribution of the fading power gain between the reference transmitter and receiver. The outage probability the outage probability at any location inside either a disk or polygon region. The analysis illustrates
SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF THE BRANCHING RANDOM WALK KILLED BELOW A LINEAR BOUNDARY
Boyer, Edmond
SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF THE BRANCHING RANDOM WALK KILLED BELOW A LINEAR BOUNDARY JEAN B´ERARD, JEAN on the asymptotic behavior of the survival probability of the branching random walk killed below a linear boundary- Derrida theory of stochastic fronts are discussed. 1. Introduction Consider a real-valued branching random
LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame
Raman, Venkat
LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol
Korhonen, Marko [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)] [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Lee, Eunghyun [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.
The sluggs survey: HST/ACS mosaic imaging of the NGC 3115 globular cluster system
Jennings, Zachary G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Sivakoff, Gregory R., E-mail: zgjennin@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) g and z photometry and half-light radii R {sub h} measurements of 360 globular cluster (GC) candidates around the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We also include Subaru/Suprime-Cam g, r, and i photometry of 421 additional candidates. The well-established color bimodality of the GC system is obvious in the HST/ACS photometry. We find evidence for a 'blue tilt' in the blue GC subpopulation, wherein the GCs in the blue subpopulation get redder as luminosity increases, indicative of a mass-metallicity relationship. We find a color gradient in both the red and blue subpopulations, with each group of clusters becoming bluer at larger distances from NGC 3115. The gradient is of similar strength in both subpopulations, but is monotonic and more significant for the blue clusters. On average, the blue clusters have ?10% larger R {sub h} than the red clusters. This average difference is less than is typically observed for early-type galaxies but does match that measured in the literature for the Sombrero Galaxy (M104), suggesting that morphology and inclination may affect the measured size difference between the red and blue clusters. However, the scatter on the R {sub h} measurements is large. We also identify 31 clusters more extended than typical GCs, which we term ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) candidates. Many of these objects are actually considerably fainter than typical UCDs. While it is likely that a significant number will be background contaminants, six of these UCD candidates are spectroscopically confirmed as NGC 3115 members. To explore the prevalence of low-mass X-ray binaries in the GC system, we match our ACS and Suprime-Cam detections to corresponding Chandra X-ray sources. We identify 45 X-ray-GC matches: 16 among the blue subpopulation and 29 among the red subpopulation. These X-ray/GC coincidence fractions are larger than is typical for most GC systems, probably due to the increased depth of the X-ray data compared to previous studies of GC systems.
Bayes-X: a Bayesian inference tool for the analysis of X-ray observations of galaxy clusters
Olamaie, M; Grainge, K J B; Hobson, M P; Sanders, J S; Saunders, R D E
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first public release of our Bayesian inference tool for the analysis of X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, called Bayes-X. We illustrate the approach of Bayes-X by using it to analyse a set of four simulated clusters at z=0.2-0.9 in the X-ray band as they would be observed by a Chandra-like X-ray observatory. In both the simulations and the analysis pipeline we assume that the dark matter density follows a spherically-symmetric Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) profile and that the gas pressure is described by a generalised NFW (GNFW) profile. We then perform four sets of analyses. These include prior-only analyses and analyses in which we adopt wide uniform prior probability distributions on f_g(r_{200}) and on the model parameters describing the shape and slopes of the GNFW pressure profile, namely (c_{500}, a, b, c). By numerically exploring the joint probability distribution of the cluster parameters given simulated Chandra-like data, we show that the model and analysis technique can robus...
Bouillot, Vincent R; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard $\\Lambda$CDM model predictions. Halo catalogs from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogs from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwis...
Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1
Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M., E-mail: siamak.dehghan@vuw.ac.nz [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)
2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg{sup 2} area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ?10 Mpc{sup 2} at z ? 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M {sub 200} ? 4.9 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ?}) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ? 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally disrupted central galaxies exhibiting trails of stars. These results all provide strong support for hierarchical structure formation up to redshifts of 1.
Merging and splitting of clusters in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the KLOE detector
Jaroslaw Zdebik
2008-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
The work was carried out in the framework of the KLOE collaboration studying the decays of the phi meson produced in the DAFNE accelerator in the collisions of electron and positron. The main aim of this thesis was investigation of the influence of the merging and splitting of clusters in decays with the high multiplicity of gamma quanta, which are at most biased by these effects. For this aim we implemented the full geometry and realistic material composition of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in FLUKA package. The prepared Monte Carlo based simulation program permits to achieve a fast generation of the detector response separately for each interested reaction. The program was used to study the reconstruction efficiency with the KLOE clustering algorithm as a function of the photocathode quantum efficiency. It was also used to investigate merging and splitting probabilities as a function of the quantum efficiency. The conducted studies indicated that the increase of quantum efficiency does not improve significantly the identification of clusters. The influence of these effects was estimated for eta meson decays into 3 neutral pions and K_short meson into 2 neutral pions.
A simple D^2-sampling based PTAS for k-means and other Clustering Problems
Jaiswal, Ragesh; Sen, Sandeep
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Given a set of points $P \\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$, the $k$-means clustering problem is to find a set of $k$ {\\em centers} $C = \\{c_1,...,c_k\\}, c_i \\in \\mathbb{R}^d,$ such that the objective function $\\sum_{x \\in P} d(x,C)^2$, where $d(x,C)$ denotes the distance between $x$ and the closest center in $C$, is minimized. This is one of the most prominent objective functions that have been studied with respect to clustering. $D^2$-sampling \\cite{ArthurV07} is a simple non-uniform sampling technique for choosing points from a set of points. It works as follows: given a set of points $P \\subseteq \\mathbb{R}^d$, the first point is chosen uniformly at random from $P$. Subsequently, a point from $P$ is chosen as the next sample with probability proportional to the square of the distance of this point to the nearest previously sampled points. $D^2$-sampling has been shown to have nice properties with respect to the $k$-means clustering problem. Arthur and Vassilvitskii \\cite{ArthurV07} show that $k$ points chosen as cente...
Transition properties from the Hermitian formulation of the coupled cluster polarization propagator
Tucholska, Aleksandra M., E-mail: tuchol@tiger.chem.uw.edu.pl; Modrzejewski, Marcin; Moszynski, Robert [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
Theory of one-electron transition density matrices has been formulated within the time-independent coupled cluster method for the polarization propagator [R. Moszynski, P. S. ?uchowski, and B. Jeziorski, Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 70, 1109 (2005)]. Working expressions have been obtained and implemented with the coupled cluster method limited to single, double, and linear triple excitations (CC3). Selected dipole and quadrupole transition probabilities of the alkali earth atoms, computed with the new transition density matrices are compared to the experimental data. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found. The results obtained with the new approach are of the same quality as the results obtained with the linear response coupled cluster theory. The one-electron density matrices for the ground state in the CC3 approximation have also been implemented. The dipole moments for a few representative diatomic molecules have been computed with several variants of the new approach, and the results are discussed to choose the approximation with the best balance between the accuracy and computational efficiency.
Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.
R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report
Not Available
1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50{mu}g/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells.
The probability, identification, and prevention of rare events in power systems Qiming Chen
of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Major: Electrical Engineering (Electric Power) Program of Study Committee: James D ...............................................................................................10 1.4 Classification of Multiple Outage Contingencies .................................................................................................21 2.3 Cluster Model for High-order Transmission Outages ......................................... 23
Bica, Eduardo
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the nature of the globular cluster (GC) candidates FSR 1603 and FSR 1755 selected from the catalogue of \\citet{FSRcat}. Their properties are investigated with 2MASS field-star decontaminated photometry, which is used to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and stellar radial density profiles (RDPs). FSR 1603 has the open cluster (OC) Ruprecht 101 as optical counterpart, and we show it to be a massive intermediate age cluster (IAC). Relevant parameters of FSR 1603 are the age $\\approx1$ Gyr, distance from the Sun $\\ds\\approx2.7$ kpc, Galactocentric distance $\\dgc\\approx6.4$ kpc, core radius $\\rc\\approx1.1$ pc, mass function slope $\\chi\\approx1.8$, observed stellar mass (for stars with mass in the range $\\rm 1.27 \\ms\\leq m\\leq2.03 \\ms$) $\\mObs\\approx500 \\ms$, and a total (extrapolated to $\\rm m=0.08 \\ms$) stellar mass $\\mTot\\approx2300 \\ms$. FSR 1755, on the other hand, is not a populous cluster. It may be a sparse young cluster embedded in the H II region Sh2-3, subject to an absorption $\\aV\\approx...
ASSOCIATION RULES OF DCI PATIENT CLUSTERS AND RELIABILITY OF CLUSTERING ANALYSIS
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
work:. K-Means Algorithm The k-means method is a widely used geometric clustering algorithm based is guaranteed to terminate. The k-means method is still very popular today, and it has been applied in a wide of the k-means algorithm is the necessity to specify the number of clusters. COBWEB Algorithm Unlike the k-means
Radial velocities of three poorly studied clusters and the kinematics of open clusters
Hayes, Christian R.; Friel, Eileen D., E-mail: hayescr@indiana.edu, E-mail: efriel@indiana.edu [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present radial velocities for stars in the field of the open star clusters Berkeley 44, Berkeley 81, and NGC 6802 from spectra obtained using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 m telescope. These clusters are of intermediate age (1-3 Gyr), located within the solar Galactocentric radius, and have no previous radial velocity measurements. We find mean radial velocities of –9.6 ± 3.0 km s{sup –1}, 48.1 ± 2.0 km s{sup –1}, and 12.4 ± 2.8 km s{sup –1} for Be 44, Be 81, and NGC 6802, respectively. We present an analysis of radial velocities of 134 open clusters of a wide range of ages using data obtained in this study and the literature. Assuming the system of clusters rotates about the Galactic center with a constant velocity, we find older clusters exhibit a slower rotation and larger line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion than younger clusters. The gradual decrease in rotational velocity of the cluster system with age is accompanied by a smooth increase in LOS velocity dispersion, which we interpret as the effect of heating on the open cluster system over time.
Keck Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster Dwarf Elliptical VCC 1386
Christopher J. Conselice
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the results of a Keck spectroscopic study of globular clusters associated with the Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical VCC 1386. We analyze blue spectroscopic absorption lines from 3500-5500 A for 13 globular cluster candidates and confirm that five are associated with VCC 1386. By comparing metal and Balmer line indices of these globular clusters with alpha-enhanced single stellar population models we find that these systems are metal poor with [Fe/H] 5 Gyr at 3 sigma confidence, placing their formation at z >1. This is one of the first spectroscopic studies of globular clusters surrounding dwarfs in a cluster, revealing that some low mass galaxies in rich environments form at least part of their stellar mass early in the history of the universe. We further find that the luminosity weighted stellar population of VCC 1386 itself is younger, and more metal rich than its globular clusters, consistent with (V-I)_0 colors from Hubble Space Telescope imaging. This implies that VCC 1386, like Local Group dEs, has had multiple episodes of star formation. Globular clusters associated with low luminosity systems however appear to be roughly as old as those associated with giant galaxies, contrary to the `downsizing' formation of their bulk stellar populations.
Santolik, Ondrej
be related to power line harmonic radiation (PLHR, an electromagnetic radiation from electric power systemsMagnetospheric line radiation event observed simultaneously on board Cluster 1, Cluster 2., O. Santolík, M. Parrot, and J. S. Pickett (2012), Magnetospheric line radiation event observed
Quantum Implementation of Unitary Coupled Cluster for Simulating Molecular Electronic Structure
Yangchao Shen; Xiang Zhang; Shuaining Zhang; Jing-Ning Zhang; Man-Hong Yung; Kihwan Kim
2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum simulation represents an efficient solution to a certain classically intractable problem in various research area including quantum chemistry. The central problem of quantum chemistry is to determine the electronic structure and the ground-state energy of atoms and molecules. The exact classical calculation of the problem is demanding even for molecules with moderate size due to the "exponential catastrophe." To deal with such quantum chemistry problem, the coupled-cluster methods have been successfully developed, which are considered to be the current "gold standard" in classical computational chemistry. However, the coupled-cluster ansatz is built with non-unitary operation, which leads to drawbacks such as lacking variational bound of ground-state energy. The unitary version of the coupled-cluster methods would perfectly address the problem, whereas it is classically inefficient without proper truncation of the infinite series expansion. It has been a long-standing challenge to build an efficient computational scheme for the unitary coupled-cluster ansatz. Here we report an experimental realization of the unitary coupled cluster ansatz based on quantum simulation. The experiments are performed in a scalable platform containing a trapped multi-level \\Yb ion for simulating the electronic structure of a molecular ion (HeH$^+$); we experimentally compute ground-state the energy curve and simulate chemical-bond softening non-perturbatively, which clearly shows the quantum implementation of the unitary coupled-cluster method yields better ground-states energies than classical implementations with truncations. Furthermore, the energy measurements, one most time consuming part in the experiments, can be parallelized. Our experimental results provide a new and solid evidence of how quantum simulation can advance the field of quantum chemistry.
Li, Jia
for images with large sizes, the segmentation algorithm combines the top-down k-means clustering constrained clustering, agglomerative clustering, image segmentation, k-means 1 Introduction Research efforts at multiple stages through which the similarity measure is adjusted. Experimental results with comparison
GALAXY CLUSTER BULK FLOWS AND COLLISION VELOCITIES IN QUMOND
Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Angus, G. W., E-mail: hkatz@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu, E-mail: teuben@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: angus.gz@gmail.com [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)
2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants'' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.
THE FORMATION OF YOUNG DENSE STAR CLUSTERS THROUGH MERGERS
Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Saitoh, T. R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Young star clusters such as NGC 3603 and Westerlund 1 and 2 in the Milky Way and R136 in the Large Magellanic Cloud are dynamically more evolved than expected based on their current relaxation times. In particular, the combination of a high degree of mass segregation, a relatively low central density, and the large number of massive runaway stars in their vicinity are hard to explain with the monolithic formation of these clusters. Young star clusters can achieve such a mature dynamical state if they formed through the mergers of a number of less massive clusters. The shorter relaxation times of less massive clusters cause them to dynamically evolve further by the time they merge, and the merger product preserves the memory of the dynamical evolution of its constituent clusters. With a series of N-body simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of single massive clusters and those that are assembled through merging smaller clusters together. We find that the formation of massive star clusters through the mergers of smaller clusters can reproduce the currently observed spatial distribution of massive stars, the density, and the characteristics (number and mass distribution) of the stars ejected as runaways from young dense clusters. We therefore conclude that these clusters and possibly other young massive star clusters formed through the mergers of smaller clusters.
Bayesian Model-Based Clustering Procedures John W. LAU and Peter J. GREEN
Xu, Xinyi
of classical approaches, such as hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering procedures, Bayesian a comparison of the statistical performance of the (approximate) optimal clustering with earlier methods
Time Resolved Photoelectron Imaging of Electronic Relaxation Dynamics in Anionic Clusters
Griffin, Graham Bailey
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Solvation in Iodide-Doped Acetonitrile Clusters, Journal ofSolvation in Iodide-doped Acetonitrile Clusters [ReprintedSolvation in Iodide- doped Acetonitrile Clusters", Oli T.
Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan
Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.
1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.
Quasi-probability representations of quantum theory with applications to quantum information science
Christopher Ferrie
2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
This article comprises a review of both the quasi-probability representations of infinite-dimensional quantum theory (including the Wigner function) and the more recently defined quasi-probability representations of finite-dimensional quantum theory. We focus on both the characteristics and applications of these representations with an emphasis toward quantum information theory. We discuss the recently proposed unification of the set of possible quasi-probability representations via frame theory and then discuss the practical relevance of negativity in such representations as a criteria for quantumness.
Probability of initiation and extinction in the Mercury Monte Carlo code
McKinley, M. S.; Brantley, P. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Monte Carlo method for computing the probability of initiation has previously been implemented in Mercury. Recently, a new method based on the probability of extinction has been implemented as well. The methods have similarities from counting progeny to cycling in time, but they also have differences such as population control and statistical uncertainty reporting. The two methods agree very well for several test problems. Since each method has advantages and disadvantages, we currently recommend that both methods are used to compute the probability of criticality. (authors)
Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters
Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.
2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.
Globular cluster luminosity function as distance indicator
Rejkuba, M
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Globular clusters are among the first objects used to establish the distance scale of the Universe. In the 1970-ies it has been recognized that the differential magnitude distribution of old globular clusters is very similar in different galaxies presenting a peak at M_V ~ -7.5. This peak magnitude of the so-called Globular Cluster Luminosity Function has been then established as a secondary distance indicator. The intrinsic accuracy of the method has been estimated to be of the order of ~0.2 mag, competitive with other distance determination methods. Lately the study of the Globular Cluster Systems has been used more as a tool for galaxy formation and evolution, and less so for distance determinations. Nevertheless, the collection of homogeneous and large datasets with the ACS on board HST presented new insights on the usefulness of the Globular Cluster Luminosity Function as distance indicator. I discuss here recent results based on observational and theoretical studies, which show that this distance indica...
Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow
T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii
2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.
Globular Cluster Ages and Stromgren CCD Photometry
Frank Grundahl
1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z
Stromgren uvby CCD photometry can be used in a variety of ways to constrain the absolute and relative ages of globular clusters. The reddening corrected (v-y, c1) diagram offers the means to derive ages that are completely independent of distance. Very precise differential ages for clusters of the same chemical composition may also be determined from such 2-color plots, or from measurements of the magnitude difference, Delta_u, between the subgiant and horizontal branches on the $u-y, u$ plane (where both of these features are flat and well-defined, even for clusters like M13 that have extremely blue HBs on the (B-V, V) diagram). Based on high-quality photometry we find that: (1) M92 is 15 Gyr old, (2) M3 and M13 differ in age by < 1 Gyr, and (3) NGC 288, NGC 362, and NGC 1851 are coeval to within ~1.5 Gyr. These results strongly suggest that age cannot be the only ``second parameter''. Finally, we suggest that the observed variations in c1 among giant branch stars in all the metal-poor clusters that we have studied so far are likely due to star-to-star C and N abundance variations, and potentially indicate that most (if not all) globular clusters have ``primordial'' variations in at least these elements.
Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters
Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr
2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.
Clusters and halos in light nuclei
Thomas Neff
2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The fermionic molecular dynamics approach uses Gaussian wave packets as single-particle basis states. Many-body basis states are Slater determinants projected on parity, angular momentum and total linear momentum. The wave-packet basis is very flexible - FMD contains harmonic oscillator shell model and Brink-type cluster states as special cases. The parameters of the wave packets are obtained by variation. A realistic effective interaction derived from the Argonne V18 interaction by means of the unitary correlation operator method is employed. We discuss the fully microscopic calculation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be capture reaction within the FMD approach. The model space contains frozen cluster configurations at large distances and polarized configurations in the interaction region. The polarized configurations are essential for a successful description of the 7Be bound state properties and for the S- and D-wave scattering states. The calculated cross section agrees well with recent measurements regarding both the absolute normalization and the energy dependence. We also discuss the structure of the cluster states, including the famous Hoyle state, in 12C. From the two-body densities we conclude that the Hoyle state has a spatially extended triangular alpha-cluster structure, whereas the third 0+ state features a chain-like obtuse triangle structure. We also calculate the N hbar Omega decomposition of our wave functions to illuminate the challenges of no-core shell model calculations for these cluster states.
Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident
Not Available
1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.
Multi-object spectroscopy of low redshift EIS clusters. I
L. Hansen; L. F. Olsen; H. E. Jorgensen
2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
We report the results of the first multi-object spectroscopic observations at the Danish 1.54m telescope at La Silla, Chile. Observations of five cluster candidates from the ESO Imaging Survey Cluster Candidate Catalog are described. From these observations we confirm the reality of the five clusters with measured redshifts of 0.11<=z<=0.35. We estimate velocity dispersions in the range 294-621km/s indicating rather poor clusters. This, and the measured cluster redshifts are consistent with the results of the matched filter procedure applied to produce the Cluster Candidate Catalog.
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 of 5) ALARA TrainingANDREW W.categoricalHSS/UNIONAREA
Cluster-based reduced-order modelling of a mixing layer
Eurika Kaiser; Bernd R. Noack; Laurent Cordier; Andreas Spohn; Marc Segond; Markus Abel; Guillaume Daviller; Jan Östh; Siniša Krajnovi?; Robert K. Niven
2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a novel cluster-based reduced-order modelling (CROM) strategy of unsteady flows. CROM combines the cluster analysis pioneered in Gunzburger's group (Burkardt et al. 2006) and and transition matrix models introduced in fluid dynamics in Eckhardt's group (Schneider et al. 2007). CROM constitutes a potential alternative to POD models and generalises the Ulam-Galerkin method classically used in dynamical systems to determine a finite-rank approximation of the Perron-Frobenius operator. The proposed strategy processes a time-resolved sequence of flow snapshots in two steps. First, the snapshot data are clustered into a small number of representative states, called centroids, in the state space. These centroids partition the state space in complementary non-overlapping regions (centroidal Voronoi cells). Departing from the standard algorithm, the probabilities of the clusters are determined, and the states are sorted by analysis of the transition matrix. Secondly, the transitions between the states are dynamically modelled using a Markov process. Physical mechanisms are then distilled by a refined analysis of the Markov process, e.g. using finite-time Lyapunov exponent and entropic methods. This CROM framework is applied to the Lorenz attractor (as illustrative example), to velocity fields of the spatially evolving incompressible mixing layer and the three-dimensional turbulent wake of a bluff body. For these examples, CROM is shown to identify non-trivial quasi-attractors and transition processes in an unsupervised manner. CROM has numerous potential applications for the systematic identification of physical mechanisms of complex dynamics, for comparison of flow evolution models, for the identification of precursors to desirable and undesirable events, and for flow control applications exploiting nonlinear actuation dynamics.
The Program Area Committee Chairperson.
Marshall, Mary; Richardson, Burl B.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
worksheets and others. Prepared by Mary G. Marshall and Burl B. RichardsQ Extension program development specialists, The Texas A&M University System. THE PROGRAM AREA COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSON You Hold an Important Position! Whenever people gather...
Focus Area Tax Credits (Maryland)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Focus Area Tax Credits for businesses in Baltimore City or Prince George’s County enterprise zones include: (1) Ten-year, 80% credit against local real property taxes on a portion of real property...
Security Area Vouching and Piggybacking
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2000-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
Establishes requirements for the Department of Energy (DOE) Security Area practice of "vouching" or "piggybacking" access by personnel. DOE N 251.40, dated 5-3-01, extends this directive until 12-31-01.
Progress Update: M Area Closure
Cody, Tom
2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
A progress update of the Recovery Act at work at the Savannah River Site. The celebration of the first area cleanup completion with the help of the Recovery Act.
Protected Water Area System (Iowa)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Natural Resource Commission maintains a state plan for the design and establishment of a protected water area system and those adjacent lands needed to protect the integrity of that system. A...
Wellhead Protection Area Act (Nebraska)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This section regulates activities which can occur on or below the land surface of the area surrounding a wellhead. The purpose of these regulations is to limit well contamination and preserve...
Nonlinear Gravitational Clustering in Expanding Universe
T. Padmanabhan
1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
The gravitational clustering of collisionless particles in an expanding universe is modelled using some simple physical ideas. I show that it is possible to understand the nonlinear clustering in terms of three well defined regimes: (1) linear regime; (2) quasilinear regime which is dominated by scale-invariant radial infall and (3) nonlinear regime dominated by nonradial motions and mergers. Modelling each of these regimes separately I show how the nonlinear two point correlation function can be related to the linear correlation function in hierarchical models. This analysis leads to results which are in good agreement with numerical simulations thereby providing an explanation for numerical results. Using this model and some simple extensions, it is possible to understand the transfer of power from large to small scales and the behaviour of higher order correlation functions. The ideas presented here will also serve as a powerful analytical tool to investigate nonlinear clustering in different models.
Variable area fuel cell cooling
Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.
L. Iapichino; J. C. Niemeyer
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development of turbulent gas flows in the intra-cluster medium and in the core of a galaxy cluster is studied by means of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations. A series of six runs was performed, employing identical simulation parameters but different criteria for triggering the mesh refinement. In particular, two different AMR strategies were followed, based on the regional variability of control variables of the flow and on the overdensity of subclumps, respectively. We show that both approaches, albeit with different results, are useful to get an improved resolution of the turbulent flow in the ICM. The vorticity is used as a diagnostic for turbulence, showing that the turbulent flow is not highly volume-filling but has a large area-covering factor, in agreement with previous theoretical expectations. The measured turbulent velocity in the cluster core is larger than 200 km/s, and the level of turbulent pressure contribution to the cluster hydrostatic equilibrium is increased by using the improved AMR criteria.
GeV Gamma-ray Flux Upper Limits from Clusters of Galaxies
al., M Ackermann et
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The detection of diffuse radio emission associated with clusters of galaxies indicates populations of relativistic leptons infusing the intracluster medium. Those electrons and positrons are either injected into and accelerated directly in the intracluster medium, or produced as secondary pairs by cosmic-ray ions scattering on ambient protons. Radiation mechanisms involving the energetic leptons together with decay of neutral pions produced by hadronic interactions have the potential to produce abundant GeV photons. Here, we report on the search for GeV emission from clusters of galaxies using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) from August 2008 to February 2010. Thirty-three galaxy clusters have been selected according to their proximity and high mass, X-ray flux and temperature, and indications of non-thermal activity for this study. We report upper limits on the photon flux in the range 0.2-100 GeV towards a sample of observed clusters (typical va...
Guilin, L. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Defu, L. [Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Huajun, L. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. ot China, Yushan Road No. 5, Qingdao 266003 (China); Fengqing, W. [Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Ocean Univ. of China, Songling Road No.238, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tao, Z. [College of Engineering, Ocean Univ. of China, Songling Road No.238, Qingdao 266100 (China)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)
Cooper, R.E.
2002-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
This study was performed to obtain information that could be useful for obtaining an early estimate of the probable total stack activity monitor response in the event of an accidental release of radioactive activity in the process room.
An Algorithm for Calculating the Probability of Classes of Data Patterns on a Genealogy
Koch, Jordan M.; Holder, Mark T.
2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm allows one to calculate the probability of any particular data pattern arising on a phylogeny given a model of character evolution. Here we present a similar dynamic programming algorithm. ...
On the probability of undetected error for overextended Reed-Solomon codes
Han, Junsheng S; Siegel, Paul H; Lee, Patrick
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
shortened binary CRC codes,” in Proc. MILCOM 88, Oct. 1988,MacWilliams identity for linear codes,” IEEE Trans. Inform.probability of linear codes,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory,
Cobb, Barry R.; Shenoy, Prakash P.
2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we propose the plausibility transformation method for translating Dempster-Shafer (D-S) belief function models to probability models, and describe some of its properties. There are many other transformation methods used...
NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Radiation
Rathbun, Julie A.
Space Information 7121 Standard Hanover, MD 21076-1320 #12;NASA/TM-2012-217357 Probability of Causation for Space Royal Road Hanover, MD 21076-1320 Springfield, VA 22161 This report is also available in electronic form
Knowledge and understanding of probability and statistics topics by preservice PK-8 teachers
Carter, Tamara Anthony
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Given the importance placed on probability and statistics in the PK-8 curriculum by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) and on teachers by the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (1995) and the Conference...
Error Analysis of Free Probability Approximations to the Density of States of Disordered Systems
Chen, Jiahao
Theoretical studies of localization, anomalous diffusion and ergodicity breaking require solving the electronic structure of disordered systems. We use free probability to approximate the ensemble-averaged density of states ...
Preferences, Knowledge, and Citizen Probability Assessments of the Terrorism Risk of Nuclear Power
Li, Quan; Fuhrmann, Matthew; Early, Bryan R.; Vedlitz, Arnold
How does the American public assess risk when it comes to national security issues? This paper addresses this question by analyzing variation in citizen probability assessments of the terrorism risk of nuclear power plants. Drawing on the literature...
Submitted to the Annals of Applied Probability SMALL NOISE ASYMPTOTIC OF THE TIMING JITTER IN
Debussche, Arnaud
Submitted to the Annals of Applied Probability SMALL NOISE ASYMPTOTIC OF THE TIMING JITTER in physics in that context. We focus on the fluctuations of the mass and arrival time or timing jitter. We