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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Globally Averaged Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations: Monthly and Annual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorofluorocarbons » Chlorofluorocarbons » Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations Globally Averaged Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations: Monthly and Annual Data for the Period 1975-1992 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1010 data Data (DB1010) Investigator M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen Description This data set presents globally averaged atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon 11, known also as CFC-11 or F-11 (chemical name: trichlorofluoromethane; formula: CCl3F). The monthly global average data are derived from flask air samples collected at eight sites in six locations over the period August 1980-July 1992. The sites are Barrow (Alaska), Cape Meares (Oregon), Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Cape Matatula (American Samoa), Cape Grim (Tasmania), Palmer Station, and the

2

Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that based on the position papers provided prior to the meeting, DOE and NRC staff have many areas of agreement and no significant areas of disagreement with respect to the concentration averaging requirements articulated in the respective DOE and NRC requirements. The NRC position paper was based on NUREG-

3

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average

4

Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Estimation of Area-Averaged Rainfall over Tropical Oceans from Microwave Radiometry: A Single Channel Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new simple retrieval algorithm for estimating area-time averaged rain rates over tropical oceans by using single channel microwave measurements from satellites. The algorithm was tested by using the Nimbus-5 Electrically ...

Kyung-Sup Shin; Phil E. Riba; Gerald R. North

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Predicted daily and yearly average radiative performance of hyperbolic spiral solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

Some possible applications of solar energy, such as absorption cooling and air conditioning, process heating and preheating unconventional power production systems, require heat at temperatures higher than those associated with flat plate collectors, but below those associated with focussing collectors. Such a level of collection temperatures is economically obtained using non-imaging solar collectors. They are non-focussing, moderate concentrating ratio and trough-like collectors, which are usually arranged east-west, facing south or north. One of these concentrators is the hyperbolic spiral collector, which may be a semi- or compound one. It has been shown that the optical characteristics of semi- and compound hyperbolic spiral concentrators (SHSC and CHSC) are better than those of the compound parabolic one. In this work, the instantaneous radiative performance of both semi- and compound hyperbolic spiral concentrators are extended to average daily and yearly performance. Concentrators of various angles of acceptance are used in the analysis. Its effect upon the daily and yearly performance of the concentrator is discussed. The performance is also studied for various tilt adjustment routines. The results show that the number of tilt adjustments per year is an important factor affecting the daily and yearly performance of both SHSC and CHSC. It has been found that the SHSC is more affected by tilt adjustments than the compound one. The results also indicate that concentrators of small angle of acceptance are much affected by the number of adjustments. The results also show that there is not much difference between weekly and monthly adjustments.

Rabie, L.H.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Time Scales and Variability of Area-Averaged Tropical Oceanic Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical analysis of time series of area-averaged rainfall over the oceans has been conducted around the diurnal time scale. The results of our analysis can be applied directly to the problem of establishing the magnitude of expected errors ...

Kyung-Sup Shin; Gerald R. North; Yoo-Shin Ahn; Phillip A. Arkin

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Estimates of Area-Averaged Diapycnal Fluxes from Basin-Scale Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of area-averaged diapycnal fluxes for the southern oceans are derived from basin-scale budgets of mass, heat, and salt using a box inverse model. The diapycnal fluxes are found to be significant terms in the isopycnal budgets of mass, ...

Bernadette M. Sloyan; Stephen R. Rintoul

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424  

SciTech Connect

As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [DOE

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Minimum-mirror-area single-stage solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

A means of generating a comcentrating mirror of minimum size for a given average flux-concentration output is outlined. The method is useful for acceptance angles typical of those required for tilting and tracking solar concentrators and can result in substantial cost savings when expensive mirrors (i.e.,glass) are used. Comparisons are made with compound parabolic concentrators.

Mills, D.; Harting, E.; Giutronich, J.E.; Cellich, W.; Morton, A.; Walker, I.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Meteorological Patterns Associated with Maximum 3-Hour Average Concentrations Predicted by the CRSTER Model for a Tall Stack Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional meteorological patterns associated with maximum 3-hour average concentrations predicted by the U.S. EPA CRSTER model for emissions from a tall stack were examined for a limited sample. Causes of predicted peaks were the movements of weak ...

Paul N. Derezotes

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Rapid Estimation of Column-Averaged CO2 Concentration Using a Correlation Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement of XCO2, the column-averaged mole fraction of CO2, using reflected sunlight in the near-infrared bands of CO2, is strongly influenced by photons that are scattered in the atmosphere because scattering can either decrease or increase ...

Igor Polonsky; D. M. OBrien

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

average | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average average Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

14

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes in a Semiarid Region with Partly Irrigated Land: Lessons Learned from EFEDA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area (EFEDA) provides a comprehensive land surface dataset for a semiarid Mediterranean environment with natural vegetation and cultivated dry and irrigated land. This paper discusses ...

M. Anna Osann Jochum; Hendrik A. R. de Bruin; Albert A. M. Holtslag; Alfonso Calera Belmonte

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Additional Research Supporting Changes to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Waste Form: Summary of EPRI I nput to the Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) has changed significantly with the loss of Class B and C disposal access for ~85% of U.S. nuclear power plants. To promote increased disposal options, EPRI began to develop a technical basis for proposed modifications for the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (BTP) for consideration by the U.S. NRC and other stakeholders during the revision process. This report summarizes a continuation of that BTP effort since the 2...

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Ice Nucleus Concentrations Measured During the 1975 Florida Area Cumulus Experiment (FACE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice nuclei measurements were made aboard a cloud-base aircraft during the 1975 Florida Area Cumulus Experiment. Two techniques were used to obtain the ice nuclei concentrations; membranes were collected and analyzed using the NCAR membrane ...

Joe Wisniewski; Gerhard Langer

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Artificial Neural Network estimation of soil erosion and nutrient concentrations in runoff from land application areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of sediment and nutrients from land application areas is an environmental concern. New methods are needed for estimating soil and nutrient concentrations of runoff from cropland areas on which manure is applied. Artificial Neural Networks ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Land application, Manure runoff, Nitrogen, Nutrient losses, Phosphorus, Soil erosion, Water quality

Minyoung Kim; John E. Gilley

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Concentrations and Source Areas of Ice Nuclei in the Alaskan Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric ice nucleus concentrations were measured by the filter method daily for ten months at three ground sites in Alaska to determine the influence of long-range nucleus sources on the concentrations. The results indicate a seasonal ...

Andrew G. Fountain; Takeshi Ohtake

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Hydrogeologic settings of A/M Area: Framework for groundwater transport: Book 6, Appendix B, Time/concentration graphs A/M Area monitoring wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents the time/concentration graphs for the Savannah River A/M monitoring wells. This Appendix B is part of the determination of the hydrogeologic setting of the A/M Area as a part of ground water transport studies.

Van Pelt, R.; Lewis, S.E.; Aadand, R.K.

1994-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

Baseline Radionuclide and Nonradionuclide Concentrations in Soils, Vegetation, and Small Mammals at the Proposed Expansion Area at TA-54 Area G  

SciTech Connect

Area G is a 25.5-hectare (63-acre), fenced, low-level radioactive solid waste processing and disposal area located on the east end of Mesa del Buey at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This disposal area has been in existence since 1957 and is expected to be filled by the year 2015. Thus, a new area, located adjacent to Area G on the west side, has been proposed for the expansion of disposal activities. Since 1994 to the present, baseline levels of several radionuclides and nonradionuclides have been collected in soils, vegetation, and small mammals (field mice and rock squirrels). These data will be used to assess potential impacts, if any, at the expanded site once operations begin. Baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) (mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level) of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in these media were calculated and compared with regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). RSRLs are calculated from regional areas away from the influence of the Laboratory and represent natural and worldwide fallout sources. BSRLs in most media, with the exception of field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.), compare very well with RSRLs. Field mice, probably because they are mobile and may have spent time within the active disposal area, appeared to be impacted by Area G operations as they contained higher concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as compared to RSRLs. Overall, however, the preoperational data from the other media show that the proposed expansion area has been impacted very little by Area G operations.

D. D. Romero, P. R. Fresquez

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Grid-Averaged Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the inadequacies of formulations for surface fluxes for use in numerical models of atmospheric flow. The difficulty is that numerical models imply spatial averaging over each grid area. Existing formulations am based on the ...

L. Mahrt

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup tot}U, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 60}Co, {sup 40}K, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 22}Na, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 208}Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL{sup {minus}1} in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad {number_sign}4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of {sup 239}Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SalinityAverage SalinityAverage Jump to: navigation, search Property Name SalinityAverage Property Type Number Description Mean average of the low and high end measurements of the salinity [ppm] of the fluid. This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: C Coso Geothermal Area Pages using the property "SalinityAverage" Showing 19 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 975 + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3500 + C Chena Geothermal Area + 325 + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + 6700 + Dixie Valley Geothermal Area + 2295 + E East Mesa Geothermal Area + 3750 + G Geysers Geothermal Area + 217 + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 18750 +

28

AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LET YPPF = XCDF LET XPPF = YCDF. Default: None Synonyms: ASH is a synonym for the AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM command. ...

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

Average Commercial Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Price Average Commercial Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes...

30

An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies.

Winchester Chromec, F.; Myers, Jeffrey C. [7800 E. Union Avenue, Denver, Colorado, 801237 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

AREA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AREA AREA FAQ # Question Response 316 vs DCAA FAQ 1 An inquiry from CH about an SBIR recipient asking if a DCAA audit is sufficient to comply with the regulation or if they need to add this to their audit they have performed yearly by a public accounting firm. 316 audits are essentially A-133 audits for for-profit entities. They DO NOT replace DCAA or other audits requested by DOE to look at indirect rates or incurred costs or closeouts. DCAA would never agree to perform A-133 or our 316 audits. They don't do A-133 audits for DOD awardees. The purpose of the audits are different, look at different things and in the few instances of overlap, from different perspectives. 316

32

Average Commercial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History District of Columbia 13.69 13.90 12.99...

33

Average Residential Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History District of Columbia 15.67 16.49 13.92...

34

DOE Average Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE DOE Average Results FY 12 DOE Target FY 12 Customer Perspective: Customer Satisfaction: -Timeliness 92 88 -Quality 94 92 Effective Service Partnership: -Extent of Customer Satisfaction with the responsiveness, etc. 90 92 Internal Business Perspective: Acquisition Excellence: -Extent to which internal quality control systems are effective 90 88 Most Effective Use of Contracting Approaches to Maximize Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness: Use of Competition: -% of total $'s obligated on competitive acquisitions >$3000 (Agency Level Only) 94 85 -% of acquisition actions competed for actions > $3000 (Agency Level Only) 65 68 Performance Based Acquisition: - % PBA actions relative to total eligible new acquisition actions (applicable to new actions > $25K) 82

35

Average Commercial Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 11.34 12.23 10.06 9.47 8.92 8.13...

36

Census Division Number of Average Monthly Average Retail Price...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Monthly Average Retail Price Average Monthly Bill State Consumers Consumption (kWh) (Cents per Kilowatthour) (Dollar and cents) New England 34,271 67,907 12.55 8,520.25...

37

Average Commercial Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History District of Columbia 13.69 13.90 12.99 12.26 12.24 11.19 1980-2012 Florida 13.07 14.45 11.09 10.60 11.14 10.41 1967-2012 Georgia 13.21 14.30 11.70 10.95 10.51 9.74 1967-2012 Maryland 12.30 13.12 10.87 9.87 10.29 10.00 1967-2012 Michigan 10.02 10.66 9.38 8.95 9.14 8.35 1967-2012 New Jersey 12.10 13.38 10.20 10.11 9.51 8.50 1967-2012 New York 11.82 12.86 10.72 10.88 9.32 7.84 1967-2012 Ohio 11.74 12.77 10.42 9.25 8.55 7.11 1967-2012 Pennsylvania 12.77 14.29 11.83 10.47 10.42 10.24 1967-2012 Virginia

38

Method of particle trajectory recognition in particle flows of high particle concentration using a candidate trajectory tree process with variable search areas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The application relates to particle trajectory recognition from a Centroid Population comprised of Centroids having an (x, y, t) or (x, y, f) coordinate. The method is applicable to visualization and measurement of particle flow fields of high particle. In one embodiment, the centroids are generated from particle images recorded on camera frames. The application encompasses digital computer systems and distribution mediums implementing the method disclosed and is particularly applicable to recognizing trajectories of particles in particle flows of high particle concentration. The method accomplishes trajectory recognition by forming Candidate Trajectory Trees and repeated searches at varying Search Velocities, such that initial search areas are set to a minimum size in order to recognize only the slowest, least accelerating particles which produce higher local concentrations. When a trajectory is recognized, the centroids in that trajectory are removed from consideration in future searches.

Shaffer, Franklin D.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

39

EIA Average Energy Consumption 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table US8. Average Consumption by Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units per Household Fuels Used (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel)

40

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Urban Bias in Area-averaged Surface Air Temperature Trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A data set derived from the United States Historical Climate Network has been compared to two global land-based temperature data sets that have been commonly cited in connection with the detection of the greenhouse effect and in other studies of ...

Thomas R. Karl; Philip D. Jones

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Core Measure Average KTR Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measure Measure Average KTR Results FY 12 Target FY 12 DOE M&O CONTRACTOR (KTR) BSC RESULTS FY 2012 Customer Perspective and level of communication provided by the procurement office 95 92 Internal Business Perspective: Assessment (%) of the degree to which the purchasing system is in compliance with stakeholder requirements 97 Local Goals % Delivery on-time (includes JIT, excludes Purchase Cards) 88 84 % of total dollars obligated, on actions > $150K , that were awarded using effective competition 73 Local Goals Rapid Purchasing Techniques: -% of transactions placed by users 77 Local Goals -% of transactions placed through electronic commerce 62 Local Goals Average Cycle Time: -Average cycle time for <= $150K 8 6 to 9 days

44

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

45

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

46

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

47

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent space-time in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, {\\em achronal} null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out wormholes and closed timelike curves.

Noah Graham; Ken D. Olum

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

49

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use...

50

Spectral and Parametric Averaging for Integrable Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos - spectral averaging and parametric averaging. For spectral averaging, we introduce a new procedure - rescaled spectral averaging. Unlike traditional spectral averaging, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance. Parametric averaging, while not as accurate as rescaled spectral averaging for the correlation function of spectral staircase and interval level number variance, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

Tao Ma; R. A. Serota

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

51

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

52

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

53

Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

On the Average Value of Correlated Time Series, with Applications in Dendroclimatology and Hydrometeorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a number of areas of applied climatology, time series are either averaged to enhance a common underlying signal or combined to produce area averages. How well, then, does the average of a finite number (N) of time series represent the ...

T. M. L. Wigley; K. R. Briffa; P. D. Jones

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Average Stock Levels: Crude Market & Propane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This graph shows that propane was not alone in experiencing excess supply in 1998 and extraordinary stock builds. Note that the graph shows average stock levels ...

56

Optimization Online - String-Averaging Projected Subgradient ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 29, 2013 ... Optimization Online. String-Averaging Projected Subgradient Methods for Constrained Minimization. Yair Censor(yair ***at*** math.haifa.ac.il)

57

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

59

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

60

Bayesian curve estimation by model averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach is used to estimate a nonparametric regression model. The main features of the procedure are, first, the functional form of the curve is approximated by a mixture of local polynomials by Bayesian model averaging (BMA), second, the ... Keywords: BIC criterion, Bayesian model averaging, Local polynomial regression, Nonparametric curve fitting, Robustness

Daniel Pea; Dolores Redondas

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

concentrating solar power | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

concentrating solar power concentrating solar power Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

62

Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis quantifies the relative merit of various technological advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors and presents them graphically as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. Substantial annual energy gains (exceeding 50% at 350/sup 0/C) are shown to be attainable with improved parabolic troughs.

Gee, R.; Gaul, H.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

64

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

65

The Shape of Averaged Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of averaged drop size distributions (DSD) is studied from a large sample of data (892 h) collected at several sites of various latitudes. The results show that neither the hypothesis of an exponential distribution to represent rainfall ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Lagged Average Predictions in a Predictability Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagged average predictions are examined here within the context of an idealized predictability experiment. Lagged predictions contribute to making better forecasts than the forecasts obtained from using only the latest initial state. Analytic ...

John O. Roads

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Probabilistic Visibility Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical postprocessing technique that has been used in probabilistic weather forecasting to calibrate forecast ensembles and generate predictive probability density functions (PDFs) for weather quantities. ...

Richard M. Chmielecki; Adrian E. Raftery

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" ,,"Choke","Average","Average","Fluid","Methanol","Water","Oil","Gas","Hyd. Eq.","Gas" ,"Choke","Setting","Upstream","Upstream","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery" "Date and Time","Setting","Duration","Pressure","Temp.","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Portion" "dd-mmm-yy","(64ths)","(hours)","(psia)","(degF)","(bfpd)","(bfpd)","(bwpd)","(bopd)","(mmcfpd)","(boepd)","(%)"

69

Average transmission probability of a random stack  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

A high average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduced the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, T.P.

1986-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Estimating Averaging Times for Point and Path-Averaged Measurements of Turbulence Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainty over how long to average turbulence variables to achieve some desired level of statistical stability is a common concern in boundary-layer meteorology. Several models exist that predict averaging times for measurements of variances ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Upper bounds for the yearly energy delivery of stationary solar concentrators and the implications for concentrator optical design  

SciTech Connect

Compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) type collectors have been viewed as the optimal design for totally stationary concentrators. However the CPC is ideal only for uniform incident solar flux averaged over the energy collection period. The actual yearly-averaged incident flux map turns out to be highly non-uniform, as a function of projected incidence angle, which implies that concentration can be increased markedly if optical collection efficiency is compromised. The question then becomes: what concentrator angular acceptance function is best matched to nature`s radiation flux input, and how much energy can such a concentrator deliver? The recently-invented tailored edge-ray concentrator (TERC) approach could be used to determine optimal reflector contours, given the optimal acceptance angle function. We demonstrate that totally stationary TERCs can have around three times the geometric concentration of corresponding optimized stationary CPCs, with greater energy delivery per absorber area, in particular for applications that are currently being considered for stationary evacuated concentrators with the latest low-emissivity selective coating, e.g., solar-driven double-stage absorption chillers (at around 170{degree}C) and solar thermal power generation (at around 250{degree}C). 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel)]|[Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel); Lasken, M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Ries, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

World average top-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 report, Staff Forecast: Retail Electricity Prices, 2005 to 2018, was prepared with contributions from the technical assistance provided by Greg Broeking of R.W. Beck, Inc. in preparing retail price forecasts

75

Exact bounds for average pairwise network reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods for finding exact bounds of average pairwise network connectivity (APNC) are proposed. These methods allows faster decision making about if a network is reliable for its purpose. Previous results on cumulitive updating of all-terminal ... Keywords: algorithm, network reliability, pairwise connectivity

Alexey Rodionov; Olga Rodionova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Concentrator silicon cell research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Deducing Ground-to-Air Emissions from Observed Trace Gas Concentrations: A Field Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas emission rate Q from an artificial 36-m2 surface area source was inferred from line-average concentration CL measured by an open-path laser situated up to 100 m downwind. Using a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model, a theoretical C...

T. K. Flesch; J. D. Wilson; L. A. Harper; B. P. Crenna; R. R. Sharpe

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1983-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1983-2013 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1983-2013 Connecticut - - - - - - 1983-2013 Maine - - - - - - 1983-2013 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1983-2013

79

Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22 22 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fat turnover in obese slower than average  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9-04 9-04 For immediate release: 09/23/2011 | NR-11-09-04 Fat turnover in obese slower than average Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly This scanning electron micrograph image shows part of a lobule of adipose tissue (body fat). Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat. Photo courtesy of David Gregory & Debbie Marshall/Wellcome Images LIVERMORE, Calif. -- It may be more difficult for obese people to lose fat because the "turnover" rate is much slower for those overweight than average weight individuals. New research in the Sept. 25 online edition of the journal Nature shows that the turnover (storage and loss rate) of fat in the human body is about 1 1/2 years compared to fat cells, which turnover about every 10 years,

82

Natural Gas Prices: Well Above Recent Averages  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The recent surge in spot prices at the Henry Hub are well above a typical range for 1998-1999 (in this context, defined as the average, +/- 2 standard deviations). Past price surges have been of short duration. The possibility of a downward price adjustment before the end of next winter is a source of considerable risk for storage operators who acquire gas at recent elevated prices. Storage levels in the Lower 48 States were 7.5 percent below the 5-year average (1995-1999) by mid-August (August 11), although the differential is only 6.4 percent in the East, which depends most heavily on storage to meet peak demand. Low storage levels are attributable, at least in part, to poor price incentives: high current prices combined with only small price

83

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

Dunham, Scott

85

Proposed Modification to the NRC Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (BTP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the United States has changed significantly with the loss of Class B and C disposal access for 85 of U.S. nuclear power plants. Waste processing and disposal methods and radiation exposure modeling methods as well as significantly different economic considerations exist that were not envisioned during the development of existing regulations and guidance documents. To promote increased disposal options, this report evaluates alternatives to current waste classifi...

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

86

Concentrating Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) are a promising alternative to flat-plate photovoltaics in high direct normal irradiance (DNI) environments. The technologys basic operating characteristics offer significant upside compared with other solar technologies: higher system efficiencies of upwards of 30%+; higher capacity factors, generated through two-axis tracking, exceeding 30% in ideal locations; lower cellular degradation from heat compared to flat-plate PV; lower water requirements; and reduced footpri...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

87

Average Price of Natural Gas Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

88

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Base-pair Parameters --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shear Stretch Stagger Buckle Propeller Opening 3DNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.77) -11.79(4.14) 0.57(2.80) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.74) -11.35(5.26) 0.63(3.05) CEHS A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.75) -11.82(4.14) 0.56(2.78) B 0.00(0.21) -0.14(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.73) -11.37(5.27) 0.62(3.03) CompDNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.12(7.70) -11.81(4.14) 0.56(2.79) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.70) -11.37(5.26) 0.62(3.03) Curves A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.85) -11.76(4.12) 0.57(2.80)

89

"Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

areas, determined according to the 30-year average (1971-2000) of the annual heating and cooling degree-days. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year...

90

Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

areas, determined according to the 30-year average (1971-2000) of the annual heating and cooling degree-days. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year...

91

Average Residential Price - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History; District of Columbia: 15.67: 16.49: 13.92: 13.53: 13.06: NA: 1980-2012: Florida: 20.61: 21.07: 20.18: 17.89: 18.16 ...

92

Locally Calibrated Probabilistic Temperature Forecasting Using Geostatistical Model Averaging and Local Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors introduce two ways to produce locally calibrated grid-based probabilistic forecasts of temperature. Both start from the Global Bayesian model averaging (Global BMA) statistical postprocessing method, which has constant predictive bias ...

William Kleiber; Adrian E. Raftery; Jeffrey Baars; Tilmann Gneiting; Clifford F. Mass; Eric Grimit

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

95

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

96

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

97

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GIS data at 10km resolution for GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This

98

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

km for km for Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

99

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

100

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

Rabl, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Electricity > Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price > Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State: Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by ...

104

Average summer gasoline prices expected to be slightly lower ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The retail price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.63 per gallon during this summer driving season, slightly below average prices over ...

105

Table 5B. Commercial average monthly bill by census division...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Census Division " " State ","Number of Consumers "," Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Price (Cents per Kilowatthour)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New...

106

On the String Averaging Method for Sparse Common Fixed Points ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 10, 2008 ... gate a string-averaging algorithmic scheme that favorably handles the ... are special cases of the string-averaging and of the BIP algorithmic...

107

Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State, 2009: Census Division State Number of Consumers Average Monthly Consumption ...

108

Technical Basis for Averaging C-14 Filters, Interim Report: Carbon-14 Source Term Analysis for Encapsulated Filter Waste Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The number of power plants implementing submicron-size cartridge filters has increased with the incentive of radiation dose reduction. However, utilities are experiencing difficulty disposing of these filters due to significant increases in (14)C concentrations. This study provides an important technical basis for concentration averaging of encapsulated filters with the grouting of filter waste. The concentration averaging with grouting will save costs in disposal of Greater than Class C filters and will...

2000-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

109

Improvement of Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average models using Fuzzy logic and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series forecasting is an active research area that has drawn considerable attention for applications in a variety of areas. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are one of the most important time series models used in financial ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Exchange rate, Financial markets, Fuzzy logic, Time series forecasting

Mehdi Khashei; Mehdi Bijari; Gholam Ali Raissi Ardali

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery District API Gravity (Weighted Average ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery District API Gravity (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Degree)

111

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49031 49031 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to

112

The Relation between the Area-Average Rain Rate and the Rain Cell Size Distribution Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the literature on the rain cell diameter distribution (RCDD) is first presented. It shows that RCDD, for a given rain-rate threshold ?, is accurately described by an exponential distribution with an exponential parameter ? weakly ...

Henri Sauvageot; Frdric Mesnard; Ricardo S. Tenrio

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Derived Concentration Technical Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

196-2011 196-2011 April 2011 DOE STANDARD DERIVED CONCENTRATION TECHNICAL STANDARD U.S. Department of Energy AREA ENVR Washington, D.C. 20585 Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/standard.html DOE-STD-1196-2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Derived Concentration Technical Standard was a collaborative effort sponsored by the DOE Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, with support from Department subject matter experts (SMEs) in the field of radiation protection. This standard, which complements DOE Order (O) 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, was developed taking

114

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use of relatively inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar cell. One measure of the effectiveness of this approach is the concentration ratio-in other words, how much concentration the cell is receiving. Concentrator PV systems have several advantages over flat-plate systems. First, concentrator systems reduce the size or number of cells needed and

115

Characterization of Photovoltaic Concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper will describe the resources at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for performing characterization of photovoltaic (PV) materials designed for operation under concentrated light. NREL has the capability to measure devices ranging from very small, unencapsulated research cells to reasonably sized, environmentally protected modules. Data gathering and interpretation are also ongoing areas of revision and improvement. The main goal of the current research is to reduce the measurement uncertainty to the lowest practical value. At present, the state of the art is limited at a ?5% level in measuring efficiency accurately.

Kiehl, J.; Emery, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Concentric Black Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new supersymmetric solutions of five-dimensional minimal supergravity that describe concentric black rings with an optional black hole at the common centre. Configurations of two black rings are found which have the same conserved charges as a single rotating black hole; these black rings can have a total horizon area less than, equal to, or greater than the black hole with the same charges. A numerical investigation of these particular black ring solutions suggests that they do not have closed timelike curves.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

117

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: July 12, 2004 8: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on AddThis.com... Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles Twenty-five percent of the respondents to a nationwide survey said that

118

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #87: May 4, 1999 Average Annual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7: May 4, 1999 Average Annual Miles per Vehicle by Vehicle Type and Age to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 87: May 4, 1999 Average Annual Miles per...

119

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #536: September 15, 2008 Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: September 15, 2008 Average Used Car Prices Up and Used Light Truck Prices Down to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 536: September 15, 2008 Average Used...

120

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #517: May 5, 2008 State Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7: May 5, 2008 State Average Gasoline Prices, April 18, 2008 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 517: May 5, 2008 State Average Gasoline Prices, April 18,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 744:...

122

Improving Wind ProfilerMeasured Winds Using Coplanar Spectral Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented that increases the detectability of weak clear-air signals by averaging Doppler spectra from coplanar wind profiler beams. The method, called coplanar spectral averaging (CSA), is applied to both simulated wind profiler ...

Robert Schafer; Susan K. Avery; Kenneth S. Gage; Paul E. Johnston; D. A. Carter

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

On Lateral Dispersion Coefficients as Functions of Averaging Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plume dispersion coefficients are discussed in terms of single-particle and relative diffusion, and are investigated as functions of averaging time. To demonstrate the effects of averaging time on the relative importance of various dispersion ...

C. M. Sheih

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Vorticity Dynamics and Zonally Averaged Ocean Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnostic equations relating the zonally averaged overturning circulation to northsouth density variations are derived and used to determine a new closure scheme for use in zonally averaged ocean models. The presentation clarifies the dynamical ...

Daniel G. Wright; Cornelis B. Vreugdenhil; Tertia M. C. Hughes

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical way of postprocessing forecast ensembles to create predictive probability density functions (PDFs) for weather quantities. It represents the predictive PDF as a weighted average of PDFs centered on ...

J. Mc Lean Sloughter; Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting; Chris Fraley

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Rangely Oilfield Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Well Field Information Development Area: Number of Production Wells: Number of Injection Wells: Number of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal...

127

Haleakala Volcano Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Well Field Information Development Area: Number of Production Wells: Number of Injection Wells: Number of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal...

128

Table 5C. Industrial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Electricity > Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price > Industrial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State: Table 5C. Industrial ...

129

Table 4. Average retail price for bundled and unbundled consumers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 4. Average retail price for bundled and unbundled consumers by sector, Census Division, and State 2011

130

Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States

131

Optimization Online - "Block-Iterative and String-Averaging ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 19, 2009 ... Optimization Online. "Block-Iterative and String-Averaging Projection Algorithms in Proton Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction".

132

Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Docket No. EO-05-01. As supporting documentation for "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant: Modeling Unit 1 Emissions in a Cycling Mode" this memo documents the fact that the observed 24-hour SO2 background concentrations during periods when meteorological conditions produce the highest impacts from Unit 1. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report More Documents & Publications Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant"

133

Sub-second 2D NMR Spectroscopy at Sub-millimolar Concentrations Boaz Shapira, Erel Morris, Karol A. Muszkat, and Lucio Frydman*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sub-second 2D NMR Spectroscopy at Sub-millimolar Concentrations Boaz Shapira, Erel Morris, Karol A in NMR rests on two areas that have traditionally defined the capability of a spectroscopic that enhanced NMR's sensitivity was the introduction of pulsed NMR and the time-domain signal-averaging of data

Frydman, Lucio

134

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

135

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: March 8, 2004 0: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310:

137

Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Dataset Summary Description This dataset shows the average interest rates for U.S Treasury securities for the most recent month compared with the same month of the previous year. The data is broken down by the various marketable and non-marketable securities. The summary page for the data provides links for monthly reports from 2001 through the current year. Average Interest Rates are calculated on the total unmatured interest-bearing debt. The average interest rates for total marketable, total non-marketable and total interest-bearing debt do not include the U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities.

138

Energy Basics: Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

139

Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

Kurtz, S.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

140

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Monthly","11/2013","1/15/1973" ,"Data 2","Annual Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1922" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm03vmall.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_monthly/ngm.html"

142

Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Average depth may ...

143

New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per ...

144

Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

145

Average prices for spot sulfur dioxide emissions allowances at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The weighted average spot price for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions allowances awarded to winning bidders at Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual auction on ...

146

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

All Electricity Reports Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price With Data for 2011 | Release Date: September 27, 2012 | Next Release Date: September, 2013 Previous editions...

147

Chapter 5. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

106 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 Chapter 5. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price of Electricity

148

Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)"...

149

Average wholesale electric power prices rose in 2010 - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average wholesale electric power prices rose in 2010, due to higher national natural gas prices and increased demand for electricity, particularly in the Eastern ...

150

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Class of Ownership, Number of Consumers, Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price for Power Marketers and Energy Service Providers by State: T12:

151

Today in Energy - Average wholesale natural gas prices mostly ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average spot natural gas prices, which reflect the wholesale price of natural gas at major trading points, generally declined in most U.S. regional markets about 7% ...

152

,"U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Commercial...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Mcf)",1,"Annual",2011...

153

,"U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Industrial...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Mcf)",1,"Annual",2011...

154

2012 Brief: Average wholesale electricity prices down compared ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2012 Brief: Average wholesale electricity prices down compared to last year. ... wholesale electric power prices often trend together with natural gas prices.

155

Table AP7. Average Expenditures for Home Appliances and Lighting ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

156

Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the RFC west ...

157

Average wholesale spot natural gas prices rose across the country ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wholesale spot natural gas prices rose across the country in 2010. Average spot natural gas prices at the Henry Huba key benchmark location for pricing throughout ...

158

EIA Renewable Energy- Average Energy Conversion Efficiency of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Renewables and Alternate Fuels > Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Annual Report > Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Source: Average Energy ...

159

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

160

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

162

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract):
Relative Humidity at 10 m...

163

Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

164

District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

165

Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

166

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a horizontal flat-plate solar collector, such as a Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This model uses information on hourly satellite observed visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam insolation falling on a tracking concentrator pointed

167

Variation in Nimbus-7 Cloud Estimates. Part I: Zonal Averages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zonal averages of low, middle and total cloud amount estimates derived from measurements from Nimbus-7 have been analyzed for the six-year period April 1979 through March 1985. The globally and zonally averaged values of six-year annual means and ...

Bryan C. Weare

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Research Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Areas Areas Research Areas Print Scientists from a wide variety of fields come to the ALS to perform experiements. Listed below are some of the most common research areas covered by ALS beamlines. Below each heading are a few examples of the specific types of topics included in that category. Click on a heading to learn more about that research area at the ALS. Energy Science Photovoltaics, photosynthesis, biofuels, energy storage, combustion, catalysis, carbon capture/sequestration. Bioscience General biology, structural biology. Materials/Condensed Matter Correlated materials, nanomaterials, magnetism, polymers, semiconductors, water, advanced materials. Physics Atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics; accelerator physics. Chemistry Surfaces/interfaces, catalysts, chemical dynamics (gas-phase chemistry), crystallography, physical chemistry.

169

Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

Kurtz, S.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

170

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

171

A Kalman-filter bias correction of ozone deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.

Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

172

Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

Kurtz, S.

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Research Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Areas Print Research Areas Print Scientists from a wide variety of fields come to the ALS to perform experiements. Listed below are some of the most common research areas covered by ALS beamlines. Below each heading are a few examples of the specific types of topics included in that category. Click on a heading to learn more about that research area at the ALS. Energy Science Photovoltaics, photosynthesis, biofuels, energy storage, combustion, catalysis, carbon capture/sequestration. Bioscience General biology, structural biology. Materials/Condensed Matter Correlated materials, nanomaterials, magnetism, polymers, semiconductors, water, advanced materials. Physics Atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics; accelerator physics. Chemistry Surfaces/interfaces, catalysts, chemical dynamics (gas-phase chemistry), crystallography, physical chemistry.

174

annual average heating degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average heating degree days average heating degree days Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Heating Degree Days below 18° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is below 18° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Heating Degree Days Below 18 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords annual average heating degree days climate GIS NASA SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 2.7 MiB)

175

Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the SERC southeast ...

176

Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in five cases, 2008-2040

177

ARM - Evaluation Product - Average of Cloud Condensation Nuclei...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are averaged together. The %ss in the CCN data stream is calculated using a heat transfer and fluid dynamics model flow model (Lance et al., 2006). The model uses the...

178

Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10.34 9.79 11.62 14.97 NA 20.70 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 8.35 8.21 9.11 9.52 9.96 10.36...

179

New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

94 11.57 12.82 15.94 18.40 18.73 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 8.38 8.32 8.27 8.38 7.91 6.66...

180

Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.35 10.04 12.02 15.43 17.45 16.48 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 9.03 9.30 10.67 11.84 12.79 NA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Figure 88. Annual average Henry Hub spot prices for natural ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 88. Annual average Henry Hub spot prices for natural gas in five cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per million Btu) Reference

182

Figure 86. Annual average Henry Hub spot natural gas prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 86. Annual average Henry Hub spot natural gas prices, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per million Btu) Henry Hub Spot Price 1990.00

183

Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002...

184

2012 Brief: Average wholesale electricity prices down compared to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average, on-peak (weekdays from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.) day-ahead electricity prices were lower across the entire United States in 2012 compared to 2011.

185

Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

186

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

187

Exact Averaging of Atmospheric State and Flow Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new set of averaging rules is put forward that exactly determines the means of air temperature, mixing ratio, and velocity by incorporating weighting factors in accordance with physical conservation laws. For the temperature and velocity, ...

Andrew S. Kowalski

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2001-2010 are Excel zipped files & 1994-2000 are PDF files ... and Average Retail Price for Power Marketers and ... U.S. Department of Energy USA.gov FedStats.

189

U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

190

Average Diurnal Variation of Summer Lightning over the Floirida Peninsula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data derived from a large network of electric field mills have been used to determine the average diurnal variation of lightning in a Florida seacoast environment. These data were obtained at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape ...

Launa M. Maier; E. Philip Krider; Michael W. Maier

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Benthic Boundary-Layer Velocity Profiles: Dependence on Averaging Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between benthic boundary-layer velocity profiles and current meter averaging time is investigated using detailed (0.61 Hz) current measurements recorded within 1 m of the bottom on the inner continental shelf. The percentage of ...

Barry M. Lesht

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

193

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

194

Average utilization of the nation's natural gas combined-cycle ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (purple line) and 2010 (red line) average capacity factors for natural gas plant operations between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. rose from 26% to 32%.

195

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

& Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)
Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWhm2day)
Internet: http:eosweb.larc.nasa.govsse
Note 1:...

196

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensembles used for probabilistic weather forecasting often exhibit a spread-error correlation, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper proposes a statistical method for postprocessing ensembles based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA), ...

Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting; Fadoua Balabdaoui; Michael Polakowski

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 10.55 11.24 13.80 16.87 19.85 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 9.51 9.87 10.27 11.46 12.38 12.89...

198

Semi-supervised training for the averaged perceptron POS tagger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes POS tagging experiments with semi-supervised training as an extension to the (supervised) averaged perceptron algorithm, first introduced for this task by (Collins, 2002). Experiments with an iterative training on standard-sized ...

Drahomra "johanka" Spoustov; Jan Haji?; Jan Raab; Miroslav Spousta

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A Statistical Averaging Method for Wind Profiler Doppler Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented for Doppler spectral averaging that more reliably identifies the profiler radar return from clear air in the presence of contaminationfor example, from migrating bird echoes. These very sensitive radars profile the wind ...

David A. Merritt

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The averaged control system of fast oscillating control systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For control systems that either have an explicit periodic dependence on time or have periodic solutions and small controls, we define an average control system that takes into account all possible variations of the control, and prove that its solutions approximate all solutions of the oscillating systems as oscillations go faster. The dimension of its velocity set is characterised geomtrically. When it is maximum the average system defines a Finsler metric, unfortunately not twice differntiable in general. Under particular assumptions, valid for the control two body system, this Finsler metric generates a Hamiltonian flow on the cotangent bundle. For minimum time control, this average system proves that averaging the Hamiltonian given by the maximum principle is a valid approximation.

Bombrun, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Implication of Spatial Averaging in Complex-Terrain Wind Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of wind over complex terrain have been conducted at three times and two locations in Northern California. Instrumentation included conventional cup-vane anemometers and optical anemometers with spatial averaging over path lengths of 0.6-1 ...

W. M. Porch

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 638: August 30, 2010...

203

Some Considerations Relevant to Computing Average Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three data bases of gridded surface temperature anomalies were used to assess the sensitivity of the average estimated Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature anomaly to: 1) extreme gridpoint values and 2) zonal band contributions. Over the last 100 ...

S. L. Grotch

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

205

New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

206

Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" 4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

207

U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Conventional, Average 3.030 3.137 3.122 3.063 3.042 2.972 1994-2013 Conventional Regular 3.005 3.116 3.102 3.040 3.017 2.948 1994-2013 Conventional Midgrade 3.167 3.256 3.239 3.200 3.193 3.121 1994-2013 Conventional Premium 3.269 3.354 3.327 3.291 3.274 3.203 1994-2013 Oxygenated, Average - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated Regular - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated Midgrade - - - - - - 1994-2013

208

District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period: Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes: Show Data By: Data Series: Area: Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 ... 12.51: 12.85: 12 ...

209

Effects of stratospheric aerosol surface processes on the LLNL two-dimensional zonally averaged model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the effects of incorporating representations of heterogeneous chemical processes associated with stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol into the LLNL two-dimensional, zonally averaged, model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Using distributions of aerosol surface area and volume density derived from SAGE 11 satellite observations, we were primarily interested in changes in partitioning within the Cl- and N- families in the lower stratosphere, compared to a model including only gas phase photochemical reactions.

Connell, P.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burley, J.D.; Johnston, H.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

Association of Wire Code Configuration With Long-Term Average 60-Hz Magnetic Fields and Exposure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have reported associations between cancer and the configuration of outdoor electric utility lines, popularly referred to as the wire code, which were developed as a surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) exposure to magnetic fields. A study was conducted to measure the magnetic fields in over 200 houses in eight areas within the contiguous United States. This interim report presents the major results of that study.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

211

Bayesian Model Averagings Problematic Treatment of Extreme Weather and a Paradigm Shift That Fixes It  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods of ensemble postprocessing in which continuous probability density functions are constructed from ensemble forecasts by centering functions around each of the ensemble members have come to be called Bayesian model averaging (BMA) or ...

Craig H. Bishop; Kevin T. Shanley

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is...

214

www.elsevier.com/locate/envres Seasonal variation of arsenic concentration in wells in Nevada $  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The issue of seasonal arsenic measurement variability poses consequences regarding the interpretation and frequency of well water measurements for both public health research and surveillance. In this study, we evaluated seasonal variability in arsenic concentration in 356 wells in western Nevada. River flow data obtained from US Geological Survey National Water Information System were used to classify seasons as wet or dry, and mean differences in arsenic well concentrations measured during these seasons were compared. Arsenic concentrations in these wells averaged 72:9 mg=L (range, non-detect to 3000 mg=L). The mean difference in arsenic concentrations between the wet and dry seasons was 3:3 mg=L (p 0:78; average percent difference 2.3%). Eighty wells (22%) had higher arsenic concentrations in the wet season, 75 wells (21%) had higher arsenic concentrations in the dry season and no difference was seen in 201 wells (56%). The mean differences in wells with arsenic levels of 010, 1150, 51200, 4200 mg=L were 1:4 mg=L p 0:43, 9:2mg=L p 0:36, 15:1mg=Lp 0:30, and 49:9 mg=L p 0:59. In summary, although changes in arsenic concentrations were seen in some wells, clear trends in arsenic concentration over time were not associated with the wet and dry seasons. These findings provide evidence that, in our study area as a whole, little seasonal variability occurs in arsenic concentrations, and repeated assessments of arsenic

Josef G. Thundiyil A; Yan Yuan B; Allan H. Smith B; Craig Steinmaus B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

GAMMA DETECTOR RESPONSE/SOIL CONCENTRATION CORRELATION STUDY AT THE AAR MANUFACTURING, INC. SITE, LIVONIA, MICHIGAN  

SciTech Connect

At the NRC?s request, ORAU conducted surveys of the AAR Manufacturing site during the period of September 25 through September 27, 2012. The survey activities included walkover surveys and sampling activities. Once the survey team was onsite, the NRC personnel decided to forgo survey activities in the ?New Addition? and the pickling area. Areas of the planned study boundary were inaccessible due to overgrowth/large pieces of concrete covering the soil surface; therefore, the study boundary was redefined. Gamma walkover scans of the site boundary and ?front yard? identified multiple areas of elevated gamma radiation. As a result, two judgmental samples were collected. Sample results were above thorium background levels The answer to the PSQ relating to the relationship between thorium concentration in soil and NaI instrument response is ?Yes.? NaI instrument response can be used as a predictor of Th-232 concentration in the 0 to 1 m layer. An R2 value of 0.79 was determined for the surface soil relationship, thus satisfying the DQOs. Moreover, the regression was cross-checked by comparing the predicted Th-232 soil core concentration to the average Th-232 concentration (Section 5.3.2). Based on the cross-check, the regression equation provides a reasonable estimate for the Th-232 concentration at the judgmental locations. Consideration must be given when applying this equation to other soil areas of the site. If the contamination was heterogeneously distributed, and not distributed in a discrete layer as it was in the study area, then using the regression equation to predict Th-232 concentration would not be applicable.

ALTIC, NICK A

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

216

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Roberts, K.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Roberts, K.; Edwards, T.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

218

"2012 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential" Residential" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6203726,634.13095,15.713593,99.644755 "Connecticut",1454651,730.85302,17.343298,126.75402 "Maine",703770,530.56349,14.658797,77.774225 "Massachusetts",2699141,627.15845,14.912724,93.52641 "New Hampshire",601697,614.81776,16.070168,98.802249 "Rhode Island",435448,597.34783,14.404061,86.042344 "Vermont",309019,565.03618,17.006075,96.090478 "Middle Atlantic",15727423,700.63673,15.272654,107.00582

219

"2012 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial" Industrial" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",34164,67854.037,11.83487,8030.4373 "Connecticut",4647,63947.063,12.672933,8103.9685 "Maine",2780,90741.457,7.9819499,7242.9376 "Massachusetts",21145,66710.826,12.566635,8383.3057 "New Hampshire",3444,47247.217,11.83228,5590.423 "Rhode Island",1927,39935.911,10.676724,4263.8471 "Vermont",221,536044.12,9.9796777,53495.475 "Middle Atlantic",45836,126368.14,7.4903534,9465.42 "New Jersey",12729,50817.89,10.516509,5344.2677

220

Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) code for predicting off-site consequences, MACCS2 (Chanin, et al. 1998) (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2), uses a simplified model for atmospheric transport and d ispersion (ATD), that is, a straight-line Gaussian model. The MACCS2 calculations are used by the NRC for planning purposes, for cost-benefit analyses, and in level-3 probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs). The MACCS2 ATD model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, even for its purposes. The justification for its use has been

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221

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

222

Bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code for stellarator transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computer code for solving the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation appropriate to stellarator transport has been developed, and its first applications made. The code is much faster than the bounce-averaged Monte-Carlo codes, which up to now have provided the most efficient numerical means for studying stellarator transport. Moreover, because the connection to analytic kinetic theory of the Fokker-Planck approach is more direct than for the Monte-Carlo approach, a comparison of theory and numerical experiment is now possible at a considerably more detailed level than previously.

Mynick, H.E.; Hitchon, W.N.G.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.  

SciTech Connect

High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. We describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode, an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current and plans for an ERL based on these units.

BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CALAGA,R.; ET AL.

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

224

Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to...

225

Radiological Areas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Revision to Clearance Policy Associated with Recycle of Scrap Metals Originating from Revision to Clearance Policy Associated with Recycle of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological Areas On July 13, 2000, the Secretary of Energy imposed an agency-wide suspension on the unrestricted release of scrap metal originating from radiological areas at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the purpose of recycling. The suspension was imposed in response to concerns from the general public and industry groups about the potential effects of radioactivity in or on material released in accordance with requirements established in DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The suspension was to remain in force until DOE developed and implemented improvements in, and better informed the public about, its release process. In addition, in 2001 the DOE announced its intention to prepare a

226

Concentrating Solar Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

Not Available

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Information Leakage via Electromagnetic Emanation and Effectiveness of Averaging Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that there is relationship between electromagnetic emanation and processing information in IT devices such as personal computers and smart cards. In this paper, we show how to estimate amount of information that is leaked as electromagnetic ... Keywords: Tempest, Channel capacity, electromagnetic emanation, averaging technique

Hidema Tanaka

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Spatial analysis based on variance of moving window averages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R02 R04 R06 R08 R16 I n Window size B R02 R06 R10 R14 R20R04 R08 R12 R16 R24 R36 I n Window size Wu et al. , Fig. 2Based on Variance of Moving Window Averages B. M. Wu, K. V.

Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V; Ferrandino, F J; Hao, J J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Table WF01. Average Consumer Prices and Expenditures for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Heating Oil U.S. Average Consumption (gallons) 522.7 531.7 572.5 538.2 574.1 465.3 539.9 546.9 1.3 ... Wood 2,094 2,179 2,353 2,424 2,454 2,520 2,582 ...

231

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles 1 Adrian E. Raftery, Fadoua forecasting often exhibit a spread-skill relationship, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper of PDFs centered around the individual (possibly bias-corrected) forecasts, where the weights are equal

Washington at Seattle, University of

232

A Vertically Averaged Circulation Model Using Boundary-Fitted Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional vertically averaged circulation model using boundary-fitted coordinates has been developed for predicting sea level and currants in estuarine and shelf waters. The basic idea of the approach is to use a set of coupled quasi-...

Malcolm L. Spaulding

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 91.2 2006-2011 Commercial Average Price 12.77 14.29 11.83 10.47 10.42 10.21 1967-2012 Local Distribution Companies 11.29 NA...

234

Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

8.75 8.56 9.26 11.63 12.68 13.68 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 7.67 7.51 7.84 8.78 9.69 10.30...

235

District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Area: District of Columbia Florida Georgia Maryland Michigan New Jersey New York Ohio Pennsylvania Virginia Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History...

236

High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Terrestrial Concentrator PV Modules Based on GaInP/GaAs/Ge TJ Cells and Minilens Panels  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a description of research activity in the field of cost-effective modules realizing the concept of very high solar concentration with small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and multijunction III-V cells. Structural simplicity and 'all-glass' design are the guiding principles of the corresponding development. The advanced concentrator modules are made with silicone Fresnel lens panels (from 8 up to 144 lenses, each lens is 4 times 4 cm{sup 2} in aperture area) with composite structure. GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells with average efficiencies of 31.1 and 34.7% at 1000 suns were used for the modules. Conversion efficiency as high as 26.3% has been measured indoors in a test module using a newly developed large-area solar simulator.

Rumyantsev, V. D.; Sadchikov, N. A.; Chalov, A. E.; Ionova, E. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Glenn, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Nonlocal imaging by conditional averaging of random reference measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the nonlocal imaging of an object by conditional averaging of the random exposure frames of a reference detector, which only sees the freely propagating field from a thermal light source. A bucket detector, synchronized with the reference detector, records the intensity fluctuations of an identical beam passing through the object mask. These fluctuations are sorted according to their values relative to the mean, then the reference data in the corresponding time-bins for a given fluctuation range are averaged, to produce either positive or negative images. Since no correlation calculations are involved, this correspondence imaging technique challenges our former interpretations of "ghost" imaging. Compared with conventional correlation imaging or compressed sensing schemes, both the number of exposures and computation time are greatly reduced, while the visibility is much improved. A simple statistical model is presented to explain the phenomenon.

Kai-Hong Luo; Boqiang Huang; Wei-Mou Zheng; Ling-An Wu

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

239

Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 46 J/cm/sup 2/ for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Rainer, F.; Hildum, E.A.; Milam, D.

1987-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

240

Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Spatial ordered weighted averaging: incorporating spatially variable attitude towards risk in spatial multi-criteria decision-making  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper discusses a decomposition-analysis-aggregation approach to multi-criteria spatial decision-making and proposes a novel aggregation method applicable to problems of the object-location or suitability for application type, concentrating on methodological ... Keywords: Multi-criteria spatial decision support, Ordered weighted averaging, Spatially variable risk perception, Suitability evaluation

C. K. Makropoulos; D. Butler

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 78.29 77.25 102.62 77.88 105.14 -25.9 Canada* 81.61 80.70 110.67 81.30 112.16 -27.5 Dominican Republic 78.54 75.09 73.89 75.77 76.61 -1.1 Honduras - 54.58 54.43 54.58 54.43 0.3 Jamaica 480.00 54.43 - 54.72 55.42 -1.3 Mexico 73.45 75.81 94.36 74.35 100.95 -26.3 Other** 80.33 389.30 70.37 82.45 76.10 8.3 South America Total 107.72 108.02 149.99 107.88

243

Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 263.21 252.66 353.05 261.29 356.01 -26.6 Canada 263.51 252.66 353.05 258.82 356.01 -27.3 Panama 263.09 - - 263.09 - - South America Total 196.86 194.14 175.88 195.94 181.01 8.2 Brazil - - 157.60 - 157.60 - Colombia 196.86 194.14 322.06 195.94 246.68 -20.6 Europe Total 181.55 232.13 385.65 225.53 384.96 -41.4 Czech Republic - 475.91 - 475.91 - - Spain 360.51

244

Probability density function transformation using seeded localized averaging  

SciTech Connect

Seeded Localized Averaging (SLA) is a spectrum acquisition method that averages pulse-heights in dynamic windows. SLA sharpens peaks in the acquired spectra. This work investigates the transformation of the original probability density function (PDF) in the process of applying SLA procedure. We derive an analytical expression for the resulting probability density function after an application of SLA. In addition, we prove the following properties: 1) for symmetric distributions, SLA preserves both the mean and symmetry. 2) for uni-modal symmetric distributions, SLA reduces variance, sharpening the distributions peak. Our results are the first to prove these properties, reinforcing past experimental observations. Specifically, our results imply that in the typical case of a spectral peak with Gaussian PDF the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transformed peak becomes narrower even with averaging of only two pulse-heights. While the Gaussian shape is no longer preserved, our results include an analytical expression for the resulting distribution. Examples of the transformation of other PDFs are presented. (authors)

Dimitrov, N. B. [Operations Research Dept., Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Jordanov, V. T. [Yantel, LLC, Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 240.59 241.38 218.40 240.85 225.80 6.7 Canada* 147.49 330.47 243.04 183.08 286.56 -36.1 Mexico 316.57 211.63 189.12 273.97 171.71 59.6 Other** 612.42 485.63 134.48 525.92 135.04 289.5 South America Total 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Other** 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Europe Total 259.26 255.24 - 257.06 427.83 -39.9 Other**

246

Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm (2.55 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2011 is 47% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Automated vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 RWMS operational waste covers was not done during 2011 due to construction of the final evapotranspiration cover at these monitoring locations. Moisture from precipitation did not percolate below 122 centimeters (4 feet) in the vegetated final mono-layer cover on the U-3ax/bl disposal unit at the Area 3 RWMS before being removed by evapotranspiration. During 2011, there was no drainage through 2.4 meters (8 feet) of soil from the Area 3 drainage lysimeters that received only natural precipitation. Ten percent of the applied precipitation and irrigation drained from the bare-soil drainage lysimeter that received 3 times natural precipitation. All 2011 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility PAs.

NSTec Environmental Management

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mauna Loa Southwest Rift Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Well Field Information Development Area: Number of Production Wells: Number of Injection Wells: Number of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal...

248

Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period: Download ... 10.51: 9.64: 1967-2012: Local Distribution Companies : 10.72: 10.42 : 2006-2011: Marketers : 11.00: 10.53 : 2006-2011: Percent Sold by ...

249

Silicon concentrator solar cell research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work conducted between December 1990 and May 1992 continuing research on silicon concentrator solar cells. The objectives of the work were to improve the performance of high-efficiency cells upon p-type substrates, to investigate the ultraviolet stability of such cells, to develop concentrator cells based on n-type substrates, and to transfer technology to appropriate commercial environments. Key results include the identification of contact resistance between boron-defused areas and rear aluminum as the source of anomalously large series resistance in both p- and n-type cells. A major achievement of the present project was the successful transfer of cell technology to both Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Solarex Corporation.

Green, M.A.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Dai, X.; Milne, A.; Cai, S.; Aberle, A.; Wenham, S.R. [Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (AU). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Development of concentrator solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Data from the automated vadose zone monitoring system for the operational waste pit covers show that moisture from precipitation did not percolate below 90 centimeters (cm) (3 feet [ft]) before being removed by evaporation. Moisture from precipitation did not percolate below 61 cm (2 ft) in the vegetated final mono-layer cover on the U-3ax/bl disposal unit at the Area 3 RWMS before being removed by evapotranspiration. During 2010, there was no drainage through 2.4 meters (8 ft) of soil from the Area 3 drainage lysimeters that received only natural precipitation. Water drained from both the bare-soil drainage lysimeter and the invader species drainage lysimeter that received 3 times natural precipitation. All 2010 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility PAs.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market (Webinar) Focus Area: Solar Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.leonardo-energy.orgwebinar-drivers-and-barriers-current-csp-marke...

253

Concentration with uniform flux  

SciTech Connect

A modification of a parabolic cylinder concentrator is developed to procedure uniform flux. The controlling surface equation is given. A three-dimensional ray-trace technique is used to obtain the shape of the image at the focal plane of a thin slice of the mirror. Also, the concentration distribution for uniform flux is given. 1 references, 7 figures.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Average waiting time profiles of uniform DQDB model  

SciTech Connect

The Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) system consists of a linear arrangement of N nodes that communicate with each other using two contra-flowing buses; the nodes use an extremely simple protocol to send messages on these buses. This simple, but elegant, system has been found to be very challenging to analyze. We consider a simple and uniform abstraction of this model to highlight the fairness issues in terms of average waiting time. We introduce a new approximation method to analyze the performance of DQDB system in terms of the average waiting time of a node expressed as a function of its position. Our approach abstracts the intimate relationship between the load of the system and its fairness characteristics, and explains all basic behavior profiles of DQDB observed in previous simulation. For the uniform DQDB with equal distance between adjacent nodes, we show that the system operates under three basic behavior profiles and a finite number of their combinations that depend on the load of the network. Consequently, the system is not fair at any load in terms of the average waiting times. In the vicinity of a critical load of 1 {minus} 4/N, the uniform network runs into a state akin to chaos, where its behavior fluctuates from one extreme to the other with a load variation of 2/N. Our analysis is supported by simulation results. We also show that the main theme of the analysis carries over to the general (non-uniform) DQDB; by suitably choosing the inter-node distances, the DQDB can be made fair around some loads, but such system will become unfair as the load changes.

Rao, N.S.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maly, K.; Olariu, S.; Dharanikota, S.; Zhang, L.; Game, D. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

255

Status of Average-x from Lattice QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As algorithms and computing power have advanced, lattice QCD has become a precision technique for many QCD observables. However, the calculation of nucleon matrix elements remains an open challenge. I summarize the status of the lattice effort by examining one observable that has come to represent this challenge, average-x: the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by its quark constituents. Recent results confirm a long standing tendency to overshoot the experimentally measured value. Understanding this puzzle is essential to not only the lattice calculation of nucleon properties but also the broader effort to determine hadron structure from QCD.

Dru Renner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

A new hybrid for improvement of auto-regressive integrated moving average models applying particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A time series forecasting is an active research applied significantly in a variety of economics areas. Over the past three decades an auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, as one of the most important time series models, has been applied ... Keywords: ARIMA, Forecasting, PSOARIMA

Shahrokh Asadi; Akbar Tavakoli; Seyed Reza Hejazi

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 AEO 1996 1994 7.09 6.99 6.94 6.93 6.96 6.96 6.96 6.97 6.98 6.97 6.98 6.95 6.95 6.94 6.96 6.95 6.91 AEO 1997 1995 6.94 6.89 6.90 6.91 6.86 6.84 6.78 6.73 6.66 6.60 6.58 6.54 6.49 6.48 6.45 6.36

258

A high average power electro-optic switch using KTP  

SciTech Connect

High damage threshold, high thermal conductivity, and small thermo-optic coefficients make KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) an attractive material for use in a high average power Q-switch. However, electro-chromic damage and refractive index homogeneity have prevented the utilization of KTP in such a device in the past. This work shows that electro-chromic damage is effectively suppressed using capacitive coupling, and a KTP crystal can be Q-switched for 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} shots without any detectable electro-chromic damage. In addition, KTP with the high uniformity and large aperture size needed for a KTP electro-optic Q-switch can be obtained from flux crystals grown at constant temperature. A thermally compensated, dual crystal KTP Q-switch, which successfully produced 50 mJ pulses with a pulse width of 8 ns (FWHM), has been constructed. In addition, in off-line testing the Q-switch showed less than 7% depolarization at an average power loading of 3.2 kW/cm{sup 2}.

Ebbers, C.A.; Cook, W.M.; Velsko, S.P.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

[Global warming and the running average sunspot number  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported in your pages that the Bush administration`s views and actions regarding how or whether to react to possible global warming due to greenhouse gases have been influenced by the so-called Marshall report. This unrefereed report, released by the George C. Marshall Institute, had as its principal conclusion the finding that the 0.5{degree} C global warming of the last century was mostly due to solar variability and, thus, the greenhouse warming of the 21st century can be expected to be a relatively small l{degree} C or so. The authors support this finding by comparing the 33-year running average sunspot number with the trend in annual average global temperature and noting the parallel between the two, especially during the 1940s--1960s when the temperature trend was downward. Subsequent letters to Science debated the merits of this and other conclusions contained in the report. I now present additional technical evidence which shows that, quite aside from the question of whether the data presented in the report support its conclusions, the actual figure on which the above conclusion is based is in error.

Fernau, M.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

Marek A. Szalek

2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Calculations of nonspherically averaged charge densities for subtitutionally disordered alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on screening transformations of muffin-tin orbitals introduced by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2571 (1984)], we have developed a formalism for calculating the non-spherically averaged charge densities of substitutionally disordered alloys using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR CPA) method in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). We have validated our method by calculating charge densities for ordered structures, where we find that our approach yields charge densities that are essentially indistinguishable from the results of full-potential methods. For substitutionally disordered alloys, where full-potential methods have not been implemented so far, our approach can be used to calculate reliable non-spherically averaged charge densities from spherically symmetric one-electron potentials obtained from the KKR-ASA CPA. We report on our study of differences in charge denisty between ordered AlLi in L1{sub o} phase and substitutionally disordered Al{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.5} on face-centered cubic lattice.

Singh, P.P.; Gonis, A.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Automated vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers show no evidence of precipitation percolating through the cover to the waste. Moisture from precipitation did not percolate below 60 centimeters (cm) (2 feet [ft]) in the vegetated final cover on the U-3ax/bl disposal unit at the Area 3 RWMS, and moisture from precipitation and irrigation did not percolate below 45 cm (1.5 ft) on the 92-Acre Area final cover. Irrigation was applied to this cover for seed germination and plant growth. During 2012, there was no drainage through 2.4 meters (8 ft) of soil from the Area 3 drainage lysimeters that received only natural precipitation. Twenty percent of the applied precipitation and irrigation drained from the bare-soil drainage lysimeter that received 3 times natural precipitation. All 2012 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility PAs.

Hudson, David B.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

263

PET imaging of thin objects: measuring the effects of positron range and partial-volume averaging in the leag of Nicotiana Tabacum  

SciTech Connect

PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean {+-} S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59 {+-} 1.1%, 64 {+-} 4.4% and 67 {+-} 1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.

Alexoff, D.L.; Alexoff, D.L.; Dewey, S.L.; Vaska, P.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Ferrieri, R.; Schueller, M.; Schlyer, D.; Fowler, J.S.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Organic photovoltaics and concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

Mapel, Jonathan King

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Concentrator-quality evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of a reflecting solar concentrator depends, of course, on its surface reflectance, but there are other important factors. Among these are sun-tracking errors, surface-slope errors, and surface irregularities. It is appropriate to use statistics to describe and analyze these non-deterministic factors. A scheme for specifying the quality of a solar concentrator that includes all these effects is described and illustrated. It is believed that this procedure is optimum in the sense that it requires a minimum of measurements to obtain a complete enough description of a concentrator to determine its optical performance under any operating geometry. The specification scheme is, therefore, suitable for use in general systems analysis studies involving solar concentrators.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Joined concentric tubes  

SciTech Connect

Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

relative humidity GIS data at relative humidity GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of

268

Network-based consensus averaging with general noisy channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the consensus averaging problem on graphs under general noisy channels. We study a particular class of distributed consensus algorithms based on damped updates, and using the ordinary differential equation method, we prove that the updates converge almost surely to exact consensus for finite variance noise. Our analysis applies to various types of stochastic disturbances, including errors in parameters, transmission noise, and quantization noise. Under a suitable stability condition, we prove that the error is asymptotically Gaussian, and we show how the asymptotic covariance is specified by the graph Laplacian. For additive parameter noise, we show how the scaling of the asymptotic MSE is controlled by the spectral gap of the Laplacian.

Rajagopal, Ram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Areally averaged estimates of surface heat flux from ARM field studies  

SciTech Connect

The determination of areally averaged surface fluxes is a problem of fundamental interest to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites central to the ARM program will provide high-quality data for input to and verification of General Circulation Models (GCMs). The extension of several point measurements of surface fluxes within the heterogeneous CART sites to an accurate representation of the areally averaged surface fluxes is not straightforward. Two field studies designed to investigate these problems, implemented by ARM science team members, took place near Boardman, Oregon, during June of 1991 and 1992. The site was chosen to provide strong contrasts in surface moisture while minimizing the differences in topography. The region consists of a substantial dry steppe (desert) upwind of an extensive area of heavily irrigated farm land, 15 km in width and divided into 800-m-diameter circular fields in a close packed array, in which wheat, alfalfa, corn, or potatoes were grown. This region provides marked contrasts, not only on the scale of farm-desert (10--20 km) but also within the farm (0.1--1 km), because different crops transpire at different rates, and the pivoting irrigation arms provide an ever-changing pattern of heavy surface moisture throughout the farm area. This paper primarily discusses results from the 1992 field study.

Coulter, R.L.; Martin, T.J.; Cook, D.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Relationships among Remotely Sensed Data, Surface Energy Balance, and Area-Averaged Fluxes over Partially Vegetated Land Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous recent field experiments have examined the use of remote sensing to estimate land surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat using combinations of thermal, visible, and near-infrared data. While substantial progress has been made, ...

M. A. Friedl

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Simple Parcel Method for Prediction of Cumulus Onset and Area-Averaged Cloud Amount over Heterogeneous Land Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this note is to compare several methods for predicting the onset and quantitative amount of cloud cover over heterogeneous land surfaces. Among the methods tested are that of Wilde et al. (1985) and a new, simple parcel approach. ...

Peter J. Wetzel

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Table 15. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual (nominal cents per kilowatt-hour) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 6.38 6.96 7.63 8.23 8.83 9.49 AEO 1983 6.85 7.28 7.74 8.22 8.68 9.18 13.12 AEO 1984 6.67 7.05 7.48 7.89 8.25 8.65 11.53 AEO 1985 6.62 6.94 7.32 7.63 7.89 8.15 8.46 8.85 9.20 9.61 10.04 AEO 1986 6.67 6.88 7.05 7.18 7.35 7.52 7.65 7.87 8.31 8.83 9.41 10.01 10.61 11.33 12.02 AEO 1987 6.63 6.65 6.92 7.12 7.38 7.62 7.94 8.36 8.86 11.99 AEO 1989* 6.50 6.75 7.14 7.48 7.82 8.11 8.50 8.91 9.39 9.91 10.49 11.05 11.61 AEO 1990 6.49 6.72 8.40 10.99 14.5 AEO 1991 6.94 7.31 7.59 7.82 8.18 8.38 8.54 8.73 8.99 9.38 9.83 10.29 10.83 11.36 11.94 12.58 13.21 13.88 14.58 15.21 AEO 1992 6.97 7.16 7.32 7.56 7.78 8.04 8.29 8.57 8.93 9.38 9.82 10.26 10.73 11.25 11.83 12.37 12.96 13.58 14.23 AEO 1993

274

Photovoltaic solar concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

275

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concentration concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol concentration A measure of the amount of aerosol particles (e.g. number, mass, volume) per unit volume of air. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

276

Climate: monthly and annual average atmospheric pressure GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric pressure GIS data at atmospheric pressure GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

277

Plate with a hole obeys the averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The negative energy density of Casimir systems appears to violate general relativity energy conditions. However, one cannot test the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) using standard calculations for perfectly reflecting plates, because the null geodesic would have to pass through the plates, where the calculation breaks down. To avoid this problem, we compute the contribution to ANEC for a geodesic that passes through a hole in a single plate. We consider both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in two and three space dimensions. We use a Babinet's principle argument to reduce the problem to a complementary finite disk correction to the perfect mirror result, which we then compute using scattering theory in elliptical and spheroidal coordinates. In the Dirichlet case, we find that the positive correction due to the hole overwhelms the negative contribution of the infinite plate. In the Neumann case, where the infinite plate gives a positive contribution, the hole contribution is smaller in magnitude, so again ANEC is obeyed. These results can be extended to the case of two plates in the limits of large and small hole radii. This system thus provides another example of a situation where ANEC turns out to be obeyed when one might expect it to be violated.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Price of U.S. Coal Imports Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 147.86 138.39 191.01 144.86 197.96 -26.8 Canada 147.86 138.39 191.00 144.86 197.95 -26.8 Mexico - - 286.23 - 286.23 - South America Total 75.29 80.74 86.52 77.20 87.17 -11.4 Argentina - - 504.70 - 504.70 - Colombia 74.87 80.74 83.03 76.96 85.25 -9.7 Peru 87.09 - - 87.09 - - Venezuela 91.81 - 122.01 91.81 112.61 -18.5 Europe Total - 136.50 137.33 136.50 146.31 -6.7

279

A compound parabolic concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) for solar energy applications is presented in this work. A prototype was built and its thermal performance was determined. Operating temperatures of the order of 150 /sup 0/C with a reasonable efficiency can be attained by means of a fixed CPC.

Manrique, J.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

map at 40km resolution for map at 40km resolution for Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency

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281

2012 Brief: Average 2012 crude oil prices remain near 2011 levels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Brent crude oil averaged $111.67 per barrel, slightly above the 2011 average of $111.26. West Texas Intermediate oil averaged $94.05 per barrel in 2012, ...

282

Concentrating Solar Thermal Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After nearly 20 years of commercial dormancy, concentrating solar thermal (CST) power development and investment activity is heating up globally. Encouraged by volatile energy prices, carbon markets, and renewable-friendly policies, an increasing number of established companies, newcomers, utilities, and government agencies are planning to deploy CST systems to tap the technologies' improving conversion efficiencies and low-cost electricity production potential. This renewable energy technology perspecti...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in four years  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in four years The average U.S. household is expected to pay $395 for electricity this summer. That's down 2.5% from last year and the lowest residential summer power bill in four years, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Lower electricity use to meet cooling demand this summer because of forecasted milder temperatures compared with last summer is expected to more than offset higher electricity prices. The result is lower power bills for most U.S. households during the June, July, and August period. However electricity use and prices vary by region. EIA expects residential power bills will be lower in all areas of the country... except for the West South Central region, which includes

284

High average power CW FELs (Free Electron Laser) for application to plasma heating: Designs and experiments  

SciTech Connect

A short period wiggler (period {approximately} 1 cm), sheet beam FEL has been proposed as a low-cost source of high average power (1 MW) millimeter-wave radiation for plasma heating and space-based radar applications. Recent calculation and experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this concept in such critical areas as rf wall heating, intercepted beam ( body'') current, and high voltage (0.5 - 1 MV) sheet beam generation and propagation. Results of preliminary low-gain sheet beam FEL oscillator experiments using a field emission diode and pulse line accelerator have verified that lasing occurs at the predicted FEL frequency. Measured start oscillation currents also appear consistent with theoretical estimates. Finally, we consider the possibilities of using a short-period, superconducting planar wiggler for improved beam confinement, as well as access to the high gain, strong pump Compton regime with its potential for highly efficient FEL operation.

Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bidwell, S.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Zhang, Z.X. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Lab. for Plasma Research); Freund, H.P. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant biochemistry using Bayesian model averaging with variable and band selection  

SciTech Connect

Model specification remains challenging in spectroscopy of plant biochemistry, as exemplified by the availability of various spectral indices or band combinations for estimating the same biochemical. This lack of consensus in model choice across applications argues for a paradigm shift in hyperspectral methods to address model uncertainty and misspecification. We demonstrated one such method using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which performs variable/band selection and quantifies the relative merits of many candidate models to synthesize a weighted average model with improved predictive performances. The utility of BMA was examined using a portfolio of 27 foliage spectralchemical datasets representing over 80 species across the globe to estimate multiple biochemical properties, including nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, cellulose, lignin, chlorophyll (a or b), carotenoid, polar and nonpolar extractives, leaf mass per area, and equivalent water thickness. We also compared BMA with partial least squares (PLS) and stepwise multiple regression (SMR). Results showed that all the biochemicals except carotenoid were accurately estimated from hyerspectral data with R2 values > 0.80.

Zhao, Kaiguang; Valle, Denis; Popescu, Sorin; Zhang, Xuesong; Malick, Bani

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Percent) (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 1.43 1.38 1.41 1.43 1.47 1.42 1985-2013 PADD 1 0.75 0.73 0.69 0.68 0.73 0.68 1985-2013 East Coast 0.67 0.66 0.61 0.63 0.66 0.57 1985-2013 Appalachian No. 1 2.0 1.72 1.52 1.40 1.55 1.74 1985-2013 PADD 2 1.42 1.34 1.44 1.46 1.61 1.49 1985-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1.45 1.36 1.47 1.56 1.75 1.67 1985-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 2.33 2.11 2.18 2.03 2.01 1.69 1985-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo. 0.89 0.89 0.92 0.82 0.87 0.85 1985-2013 PADD 3 1.54 1.48 1.51 1.52 1.54 1.48 1985-2013

287

METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.

Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.

1960-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Vapor concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

Bayly, John G. (Deep River, CA); Booth, Ronald J. (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Trace metal contamination of waters, sediments, and organisms of the Swan Lake area of Galveston Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Swan Lake is a sub-bay of the Galveston Bay system. The area received runoff from a tin smelter via the Wah Chang Ditch which ran through it in the past but the ditch is now cut off by a hurricane protection levee. An industrial waste disposal facility (Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority) is located north of the Wah Chang Ditch. Consequently there have been concerns about possible metal contamination in this area. I determined trace metal concentrations in water, sediments, and organisms (oyster, mussel, snail, crab, fish, shrimp, and spartina) in the area. Sediments and organisms were analyzed for total Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, and Zn. Water samples were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Sn. The variabilities and geographic trends in sediment trace metals indicated that waste disposal and airborne inputs from facilities located at the Tex Tin site were likely sources for metal pollution found in the sediments. Sediments in the study area showed elevated trace metals relative to Galveston Bay and other Texas bay sediments. Three different samplings of the Wah Chang Ditch showed no temporal patterns in metal distribution in the sediments. Lead especially was uniformly high on the three different trips, respectively averaging 1250 (Trip 1), 893 (Trip H), and 1350 ppm (Trip V). Metal enrichments at depth in the sediment column indicated that the Swan Lake area has recently received less input of metal contaminated sediment than in the past. Anthropogenic inputs did not greatly influence the natural concentrations of Fe, Al, and Ni in sediments either in the past or at present. Most organisms showed very small spatial variations. However, the oysters in Swan Lake are enriched in most metals relative to Galveston Bay and other U. S. Gulf of Mexico oysters. The mussels in this study do not reflect the unusually elevated environmental metal concentration in the sediments from which they were taken. Iron and Pb concentrations in oysters seemed to be directly related to sediment concentrations at each location. Oysters show higher concentrations in most metals than those in mussels. The Zn level was II 3 times higher in oysters. For organisms collected from the Swan Lake area trace metal concentrations were generally in the order oysters > snail > crab > shrimp > fish. Metal concentrations in Wah Chang Ditch water were very elevated relative to those of the Brazos River and Galveston Bay and closely reflect those in sediments of the Wah Chang Ditch.

Park, Junesoo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

292

Universal solar concentrator panel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar concentrator device. It comprises: a solar energy receiver; and a flat solar energy reflector arranged to reflect solar energy to the receiver, the reflector including a substantially square-shaped frame limiting an inner space, individual flat reflective panels arranged in the space in a first group or rows extending in a first direction and a second group of rows extending in a second direction substantially transverse to the first direction and so that each of the panels is turnable about three mutually perpendicular axes, and means for mounting the panels so that they are turnable about the axes. The mounting means including first means which connect the panels in the rows extending in one of the directions so that the panels in each of the rows extending in the one direction are jointly turnable about a first one of the axes, second means for mounting each of the panels so that in each of the rows extending in the one direction each of the panels is turnable about a second one of the axes, and third means for mounting each panel in each of the rows extending in the one direction so that each of the panels is turnable about a third one of the axes. This patent also describes a solar concentrator device, wherein the receiver includes a box forming an inner chamber, a plurality of photovoltaic cells sealed with a clear plastic and accommodated in the chamber, and water filling the chamber and surrounding the photovoltaic cells.

Bagno, R.G.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

Hinterberger, Henry (Batavia, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and States" "East North Central",17.9,2251,1869,1281,892,741,508 "Illinois",4.8,2186,1911,1451,860,752,571 "Michigan",3.8,1954,1559,962,729,582,359 "Wisconsin",2.3,2605,2091,1258,1105,887,534

295

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States" "Mountain",7.9,1928,1695,1105,723,635,415 "Mountain North",3.9,2107,1858,912,776,684,336 "Colorado",1.9,2082,1832,722,896,788,311 "Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming",2,2130,1883,1093,691,610,354

296

Design package for concentrating solar collector panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The Northrup concentrating solar collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, fiber glass insulation and weighs 98 pounds. The gross collector area is about 29.4/sup 2/ per collector. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: March 22, 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on AddThis.com... Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip

298

Photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, C.J.

1991-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Application of compound parabolic concentrators to solar photovoltaic conversion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final results of an analytical and experimental study of the application of nonimaging concentrators to solar photovoltaic conversion are presented. Two versions of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) were considered, the Dielectric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (DCPC) in which the concentrator is filled with a dielectric material that satisfies requirements for Total Internal Reflection (TIR), and a conventional CPC in which metallic reflection is used for the mirror surfaces. Two working prototype panels were constructed and tested during the course of the program. The first was a 1.22 m by 1.22 m DCPC panel that requires only ten adjustments/year, has a panel utilization factor (packing factor) of 96%, and delivered the equivalent of 138 W (peak) under 1 kW/m/sup 2/ direct insolation. The net energy conversion efficiency was 10.3% over the entire panel area. The second panel was a conventional CPC panel measuring 1.22 m by 1.22 m. This panel requires thirty-six adjustments per year, and delivers the equivalent of 97 W when under 1 kW/m/sup 2/ direct insolation. The results of a cost-effectiveness analysis of the concept of using nonimaging concentrators for photovoltaic conversion are also presented. The concentrator panels showed a decided savings in comparison to the cost of flat plate photovoltaic panels, both at present-day silicon costs ($2000/m/sup 2/) and projected lower silicon costs ($200/m/sup 2/). At a silicon cost of $200/m/sup 2/, a two-dimensional (cone) version of the collector has the potential for achieving from $0.60-2.00 per average watt (about $0.15-0.50 per peak watt) while requiring only crude (+-4.5/sup 0/) tracking.

Cole, R.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Graven, R.M.; McIntire, W.R.; Schertz, W.W.; Winston, R.; Zwerdling, S.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Focus Areas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mission » Focus Areas Mission » Focus Areas Focus Areas Safety With this focus on cleanup completion and risk reducing results, safety still remains the utmost priority. EM will continue to maintain and demand the highest safety performance. All workers deserve to go home as healthy as they were when they came to the job in the morning. There is no schedule or milestone worth any injury to the work force. Project Management EM is increasing its concentration on project management to improve its overall performance toward cost-effective risk reduction. This will involve review of validated project baselines, schedules, and assumptions about effective identification and management of risks. Instrumental in refining the technical and business approaches to project management are the senior

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Autoregressive forecast of monthly total ozone concentration: A neurocomputing approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study endeavors to generate autoregressive neural network (AR-NN) models to forecast the monthly total ozone concentration over Kolkata (22^o34', 88^o22'), India. The issues associated with the applicability of neural network to geophysical ... Keywords: Autoregressive moving average, Autoregressive neural network, Monthly total ozone, Predictive model

Goutami Chattopadhyay; Surajit Chattopadhyay

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: April 28, 5: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on AddThis.com... Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices The American Automobile Association tracks gasoline and diesel prices

304

Calibrating Multimodel Forecast Ensembles with Exchangeable and Missing Members Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical postprocessing technique that generates calibrated and sharp predictive probability density functions (PDFs) from forecast ensembles. It represents the predictive PDF as a weighted average of PDFs ...

Chris Fraley; Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's...

306

Average Predictability Time. Part II: Seamless Diagnoses of Predictability on Multiple Time Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new method for diagnosing predictability on multiple time scales without time averaging. The method finds components that maximize the average predictability time (APT) of a system, where APT is defined as the integral of ...

Timothy DelSole; Michael K. Tippett

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

What was the highest U.S. average retail price of regular ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

What was the highest U.S. average retail price of regular gasoline? According to EIAs weekly survey, the U.S. average retail price of regular ...

308

From Short-Scale Atmospheric Variability to Global Climate Dynamics: Toward a Systematic Theory of Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditionally, climate is defined by the properties of the averages of the meteorological fields over an appropriate time interval. In this paper the properties of the time-averaged observables of a red noise atmosphere and of a simplified model ...

C. Nicolis; G. Nicolis

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

2012 Brief: Average 2012 crude oil prices remain near 2011 levels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average crude oil prices in 2012 were at historically high levels for the second year in a row. Brent crude oil averaged $111.67 per barrel, slightly above the 2011 ...

310

What is the average heat content of U.S. coal? - FAQ - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

What is the average heat content of U.S. coal? In 2012, the average heat content of coal produced in the United States was about 20.14 million ...

311

KOLMOGOROV THEORY VIA FINITE-TIME AVERAGES C. FOIAS1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]) or through a mathematically esoteric notion of generalized limit (see e.g. [2, 17]). In any Date: October 3-time averages without resorting to any esoteric relation with ensemble av- erages. Finite-time averages have

Rosa, Ricardo M. S.

312

Leffler's Method of Estimating Average Temperatures of Appalachian Summits: Evaluation in New York  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R. J. Leffler recently presented regression equations to estimate average monthly temperatures of Appalachian summits based on the long-term average temperatures on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, and temperature lapse rates as a function of ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Smart Interpolation of Annually Averaged Air Temperature in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two smart interpolation procedures are presented and assessed with respect to their ability to estimate annual-average air temperatures at unsampled points in space from available station averages. Smart approaches examined here improve upon ...

Cort J. Willmott; Kenji Matsuura

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1: April 18, 1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on AddThis.com... Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major

315

Airborne concentrations of asbestos in 71 school buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of 473 air samples from 71 schools scheduled for abatement (328 indoor static samples, 51 personal samples, and 94 outdoor samples) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy techniques. Six measures of asbestos-in-air concentration were considered: (1) total asbestos structures per cubic centimeter: (2) chrysotile structures per cubic centimeter; (3) amphibole structures per cubic centimeter; (4) structures per cubic centimeter at least 0.5 micron long and at least five times wide; (5) structures per cubic centimeter at least 5 microns long; and (6) structures per cubic centimeter at least 5 microns long and at least 0.2 micron wide. The average concentration of chrysotile structures in indoor air samples was 0.017 structures/cm{sup 3}; the average concentration of amphibole structures was 0.0015 structure/cm{sup 3}. Ninety-five percent of structures found were chrysotile. The average concentrations of all structures were significantly higher indoors than outdoors (P less than 0.001). The average concentration of structures more than 5 microns long indoors was 0.00023 structure/cm{sup 3}. None of the following factors were significantly correlated with asbestos concentrations in air: type of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) present, condition of ACM, accessibility of ACM to students, whether ACM were covered, air flow, or whether sweeping was noted during sample collection. In addition, asbestos-in-air concentrations were not significantly different in different types of schools (high, intermediate or elementary) or in schools constructed in different time periods. Lastly, there was no correlation between the mineral type of asbestos found in the air and the type found in samples of bulk material.

Corn, M.; Crump, K.; Farrar, D.B.; Lee, R.J.; McFee, D.R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Strategic Focus Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Focus Areas Lockheed Martin on behalf of Sandia National Laboratories will consider grant requests that best support the Corporation's strategic focus areas and reflect effective...

317

Table US14. Average Consumption by Energy End Uses, 2005 Million ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

318

Markets for concentrating solar power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report describes the markets for concentrating solar power. As concentrating solar power technologies advance into the early stages of commercialization, their economic potential becomes more sharply defined and increasingly tangible.

Not Available

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors that track the sun. The cooling towers can be seen with the water plume rising into the air, and white water tanks are in the background. Credit: Sandia National Laboratory / PIX 14955 Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear

320

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Southwest Concentrating Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Photos of various concentrating solar power systems. NREL, working through SunLab, supports the U.S. Department of Energy's goal to install 1,000 megawatts (MW) of new concentrating solar power systems in the southwestern United States by 2010. This level of deployment, combined with research and development to reduce technology component costs, could help reduce concentrating solar power electricity costs to $0.07/kilowatt-hour. At this cost, concentrating solar power can compete effectively in the Southwest's energy markets. To achieve the Initiative's goal, the U.S. Department of Energy is partnering with the Western Governors' Association to encourage concentrating solar power installations in Arizona, California, Colorado,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy Basics: Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

322

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

323

Fundamental Limits to Position Determination by Concentration Gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Position determination in biological systems is often achieved through protein concentration gradients. Measuring the local concentration of such a protein with a spatially-varying distribution allows the measurement of position within the system. In order for these systems to work effectively, position determination must be robust to noise. Here, we calculate fundamental limits to the precision of position determination by concentration gradients due to unavoidable biochemical noise perturbing the gradients. We focus on gradient proteins with first order reaction kinetics. Systems of this type have been experimentally characterised in both developmental and cell biology settings. For a single gradient we show that, through time-averaging, great precision can potentially be achieved even with very low protein copy numbers. As a second example, we investigate the ability of a system with oppositely directed gradients to find its centre. With this mechanism, positional precision close to the centre improves more slowly with increasing averaging time, and so longer averaging times or higher copy numbers are required for high precision. For both single and double gradients, we demonstrate the existence of optimal length scales for the gradients, where precision is maximized, as well as analyzing how precision depends on the size of the concentration measuring apparatus. Our results provide fundamental constraints on the positional precision supplied by concentration gradients in various contexts, including both in developmental biology and also within a single cell.

Filipe Tostevin; Pieter Rein ten Wolde; Martin Howard

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

324

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and States" "South Atlantic",22.2,1944,1687,1596,771,668,633 "Virginia",3,2227,1977,1802,855,759,692 "Georgia",3.5,2304,1983,1906,855,736,707 "Florida",7,1668,1432,1509,690,593,625 "DC, DE, MD, WV",3.4,2218,1831,1440,864,713,561

325

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census Region" "Northeast",12.7,2843,2150,1237,1009,763,439 "Midwest",19.2,2721,2249,1664,1019,842,624 "South",29.7,2232,1945,1843,828,722,684 "West",16.9,2100,1712,1009,725,591,348 "Urban and Rural3"

326

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and States" "New England",5.5,2232,1680,625,903,680,253 "Massachusetts",2.5,2076,1556,676,850,637,277 "CT, ME, NH, RI, VT",3,2360,1781,583,946,714,234 "Mid-Atlantic",15.3,2080,1657,1028,813,647,402

327

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region" "Northeast",0.5,1030,968,711,524,492,362 "Midwest",1.1,1090,1069,595,400,392,218 "South",3.9,1128,1008,894,423,378,335 "West",1.4,995,867,466,369,322,173 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",3.5,1002,919,684,396,364,271

328

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region" "Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",88.1,1857,1546,1148,728,607,450

329

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region" "Northeast",7.6,991,897,408,471,426,194 "Midwest",5.6,957,857,518,521,466,282 "South",8.4,924,846,819,462,423,410 "West",6.5,843,606,329,374,269,146 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",26.9,927,803,531,450,390,258

330

Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: May 10, 2010 2: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on AddThis.com...

332

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9: June 3, 2002 9: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on AddThis.com... Fact #219: June 3, 2002

333

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: March 22, 2: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on AddThis.com...

334

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: May 21, 2012 8: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on AddThis.com...

335

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: May 26, 2008 0: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on AddThis.com... Fact #520: May 26, 2008

336

THE CONCENTRATION AND ACCUMULATION OF RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHORUS BY AN AQUATIC FOOD CHAIN  

SciTech Connect

The food chain consisted of green algae, Ankistrodesmus falcatus var acicularis (A. Br.) West; microcurstaceans, Daphnia magna Straus; and Green Sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque. Differences in concentration and accumulation of radioactive phosphorus due to variations in temperature, radioactive and non-radioactive phosphorus content, and combination of organisms were determined. The average accumulation by all Daphnia at 25 deg C was 2.0 times that at 10 deg C. The Concentration Factor was 1.8 times the 10 deg C value at 25 deg C. The accumulation value for algae at 25 deg C was 2.1 times that at 10 deg C while the Concentration Factor was 3.1 times greater. The data indicate that the presence of algae provided a small increase in the amount of available phosphorus for Daphnia in the first 24 hours. However, over longer periods of time the algae apparently directly and/or indirectly reduced the amount of available phosphorus. The accumulation values for algae ranged from 0.2 to 1937 mu c/gm, and for Daphnia from 0.85 to 574 mu c/gm. The Concentration Factors for algae ranged from 136 to 626,976 and from 286 to 1,002,926 for Daphnia. The data indicate that the amount of P/sup 32/ accumulated and concentrated by Daphnia may be influenced by the surface area available for adsorption of phosphorus. An increase in the number of algae cells increased the surface on which bacteria could grow. It was noted that Green Sunfish acquired the most radioactive phosphorus from a diet of Daphnia and algae, less from Daphnia alone, still less from a diet of algae alone, and none from a non-algae, non-Daphnia diet. It appears that direct and indirect interspeciftc competition may have occurred for phosphorus within the food chain. (auth)

Hoffman, D.A.

1962-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Planar micro-optic solar concentration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as compound parabolic concentrators and nonimagingas kaleidoscopes or compound parabolic concentrators whicha variation of the compound parabolic concentrator, however,

Karp, Jason Harris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power video. The video opens with the words "Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power." OK. Take the natural heat from the sun, reflect it against a mirror, focus all of that heat on one area, send it through a power system, and you've got a renewable way of making electricity. It's called concentrating solar power, or CSP. Caption: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP): Focuses the sun's heat to make steam and electricity. Now, there are many types of CSP technologies. Towers, dishes, linear mirrors, and troughs. The video goes through a quick panorama of several different types, and several different views, of all of the different types of CSP. Finally, it

339

Energy Basics: Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar...

340

Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian Model, a Two-Dimensional Model and a Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2) for regulatory purposes such as planning for emergencies and cost-benefit analyses. MACCS2 uses a straight-line Gaussian model for atmospheric transport and dispersion. This model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, although only expected values of metrics of interest are used in the regulatory arena. To test the assumption that averaging numerous weather results adequately compensates for the loss of structure in the meteorology that occurs away from the point of release, average MACCS2 results have been compared with average results from a state-of-the-art, 3-dimensional LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator)/ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Technique) and a Lagrangian trajectory, Gaussian puff transport and dispersion model from RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). The weather sample included 610 weather trials representing conditions for a hypothetical release at the Central Facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. The values compared were average ground concentrations and average surface-level air concentrations at several distances out to 100 miles (160.9 km) from the assumed release site.

Mitchell, J A; Molenkamp, C R; Bixler, N E; Morrow, C W; Ramsdell, Jr., J V

2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that

342

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3: November 11, 3: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803:

343

Optimal Thresholds for the Estimation of Area Rain-Rate Moments by the Threshold Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the threshold method, achieved by determination of the threshold that maximizes the correlation between an area-average rain-rate moment and the area coverage of rain rates exceeding the threshold, is demonstrated empirically and ...

David A. Short; Kunio Shimizu; Benjamin Kedem

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Division/ Interest Area Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Learn more about Divisions and Interest areas. Division/ Interest Area Information Membership Information achievement application award Awards distinguished division Divisions fats job Join lipid lipids Member member get a member Membership memori

345

ARM - Measurement - CO2 concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

: CO2 concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is...

346

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity...

347

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation andor concentration of aerosols and small liquidsolid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in...

348

Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Table 35. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration / Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000 353 35. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U.S. Electric ...

350

Averages of B-Hadron Properties at the End of 2005  

SciTech Connect

This article reports world averages for measurements on b-hadron properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using the available results as of at the end of 2005. In the averaging, the input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and all known correlations are taken into account. The averages include lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays, branching fractions of B decays to final states with open charm, charmonium and no charm, and measurements related to CP asymmetries.

Barberio, E.; /Melbourne U.; Bizjak, I.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Blyth, S.; /CERN; Cavoto, G.; /Rome U.; Chang, P.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Dingfelder, J.; /SLAC; Eidelman, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Gershon, T.; /WARWICK U.; Godang, R.; /Mississippi U.; Harr, R.; /Wayne State U.; Hocker, A; /CERN; Iijima, T.; /Nagoya U.; Kowalewski, R.; /Victoria U.; Lehner, F.; /Fermilab; Limosani, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Lin, C.-J.; /Fermilab; Long, O.; /UC, Riverside; Luth, V.; /SLAC; Morii, M.; /Harvard U.; Prell, S.; /Iowa State U.; Schneider, O.; /LPHE, Lausanne /Colorado U. /Orsay, LAL /Genoa U. /Hawaii U. /Indiana U. /Rome U. /Karlsruhe U.

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

351

U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Administration. That's 6 cents less than last summer's average pump price. Cheaper motor fuel reflects lower crude oil prices, which account for about 65 percent of what...

352

Table AP5. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table AP5. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units per Household U.S. Households (millions) Fuels Used

353

Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Million British Thermal Units (Btu) per Household

354

Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Dollars per Household Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment

355

Table SH9. Average Expenditures for Space Heating by Main Space ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

356

Table AC9. Average Cooled Floorspace by Equipment Type, 2005 Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

357

Figure 10. U.S. Average Retail Regular Motor Gasoline and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Average Retail Regular Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices, January 2013 to Present ... Including Taxes) Title: Weekly Petroleum ...

358

Table AP6. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas LPG Total Refrigerators Other Appliances and Lighting Table AP6. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by Fuels Used, 2005

359

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

360

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

362

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects Projects NREL's concentrating solar power (CSP) projects focus on components R&D and systems analysis related to power tower and parabolic trough technologies. We support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its CSP deployment efforts in the following areas: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. NREL received funding from DOE for concentrating solar power research projects. Through a competitive process, NREL was selected to lead the following projects: Novel Components to Overcome Existing Barriers-Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed Thermodynamic Cycle to Revolutionize CSP Systems-10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (s-CO2) Turbine Test Nanomaterials for thermal energy storage in CSP plants In addition to these efforts, NREL is also a key partner on two other

363

Concentrating Solar Power: Energy from Mirrors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mirror mirror on the wall, what's the Mirror mirror on the wall, what's the greatest energy source of all? The sun. Enough energy from the sun falls on the Earth everyday to power our homes and businesses for almost 30 years. Yet we've only just begun to tap its potential. You may have heard about solar electric power to light homes or solar thermal power used to heat water, but did you know there is such a thing as solar thermal-electric power? Electric utility companies are using mirrors to concentrate heat from the sun to produce environmentally friendly electricity for cities, especially in the southwestern United States. The southwestern United States is focus- ing on concentrating solar energy because it's one of the world's best areas for sun- light. The Southwest receives up to twice the sunlight as other regions in the coun-

364

DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors October 2, 2007 DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...

365

DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National Interest Electric...

366

Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region MW K Coso Geothermal Area Coso Geothermal Area Walker Lane...

367

Process for concentrated biomass saccharification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

368

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ...

369

The Tidally Averaged Momentum Balance in a Partially and Periodically Stratified Estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of turbulent stresses and mean velocities over an entire springneap cycle are used to evaluate the dynamics of tidally averaged flows in a partially stratified estuarine channel. In a depth-averaged sense, the net flow in this ...

Mark T. Stacey; Matthew L. Brennan; Jon R. Burau; Stephen G. Monismith

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A Technique to Reduce Peak Current and Average Power Dissipation in Scan Designs by Limited Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a technique that can efficiently reduce peak and average switching activity during test application is proposed. The proposed method does not require any specific clock tree construction, special scan cells, or scan chain reordering. Test ... Keywords: ATPG, peak current reduction, average power dissipation, scan designs, clock tree construction, special scan cells, scan chain reordering

Seongmoon Wang; Wenlong Wei

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

MARD-A moving average rose diagram application for the geosciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MARD 1.0 is a computer program for generating smoothed rose diagrams by using a moving average, which is designed for use across the wide range of disciplines encompassed within the Earth Sciences. Available in MATLAB^(R), Microsoft^(R) Excel and GNU ... Keywords: Circular statistics, MATLAB, Microsoft Excel, Moving average, Rose diagram, Vector mean

Mark A. Munro; Thomas G. Blenkinsop

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Bayesian decision tree averaging for the probabilistic interpretation of solar flare occurrences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian averaging over Decision Trees (DTs) allows the class posterior probabilities to be estimated, while the DT models are understandable for domain experts. The use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique of stochastic approximation makes the ... Keywords: Bayesian averaging, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, decision tre, machine learning, solar flare, uncertainty

Vitaly Schetinin; Valentina Zharkova; Sergei Zharkov

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hybridization of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) with probabilistic neural networks (PNNs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are one of the most important time series models applied in financial market forecasting over the past three decades. Improving forecasting especially time series forecasting accuracy is an important ... Keywords: Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), Hybrid models, Probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), Time series forecasting

Mehdi Khashei; Mehdi Bijari; Gholam Ali Raissi Ardali

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Modeling uncertain variables of the weighted average operation by fuzzy vectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with the fuzzy extension of the weighted average operation. First, we study the convenient ways how uncertain weights and weighted values can be modeled by fuzzy vectors. We show that, in comparison to a tuple of fuzzy numbers that have ... Keywords: Fuzzy probabilities, Fuzzy vector, Fuzzy weighted average, Multiple criteria decision making, Normalized fuzzy weights, Separability of fuzzy vectors

Ond?Ej Pavla?Ka

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A Zonally Averaged, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Paleoclimate Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A zonally averaged ocean model for the thermohaline circulation is coupled to a zonally averaged, one-layer energy balance model of the atmosphere to form a climate model for paleoclimate studies. The emphasis of the coupled model is on the ocean'...

Thomas F. Stocker; Lawrence A. Mysak; Daniel G. Wright

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Cylindrical model of transient heat conduction in automotive fuse using conservative averaging method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cylindrical mathematical model of automotive fuse is considered in this paper. Initially, partial differential equations of the transient heat conduction are given to describe heat-up process in the fuse. Conservative averaging method is used to obtain ... Keywords: analytical approximation, automotive fuse, conservative averaging, heat transfer, quasi-linear, transient process

Raimonds Vilums; Hans-Dieter Liess; Andris Buikis; Andis Rudevics

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Comparing Bayes model averaging and stacking when model approximation error cannot be ignored  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare Bayes Model Averaging, BMA, to a non-Bayes form of model averaging called stacking. In stacking, the weights are no longer posterior probabilities of models; they are obtained by a technique based on cross-validation. When the correct data ...

Bertrand Clarke

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

"Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","-","-","RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

379

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to

380

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

382

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

383

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

384

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

385

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

386

Material Disposal Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas, also known as MDAs, are sites where material was disposed of below the ground surface in excavated pits, trenches, or shafts. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Material Disposal Areas at LANL The following are descriptions and status updates of each MDA at LANL. To view a current fact sheet on the MDAs, click on LA-UR-13-25837 (pdf). MDA A MDA A is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility comprised of a 1.25-acre, fenced, and radiologically controlled area situated on the eastern end of Delta Prime Mesa. Delta Prime Mesa is bounded by Delta Prime Canyon to the north and Los Alamos Canyon to the south.

387

NIST Aperture area measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... particularly critical, for example, in climate and weather applications on ... of aperture areas used in exo-atmospheric solar irradiance measurements; ...

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

388

Naval applications study areas  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum discusses study areas and items that will require attention for the naval studies of the utilization of nuclear propulsion in a submarine-based missile system.

Hadley, J. W.

1962-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

Boulder Area Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST does not endorse or guarantee the quality or services provided by these businesses. All Denver/Boulder area transportation companies. ...

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

390

Lithium isotopic composition and concentration of the deep continental crust Fang-Zhen Teng a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium isotopic composition and concentration of the deep continental crust Fang-Zhen Teng a April 2008 Accepted 5 June 2008 Editor: B. Bourdon Keywords: Lithium Isotope fractionation Deep. Lithium concentrations of granulite xenoliths also vary widely (0.5 to 21 ppm) and are, on average, lower

Mcdonough, William F.

391

ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments ACSM : Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datastreams AOS : Aerosol Observing System Datastreams

392

Concentrated solar power on demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

Codd, Daniel Shawn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Carbothermic Reduction of Niobium Concentrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Ferro Niobium is produced by aluminothermic reduction of the ... However, the niobium concentrate has impurities, such as phosphorus, lead and tin, ... Phase Transformation of Andalusite-Mullite and Its Fiber Reinforcement to...

394

Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

"Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" 3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,86.6,2522,1970,1310,1812,1475,821,1055,944,554 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,261,336,162,"Q","Q","Q",334,260,"Q"

396

Model Averaging in Risk Management with an Application to Futures Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

symmetric matrix, a0 is an N(N +1)/2 1 vector, and A0, B0 are N(N +1)/2N(N +1)/2 matrices of unknown coefficients. It is evident that even such a low-order model already contains a large number of parameters even for moderate values of N which renders... averaging process and the differences in their forecast error variances can have important implications for the shape of the resulting average model in general and the degree of its fat-tailness, in particular. Therefore, it seems likely that averaging...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Schleicher, C; Zaffaroni, P

397

Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.) [eds.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Estimating calibration equations for predicting Ra-226 soil concentrations using RTRAK in-situ detectors at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Umtra site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a field study conducted at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, UMTRA site to obtain data for calibrating the RTRAK Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors for estimating concentrations of Ra-226 in surface soil. The statistical analyses indicate that the data are useful for estimating the calibration equations. Several statistical models are used to evaluate which model is best as a basis for the calibration equations. A procedure is provided for using the estimated calibration equations and extensive RTRAK measurements to estimate the average Ra-226 concentration on 100-m/sup 2/ land areas to determine whether additional remedial action is needed. The UMTRA Project office proposes to use the RTRAK for cleanup verification of surface Ra-226 contamination. The system enables 100% coverage of areas having undergone remedial action. The sensitivity of the system enables verification at less than 5 pCi/g averaged over 100 m/sup 2/, as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards (40 CFR Part 192). This analysis demonstrates RTRAK's ability to meet reasonable standards of statistical accuracy, using commonly accepted procedures. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Gilbert, R. O.; Meyer, H. R.; Miller, M. L.; Begley, C.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands available for deploying of large-scale concentrating solar power plants in the southwestern United States. Each of the following seven states, as well as the southwestern U.S. region, has two maps: the left and right maps represent analyses excluding land with slopes >1% and >3%, respectively. Lower-resolution jpg versions are available below; much higher-resolution pdf files, suitable for plotting large-scale posters, can be requested. You can also access an unfiltered direct-normal solar radiation map of the southwestern United States. Download Adobe Reader. Southwestern U.S.

400

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $30.6 million in Recovery Act funding for the selection of seven hydropower projects that modernize hydropower infrastructure by increasing efficiency and reducing environmental impacts at existing facilities. The expanded hydro generation projects have estimated incremental costs of less than 4 cents per kWh on average. The selections announced today will deploy innovative technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, and

402

Figure 71. Average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles, 1980 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 71. Average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles, 1980-2040 (miles per gallon, CAFE compliance values) History Reference case

403

Theoretical Assessment of Uncertainty in Regional Averages due to Network Density and Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations are performed over Russia for July and December 2005, 2006, and 2007 to create a dataset to assess the impact of network density and design on regional averages. Based on the values at ...

Debasish PaiMazumder; Nicole Mlders

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

405

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

406

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

407

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

408

U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

409

U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

410

On the filtering properties of ensemble averaging for storm-scale precipitation forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean (ENM) of an ensemble of precipitation forecasts is generally more skillful than any of the members as verified against observations. A major reason is that the averaging filters out non-predictable features that the members disagree on. ...

Madalina Surcel; Isztar Zawadzki; M. K. Yau

411

Idealized Annually Averaged Macroturbulent Hadley Circulation in a Shallow-Water Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of midlatitude eddies and the thermally driven Hadley circulation is studied using an idealized shallow-water model on the rotating sphere. The contributions of the annually averaged differential heating, vertical advection of ...

Ori Adam; Nili Harnik

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Comparison of Daily Averaged Reflection, Transmission, and Absorption for Selected Radiative Flux Transfer Approximations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares accuracy for the daily averaged reflection, transmission, and absorption of solar flux derived from the delta-four-stream approximation and a few selected two-stream approximations. In the chosen variety of two-stream ...

Xun Zhu; Albert Arking

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Parameterizing Grid-Averaged Longwave Fluxes for Inhomogeneous Marine Boundary Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the relative impacts on grid-averaged longwave flux transmittance (emittance) for marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud fields arising from horizontal variability of optical depth ? and cloud sides. First, using fields of Landsat-...

Howard W. Barker; Bruce A. Wielicki

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Development of a Sea Ice Model for Use in Zonally Averaged Energy Balance Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sea ice model for use in zonally averaged energy balance climate models is presented which includes the following processes: surface melting, basal freezing and melting, lateral melting from ice-flee water or growth of new ice in leads, ...

L. D. Danny Harvey

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Averaging on Sampling Strategies for Cloud Amount Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sampling and averaging strategies are as significant an influence upon the resulting cloud climatologies as the resolution of the original cloud archives. An investigation of total cloud amount data, as represented by the U.S. Air Force 3-...

N. A. Hughes; A. Henderson-Sellers

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

KOLMOGOROV THEORY VIA FINITE-TIME AVERAGES C. FOIAS1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are either based on an ergodic hypothesis (see e.g. [23]) or through a mathematically esoteric notion is to derive similar estimates directly for finite-time averages without resorting to any esoteric relation

Jolly, Michael S.

417

KOLMOGOROV THEORY VIA FINITE-TIME AVERAGES C. FOIAS1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]) or through a mathematically esoteric notion of generalized limit (see e.g. [2, 17]). In any Date: May 2, 2005 estimates directly for finite-time averages without resorting to any esoteric relation with ensemble av

Temam, Roger

418

Average U.S. residential summer 2013 electric bill expected to be ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The average U.S. household electric bill for June through August is expected to total $395, down 2.5% from last summer and the cheapest in four years.

419

The Zonally Averaged Transport Characteristics of the GFDL General Circulation/Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GFDL general circulation/tracer model has been used to generate the transport coefficients required in two-dimensional (zonally averaged) transport formulations. This was done by assuming a flux-gradient relationship and then, given gradient ...

R. A. Plumb; J. D. Mahlman

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

Berndt, Ernst R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Bottom Stress in Wind-Driven Depth-Averaged Coastal Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between depth-averaged velocity and bottom stress for purely wind-driven flows in unstratified coastal waters is examined using a one-dimensional (vertically resolving) current model. Results indicate that conventional drag laws ...

Harry L. Jenter; Ole Secher Madsen

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Table WH6. Average Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Major Fuels Used 5 (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel as a water heating source) Electricity (kWh) Table WH6. Average Consumption for Water ...

423

A Numerical Diagnostic Model of the Zonally Averaged Circulation in Isentropic Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the linear theory of the isentropic zonally averaged circulation (Gallimore and Johnson, 1981), stable meridional circulations within the circumpolar vortex are forced by larger scale diabatic beating and angular momentum torques. The linear ...

Robert G. Gallimore; Donald R. Johnson

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

4. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U. S. Consumers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1972..... 0.19 NA 1.21 0.88 0.45 NA 0.34 1973 ... Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U. S. Consumers, 1967-2000 (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

425

2011 Brief: U.S. average gasoline and diesel prices over $3 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The average price U.S. drivers paid for gasoline and diesel during 2011 never fell below $3 per gallon, marking the first time the national pump price for both ...

426

Nonnormal Perturbation Growth of Pure Thermohaline Circulation Using a 2D Zonally Averaged Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generalized linear stability theory is used to calculate the optimal initial conditions that result in transient amplification of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in a zonally averaged single-basin ocean model. The eigenmodes of the tangent ...

Julie Alexander; Adam H. Monahan

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A Surface Flux Parameterization Based on the Vertically Averaged Turbulence Kinetic Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new bulk transfer formulation for the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture has been developed by using the square root of the vertically averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the atmospheric boundary layer as a velocity ...

Changan Zhang; David A. Randall; Chin-Hoh Moeng; Mark Branson; Kerry A. Moyer; Qing Wang

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

hal-00194169,version1-5Dec2007 Log-average periodogram estimator of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. e-mail: glaura@est.ufmg.br Abstract averaged over epochs. The proposed estimator is theoretically justified and empirical Monte Carlo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance Using Satellite-Derived Cloud Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The respective errors caused by the gamma-weighted two-stream approximation and the effective thickness approximation for computing the domain-averaged broadband shortwave irradiance are evaluated using cloud optical thicknesses derived from 1 h ...

Seiji Kato; Fred G. Rose; Thomas P. Charlock

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Figure 21. Annual average spot price for Brent crude oil in three ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 21. Annual average spot price for Brent crude oil in three cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per barrel) Reference Low Oil Price

431

The Effects of Volume Averaging on Spectra Measured with a Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because the Lyman-alpha hygrometer averages turbulent fluctuations in humidity over a right circular cylinder, the spectral response of the instrument degrades at higher wavenumbers. This paper contains a derivation of the three-dimensional ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A Simplified Method for the Calculation of Diurnally Averaged Photodissociation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expressions are given for the calculation of the diurnally averaged transmission of solar flux from a series summation involving relatively few terms (10) and readily available mathematical functions. It is shown that these expressions can be ...

Robert E. Boughner

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Bright High Average Power Table-top Soft X-Ray Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have demonstrated the generation of bright soft x-ray laser pulses with record-high average power from compact plasma amplifiers excited by ultrafast solid state lasers. These lasers have numerous applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Nichols,, Anthony [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Yong [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Alessi, David [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Martz, Dale [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Yin, Liang [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Marconi, Mario [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Wind: monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract): Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m...

435

Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay J. A. Robbins,1 between the maximum atmospheric radionuclide fallout and peaks in sediment temporal records of 137 Cs

436

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY

(Abstract):Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba

(Purpose):<...

437

FIFE Surface Climate and Site-Average Dataset 198789  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment site-average datasets for near-surface meteorology, soil moisture, and temperature; the surface fluxes of radiation, sensible, and ...

Alan K. Betts; John H. Ball

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Merging Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts from Multiple Statistical Models through Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Merging forecasts from multiple models has the potential to combine the strengths of individual models and to better represent forecast uncertainty than the use of a single model. This study develops a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method for ...

Q. J. Wang; Andrew Schepen; David E. Robertson

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Effects of Subgrid-Scale Parameterizations in a Zonally Averaged Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isopycnal diffusion and an additional transport velocity parameterizing the effect of mesoscale eddies are implemented in the ocean component of a 2.5-dimensional zonally averaged coupled oceanatmosphere model. The equilibrium states of the ...

Reto Knutti; Thomas F. Stocker; Daniel G. Wright

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

On the Weights for an Ensemble-Averaged 610-Day Forecast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme to optimally weight the members of an ensemble of forecasts is discussed in the framework of calculating an as accurate as possible ensemble average. Results show, relative to a single member, a considerably improved 500-mb height ...

H. M. Van Den Dool; L. Rukhovets

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Calibrated Surface Temperature Forecasts from the Canadian Ensemble Prediction System Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a way of correcting underdispersion in ensemble forecasts. BMA is a standard statistical procedure for combining predictive distributions from different sources. The output of BMA is a ...

Laurence J. Wilson; Stephane Beauregard; Adrian E. Raftery; Richard Verret

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

443

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0...

444

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

445

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

446

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1940's: 4,232 ...

447

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

448

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil geochemistry yielded quite complex patterns of mercury concentrations and radonemanation rates within the survey area (Cox and Cuff, 1981c). Mercury concentrations (Fig. 38) showed a general minimum along the Kawaihae-Waimea roads and a broad trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward both the north and south. There is no correlation apparent between the mercury patterns and either the resistivity sounding data or the surface geology in the area. The radon emanometry data (Fig.

449

Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States"

450

Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

451

"Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(1000","LPG","Coal","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(kWh)","(gallon)","(gallon)","cu ft)","(gallon)","(short ton)","Factors"

452

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

453

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

454

Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors"

455

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

456

Local volume-time averaged equations of motion for dispersed, turbulent, multiphase flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In most flows of liquids and their vapors, the phases are dispersed randomly in both space and time. These dispersed flows can be described only statistically or in terms of averages. Local volume-time averaging is used here to derive a self-consistent set of equations governing momentum and energy transfer in dispersed, turbulent, multiphase flows. The empiricisms required for use with these equations are the subject of current research.

Sha, W.T.; Slattery, J.C.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

"Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors"

458

"Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States"

459

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

460

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate

462

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the

463

The averaged tensors of the relative energy-momentum and angular momentum in general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There exist at least a few different kind of averaging of the differences of the energy-momentum and angular momentum in normal coordinates {\\bf NC(P)} which give tensorial quantities. The obtained averaged quantities are equivalent mathematically because they differ only by constant scalar dimensional factors. One of these averaging was used in our papers [1-8] giving the {\\it canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors}. In this paper we present one other averaging of the energy-momentum and angular momentum differences which gives tensorial quantities with proper dimensions of the energy-momentum and angular momentum densities. But these averaged energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors, closely related to the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, {\\it depend on some fundamental length L}. The averaged energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors of the gravitational field obtained in the paper can be applied, like the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, to coordinate independent local (and also global) analysis of this field.

Janusz Garecki

2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fueling area site assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results of a Site Assessment performed at the Fuel Storage Area at Buckley ANG Base in Aurora, Colorado. Buckley ANG Base occupies 3,328 acres of land within the City of Aurora in Arapahoe County, Colorado. The Fuel Storage Area (also known as the Fueling Area) is located on the west side of the Base at the intersection of South Powderhorn Street and East Breckenridge Avenue. The Fueling Area consists of above ground storage tanks in a bermed area, pumps, piping, valves, an unloading stand and a fill stand. Jet fuel from the Fueling Area is used to support aircraft operations at the Base. Jet fuel is stored in two 200,000 gallon above ground storage tanks. Fuel is received in tanker trucks at the unloading stand located south and east of the storage tanks. Fuel required for aircraft fueling and other use is transferred into tanker trucks at the fill stand and transported to various points on the Base. The Fuel Storage Area has been in operation for over 20 years and handles approximately 7 million gallons of jet fuel annually.

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

area | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

area area Dataset Summary Description These estimates are derived from a composite of high resolution wind resource datasets modeled for specific countries with low resolution data originating from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (United States) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (United States) as processed for use in the IMAGE model. The high resolution datasets were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States), Risø DTU National Laboratory (Denmark), the National Institute for Space Research (Brazil), and the Canadian Wind Energy Association. The data repr Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords area capacity clean energy international National Renewable Energy Laboratory

466

NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas Commonly Found in Energy Control Systems Experts at the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) discovered some common areas of vulnerability in the energy control systems assessed between late 2004 and early 2006. These vulnerabilities ranged from conventional IT security issues to specific weaknesses in control system protocols. The paper "Lessons Learned from Cyber Security Assessments of SCADA and Energy Management Systems" describes the vulnerabilities and recommended strategies for mitigating them. It should be of use to asset owners and operators, control system vendors, system integrators, and third-party vendors interested in enhancing the security characteristics of current and future products.

467

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

468

Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of...

469

Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Solar Topics: Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Dataset, Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47465.pdf Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data Screenshot References: CSP Guide[1] Logo: Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data

470

IEA-Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IEA-Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power IEA-Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IEA-Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Solar, - Concentrating Solar Power Topics: Implementation, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.iea.org/papers/2010/csp_roadmap.pdf Cost: Free IEA-Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power Screenshot References: IEA-CSP Roadmap[1] "This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid

471

Italian Association of Energy EconomistsYardstick Regulation of Electricity Distribution Utilities Based on the Estimation of an Average Cost Function *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 45 Swiss electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Unlike the existing literature, we separate the electricity sales function of utilities from the network operation function. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the model specification in order to allow the regulator to set differentiated benchmark prices incorporating this heterogeneity. We can identify different exogenous service area characteristics that affect average cost. These are the load factor, the customer density and the output density of different consumer groups. Moreover, the estimation results indicate the existence of significant economies of scale; i.e. most of the Swiss utilities in our sample are too small to reach minimum efficient scale. However, to give the small utilities incentives to merge the size of the utilities must not be included in the yardstick calculation. 1.

Massimo Filippini; Jrg Wild; Massimo Filippini; Jrg Wild

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Solar Concentrator ...  

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) relies on thermodynamic processes to convert concentrated light into useful forms of energy. Accurate sun tracking ...

473

Geographic Area Month  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Fuels by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Sales to End Users Sales for...

474

3. Producing Areas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The OCS area provides surplus capacity to meet major seasonal swings in the lower 48 States gas requirements. The ... Jun-86 9,878 17,706 1,460 19,166 9,288 51.5

475

300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

{sm_bullet} Uranium fuel production {sm_bullet} Test reactor and separations experiments {sm_bullet} Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex {sm_bullet} .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

BORGHESE JV

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

476

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Western Area Power Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Loveland Area Projects November 29-30, 2011 2 Agenda * Overview of Western Area Power Administration * Post-1989 Loveland Area Projects (LAP) Marketing Plan * Energy Planning and Management Program * Development of the 2025 PMI Proposal * 2025 PMI Proposal * 2025 PMI Comment Period & Proposal Information * Questions 3 Overview of Western Area Power Administration (Western) * One of four power marketing administrations within the Department of Energy * Mission: Market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based Federal hydroelectric power and related services within a 15-state region of the central and western U.S. * Vision: Provide premier power marketing and transmission services Rocky Mountain Region (RMR) is one of five regional offices 4 Rocky Mountain Region

478

APS Area Emergency Supervisors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Area Emergency Supervisors BUILDING AES AAES 400-EAA Raul Mascote Debra Eriksen-Bubulka 400-A (SPX) Tim Jonasson 400-Sectors 25-30 Reggie Gilmore 401-CLO Steve Downey Ed Russell...

479

Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2 from Mauna Loa, Hawaii  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2 from Mauna Loa, Hawaii Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2 from Mauna Loa, Hawaii The graphs on this page are generated from data taken from "Trends in Carbon Dioxide" page on the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website. The NOAA website presents monthly and weekly atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. It offers weekly and monthly data, additional graphs, analysis, descriptions of how the data are collected, and an animation of historical changes in atmospheric CO2. Mauna Loa constitutes the longest record of direct measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere. The measurents were started by C. David Keeling of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in March of 1958. Recent Monthly Average CO2

480

Concentrating solar collector: technical note  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Acurex Model 3002 concentrator is a reflecting parabolic trough collector designed to heat liquids or gases to temperatures between 140/sup 0/F and 350/sup 0/F. The cost effectiveness, performance, reliability, and technical description of the collector are presented.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "area average concentrating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, U isotopes, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of {sup 60}Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in {sup 90}Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time.

Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility Rate I'm interested in getting a spreadsheet of the most recent EIA average residential utility rates as per the calculation on the http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities page that generates average rates for utilities, for example: Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (utility ID #11208): EIA Average Rates: Residential: 12.6 cents/kWh Commercial: 12.5 cents/kWh Industrial: 10.9 cents/kWh The site references taking revenue divided by sales from the EIA 861 data set (most recent is 2011) but the calculation I get by dividing revenue by sales from their File2_2011.xls spreadsheet is 12.8 cents/kWh. I spot

483

PREDICTING AREAS OF 137 Cs LOSS AND ACCUMULATION IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catchments 1. Introduction 1.1. BACKGROUND Global atmospheric fallout of anthropogenic radioactivity from resulted in higher fallout concentrations in the upland areas of Europe. Such upland environments are often

484

Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998  

SciTech Connect

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " 2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.2,357,336,113,188,177,59 "500 to 999",23.8,733,667,308,343,312,144 "1,000 to 1,499",20.8,1157,1086,625,435,409,235 "1,500 to 1,999",15.4,1592,1441,906,595,539,339 "2,000 to 2,499",12.2,2052,1733,1072,765,646,400

486

,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

487

The quiet Sun average Doppler shift of coronal lines up to 2 MK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The average Doppler shift shown by spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the corona reveals important information on the mass and energy balance of the solar atmosphere, providing an important observational constraint to any models of the solar corona. Previous spectroscopic observations of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lines have revealed a persistent average wavelength shift of lines formed at temperatures up to 1 MK. At higher temperatures, the behaviour is still essentially unknown. Here we analyse combined SUMER/SoHO and EIS/Hinode observations of the quiet Sun around disk centre to determine, for the first time, the average Doppler shift of several spectral lines formed between 1 and 2 MK, where the largest part of the quiet coronal emission is formed. The measurements are based on a novel technique applied to EIS spectra to measure the difference in Doppler shift between lines formed at different temperatures. Simultaneous wavelength-calibrated SUMER spectra allow establishing the absolute value a...

Dadashi, Neda; Solanki, Sami K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Analytical expressions for maximum wind turbine average power in a Rayleigh wind regime  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Average or expectation values for annual power of a wind turbine in a Rayleigh wind regime are calculated and plotted as a function of cut-out wind speed. This wind speed is expressed in multiples of the annual average wind speed at the turbine installation site. To provide a common basis for comparison of all real and imagined turbines, the Rayleigh-Betz wind machine is postulated. This machine is an ideal wind machine operating with the ideal Betz power coefficient of 0.593 in a Rayleigh probability wind regime. All other average annual powers are expressed in fractions of that power. Cases considered include: (1) an ideal machine with finite power and finite cutout speed, (2) real machines operating in variable speed mode at their maximum power coefficient, and (3) real machines operating at constant speed.

Carlin, P.W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Is the Average of Expert Tasters Grades a Good Price Predictor?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preliminary Version This paper takes yet another look at the price/quality relationship studied in Combris, Lecocq and Visser (1997, 2000). The data come from an experimental study that is very similar to the two previous studies. Like in the earlier studies, quality, measured as the average of expert tasters grades, has a small impact on wine prices. Exploiting the fact that the new data are recorded on a relatively ner levelexpert-specic grades are observed instead of averagesthe paper sheds new light on the price/quality paradox. We nd a strong correlation between average grades and price when the dispersion of grades is small, i.e. when there is much consensus among experts about the quality of a wine. Wine prices are also strongly correlated with the highest grade assigned. Possible explanations for these ndings are given.

Sbastien Lecocq Y; Michael Visser Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" 2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.1,2.3,403,360,165,366,348,93 "500 to 999",22.2,14.4,763,660,277,730,646,303 "1,000 to 1,499",19.1,5.8,1223,1130,496,1187,1086,696 "1,500 to 1,999",14.4,1,1700,1422,412,1698,1544,1348

491

,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

492

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

493

Wind: monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 5 Data Set (Jan. 2005)10-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 1993) Parameter: Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Created: October 4, 2005 See the NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web site at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/. The source data was downloaded from the SSE website at Data Retrieval: Meteorology and Solar Energy > Global data sets as text files. The tabular data was then converted to the shapefile format.

494

Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" 4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,6.7,1247,1032,"Q",811,788,147 "New England",5.5,1.9,1365,1127,"Q",814,748,107 "Middle Atlantic",15.1,4.8,1182,978,"Q",810,800,159 "Midwest",25.6,4.6,1349,1133,506,895,810,346

495

NREL GIS Data: Alaska Low Resolution Concentrating Solar Power Resource |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alaska Low Resolution Concentrating Solar Power Resource Alaska Low Resolution Concentrating Solar Power Resource Dataset Summary Description Abstract: Monthly and annual average solar resource potential for Alaska. Purpose: Provide information on the solar resource potential for Alaska. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Supplemental_Information: This data provides monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximatley 40 km by 40 km in size. This data was developed from the Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. The CSR model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Specific information about this model can be found in Maxwell, George and Wilcox (1998) and George and Maxwell (1999). This model uses information on cloud cover, atmostpheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. The cloud cover data used as input to the CSR model are an 7-year histogram (1985-1991) of monthly average cloud fraction provided for grid cells of approximately 40km x 40km in size. Thus, the spatial resolution of the CSR model output is defined by this database. The data are obtained from the National Climatic Data Center in Ashville, North Carolina, and were developed from the U.S. Air Force Real Time Nephanalysis (RTNEPH) program. Atmospheric water vapor, trace gases, and aerosols are derived from a variety of sources. The procedures for converting the collector at latitude tilt are described in Marion and Wilcox (1994). Where possible, existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data. Nevertheless, there is uncertainty associated with the meterological input to the model, since some of the input parameters are not avalible at a 40km resolution. As a result, it is believed that the modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell. Due to terrain effects and other micoclimate influences, the local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain. Units are in watt hours.

496

NREL GIS Data: Hawaii Low Resolution Concentrating Solar Power Resource |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Resolution Concentrating Solar Power Resource Low Resolution Concentrating Solar Power Resource Dataset Summary Description Abstract: Monthly and annual average solar resource potential for Hawaii. Purpose: Provide information on the solar resource potential for Hawaii. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Supplemental_Information: This data provides monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. This data was developed from the Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. The CSR model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Specific information about this model can be found in Maxwell, George and Wilcox (1998) and George and Maxwell (1999). This model uses information on cloud cover, atmostpheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. The cloud cover data used as input to the CSR model are an 7-year histogram (1985-1991) of monthly average cloud fraction provided for grid cells of approximately 40km x 40km in size. Thus, the spatial resolution of the CSR model output is defined by this database. The data are obtained from the National Climatic Data Center in Ashville, North Carolina, and were developed from the U.S. Air Force Real Time Nephanalysis (RTNEPH) program. Atmospheric water vapor, trace gases, and aerosols are derived from a variety of sources. The procedures for converting the collector at latitude tilt are described in Marion and Wilcox (1994). Where possible, existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data. Nevertheless, there is uncertainty associated with the meterological input to the model, since some of the input parameters are not avalible at a 40km resolution. As a result, it is believed that the modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell. Due to terrain effects and other micoclimate influences, the local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

497

Operational Area Monitoring Plan  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' SECTION 11.7B Operational Area Monitoring Plan for the Long -Term H yd rol og ical M o n i to ri ng - Program Off The Nevada Test Site S . C. Black Reynolds Electrical & Engineering, Co. and W. G. Phillips, G. G. Martin, D. J. Chaloud, C. A. Fontana, and 0. G. Easterly Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory U. S. Environmental Protection Agency October 23, 1991 FOREWORD This is one of a series of Operational Area Monitoring Plans that comprise the overall Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE Field Office, Nevada (DOEINV) nuclear and non- nuclear testing activities associated with the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These Operational Area Monitoring Plans are prepared by various DOE support contractors, NTS user organizations, and federal or state agencies supporting DOE NTS operations. These plans and the parent

498

"Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Dollars per Million Btu)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.7,0.8,1,2.8,1,0.7 20,"Food and Kindred Products",15.789,2.854,6.064,2.697,7.596,1.433,4.5

499

Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z