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Sample records for arctic cloud experiment

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - FIRE-Arctic Cloud Experiment/SHEBA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic Cloud Experiment/SHEBA ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : FIRE-Arctic Cloud Experiment/SHEBA 1998.05.19 - 1998.06.24 Lead Scientist : Peter Hobbs Data Availability Data from the UW Convair-580 measurements in FIRE-ACE/SHEBA have been archived at the Langley DAAC. For data sets, see below. Abstract Based in Barrow, Alaska, from May 15 through June 24, 1998, the Univ. of

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The University of North Dakota Citation was the in situ platform, while the DOE-ARM UAV ... counter and the CSU IN counter, while the UAV had downward looking cloud radar, lidar and ...

  3. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  4. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsArctic Cloud Infrared Imaging Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging 2012.07.16 - 2014.07.31 Lead Scientist : Joseph Shaw For data sets, see below. Abstract The 3rd-generation Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) instrument was deployed close to the Great White facility at the North Slope of Alaska site and operated as

  6. Liquid Water the Key to Arctic Cloud Radiative Closure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water the Key to Arctic Cloud Radiative Closure For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research Highlight...

  7. Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David D.

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

  8. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David D.

    2003-06-01

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  9. Characterizing Arctic Mixed-phase Cloud Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have two distinguished cloud base heights (CBHs) that can be defined by both ceilometer (black dots) and micropulse lidar (MPL; pink dots) measurements (Figure 1). For a...

  10. Nighttime Cloud Detection Over the Arctic Using AVHRR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Table 3. SHEBA domain cloud statistics from the polar cloud mask for January-March 1998. ... Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and NOAA-9 AVHRR data from 1986 were matched to ...

  11. Fine-scale Horizontal Structure of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange,M.; Verlinde, J.; Elorante, E.; Luke, E.; Kollias, P.; Shupe, M.

    2006-07-10

    Recent in situ observations in stratiform clouds suggest that mixed phase regimes, here defined as limited cloud volumes containing both liquid and solid water, are constrained to narrow layers (order 100 m) separating all-liquid and fully glaciated volumes (Hallett and Viddaurre, 2005). The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (DOE-ARM, Ackerman and Stokes, 2003) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) recently started collecting routine measurement of radar Doppler velocity power spectra from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR). Shupe et al. (2004) showed that Doppler spectra has potential to separate the contributions to the total reflectivity of the liquid and solid water in the radar volume, and thus to investigate further Hallett and Viddaurre's findings. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) was conducted along the NSA to investigate the properties of Arctic mixed phase clouds (Verlinde et al., 2006). We present surface based remote sensing data from MPACE to discuss the fine-scale structure of the mixed-phase clouds observed during this experiment.

  12. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

  13. Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Yuying

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity of Arctic clouds and radiation in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 to the ice nucleation process is examined by testing a new physically based ice nucleation scheme that links the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentration to aerosol properties. The default scheme parameterizes the IN concentration simply as a function of ice supersaturation. The new scheme leads to a significant reduction in simulated IN number concentrations at all latitudes while changes in cloud amount and cloud properties are mainly seen in high latitudes and middle latitude storm tracks. In the Arctic, there is a considerable increase in mid-level clouds and a decrease in low clouds, which result from the complex interaction among the cloud macrophysics, microphysics, and the large-scale environment. The smaller IN concentrations result in an increase in liquid water path and a decrease in ice water path due to the slow-down of the Bergeron-Findeisen process in mixed-phase clouds. Overall, there is an increase in the optical depth of Arctic clouds, which leads to a stronger cloud radiative forcing (net cooling) at the top of the atmosphere. The comparison with satellite data shows that the new scheme slightly improves low cloud simulations over most of the Arctic, but produces too many mid-level clouds. Considerable improvements are seen in the simulated low clouds and their properties when compared to Arctic ground-based measurements. Issues with the observations and the model-observation comparison in the Arctic region are discussed.

  14. Parameterizing correlations between hydrometeor species in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Vincent E.; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Fan, Jiwen; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2011-08-16

    Mixed-phase Arctic clouds, like other clouds, contain small-scale variability in hydrometeor fields, such as cloud water or snow mixing ratio. This variability may be worth parameterizing in coarse-resolution numerical models. In particular, for modeling processes such as accretion and aggregation, it would be useful to parameterize subgrid correlations among hydrometeor species. However, one difficulty is that there exist many hydrometeor species and many microphysical processes, leading to complexity and computational expense.Existing lower and upper bounds (inequalities) on linear correlation coefficients provide useful guidance, but these bounds are too loose to serve directly as a method to predict subgrid correlations. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative method that is based on a blend of theory and empiricism. The method begins with the spherical parameterization framework of Pinheiro and Bates (1996), which expresses the correlation matrix in terms of its Cholesky factorization. The values of the elements of the Cholesky matrix are parameterized here using a cosine row-wise formula that is inspired by the aforementioned bounds on correlations. The method has three advantages: 1) the computational expense is tolerable; 2) the correlations are, by construction, guaranteed to be consistent with each other; and 3) the methodology is fairly general and hence may be applicable to other problems. The method is tested non-interactively using simulations of three Arctic mixed-phase cloud cases from two different field experiments: the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE). Benchmark simulations are performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model that includes a bin microphysical scheme. The correlations estimated by the new method satisfactorily approximate the correlations produced by the LES.

  15. Simulations of arctic mixed-phase clouds in forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven

    2008-02-27

    [1] Simulations of mixed-phase clouds in forecasts with the NCAR Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) and the GFDL Atmospheric Model version 2 (AM2) for the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) are performed using analysis data from numerical weather prediction centers. CAM3 significantly underestimates the observed boundary layer mixed-phase cloud fraction and cannot realistically simulate the variations of liquid water fraction with temperature and cloud height due to its oversimplified cloud microphysical scheme. In contrast, AM2 reasonably reproduces the observed boundary layer cloud fraction while its clouds contain much less cloud condensate than CAM3 and the observations. The simulation of themore » boundary layer mixed-phase clouds and their microphysical properties is considerably improved in CAM3 when a new physically based cloud microphysical scheme is used (CAM3LIU). The new scheme also leads to an improved simulation of the surface and top of the atmosphere longwave radiative fluxes. Sensitivity tests show that these results are not sensitive to the analysis data used for model initialization. Increasing model horizontal resolution helps capture the subgrid-scale features in Arctic frontal clouds but does not help improve the simulation of the single-layer boundary layer clouds. AM2 simulated cloud fraction and LWP are sensitive to the change in cloud ice number concentrations used in the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process while CAM3LIU only shows moderate sensitivity in its cloud fields to this change. Furthermore, this paper shows that the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process is important for these models to correctly simulate the observed features of mixed-phase clouds.« less

  16. Session Papers North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean Cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Session Papers North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed: Science and Siting Strategies B. D. Zak Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico K. Stamnes University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Introduction This paper serves as a summary of the current thinking regarding the development of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's North Slope of Alaska and adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Ellingson et

  17. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Abstract A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance

  18. Towards a Characterization of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    manual classification of cloud phase. Using collocated cloud radar and depolarization lidar observations, it is shown that mixed-phase conditions have a high correlation with a...

  19. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; et al

    2016-01-21

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300% over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ~40–60% smallermore » than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ~0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (~0.02gm–3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm–3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm–2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. Furthermore, we lastly explore evidence suggesting that

  20. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Ourmore » findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.« less

  1. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  2. Process-model Simulations of Cloud Albedo Enhancement by Aerosols in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, Amy

    2014-11-17

    A cloud-resolving model is used to simulate the effectiveness of Arctic marine cloud brightening via injection of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). An updated cloud microphysical scheme is employed, with prognostic CCN and cloud particle numbers in both liquid and mixed-phase marine low clouds. Injection of CCN into the marine boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. Because nearly all of the albedo effects are in the liquid phase due to the removal of ice water by snowfall when ice processes are involved, albedo increases are stronger for pure liquid clouds than mixed-phase clouds. Liquid precipitation can be suppressed by CCN injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. CCN injection into a clean regime results in a greater albedo increase than injection into a polluted regime, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, dynamical changes in circulation due to precipitation changes are small.

  3. Distribution and Validation of Cloud Cover Derived from AVHRR Data Over the Arctic Ocean During the SHEBA Year

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Validation of Cloud Cover Derived from AVHRR Data Over the Arctic Ocean During the SHEBA Year P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. A. Spangenberg and V. Chakrapani Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia Introduction Determination of cloud radiation interactions over large areas of the Arctic is possible only with the use of data from polar orbiting satellites. Cloud detection using satellite data is difficult

  4. Deriving Arctic Cloud Microphysics at Barrow, Alaska. Algorithms, Results, and Radiative Closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Zwink, Alexander; Thieman, Mandana M.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shippert, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    Cloud phase and microphysical properties control the radiative effects of clouds in the climate system and are therefore crucial to characterize in a variety of conditions and locations. An Arctic-specific, ground-based, multi-sensor cloud retrieval system is described here and applied to two years of observations from Barrow, Alaska. Over these two years, clouds occurred 75% of the time, with cloud ice and liquid each occurring nearly 60% of the time. Liquid water occurred at least 25% of the time even in the winter, and existed up to heights of 8 km. The vertically integrated mass of liquid was typically larger than that of ice. While it is generally difficult to evaluate the overall uncertainty of a comprehensive cloud retrieval system of this type, radiative flux closure analyses were performed where flux calculations using the derived microphysical properties were compared to measurements at the surface and top-of-atmosphere. Radiative closure biases were generally smaller for cloudy scenes relative to clear skies, while the variability of flux closure results was only moderately larger than under clear skies. The best closure at the surface was obtained for liquid-containing clouds. Radiative closure results were compared to those based on a similar, yet simpler, cloud retrieval system. These comparisons demonstrated the importance of accurate cloud phase classification, and specifically the identification of liquid water, for determining radiative fluxes. Enhanced retrievals of liquid water path for thin clouds were also shown to improve radiative flux calculations.

  5. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment Science Objective Despite improvements in computing power, current weather and climate models are unable to accurately reproduce the formation, growth, and decay of clouds and precipitation associated with storm systems. Not only is this due to a lack of data about precipitation, but also about the 3-dimensional environment of the surrounding clouds, winds, and moisture, and how that affects the transfer of energy between the sun and Earth. To

  6. Influence of Arctic cloud thermodynamic phase on surface shortwave flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A.

    2010-03-15

    As part of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer was deployed at the Barrow NSA site during April and May of 2008, and in April-October of 2009. This instrument recorded one-minute averages of surface downwelling spectral flux in the wavelength interval 350-2200 nm, thus sampling the two major near infrared windows (1.6 and 2.2 microns) in which the flux is influenced by cloud microphysical properties including thermodynamic phase and effective particle size. Aircraft in situ measurements of cloud properties show mostly mixed-phase clouds over Barrow during the campaign, but with wide variability in relative liquid versus ice water content. At fixed total optical depth, this variability in phase composition can yield of order 5-10 Watts per square meter in surface flux variability, with greater cloud attenuation of the surface flux usually occurring under higher ice water content. Thus our data show that changes in cloud phase properties, even within the 'mixed-phase' category, can affect the surface energy balance at the same order of magnitude as greenhouse gas increases. Analysis of this spectral radiometric data provides suggestions for testing new mixed-phase parameterizations in climate models.

  7. Improved Arctic Cloud and Aerosol Research and Model Parameterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Sassen

    2007-03-01

    In this report are summarized our contributions to the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) program supported by the Department of Energy. Our involvement commenced in 1990 during the planning stages of the design of the ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites. We have worked continuously (up to 2006) on our ARM research objectives, building on our earlier findings to advance our knowledge in several areas. Below we summarize our research over this period, with an emphasis on the most recent work. We have participated in several aircraft-supported deployments at the SGP and NSA sites. In addition to deploying the Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) system (Sassen 1994; Noel and Sassen 2005) designed and constructed under ARM funding, we have operated other sophisticated instruments W-band polarimetric Doppler radar, and midinfrared radiometer for intercalibration and student training purposes. We have worked closely with University of North Dakota scientists, twice co-directing the Citation operations through ground-to-air communications, and serving as the CART ground-based mission coordinator with NASA aircraft during the 1996 SUCCESS/IOP campaign. We have also taken a leading role in initiating case study research involving a number of ARM coinvestigators. Analyses of several case studies from these IOPs have been reported in journal articles, as we show in Table 1. The PDL has also participated in other major field projects, including FIRE II and CRYSTAL-FACE. In general, the published results of our IOP research can be divided into two categories: comprehensive cloud case study analyses to shed light on fundamental cloud processes using the unique CART IOP measurement capabilities, and the analysis of in situ data for the testing of remote sensing cloud retrieval algorithms. One of the goals of the case study approach is to provide sufficiently detailed descriptions of cloud systems from the data-rich CART environment to make them suitable for application to

  8. Indirect and semi-direct aerosol campaign: The impact of Arctic aerosols on clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ghan, Steven; Verlinde, Johannes; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Menqistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Dan; et al

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's primary aim was to examine the effects of aerosols, including those generated by Asian wildfires, on clouds that contain both liquid and ice. ISDAC utilized the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pro- gram's permanent observational facilities at Barrow and specially deployed instruments measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation, and radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties and collected data using an unprecedented 41more » stateof- the-art cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 h on 12 different days. Aerosol compositions, including fresh and processed sea salt, biomassburning particles, organics, and sulfates mixed with organics, varied between flights. Observations in a dense arctic haze on 19 April and above, within, and below the single-layer stratocumulus on 8 and 26 April are enabling a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect arctic clouds. Inhomogeneities in reflectivity, a close coupling of upward and downward Doppler motion, and a nearly constant ice profile in the single-layer stratocumulus suggests that vertical mixing is responsible for its longevity observed during ISDAC. Data acquired in cirrus on flights between Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska, are improving the understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Furthermore, ISDAC data will improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and determine the extent to which surface measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and radiative heating.« less

  9. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-04-21

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus in large-eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore » recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  10. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-09-25

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in large eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that, for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore » recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  11. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Citation Details In-Document ...

  12. The influence of mixed and phase clouds on surface shortwave irradiance during the Arctic spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin D.; Vogelmann A.

    2011-10-13

    The influence of mixed-phase stratiform clouds on the surface shortwave irradiance is examined using unique spectral shortwave irradiance measurements made during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. An Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer measured downwelling spectral irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm in one-minute averages throughout April-May 2008 from the ARM Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow. This study examines spectral irradiance measurements made under single-layer, overcast cloud decks having geometric thickness < 3000 m. Cloud optical depth is retrieved from irradiance in the interval 1022-1033 nm. The contrasting surface radiative influences of mixed-phase clouds and liquid-water clouds are discerned using irradiances in the 1.6-{micro}m window. Compared with liquid-water clouds, mixed-phase clouds during the Arctic spring cause a greater reduction of shortwave irradiance at the surface. At fixed conservative-scattering optical depth (constant optical depth for wavelengths {lambda} < 1100 nm), the presence of ice water in cloud reduces the near-IR surface irradiance by an additional several watts-per-meter-squared. This additional reduction, or supplemental ice absorption, is typically {approx}5 W m{sup -2} near solar noon over Barrow, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle. However, for some cloud decks this additional absorption can be as large as 8-10 W m{sup -2}.

  13. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  14. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment a NOAA ship in the Pacific Ocean and on a DOE- sponsored plane over land and sea. These researchers will study: (1) water sources, evolution and structure of...

  15. Magellan: experiences from a Science Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Zbiegel, Piotr; Campbell, Scott; Bradshaw, Rick; Canon, Richard; Coghlan, Susan; Sakrejda, Iwona; Desai, Narayan; Declerck, Tina; Liu, Anping

    2011-02-02

    Cloud resources promise to be an avenue to address new categories of scientific applications including data-intensive science applications, on-demand/surge computing, and applications that require customized software environments. However, there is a limited understanding on how to operate and use clouds for scientific applications. Magellan, a project funded through the Department of Energy?s (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program, is investigating the use of cloud computing for science at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Facility (NERSC). In this paper, we detail the experiences to date at both sites and identify the gaps and open challenges from both a resource provider as well as application perspective.

  16. Planning the Next Generation of Arctic Ecosystem Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, Larry D [International Arctic Research Center; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2011-01-01

    Climate Change Experiments in High-Latitude Ecosystems; Fairbanks, Alaska, 13-14 October 2010; A 2-day climate change workshop was held at the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. The workshop, sponsored by Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), was attended by 45 subject matter experts from universities, DOE national laboratories, and other federal and nongovernmental organizations. The workshop sought to engage the Arctic science community in planning for a proposed Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project in Alaska (http:// ngee.ornl.gov/). The goal of this activity is to provide data, theory, and models to improve representations of high-latitude terrestrial processes in Earth system models. In particular, there is a need to better understand the processes by which warming may drive increased plant productivity and atmospheric carbon uptake and storage in biomass and soils, as well as those processes that may drive an increase in the release of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) through microbial decomposition of soil carbon stored in thawing permafrost. This understanding is required to quantify the important feedback mechanisms that define the role of terrestrial processes in regional and global climate.

  17. A 10 Year Climatology of Arctic Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing at Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Crosby, Kathryn; Long, Charles N.; Stone, R. S.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2010-09-15

    A 10-yr record of Arctic cloud fraction and surface radiation budget has been generated using data collected from June 1998 to May 2008 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site and the nearby NOAA Barrow Observatory (BRW). The record includes the seasonal variations of cloud fraction (CF), cloud liquid water path (LWP), precipitable water vapor (PWV), surface albedo, shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes and cloud radative forcings (CRFs), as well as their decadal variations. Values of CF derived from different instruments and methods agree well, having an annual average of ~0.74. Cloudiness increases from March to May, remains high (~0.8-0.9) from May to October, and then decreases over winter. More clouds and higher LWP and PWV occurred during the warm season (May-October) than the cold season (November-April). These results are strongly associated with southerly flow which transports warm, moist air masses to Barrow from the North Pacific and over area of Alaska already free of snow during the warm season and with a dipole pattern of pressure in which a high is centered over the Beaufort Sea and low over the Aleutians during the cold season. The monthly means of estimated clear-sky and measured allsky SW-down and LW-down fluxes at the two facilities are almost identical with the annual mean differences less than 1.6 W m-2. The downwelling and upwelling LW fluxes remain almost constant from January to March, then increase from March and peak during July-August. SW-down fluxes are primarily determined by seasonal changes in the intensity and duration of insolation over Northern Alaska, and are also strongly dependent on cloud fraction and optical depth, and surface albedo. The monthly variations of NET CRF generally follow the cycle of SW CRF, modulated by LW effects. On annual average, the negative SW CRF and positive LW CRF tend to cancel, resulting in annual average NET CRF of 2-4.5 Wm-2. Arctic clouds have a 3 net

  18. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MC3E) Experiment (MC3E) Campaign Links Science Plan MC3E Website Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Inner Domain Thermodynamic Profiling during MC3E 2011.04.22, Turner, SGP Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers 2011.04.22, Williams, SGP Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment: 2DVD Support 2011.04.22, Schwaller, SGP Midlatitude

  20. Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

    2005-01-01

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ACAPEX Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2015.01.14, Morris, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections 2015.01.14, DeMott, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14, Leung, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or

  2. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jakob,...

  3. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair) ...

  4. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) ...

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet) ...

  6. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both

  7. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective The overarching objective of this field campaign is to make observations of the surface broadband radiative fluxes in combination with other measurements useful in characterizing cloud and aerosol properties. In addition to having large uncertainties, satellite data sets for the Southern Ocean are incomplete because they are not continuous, rarely sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems. This is

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  9. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S-band Radar (williams-sband) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-sband) This data was ...

  10. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...filer(williams-449prof) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449prof) This data was ...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14...

  12. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links MC3E Home News News & Press MC3E Backgrounder (PDF, 1.61MB) SGP Images ARM flickr site Field Blog ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 3.85 MB) Featured Data Plots SGP Data Plots (all) Experiment Planning Steering Committee Science Questions MC3E Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Meetings Cloud Life Cycle Working Group Contacts Michael Jensen, Lead Scientist Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) Thanks

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MICRE) govCampaignsMacquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Campaign Links Science Plan Backgrounder Baseline Instruments and Data Plots Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) 2016.03.01 - 2018.03.31 Lead Scientist : Roger Marchand Abstract Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model

  14. Using A-Train Arctic cloud observations to constrain and improve...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation anomalies to the 2007 Arctic sea ice loss Jennifer E. Kay 1,2 Andrew Gettelman 1 , Tristan L'Ecuyer 2 ,Graeme Stephens 2 , and Chris O'Dell 2 1 National Center for...

  15. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) 2011.04.22, Jensen, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers 2011.04.22 - 2011.06.06 Lead Scientist : Christopher Williams For data sets, see below.

  17. Electron cloud experiments at Fermilab: Formation and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    We have performed a series of experiments at Fermilab to explore the electron cloud phenomenon. The Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased four-fold in the Project X upgrade, and would be subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. We present measurements of the cloud formation in the Main Injector and experiments with materials for the mitigation of the Cloud. An experimental installation of Titanium-Nitride (TiN) coated beam pipes has been under study in the Main Injector since 2009; this material was directly compared to an adjacent stainless chamber through electron cloud measurement with Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs). Over the long period of running we were able to observe the secondary electron yield (SEY) change and correlate it with electron fluence, establishing a conditioning history. Additionally, the installation has allowed measurement of the electron energy spectrum, comparison of instrumentation techniques, and energydependent behavior of the electron cloud. Finally, a new installation, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, will allow direct SEY measurement of material samples irradiated in the accelerator.

  18. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O.; McInnes, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  19. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  20. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82 Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan RT Marchand SP Alexander A Protat December 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  1. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  2. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earths energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical parameterizations that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with

  3. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Bansemer, A.; Bharadwaj, N.; Carey, L. D.; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, S. M.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dolan, B.; Gerlach, J.; et al

    2015-12-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deepmore » convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. As a result, data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.« less

  4. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Bansemer, A.; Bharadwaj, N.; Carey, L. D.; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, S. M.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dolan, B.; Gerlach, J.; Giangrande, S. E.; Heymsfield, A.; Heymsfield, G.; Kollias, P.; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Neumann, A.; Poellot, M.; Rutledge, S. A.; Schwaller, M.; Tokay, A.; Williams, C. R.; Wolff, D. B.; Xie, S.; Zipser, E. J.

    2015-12-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. As a result, data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.

  5. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Mid-latitude Continental ...

  6. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in these Arctic clouds, which affect modeled cloud phase, cloud lifetime and radiative properties. ...

  7. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water

  8. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. ...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol,...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Ground-based Cloud Tomography Experiment at SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsGround-based Cloud Tomography Experiment at SGP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Ground-based Cloud Tomography Experiment at SGP 2009.05.26 - 2009.07.17 Lead Scientist : Dong Huang For data sets, see below. Abstract Knowledge of 3D cloud properties is pressingly needed in many research fields. One of the problems encountered when trying to represent 3D cloud fields in numerical

  11. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchand, RT; Protat, A; Alexander, SP

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Complex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cement, OK 400 34.957 N Pasture EBBR No No Phone line (only) installed October EF-26 ... The goals of the CLEX IOP are (1) to improve satellite determination of cloud base and ...

  13. Parameterization of the Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds during the ISDAC Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H

    2012-03-06

    This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction

  14. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an ... KEYWORDS: arctic clouds, cloud liquid water, microwave radiometer, ECMWF model, ...

  15. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, L. R.; Prather, K.; Ralph, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, R.; DeMott, P.; Fairall, C.; Fan, J.; Hagos, S.; Hughes, M.; Long, C.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; Wang, H.

    2014-09-01

    The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Understanding and modeling the fundamental processes that govern the large precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. is a critical test for the ability of climate models to predict the regional water cycle, including floods and droughts. Two elements of significant importance in predicting precipitation variability in the western U.S. are atmospheric rivers and aerosols. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced water vapor associated with the warm sector of extratropical cyclones over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic enhancement during landfall on the U.S. West Coast. While ARs are responsible for a large fraction of heavy precipitation in that region during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in post-frontal clouds, which are typically quite shallow, with tops just high enough to pass the mountain barrier. Such clouds are inherently quite susceptible to aerosol effects on both warm rain and ice precipitation-forming processes.

  16. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shupe, Matthew

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  17. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  18. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  19. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu X.; Lin W.; Xie, S.; Boyle, J.; Klein, S. A.; Shi, X.; Wang, Z.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M.; Liu, P. S. K.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2011-12-24

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m{sup -2}. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  20. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-12-24

    Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic Spring and Fall seasons performed under the Cloud- Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase stratocumulus, and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level clouds, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons and cloud fraction in the Spring season. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave (LW) radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. The model with a new ice nucleation parameterization moderately improves the model simulations by increasing cloud liquid water content in mixed-phase clouds through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron- Findeisen (WBF) process. The CAM5 single column model testing shows that change in the homogeneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C has a substantial impact on the modeled liquid water content through the slowing-down of liquid and rain-related processes. In contrast, collections of cloud ice by snow and cloud liquid by rain are of minor importance for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic.

  1. ARM - Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links TWP-ICE Home Tropical Western Pacific Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Experiment Data Sets Weather Summary (pdf, 6M) New York Workshop Presentations Experiment Planning TWP-ICE Proposal Abstract Detailed Experiment Description Science Plan (pdf, 1M) Operations Plan (pdf, 321K) Maps Contact Info Related Links Daily Report Report Archives Press Media Coverage TWP-ICE Fact Sheet (pdf, 211K) Press Releases TWP-ICE Images ARM flickr site <="" li=""

  2. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  3. Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Nuclei Recycling in the Maintenance of Cloud Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

  4. Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2011-01-31

    Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

  5. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  6. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 m wavelength relative to 11 m wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 m. This makes the 12/11 m absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 m Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  8. Validation of MODIS-Retrieved Cloud Fractions Using Whole Sky...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ARM) locales for the year 2002. Statistics concerning the frequency of cloud ... especially apparent in the arctic environment, will be shown and a preliminary ...

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Clouds and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clouds and radiation in the Arctic coastal system - effects of local heterogeneity Key, Erica University of Miami, RSMAS Minnett, Peter University of Miami Improving our...

  10. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intercomparison ...

  11. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg

    2015-12-28

    We proposed to analyze in-situ cloud data collected during ARM/ASR field campaigns to create databases of cloud microphysical properties and their uncertainties as needed for the development of improved cloud parameterizations for models and remote sensing retrievals, and for evaluation of model simulations and retrievals. In particular, we proposed to analyze data collected over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) Experiment and the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, over the North Slope of Alaska during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), and over the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) during The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), to meet the following 3 objectives; derive statistical databases of single ice particle properties (aspect ratio AR, dominant habit, mass, projected area) and distributions of ice crystals (size distributions SDs, mass-dimension m-D, area-dimension A-D relations, mass-weighted fall speeds, single-scattering properties, total concentrations N, ice mass contents IWC), complete with uncertainty estimates; assess processes by which aerosols modulate cloud properties in arctic stratus and mid-latitude cumuli, and quantify aerosol’s influence in context of varying meteorological and surface conditions; and determine how ice cloud microphysical, single-scattering and fall-out properties and contributions of small ice crystals to such properties vary according to location, environment, surface, meteorological and aerosol conditions, and develop parameterizations of such effects.In this report we describe the accomplishments that we made on all 3 research objectives.

  12. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) ...

  13. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud ...

  14. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.; Troyan, D.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Holdridge, D.; Kyrouac, J.; Schatz, J.

    2014-09-12

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a 6-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing datasets. Over the course of the 46 day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript describes the details of the instrumentationmore » used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings.« less

  15. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.; Troyan, D.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Holdridge, D.; Kyrouac, J.; Schatz, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, S.

    2015-01-27

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the US Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a six-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing data sets. Over the course of the 46-day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript provides details on the instrumentationmore » used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings. In addition, the impact of including the humidity corrections and quality controls on the thermodynamic profiles that are used in the derivation of a large-scale model forcing data set are investigated. The results show a significant impact on the derived large-scale vertical velocity field illustrating the importance of addressing these humidity biases.« less

  16. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    2012-04-01

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  17. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  18. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can we someday predict earthquakes? Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming New ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes-and when. March 14, 2016 Ice throughout the Arctic is vanishing due to a rapidly warming climate. Ice throughout the Arctic is vanishing due to a rapidly warming climate. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming Ice wedges are a particularly cool surface feature in the

  19. Science Cloud 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Cloud 2011 Science Cloud 2011 June 17, 2011 The Magellan teams at NERSC and Argonne recently presented a joint paper detailing their progress and conclusions. At Science Cloud 2011: The Second Workshop on Scientific Cloud Computing, in a paper titled "Magellan: Experiences from a Science Cloud" (PDF, 320KB), lead author Lavanya Ramakrishnan outlined the groups' most recent achievements and conclusions, including a successful run of real-time data analysis for the STAR

  20. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  1. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within the mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.

  2. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within themore » mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.« less

  3. Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds Harrington, Jerry The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase stratus clouds are dominant in the Arctic during much of the year. These clouds typically have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Time scales for the complete glaciation of such clouds (the Bergeron process) are typically computed using the classical mass growth equations for crystals and liquid drops. However, mixed phase arctic stratus have

  4. Arctic Energy Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 Arctic Energy Summit is a multi-disciplinary event expected to draw several hundred industry officials, scientists, academics, policy makers, energy professionals, and community leaders together to collaborate and share leading approaches on Arctic energy issues.

  5. Arctic Climate Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable ... Arctic Climate Measurements Global Climate Models Software Sustainable Subsurface ...

  6. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... European Journal of Physics 34(6): S111-S121. 9 JA Shaw, March 2016, DOESC-ARM-16-002 Shupe, MD, VP Walden, E Eloranta, T Uttal, JR Campbell, SM Starkweather, and M Shiobara. ...

  7. OPEN HOUSE - Climate Prisms: Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An interactive exploration of Arctic climate science through prisms of the visual arts, literary arts, info-vis, scientific presentations and more. Climate Prisms: Arctic is...

  8. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  9. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  10. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  11. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449_prof)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  12. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  13. Arctic Economics Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery,more » costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.« less

  14. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  15. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivey, Mark D.; Robinson, David G.; Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.; Peterson, Kara J.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Desilets, Darin Maurice; Reinert, Rhonda Karen

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  16. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of ice nuclei recycling in ...

  17. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2006-01-04

    The project is concerned with the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the U.S. Department of Energy's ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF). To facilitate the production of integrated cloud product by applying different algorithms to the ARM data streams, an advanced cloud classification algorithm was developed to classified clouds into eight types at the SGP site based on ground-based active and passive measurements. Cloud type then can be used as a guidance to select an optimal retrieval algorithm for cloud microphysical property retrieval. The ultimate goal of the effort is to develop an operational cloud classification algorithm for ARM data streams. The vision 1 IDL code of the cloud classification algorithm based on the SGP ACRF site observations was delivered to the ARM cloud translator during 2004 ARM science team meeting. Another goal of the project is to study midlevel clouds, especially mixed-phase clouds, by developing new retrieval algorithms using integrated observations at the ACRF sites. Mixed-phase clouds play a particular role in the Arctic climate system. A multiple remote sensor based algorithm, which can provide ice water content and effective size profiles, liquid water path, and layer-mean effective radius of water droplet, was developed to study arctic mixed-phase clouds. The algorithm is applied to long-term ARM observations at the NSA ACRF site. Based on these retrieval results, we are studying seasonal and interannual variations of arctic mixed-phase cloud macro- and micro-physical properties.

  18. Precipitating clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A suggestion for a new focus on cloud microphysical process study in the ARM program 1. Retrieving precipitating mixed- phase cloud properties Zhien Wang University of Wyoming zwang@uwyo.edu Retrieving Precipitating Mixed-phase Cloud Properties Global distribution of supercooled water topped stratiform clouds (top > 1 km and length> 14km) Most of them are mixed-phase with precipitation or virga An multiple sensor based approach to provide water phase as well as ice phase properties

  19. OPEN HOUSE - Climate Prisms: Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OPEN HOUSE - Climate Prisms: Arctic OPEN HOUSE - Climate Prisms: Arctic WHEN: Jul 17, 2015 12:00 PM - 1:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544, ...

  20. Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulations, and NIF Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and NIF Experiments You are ...

  1. Final Technical Report for "Ice nuclei relation to aerosol properties: Data analysis and model parameterization for IN in mixed-phase clouds" (DOE/SC00002354)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni; Sonia M. Kreidenweis

    2012-09-28

    Clouds play an important role in weather and climate. In addition to their key role in the hydrologic cycle, clouds scatter incoming solar radiation and trap infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere. Despite their importance, feedbacks involving clouds remain as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate models. To better simulate cloud processes requires better characterization of cloud microphysical processes, which can affect the spatial extent, optical depth and lifetime of clouds. To this end, we developed a new parameterization to be used in numerical models that describes the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations active to form ice crystals in mixed-phase (water droplets and ice crystals co-existing) cloud conditions as these depend on existing aerosol properties and temperature. The parameterization is based on data collected using the Colorado State University continuous flow diffusion chamber in aircraft and ground-based campaigns over a 14-year period, including data from the DOE-supported Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The resulting relationship is shown to more accurately represent the variability of ice nuclei distributions in the atmosphere compared to currently used parameterizations based on temperature alone. When implemented in one global climate model, the new parameterization predicted more realistic annually averaged cloud water and ice distributions, and cloud radiative properties, especially for sensitive higher latitude mixed-phase cloud regions. As a test of the new global IN scheme, it was compared to independent data collected during the 2008 DOE-sponsored Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). Good agreement with this new data set suggests the broad applicability of the new scheme for describing general (non-chemically specific) aerosol influences on IN number concentrations feeding mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds. Finally, the parameterization was implemented into a regional

  2. ARM - Measurement - Cloud size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements as cloud thickness, cloud area, and cloud aspect ratio. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  3. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2013-04-08

    Primary activities are reported in these areas: climate system component studies via one-way coupling experiments; development of the Regional Arctic Climate System Model (RACM); and physical feedback studies focusing on changes in Arctic sea ice using the fully coupled model.

  4. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  5. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Climate Perspectives: Change in the Terrestrial Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perspectives: Change in the Terrestrial Arctic Climate Perspectives An interactive exploration of Arctic climate science through prisms of the visual arts, literary arts, info-vis, ...

  7. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This

  8. ARM - Measurement - Cloud type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as cirrus, stratus, cumulus etc Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  9. Comparisons of cloud ice mass content retrieved from the radar-infrared radiometer method with aircraft data during the second international satellite cloud climatology project regional experiment (FIRE-II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matrosov, S.Y. |; Heymsfield, A.J.; Kropfli, R.A.; Snider, J.B.

    1996-04-01

    Comparisons of remotely sensed meteorological parameters with in situ direct measurements always present a challenge. Matching sampling volumes is one of the main problems for such comparisons. Aircraft usually collect data when flying along a horizontal leg at a speed of about 100 m/sec (or even greater). The usual sampling time of 5 seconds provides an average horizontal resolution of the order of 500 m. Estimations of vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters from aircraft measurements are hampered by sampling a cloud at various altitudes at different times. This paper describes the accuracy of aircraft horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the location of the ground-based instruments.

  10. CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2011-03-01

    The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

  11. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-s_band)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  12. Dispelling Clouds of Uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, Ernie; Teixeira, João

    2015-06-15

    How do you build a climate model that accounts for cloud physics and the transitions between cloud regimes? Use MAGIC.

  13. Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) begins its inaugural deployment November 2010 in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment, or STORMVEX. For six months, the comprehensive suite of AMF2 instruments will obtain measurements of cloud and aerosol properties at various sites

  14. A new way to study the changing Arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientists Susan Hubbard and Margaret Torn discuss the proposed Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, which is designed to answer one of the most urgent questions facing researchers today: How will a changing climate impact the Arctic, and how will this in turn impact the planet's climate? More info: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/09/14/alaska-climate-change/

  15. A new way to study the changing Arctic ecosystem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientists Susan Hubbard and Margaret Torn discuss the proposed Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, which is designed to answer one of the most urgent questions facing researchers today: How will a changing climate impact the Arctic, and how will this in turn impact the planet's climate? More info: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/09/14/alaska-climate-change/

  16. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  17. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This objective was successfully completed with a comparison of the two-year data set calibrated with and without the onboard blackbody. The two different calibration methods ...

  18. Relationship Between Arctic Clouds and Synoptic-Scale Variability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    strategyID strategyTitle decision Date RelatedUIIs ombInitiative useOfSavingsAvoidance netOr Gross amountType FY2012 Amount FY2013 Amount FY2014 Amount FY2015 Amount FY2016 Amount 2 Fossil Energy's (FE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center 11/01/2011 019-000000236 Other Per Congressional direction, RMOTC was decommissioned in FY2014 and the field site facility is closed. The Casper, Wyoming site (administrative office) reduced IT personnel by 2 FTEs as part of the disposition plan. DOE will

  19. Simulating Arctic mixed-phase clouds: Sensitivity to environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simplifying Solar Project Financing Simplifying Solar Project Financing January 16, 2014 - 10:05am Addthis The installation of this 2,244-panel photovoltaic system on Pinnacle Charter School in Denver, Colorado was fully funded by 456 American investors in 10 days. The project is expected to save the school $1.6 million in electricity costs over the next ten years.| Photo courtesy of Mosaic The installation of this 2,244-panel photovoltaic system on Pinnacle Charter School in Denver, Colorado

  20. 3rd Annual Arctic Encounter Symposium Seattle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arctic Encounter Symposium will convene policymakers, industry leaders, and leading experts to confront the leading issues in Arctic policy, innovation, and development. The two-day program includes two keynote luncheons, expert plenary sessions and breakout sessions.

  1. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  2. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-07-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tellsmore » how to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.« less

  3. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-07-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tellsmorehow to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.less

  4. Dispelling Clouds of Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Ernie; Teixeira, João

    2015-06-15

    How do you build a climate model that accounts for cloud physics and the transitions between cloud regimes? Use MAGIC.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Cloud location

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    point in space and time, typically expressed as a binary cloud mask. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  6. Climate change and the Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change and the Arctic Climate change and the Arctic WHEN: May 19, 2016 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Join us for convivial discussion on May 19 at 5:30 p.m. at UnQuarked Cathy Wilson, who heads the Lab's Atmosphere, Climate and Ecosystem Science team, is working to better understand what happens when warming climate

  7. The NGEE Arctic Data Archive -- Portal for Archiving and Distributing Data and Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, Thomas A; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Killeffer, Terri S; Krassovski, Misha B; Hook, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project is committed to implementing a rigorous and high-quality data management program. The goal is to implement innovative and cost-effective guidelines and tools for collecting, archiving, and sharing data within the project, the larger scientific community, and the public. The NGEE Arctic web site is the framework for implementing these data management and data sharing tools. The open sharing of NGEE Arctic data among project researchers, the broader scientific community, and the public is critical to meeting the scientific goals and objectives of the NGEE Arctic project and critical to advancing the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Biological and Environmental (BER) Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES) program.

  8. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and...

  9. Short-Term Arctic Cloud Statistics at NSA from the Infrared Cloud Imager

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: During the past 3-4 months, OPEC 10 production has risen more quickly than projected, thus reducing upward pressure on prices. More specifically, while the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price averaged $28.84 in October, about $6.70 per barrel above the year-ago level (Figure 1), the WTI average price for fourth quarter 2002 is now projected to soften to $28.20, which is about $2 per barrel below

  10. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  11. Atmospheric Rivers Coming to a Cloud Near You

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leung, Ruby

    2014-06-12

    Learn about the ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign in this short video. Ruby Leung, PNNL's lead scientist on this campaign's observational strategy to monitor precipitation.

  12. Atmospheric Rivers Coming to a Cloud Near You

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Ruby

    2014-03-29

    Learn about the ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign in this short video. Ruby Leung, PNNL's lead scientist on this campaign's observational strategy to monitor precipitation.

  13. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) Experiment and the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, over the North ...

  14. The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

    2000-04-04

    Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

  15. Evaluating Model Parameterizations of Arctic Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Parameterizations of Arctic Processes S. D. Greenberg, A. R. Metcalf, J. Y. Harrington, and J. Verlinde Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Introduction An understanding of the arctic climate system has become a high priority research area because of its importance to global climate change (IPCC 1990). Unfortunately, our studies of this region are in their infancy and we lack a broad knowledge of the Arctic. This deficiency is due to the scarcity of observations and

  16. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dataset: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic...

  17. Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep Convection. Integrating Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep Convection. Integrating Measurements and Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep ...

  18. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure ...

  19. Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update Low Clouds Update Jennifer Comstock Jennifer Comstock Dave Turner Dave Turner Andy Andy Vogelmann Vogelmann Instruments Instruments 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer Deployed during COPS AMF Deployed during COPS AMF Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Crewell Crewell & & L L ö ö hnert hnert ) ) See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening 183 GHz (GVR)

  20. ARM - Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These data will also help researchers gain a better understanding of the driving processes that control climate changes and determine the final state of the Arctic climate system....

  1. Arctic Microclimate Activity.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arctic Microclimates ARM Education Program Objective To identify, measure, and average microclimatic temperatures in a particular region. Materials Large white piece of paper Pencils and erasers 1 thermometer per student or group Important Points to Understand Have you ever noticed how much cooler it is in the shade than in direct sunlight? Of course! Temperature differences within a small area are indications of microclimates: very small-scale climate conditions. The following are a few examp

  2. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO₂ climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modest reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO₂ induced global warming.

  3. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO₂ climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modestmore » reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO₂ induced global warming.« less

  4. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Cloud extinction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud extinction The removal of radiant energy from an incident beam by the process of cloud absorption andor ...

  6. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana E. Veron

    2012-04-09

    This project had two primary goals: (1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and (2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, climatology of cloud properties was developed at the ARM CART sites, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed in the final report.

  7. Scientific Cloud Computing Misconceptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Cloud Computing Misconceptions Scientific Cloud Computing Misconceptions July 1, 2011 Part of the Magellan project was to understand both the possibilities and the limitations of cloud computing in the pursuit of science. At a recent conference, Magellan investigator Shane Canon outlined some persistent misconceptions about doing science in the cloud - and what Magellan has taught us about them. » Read the ISGTW story. » Download the slides (PDF, 4.1MB

  8. Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the discovered and undiscovered Arctic oil and natural gas resource base with respect to their location and concentration. The paper also discusses the cost and impediments to developing Arctic oil and natural gas resources, including those issues associated with environmental habitats and political boundaries.

  9. Warming increases methylmercury production in an Arctic soil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ziming; Fang, Wei; Lu, Xia; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua

    2016-04-29

    The rapid temperature rise in Arctic permafrost concerns not only the degradation of stored soil organic carbon (SOC) and climate feedback, but also the production and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) that may endanger humans, as well as wildlife in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Decomposition of SOC provides an energy source for microbial methylation, although little is known how rapid permafrost thaw affects Hg methylation and how SOC degradation is coupled to MeHg biosynthesis. We describe rates of MeHg production in Arctic soils from an 8-month warming microcosm experiment under anoxic conditions. MeHg production increased >10 fold in both organic-more » and the mineral-rich soil layers at a warmer temperature (8 C) compared to a sub-zero temperature ( 2 C). MeHg production was positively correlated to methane and ferrous ion concentrations, suggesting that Hg methylation is coupled with methanogenesis and iron reduction. Labile SOC, such as reducing sugars and alcohol, were particularly effective in fueling the initial rapid biosynthesis of MeHg. In freshly amended Hg we found that there was more bioavailable than existing Hg in the mineral soil. Finally, the data indicate that climate warming and permafrost thaw could greatly enhance MeHg production, thereby impacting Arctic aquatic and marine ecosystems through biomagnification in the food web.« less

  10. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  11. ARM - Measurement - Cloud fraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flux Analysis SWFLUXANAL : Shortwave Flux Analysis TSI : Total Sky Imager UAV-EGRETT : UAV-Egrett WSI : Whole Sky Imager WSICLOUD : Whole Sky Imager Cloud Products ...

  12. Finance Idol Word Cloud

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This word cloud represents the topics discussed during the Big and Small Ideas: How to Lower Solar Financing Costs breakout session at the SunShot Grand Challenge.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Cloud phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that involves property descriptors such as stratus, cumulus, and cirrus. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  14. Weakening of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex by Arctic Sea-Ice Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Joong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Shim, Taehyoun; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-02

    Successive cold winters of severely low temperatures in recent years have had critical social and economic impacts on the mid-latitude continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Although these cold winters are thought to be partly driven by dramatic losses of Arctic sea ice, the mechanism that links sea ice loss to cold winters remains a subject of debate. Here, by conducting observational analyses and model experiments, we show how Arctic sea ice loss and cold winters in extra-polar regions are dynamically connected through the polar stratosphere. We find that decreased sea ice cover during early winter months (November-December), especially over the Barents-Kara seas, enhance the upward propagation of planetary-scale waves with wavenumbers of 1 and 2, subsequently weakening the stratospheric polar vortex in mid-winter (January- February). The weakened polar vortex preferentially induces a negative phase of Arctic Oscillation at the surface, resulting in low temperatures in mid-latitudes.

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cirrus Cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements by the UAF Polarization Diversity Lidar during M-PACE Cirrus Cloud Measurements by the UAF Polarization Diversity Lidar during M-PACE Sassen, Kenneth University of Alaska Fairbanks Zhu, Jiang UAF During the final week of the September-October 2004 Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) conducted in and around the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska, cirrus clouds were unexpectedly prevalent. Overcoming earlier adversity, the

  16. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veron, Dana E

    2009-03-12

    This project had two primary goals: 1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and 2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed below.

  17. Posters A One-Dimensional Radiative Convective Model with Detailed Cloud Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Posters A One-Dimensional Radiative Convective Model with Detailed Cloud Microphysics J. Simmons, O. Lie-Svendsen, and K. Stamnes Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska The Arctic is a key element in determining the radiation budget of the earth. Within the polar regions, the net radiation (incoming solar radiation minus outgoing infrared radiation) is negative. To understand the role this energy deficit plays in the overall radiation budget, one must examine the

  18. Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics Virendra Ghate Bruce Albrecht Parameter Observational Readiness (/10) Modeling Need (/10) Cloud Boundaries 9 9 Cloud Fraction Variance Skewness Up/Downdraft coverage Dominant Freq. signal Dissipation rate ??? Observation-Modeling Interface

  19. Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiments - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  20. Cloud computing security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-10-01

    Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

  1. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  2. TC_CLOUD_REGIME.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intensity (e.g. May and Ballinger, 2007) Resulting Cloud Properties Examine rain DSD using polarimetric radar Examine ice cloud properties using MMCR and MPL Expect...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Cloud effective radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the number size distribution of cloud particles, whether liquid or ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  4. Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MiniBooNE Experiment September, 2002 SeptemMyungkee Sung (LSU/MiniBooNE) 4th International Workshop on the Identification of Dark Matter Cosmologically Interesting Region; Hot Dark Matter? LSND Signal at High ∆m 2 KARMEN II narrowed the signal region MiniBooNE will fully address this signal. Neutrino Osillation at High ∆m 2 LSND: Searching for ν µ →ν e ν µ - From µ + decay at rest with endpoint energy 53 MeV L = 30m, L/E ~ 1m/MeV, 167 tons of Mineral Oil Look for ν e Appearance: ν

  5. Gwich'in Solar and Energy Efficiency in the Arctic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manager Dave P-M - Tanana Chiefs Conference, Rural Energy Coordinator Gwich'in Solar and Energy Efficiency in the Arctic Yukon Flats Yukon Flats Region: * Arctic Village * 10...

  6. Picture of the Week: Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists work to understand the fate of this carbon using computer simulations such as this model of snowmelt draining from polygonal ground near Barrow, Alaska. April 26, 2015 Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic x Arctic soils currently store nearly 20 years worth of human emissions of carbon in frozen permafrost, but the Arctic is warming faster than most of the rest of the Earth, meaning that this carbon may soon

  7. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  8. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  9. Magellan: A Cloud Computing Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magellan News & Announcements Archive Petascale Initiative Exascale Computing APEX Home » R & D » Archive » Magellan: A Cloud Computing Testbed Magellan: A Cloud Computing Testbed Cloud computing is gaining a foothold in the business world, but can clouds meet the specialized needs of scientists? That was one of the questions NERSC's Magellan cloud computing testbed explored between 2009 and 2011. The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oce

  10. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  11. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (first echo). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  12. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  13. Drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds: Effects of turbulent mixing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Magaritz-Ronen, L.; Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.

    2016-02-17

    The mechanism of drizzle formation in shallow stratocumulus clouds and the effect of turbulent mixing on this process are investigated. A Lagrangian–Eularian model of the cloud-topped boundary layer is used to simulate the cloud measured during flight RF07 of the DYCOMS-II field experiment. The model contains ~ 2000 air parcels that are advected in a turbulence-like velocity field. In the model all microphysical processes are described for each Lagrangian air volume, and turbulent mixing between the parcels is also taken into account. It was found that the first large drops form in air volumes that are closest to adiabatic andmore » characterized by high humidity, extended residence near cloud top, and maximum values of liquid water content, allowing the formation of drops as a result of efficient collisions. The first large drops form near cloud top and initiate drizzle formation in the cloud. Drizzle is developed only when turbulent mixing of parcels is included in the model. Without mixing, the cloud structure is extremely inhomogeneous and the few large drops that do form in the cloud evaporate during their sedimentation. Lastly, it was found that turbulent mixing can delay the process of drizzle initiation but is essential for the further development of drizzle in the cloud.« less

  14. Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane cloud hunting Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting Los Alamos researchers go ... Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting When our team from Los Alamos National ...

  15. The diverse use of clouds by CMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andronis, Anastasios; Bauer, Daniela; Chaze, Olivier; Colling, David; Dobson, Marc; Fayer, Simon; Girone, Maria; Grandi, Claudio; Huffman, Adam; Hufnagel, Dirk; et al

    2015-01-01

    The resources CMS is using are increasingly being offered as clouds. In Run 2 of the LHC the majority of CMS CERN resources, both in Meyrin and at the Wigner Computing Centre, will be presented as cloud resources on which CMS will have to build its own infrastructure. This infrastructure will need to run all of the CMS workflows including: Tier 0, production and user analysis. In addition, the CMS High Level Trigger will provide a compute resource comparable in scale to the total offered by the CMS Tier 1 sites, when it is not running as part of themore » trigger system. During these periods a cloud infrastructure will be overlaid on this resource, making it accessible for general CMS use. Finally, CMS is starting to utilise cloud resources being offered by individual institutes and is gaining experience to facilitate the use of opportunistically available cloud resources. Lastly, we present a snap shot of this infrastructure and its operation at the time of the CHEP2015 conference.« less

  16. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with outside

  17. Evaluation of high‐level clouds in cloud resolving model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model 10.10022015MS000478 simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations Key Points: * Two-moment microphysics improves simulated ...

  18. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  19. Bringing Clouds into Focus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bringing Clouds into Focus Bringing Clouds into Focus A New Global Climate Model May Reduce the Uncertainty of Climate Forecasting May 11, 2010 Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov , +1 510 486 6008 Randall-fig4.png The large data sets generated by the GCRM require new analysis and visualization capabilities. This 3D plot of vorticity isosurfaces was developed using VisIt, a 3D visualization tool with a parallel distributed architecture, which is being extended to support the geodesic grid used

  20. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  1. TWP Island Cloud Trail Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These island cloud trails have been observed from both the islands of Nauru and Manus, Papua New Guinea. Figure 2 shows an island cloud at Manus observed from MTI and from the ...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Images of Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsImages of Clouds ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Images of Clouds Digital images of cloud scenes (various formats) from satellite, aircraft, and ground-based platforms. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  3. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  4. National Strategy for the Arctic Region | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Strategy for the Arctic Region National Strategy for the Arctic Region The National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR) outlines strategic priorities intended to position the United States to respond effectively to emerging opportunities in the region, while simultaneously pursuing efforts to protect and conserve its unique environment. Signed by President Obama on May 10, 2013, the National Strategy builds upon existing initiatives by federal, state, local, and tribal authorities;

  5. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Arctic Region |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Arctic Region Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Arctic Region Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with

  6. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E.

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  7. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  8. The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onstott, Tullis C; Pffifner, Susan M; Chourey, Karuna

    2014-11-07

    Our results to date indicate that CO2 and CH4 fluxes from organic poor, Arctic cryosols on Axel Heiberg Island are net CH4 sinks and CO2 emitters in contrast to organic-rich peat deposits at sub-Arctic latitudes. This is based upon field observations and a 1.5 year long thawing experiment performed upon one meter long intact cores. The results of the core thawing experiments are in good agreement with field measurements. Metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic analyses indicate that high affinity aerobic methanotrophs belong to the uncultivated USCalpha are present in <1% abundance in these cryosols are are active in the field during the summer and in the core thawing experiments. The methanotrophs are 100 times more abundant than the methanogens. As a result mineral cryosols, which comprise 87% of Arctic tundra, are net methane sinks. Their presence and activity may account for the discrepancies observed between the atmospheric methane concentrations observed in the Arctic predicted by climate models and the observed seasonal fluctuations and decadal trends. This has not been done yet.

  9. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 2. Analysis Discussion Resource Assessment The USGS most recent assessment of oil ...

  10. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Executive Summary This Service Report, Potential Oil Production from the ...

  11. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: ... of technically recoverable undiscovered oil are in the ANWR coastal plain, a 5 percent ...

  12. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: An Arctic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Arctic Springtime Mixed-Phase Cloudy Boundary Layer observed during SHEBA Zuidema, Paquita RSMASMPO University of Miami Han, Yong NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Intrieri,...

  13. Arctic Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Aerosols Transported from Europe to the Arctic For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:...

  14. The Rush to Exploit an Increasingly Ice-Free Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rush to Exploit an Increasingly Ice-Free Arctic - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy ...

  15. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  16. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: ... Section 1002 of ANILCA deferred a decision on the management of oil and gas exploration ...

  17. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and dynamics, and their role in key ecosystem processes in the Arctic. Authors: Sullivan, Paddy ; Sloan, Victoria ; Warren, Jeff ; McGuire, Dave ; Euskirchen, Eugenie ;...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsDeep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Campaign Links DC3 Experiment Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry 2012.05.01 - 2012.06.30 Lead Scientist : Christopher Cantrell Abstract The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) sought to understand the influence of convection on the upper troposphere which will lead to better understanding of radiative forcing and chemical

  19. Climate-derived tensions in Arctic security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, George A.; Strickland, James Hassler

    2008-09-01

    Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.

  20. Critical Mechanisms for the Formation of Extreme Arctic Sea-Ice Extent in the Summers of 2007 and 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xiquan; Zib, Benjamin J.; Xi, Baike; Stanfield, Ryan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lin, B.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-07-29

    A warming Arctic climate is undergoing significant e 21 nvironmental change, most evidenced by the reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent during the summer. In this study, we examine two extreme anomalies of September sea-ice extent in 2007 and 1996, and investigate the impacts of cloud fraction (CF), atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), downwelling longwave flux (DLF), surface air temperature (SAT), pressure and winds on the sea-ice variation in 2007 and 1996 using both satellite-derived sea-ice products and MERRA reanalysis. The area of the Laptev, East Siberian and West Chukchi seas (70-90oN, 90-180oE) has experienced the largest variation in sea-ice extent from year-to-year and defined here as the Area Of Focus (AOF). The record low September sea-ice extent in 2007 was associated with positive anomalies 30 of CF, PWV, DLF, and SAT over the AOF. Persistent anti-cyclone positioned over the Beaufort Sea coupled with low pressure over Eurasia induced easterly zonal and southerly meridional winds. In contrast, negative CF, PWV, DLF and SAT anomalies, as well as opposite wind patterns to those in 2007, characterized the 1996 high September sea-ice extent. Through this study, we hypothesize the following positive feedbacks of clouds, water vapor, radiation and atmospheric variables on the sea-ice retreat during the summer 2007. The record low sea-ice extent during the summer 2007 is initially triggered by the atmospheric circulation anomaly. The southerly winds across the Chukchi and East Siberian seas transport warm, moist air from the north Pacific, which is not only enhancing sea-ice melt across the AOF, but also increasing clouds. The positive cloud feedback results in higher SAT and more sea-ice melt. Therefore, 40 more water vapor could be evaporated from open seas and higher SAT to form more clouds, which will enhance positive cloud feedback. This enhanced positive cloud feedback will then further increase SAT and accelerate the sea-ice retreat during the

  1. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,; Coghlan, Susan; Yelick, Katherine

    2011-12-21

    The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), was to investigate the potential role of cloud computing in addressing the computing needs for the DOE Office of Science (SC), particularly related to serving the needs of mid- range computing and future data-intensive computing workloads. A set of research questions was formed to probe various aspects of cloud computing from performance, usability, and cost. To address these questions, a distributed testbed infrastructure was deployed at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The testbed was designed to be flexible and capable enough to explore a variety of computing models and hardware design points in order to understand the impact for various scientific applications. During the project, the testbed also served as a valuable resource to application scientists. Applications from a diverse set of projects such as MG-RAST (a metagenomics analysis server), the Joint Genome Institute, the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), were used by the Magellan project for benchmarking within the cloud, but the project teams were also able to accomplish important production science utilizing the Magellan cloud resources.

  2. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations: HIGH CLOUD IN CRM Authors: Liu, Zheng 1 ; Muhlbauer, Andreas 2 ; ...

  3. The 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CETEMPS Universita' dell'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy V. Mattioli Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica e dell'Informazione Perugia, Italy B. L. Weber and S. Dowlatshahi Science ...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Snowfall Experiment Snowfall Experiment ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment 2014.02.01 - 2014.04.30 Lead Scientist : Dmitri Moisseev For data sets, see below. Abstract The snowfall measurement campaign, took place during AMF2

  5. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themore » different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.« less

  6. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  7. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mesoscale Modeling During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment A. Avramov, J.Y. Harrington, and J. Verlinde The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Motivation Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic (Curry et al. 2000) and through various feedback mechanisms exert a strong influence on the Arctic climate. Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact

  8. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer I. Genkova and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington T. Besnard ATMOS SARL Le Mans, France D. Gillotay Institute d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Brussels, Belgium Introduction In the effort to resolve uncertainties about global climate change, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) is improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in general

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - LIQUID_CLOUD_SUMMARY.final.amv.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Subgroup Liquid Phase Subgroup B k t S f B k t S f Breakout Summary from Breakout Summary from Fall 2006 CPWG Fall 2006 CPWG Fall 2006 CPWG Fall 2006 CPWG (With Updates) (With Updates) Dave Turner and Andy Vogelmann ( p ) ( p ) Cloud Property Working Group Breakout Session 26 M h 2007 26 March 2007 Arm Science Team Meeting Monterey, California Sub Sub- -group Agenda: 9 Nov 2006 group Agenda: 9 Nov 2006 Presentations (7) Presentations (7) Wang Wang - - Refine Arctic Microwave Radiometer LWP

  10. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Stakeholder Outreach Meeting: Barrow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  11. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Stakeholder Outreach Meeting: Fairbanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  12. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Stakeholder Outreach Meeting: Nome

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  13. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Stakeholder Outreach Meeting: Bethel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  14. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Stakeholder Outreach Meeting: Anchorage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region. The purpose of this round is to give feedback on the elements of the draft plan.

  15. National Strategy for the Arctic Tribal Consultation Session: Fairbanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  16. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Tribal Consultation Session: Bethel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  17. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Tribal Consultation Session: Nome

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  18. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Tribal Consultation Session: Barrow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  19. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator ...

  20. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  1. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems Research Instrumentation HI-SCALE will utilize the ARM Aerial Facility's Gulfstream-159 (G-1), as well as ground instrumentation located at the SGP megasite. 7e G-1 will complete transects over the site at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer, within clouds, and above clouds. 7e payload on the G-1 includes: * high frequency meteorological and radiation (both up and downwelling) measurements that also permit computing

  2. Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight from Landsat ETM+ G. Wen and L. Oreopoulos National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center University of Maryland Baltimore County Joint Center of Earth System Technology Greenbelt, Maryland R. F. Cahalan and S. C. Tsay National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Cumulus clouds attenuate solar radiation casting shows on the ground. Cumulus clouds can also enhance solar

  3. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weather and Forecasting During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment V.T. Yannuzzi, E. Clothiaux, H. Verlinde, and J. Harrington Department of Meteorology Pennsylvania State University Mont Alto, Pennsylvania Introduction and Important Events Prior to Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) was conducted across the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) during September 27-October 22, 2004. The experiment was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Atmospheric

  4. ARM - Measurement - Cloud ice particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Lear Jet PARTIMG : Particle imager UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics ... particle imager MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation UAV-PROTEUS : UAV Proteus

  5. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park ...

  6. ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TWST : Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique Sensor WRF-CHEM : Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Output Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Cloud condensation nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CCN : Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AMT : Aerosol Modeling...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Cloud top height

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RUC : Rapid Update Cycle Model Data Field Campaign Instruments CO2LIDAR : Carbon Dioxide Doppler Lidar MPLCMASK : Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar VARANAL : Constrained...

  9. Path to Economic Sovereignty: Arctic Opportunities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Economic Sovereignty: Arctic Opportunities Presented by Kip Knudson Office of Alaska Governor Bill Walker Slide Deck prepared by Sean Skaling, Director, Alaska Energy Authority Photo by Chuck Berray 200 remote microgrids spread over large area  Population: 735,000  Area: 660,000 sq. miles  1.2 people/sq. mile  New Jersey has 1,000 times the density  About 200 stand-alone microgrid communities 3 Alaska Electrical Generation Railbelt 72% of Pop 76% of Energy Natural Gas*

  10. Widget:LogoCloud | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LogoCloud Jump to: navigation, search This widget adds css selectors and javascript for the Template:LogoCloud. For example: Widget:LogoCloud Retrieved from "http:...

  11. Zenith Radiance Retrieval of Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of cloud properties from the AMF/COPS campaign Preliminary retrievals of cloud properties from the AMF/COPS campaign Christine Chiu, UMBC/JCET Alexander Marshak, GSFC Yuri Knyazikhin, Boston University Warren Wiscombe, GSFC Christine Chiu, UMBC/JCET Alexander Marshak, GSFC Yuri Knyazikhin, Boston University Warren Wiscombe, GSFC The cloud optical properties of interest are: The cloud optical properties of interest are: * Cloud optical depth τ - the great unknown * Radiative cloud

  12. Predicting and validating the tracking of a Volcanic Ash Cloud during the 2006 Eruption of Mt. Augustine Volcano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webley, Peter W.; Atkinson, D.; Collins, Richard L.; Dean, K.; Fochesatto, J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Cahill, Catherine F.; Prata, A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mizutani, K.

    2008-11-01

    On 11 January 2006, Mount Augustine volcano in southern Alaska began erupting after 20-year repose. The Anchorage Forecast Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) issued an advisory on 28 January for Kodiak City. On 31 January, Alaska Airlines cancelled all flights to and from Anchorage after multiple advisories from the NWS for Anchorage and the surrounding region. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) had reported the onset of the continuous eruption. AVO monitors the approximately 100 active volcanoes in the Northern Pacific. Ash clouds from these volcanoes can cause serious damage to an aircraft and pose a serious threat to the local communities, and to transcontinental air traffic throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Within AVO, a dispersion model has been developed to track the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds. The model, Puff, was used operational by AVO during the Augustine eruptive period. Here, we examine the dispersion of a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Augustine across Alaska from 29 January through the 2 February 2006. We present the synoptic meteorology, the Puff predictions, and measurements from aerosol samplers, laser radar (or lidar) systems, and satellites. UAF aerosol samplers revealed the presence of volcanic aerosols at the surface at sites where Puff predicted the ash clouds movement. Remote sensing satellite data showed the development of the ash cloud in close proximity to the volcano and a sulfur-dioxide cloud further from the volcano consistent with the Puff predictions. Lidars showed the presence of volcanic aerosol with consistent characteristics aloft over Alaska and were capable of detecting the aerosol, even in the presence of scattered clouds and where the cloud is too thin/disperse to be detected by remote sensing satellite data. The lidar measurements revealed the different trajectories of ash consistent with the Puff predictions. Dispersion models provide a forecast of volcanic ash cloud movement that might be

  13. [Multifractal cloud properties data assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, C.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Peterson, P.; Lavallee, D. ); Frouin, R.; Lubin, D. ); Lovejoy, S. ); Schertzer, D. )

    1992-05-06

    Our group has been very active over the last year, analyzing a number of data sets to characterize multifractal cloud properties and assess the effects of clouds on surface radiation properties (spectral and broadband). The data sets analyzed include: AVHRR observations of clouds over the ocean, SPOT observations of clouds over the ocean, SSM/I observations of clouds over the ocean, pyranometer data with all-sky photographs, pyrgeometer data all-sky photographs, and spectral surface irradiance all-sky photographs. A number of radiative transfer computations have been performed to help in the interpretation of these observations or provide theoretical guidance for their analysis. Finally 4 number of radiative transfer models have been acquired and tested to prepare for the interpretation of ARM/CART data.

  14. Satellite determination of stratus cloud microphysical properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of liquid water path from SSMI, broadband albedo from ERBE, and cloud characteristics from ISCCP are used to study stratus regions. An average cloud liquid water path of ...

  15. Clouds Environmental Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clouds Environmental Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clouds Environmental Ltd Place: Portsmouth, United Kingdom Zip: PO3 5EG Product: Independent consultancy specialising in...

  16. Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ackerman et al. 1999), to develop cloud statistics and improve the treatment of subgrid ... and Curry 1989; Liang and Wang 1997). Statistics of Subgrid Cloud Variability We have ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsArctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign Links Science Plan ALTOS Website Related Campaigns Supplement to Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) 2010.10.01, Verlinde, NSA Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) 2010.10.01 - 2010.12.31 Website : http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/altos/ Lead Scientist : Johannes Verlinde Abstract NOTE: An

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Supplement to Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure (ALTOS) govCampaignsSupplement to Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Related Campaigns Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) 2010.10.01, Verlinde, NSA Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Supplement to Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) 2010.10.01 - 2010.12.31 Lead Scientist : Johannes Verlinde Abstract NOTE: An unfortunate incident in the early stages of ALTOS

  19. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment, and the ARM Mobile Facility's deployments at Point Reyes National Seashore and Niamey, Niger, West Africa. ARM researchers, including ARM's...

  20. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Military Facilities, Restricted Airspace Okayed to Support Arctic Cloud Experiment Bookmark and Share As shown in this aerial photo of Oliktok Point, Alaska, the USAF Long Range ...

  1. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition

  2. Analysis of global radiation budgets and cloud forcing using three-dimensional cloud nephanalysis data base. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, B.

    1990-12-01

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer model was used to compute the global radiative budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface for January and July. 1979. The model was also used to determine the global cloud radiative forcing for all clouds and for high and low cloud layers. In the computations. the authors used the monthly cloud data derived from the Air Force Three-Dimensional Cloud Nephanalysis (3DNEPH). These data were used in conjunction with conventional temperature and humidity profiles analyzed during the 1979 First GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Global Experiment (FGGE) year. Global surface albedos were computed from available data and were included in the radiative transfer analysis. Comparisons of the model-produced outgoing solar and infrared fluxes with those derived from Nimbus 7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERS) data were made to validate the radiative model and cloud cover. For reflected solar and emitted infrared (IR) flux, differences within 20 w/sq m meters were shown.

  3. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice wedges are a particularly cool surface feature in the Arctic tundra. And new research suggests they are melting fast, which is bad news for the ecosystem at the top of the ...

  4. The unseen iceberg: Plant roots in arctic tundra (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ecosystems in the Arctic. Authors: Iversen, Colleen M 1 ; Sloan, Victoria L 1 ; Sullivan, Patrick F. 2 ; Euskirchen, Eugenie S 2 ; McGuire, A. David 2 ; Norby, Richard...

  5. Final Report for “Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions” (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Somerville, Richard C.J.; Burrows, Susannah; Rasch, Phil

    2015-12-12

    Description of the Project: This project has improved the aerosol formulation in a global climate model by using innovative new field and laboratory observations to develop and implement a novel wind-driven sea ice aerosol flux parameterization. This work fills a critical gap in the understanding of clouds, aerosol, and radiation in polar regions by addressing one of the largest missing particle sources in aerosol-climate modeling. Recent measurements of Arctic organic and inorganic aerosol indicate that the largest source of natural aerosol during the Arctic winter is emitted from crystal structures, known as frost flowers, formed on a newly frozen sea ice surface [Shaw et al., 2010]. We have implemented the new parameterization in an updated climate model making it the first capable of investigating how polar natural aerosol-cloud indirect effects relate to this important and previously unrecognized sea ice source. The parameterization is constrained by Arctic ARM in situ cloud and radiation data. The modified climate model has been used to quantify the potential pan-Arctic radiative forcing and aerosol indirect effects due to this missing source. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Li Xu) for two years and contributed to the training and research of an undergraduate student. This research allowed us to establish a collaboration between SIO and PNNL in order to contribute the frost flower parameterization to the new ACME model. One peer-reviewed publications has already resulted from this work, and a manuscript for a second publication has been completed. Additional publications from the PNNL collaboration are expected to follow.

  6. Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A good range of cloud conditions were observed from clear sky to heavy rainfall. Authors: Niple, E. R. 1 ; Scott, H. E. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Aerodyne Research, Inc., ...

  7. Posters Ship-Based Measurements of Cloud Optical Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Ship-Based Measurements of Cloud Optical Properties During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment A. B. White Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado at Boulder National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado C. W. Fairall National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition

  8. cloud | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 13:42 How cleantech-as-a-service will drive renewable energy adoption 2015 adoption Big Data clean tech clean-tech cleantech cleantech forum cleantech-as-a-service cloud...

  9. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  10. Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) will raise and lower a heavily instrumented tethered balloon system at regular intervals in the lower 2 kilometers of the atmosphere at Oliktok Point. Data obtained during the ALTOS campaign will provide a statistically significant set of observed in situ cloud properties for validating retrieval algorithms and help scientists reduce the uncertainty in the radiative forcing and heating rates on hourly time scales. The data will also help researchers

  11. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of high-level clouds in ...

  12. Seasonal and Intra-annual Controls on CO2 Flux in Arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walter; Kalhori, Aram

    2015-12-01

    In order to advance the understanding of the patterns and controls on the carbon budget in the Arctic region, San Diego State University has maintained eddy covariance flux towers at three sites in Arctic Alaska, starting in 1997.

  13. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  14. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, Christine; Mann, Julia; O Connor, Ewan; Hogan, Robin; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palinkonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  15. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; et al

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulusmore » and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.« less

  16. Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-03-01

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 38 deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009-December 2010) 39 comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric 40 Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is 41 to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the 42 marine boundary layer. 43 Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the 44 Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and 45 cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus 46 occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar 47 echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-48 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide 49 range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of 50 sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way 51 interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation 52 and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. 53 The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety 54 of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they 55 reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, 56 but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to 57 be a long-term ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  17. Progress on the Fabric for Frontier Experiments Project at Fermialb...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sites along with dedicated and commercial cloud resources. The FIFE project has made significant progress integrating into experiment computing operations several services including ...

  18. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... BENCH-SCALE EXPERIMENTS Uncertainty-Mathematical models.; Validation-Simulation.; Experimental design. Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView ...

  19. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  20. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools book detailing DOE's EnergySmart Schools Program for Arctic Climates.

  1. Preliminary Studies on the Variational Assimilation of Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies on the Variational Assimilation of Cloud-Radiation Observations Using ARM ... A linearized cloud scheme and a radiation scheme including cloud effects have been ...

  2. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United Kingdom Language: English Word Cloud ...

  3. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud ...

  4. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  5. Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Hailong; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Xie, Shaocheng

    2012-02-17

    , suggesting that the Arctic region continues to challenge cloud simulations in climate models. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF and fail to capture the seasonal variation of CF at middle and low levels in the tropics. The high altitude CF is much larger in the GCMs than the observation and the inter-model variability of CF also reaches maximum at high levels in the tropics. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF by 50-150% relative to the measurement average at low and middle levels over SGP. While the GCMs generally capture the maximum CF in the boundary layer and vertical variability, the inter-model deviation is largest near surface over the Arctic. The internal variability of CF simulated in ensemble runs with the same model is very minimal.

  6. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  7. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  8. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  9. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  10. Researching Impact of Clouds on Solar Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) researchers developed a new system to monitor how clouds affect large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants. By observing cloud shape, size and movement, the...

  11. ARM Cloud Properties Working Group: Meeting Logistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 1630: J. Comstock - Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth (CLOWD) 1630 to 1645: B. Albrecht - Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CLAP-MBL) 1645 to ...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The primary objective of the Cloud IOP was to generate a multi-platform data set that can ... Given the diversity of cloud types sampled during the IOP, the analysis of this data set ...

  13. Evaluating the MMF Using CloudSat

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its cloud Evaluate the MMF and improve its cloud simulations simulations Borrowed from Dave Randall, CSU The big picture The big picture ... ... . . Data ARM A-Train, MISR etc. ...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle number concentration The total number of cloud particles present in any given volume...

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave

  17. What Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die? What Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die? Simulations Show Raindrops Physics May Affect Climate Model Accuracy February 19, 2015 thunderstorm Brazil shuttle NASA 1984 540 PNNL scientists used real-world observations to simulate how small clouds are likely to stay shallow, while larger clouds grow deeper because they mix with less dry air. Pictured are small and large thunderstorms growing over southern Brazil, taken from the space shuttle. Image: NASA Johnson Space

  18. Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Schlosser, Courtney; Melillo, Jerry; Walter, Katey

    2015-09-15

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  19. ARM Data for Cloud Parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-10-02

    The PI's ARM investigation (DE-IA02-02ER633 18) developed a physically-based subgrid-scale saturation representation that fully considers the direct interactions of the parameterized subgrid-scale motions with subgrid-scale cloud microphysical and radiative processes. Major accomplishments under the support of that interagency agreement are summarized in this paper.

  20. Unlocking the Secrets of Clouds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clouds may look soft, fluffy and harmless to the untrained eye, but to an expert climate model scientist they represent great challenges. Fortunately the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate and Research Facility is kicking off a five-month study which should significantly clear the air.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) govCampaignsIntegrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) 2014.03.01 - 2014.07.01 Lead Scientist : Gerald Mace For data sets, see below. Abstract IPHEX -

  2. What Goes Up Must Come Down: The Lifecycle of Convective Clouds (492nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael

    2014-02-19

    Some clouds look like cotton balls and others like anvils. Some bring rain, some snow and sleet, and others, just shade. But, whether big and billowy or dark and stormy, clouds affect far more than the weather each day. Armed with measurements of clouds’ updrafts and downdrafts—which resemble airflow in a convection oven—and many other atmospheric interactions, scientists from Brookhaven Lab and other institutions around the world are developing models that are crucial for understanding Earth’s climate and forecasting future climate change. During his lecture, Dr. Jensen provides an overview of the importance of clouds in the Earth’s climate system before explaining how convective clouds form, grow, and dissipate. His discussion includes findings from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a major collaborative experiment between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA scientists to document precipitation, clouds, winds, and moisture in 3-D for a holistic view of convective clouds and their environment.

  3. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  4. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  5. Coupling Between Oceanic Upwelling and Cloud-aerosol Properties at the AMF Point Reyes Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M.; Jensen, M.; Miller, M.; Kollias, P.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Turner, D.; Andrews, E.; Jefferson, A.; Daum, P.

    2008-03-10

    Cloud microphysical properties measured at the ARM Mobile Facility site located on the northern coast of California near Point Reyes, during the 2005 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol and Drizzle experiment, were analyzed to determine their relationship to the coastal sea surface temperature (SST) which was characterized using measurements acquired from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration offshore buoy. An increase in SST resulting from a relaxation of upwelling, occurring in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of California in summer is observed to strongly correlate with nearby ground measured cloud microphysical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Correlations between these atmospheric and oceanic features provide insight into the interplay between the ocean and cloud radiative properties. We present evidence of this robust correlation and examine the factors controlling these features. The marine boundary layer is in direct contact with the sea surface and is strongly influenced by SST. Moisture and vertical motion are crucial ingredients for cloud development and so we examine the role of SST in providing these key components to the atmosphere. Although upwelling of cold subsurface waters is conventionally thought to increase aerosols in the region, thus increasing clouds, here we observed a relaxation of upwelling associated with changes in the structure of marine stratus clouds. As upwelling relaxes, the SST get warmer, thick clouds with high liquid water paths are observed and persist for a few days. This cycle is repeated throughout the summer upwelling season. A concomitant cyclic increase and decrease of CCN concentration is also observed. Forcing mechanisms and large-scale atmospheric features are discussed. Marine stratocumulus clouds are a critical component of the earth's radiation budget and this site provides an excellent opportunity to study the influence of SST on these clouds.

  6. Potential impacts of the Arctic on interannual and interdecadal summer precipitation over China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yuefeng; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-02-01

    After the end of the 1970s, there has been a tendency for enhanced summer precipitation over South China and the Yangtze River valley and drought over North China and Northeastern China. Coincidentally, Arctic ice concentration has decreased since the late 1970s, with larger reduction in summer than spring. However, the Arctic warming is more significant in spring than summer, suggesting that spring Arctic conditions could be more important in their remote impacts. This study investigates the potential impacts of the Arctic on summer precipitation in China. The leading spatial patterns and time coefficients of the unfiltered, interannual, and interdecadal precipitation (1960-2008) modes were analyzed and compared using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, which shows that the first three EOFs can capture the principal precipitation patterns (northern, central and southern patterns) over eastern China. Regression of the Arctic spring and summer temperature onto the time coefficients of the leading interannual and interdecadal precipitation modes shows that interdecadal summer precipitation in China is related to the Arctic spring warming, but the relationship with Arctic summer temperature is weak. Moreover, no notable relationships were found between the first three modes of interannual precipitation and Arctic spring or summer temperatures. Finally, correlations between summer precipitation and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index from January to August were investigated, which indicate that summer precipitation in China correlates with AO only to some extent. Overall, this study suggests important relationships between the Arctic spring temperature and summer precipitation over China at the interdecadal time scale.

  7. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  8. Clouds, Aerosols and Precipitation in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Graciosa Island, Azores, NE Atlantic Ocean Graciosa Island, Azores, NE Atlantic Ocean May 2009-December 2010 May 2009-December 2010 Rob Wood, University of Washington Rob Wood, University of Washington AMF Deployment Team Thanks to Mark Miller: AMF Site Scientist Mark Miller: AMF Site Scientist Kim Nitschke: AMF Site Manager CAP-MBL Proposal Team Importance of Low-Clouds for Climate Imperative that we understand the processes controlling the formation,

  9. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud

  10. An experience report : Porting the MG-RAST Rapid Metagenomics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An experience report : Porting the MG-RAST Rapid Metagenomics Analysis Pipeline to the Cloud Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An experience report : Porting the MG-RAST ...

  11. Interaction of clouds, radiation, and the tropical warm pool sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, N.; Zhang, G.J.; Barnett, T.P.; Ramanathan, V.

    1996-04-01

    The primary focus of this study is the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). In this study, we combine in-situ observations Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere [TOGA]-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment [COARE] and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment [CEPEX] with satellite cloud data.

  12. Evaluation of Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Sa...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Satellite and Cloud Radar Y. Luo and S. K. Krueger University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Introduction Because of both the various effects clouds exert on the earth-atmospheric system and the cloud feedback, correct representations of clouds in numerical models are critical for accurate climate modeling and weather forecast. Unfortunately, determination of clouds and their radiative

  13. Active probing of cloud thickness and optical depth using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60{sup o} full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Section 2 covers the up-to-date evolution of the nighttime WAIL instrument at LANL. Section 3 reports our progress towards daytime capability for WAIL, an important extension to full diurnal cycle monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter. Section 4 describes briefly how the important cloud properties can be inferred from WAIL signals.

  14. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunke, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  15. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment References Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383(2000) (Washington, DC, December 1999), Table A11. Energy Information Administration, Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, SR/RNGD/87-01 (Washington, DC, September 1987). U.S. Department of Interior, Arctic National

  16. Fault Tolerance and Scaling in e-Science Cloud Applications: Observations from the Continuing Development of MODISAzure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Humphrey, Marty; Cheah, You-Wei; Ryu, Youngryel; Agarwal, Deb; Jackson, Keith; van Ingen, Catharine

    2010-04-01

    It can be natural to believe that many of the traditional issues of scale have been eliminated or at least greatly reduced via cloud computing. That is, if one can create a seemingly wellfunctioning cloud application that operates correctly on small or moderate-sized problems, then the very nature of cloud programming abstractions means that the same application will run as well on potentially significantly larger problems. In this paper, we present our experiences taking MODISAzure, our satellite data processing system built on the Windows Azure cloud computing platform, from the proof-of-concept stage to a point of being able to run on significantly larger problem sizes (e.g., from national-scale data sizes to global-scale data sizes). To our knowledge, this is the longest-running eScience application on the nascent Windows Azure platform. We found that while many infrastructure-level issues were thankfully masked from us by the cloud infrastructure, it was valuable to design additional redundancy and fault-tolerance capabilities such as transparent idempotent task retry and logging to support debugging of user code encountering unanticipated data issues. Further, we found that using a commercial cloud means anticipating inconsistent performance and black-box behavior of virtualized compute instances, as well as leveraging changing platform capabilities over time. We believe that the experiences presented in this paper can help future eScience cloud application developers on Windows Azure and other commercial cloud providers.

  17. Testing a New Cirrus Cloud Parameterizaton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing a New Cirrus Cloud Parameterization in NCAR CCM3 D. Zurovac-Jevtic, G. J. Zhang, and V. Ramanathan Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institute of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cirrus cloud cover and ice water content (IWC) are the two most important properties of cirrus clouds. However, in general circulation models (GCMs), their treatment is very crude. For example, in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM3), IWC is

  18. Proceedings of the ninth international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbas, S.T.; Chao, J.C.; Orgill, G.; Wang, A.T.; Wang, Y.S. ); Ayers, R.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The proceeding in the book are covered under the following headings: Pipeline Materials and Welding; Pipeline Design; Pipeline Stability; and Arctic Pipelines.

  19. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, Paddy; Sloan, Victoria; Warren, Jeff; McGuire, Dave; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Norby, Richard; Iversen, Colleen; Walker, Anthony; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-01-13

    A synthesis of the available literature on tundra root distribution and dynamics, and their role in key ecosystem processes in the Arctic.

  20. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National ...

  1. ARM - Evaluation Product - Cloud Classification VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties includes cloud boundaries, thickness, phase, type, and precipitation information, and hence provides a useful tool for evaluation of model simulations and...

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) The constrained variational ...

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Spring Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSpring Cloud IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Spring Cloud IOP 2000.03.01 - 2000.03.26 Lead Scientist : Gerald Mace For data sets, see below. Summary The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program conducted a Cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP) in March 2000 that was the first-ever effort to document the 3-dimensional cloud field from observational data. Prior

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Cloud Radar IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aerosol properties during clear-sky conditions. The ETL Radar Meteorology and Oceanography Division will field their NOAAK scanning cloud radar near the new ARM millimeter...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  6. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Tag Cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database Tag Cloud This tag cloud is a specific type of weighted list that provides a quick look at the content of the DOE R&D Accomplishments database. It can be easily browsed because terms are in alphabetical order. With this tag cloud, there is a direct correlation between font size and quantity. The more times a term appears in the bibliographic citations, the larger the font size. This tag cloud is also interactive. Clicking on a term will activate a search for that term. Search

  7. The LANL Cloud-Aerosol Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that incorporates two unique aspects in its formulation. First, the model employs a nonlinear solver that requires cloud-aerosol parameterizations be smooth or contain reasonable...

  8. Fragmentation in rotating isothermal protostellar clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tohline, J.E.; Black, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an extensive set of 3-D hydrodynamic calculations that have been performed to investigate the susceptibility of rotating clouds to gravitational fragmentation are presented. (GHT)

  9. What Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were born and grew. Those formulas did not always reflect reality. With more advanced computers came the ability to explicitly simulate large-cloud systems instead of approximating...

  10. Ground-based Microwave Cloud Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Courtesy of Bernhard Mayer Cloud structure important to radiation - Cumulus (Benner & Evans 2001, Pincus et al. 2005), deep convection (DiGiuseppe & Tompkins 2003) - Horizontal...

  11. Mountain-induced Dynamics Influence Cloud Phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-2011 via coordinated projects targeting clouds, precipitation, and dynamics in the Park Range of Colorado. The National Science Foundation sponsored aircraft measurements as...

  12. Analysis of gas chilling alternatives for Arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvoiris, A.; McMillan, D.K.; Taksa, B.

    1994-12-31

    The operation of buried natural gas pipelines in Arctic regions requires installation of gas chilling facilities at compressor stations. These facilities are required in order to cool compressed pipeline gases to temperatures below that of permanently frozen surrounding soil. If these pipeline gas temperatures are too high, the frozen ground around the pipelines will eventually thaw. This is undesirable for many reasons amongst which are ground settlement and possible catastrophic failure of the pipeline. This paper presents the results of a study which compared several alternative methods of gas chilling for possible application at one of the compressor stations on the proposed new Yamal-Center gas pipeline system in the Russian Arctic. This technical and economic study was performed by Gulf Interstate Engineering (GIE) for GAZPROM, the gas company in Russia that will own and operate this new pipeline system. Geotechnical, climatical and other information provided by GAZPROM, coupled with information developed by GIE, formed the basis for this study.

  13. Tanker under retrofit for arctic service gets new propulsion design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-26

    The world's largest azimuthing propulsion drive will be installed on an oil tanker under retrofit for arctic service by a Finnish shipyard. And plans call for the drive's installation on four 135,000 cu m LNG carriers. The 11.4-mw (15,275 hp) Azipod azimuthing electric propulsion drive is being installed on Nemarc's 16,000 dwt arctic tanker M/T Uikku. The major difference between the Azipod system and traditional Z-type thrusters is that the Azipod's propulsion motor is an electric ac synchronous motor located inside the azimuthing unit. The motor drives a fixed-pitch propeller and is speed-controlled (0--100%) by a cycloconverter. The rotatable Azipod drive enables full power thrust in any desired direction.

  14. Arctic sea ice modeling with the material-point method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2010-04-01

    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in global climate by reflecting solar radiation and insulating the ocean from the atmosphere. Due to feedback effects, the Arctic sea ice cover is changing rapidly. To accurately model this change, high-resolution calculations must incorporate: (1) annual cycle of growth and melt due to radiative forcing; (2) mechanical deformation due to surface winds, ocean currents and Coriolis forces; and (3) localized effects of leads and ridges. We have demonstrated a new mathematical algorithm for solving the sea ice governing equations using the material-point method with an elastic-decohesive constitutive model. An initial comparison with the LANL CICE code indicates that the ice edge is sharper using Materials-Point Method (MPM), but that many of the overall features are similar.

  15. 05684ArcticLakes | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Artificial Barriers to Augment Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes Last Reviewed 6/26/2013 DE-NT0005684 Goal The goal of this project is to implement a snow control practice to enhance snow drift formation as a local water source to recharge a depleted lake despite possible unfavorable climate and hydrology preconditions (i.e., surface storage deficit and/or low precipitation). Performer University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK Background Snow is central to activities in

  16. New generation Arctic Drilling System: Overview of first year's performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, J.K.S.; Cusack, K.P.; Stamberg, J.C.

    1984-05-01

    This paper is a follow-up to OTC 4481: - Kulluk - An Arctic Exploratory Drilling Unit, presented at the 1983 OTC. A comparison between the original design basis of the rig and the first year's operational results is presented. The items compared are the towing performance, mooring system performance, the hull structure, and the drilling system. The towing and mooring system comparisons cover both open water and ice conditions. Ice management by icebreakers and logistics problems are reviewed.

  17. University of Alaska, Fairbanks Final Report: Arctic Winds

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition Written Report Final Deliverable Arctic Winds University of Alaska Fairbanks 4/28/16 2 Aerodynamics and Structure Matthew Pacheco - mtpacheco@alaska.edu Jessica Garvin - jtgarvin@alaska.edu Isaac Lammers - ijlammers@alaska.edu Gearbox and Brake Daniel Posey - dposey2@alaska.edu Elisha Dalbec - ejdalbec@alaska.edu Taylor Roth - taroth@alaska.edu Adam Becia - acbecia@alaska.edu Control and Power Systems Alexander Mitchell - ajmitchell4@alaska.edu Clay Allen -

  18. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  19. Polar Gas to pick route for Arctic Y Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-26

    Polar Gas Project is considering four possible Y line routes to move gas reserves from the Arctic Islands and the MacKenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea areas to southern Canada. All four routes are west of the single line route proposed by Polar Gas Ltd. in 1977 to run from the Arctic Islands to Longlac, Ontario, and would connect with existing pipelines at either Longlac, Winnipeg, Calgary, or Edmonton. Marketable reserves in the High Arctic Islands are estimated at 12.7 trillion cubic feet, not counting 3-6 trillion cubic feet probably contained in recent discoveries; the MacKenzie Delta reserves are estimated at 5.8 trillion cubic feet. The gas will be chilled to 0C for passage through permafrost regions, to prevent thawing of the soil, but the gas will be at higher temperatures in other areas, with various construction techniques used to protect the area of discontinuous permafrost from thawing. More than $70 million has been spent on project studies. An application will be filed in 1981, and the pipeline could be completed in 7-10 years.

  20. The unseen iceberg: Plant roots in arctic tundra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iversen, Colleen M; Sloan, Victoria L; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; McGuire, A. David; Norby, Richard J; Walker, Anthony P; Warren, Jeffrey; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra is characterized by short-statured plant communities underlain by carbon (C)-rich soils and permafrost. Ecosystem C and nutrient cycles in tundra are driven by complex interactions between plants and their environment. However, root dynamics are one of the least understood aspects of plant growth in the Arctic. We synthesized available literature on tundra roots and discussed their representation in terrestrial biosphere models. Belowground biomass in tundra ecosystems can be an order of magnitude larger than aboveground biomass. Data on root production and turnover in tundra is sparse, limiting our understanding of the controls over root dynamics in these systems.more » Roots are shallowly distributed in the thin layer of soil that thaws each year, and are often found in the organic horizon at the soil surface. Species-specific differences in root distribution, mycorrhizal colonization, and resource partitioning may affect plant species competition under changing climatic conditions. Model representation of belowground processes has increased in complexity over recent years, but data are desperately needed to fill the gaps in model treatment of tundra roots. Future research should focus on estimates of root production and lifespan, and interactions between roots and the surrounding soil across the diversity of tundra ecosystems in the Arctic.« less

  1. Structural monitoring helps assess deformations in Arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyman, K.J.; Lara, P.F.

    1986-11-10

    Advanced structural monitoring systems can play an important role in the evaluation of arctic pipeline distortions along the alignment. These systems can influence pipeline design requirements, reduce capital costs, and improve operating reliability. Differential soil movements resulting from terrain instabilities are the main features which threaten a pipeline's structural integrity and affect the design of buried pipeline systems in the Arctic. Economic, aesthetic, and safety concerns make conventional buried construction an optimum design choice for an arctic crude-oil or gas-pipeline transportation system. However, variable frozen and thawed soil conditions underlying the pipeline along a discontinuous permafrost corridor pose a challenge to the design and operation of such systems. Crude-oil pipelines which must operate at elevated temperatures can be installed in unfrozen soils or in permafrost soils where initially frozen segments will exhibit limited settlement under the thawed conditions imposed by pipeline construction and operation. Ice-rich portions of the frozen alignment may have an unacceptable settlement potential for a warm buried pipeline. In contrast, natural-gas pipelines can be operated cold to increase throughput capability and to prevent the problems associated with thawing permafrost.

  2. The unseen iceberg: Plant roots in arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iversen, Colleen M; Sloan, Victoria L; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; McGuire, A. David; Norby, Richard J; Walker, Anthony P; Warren, Jeffrey; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra is characterized by short-statured plant communities underlain by carbon (C)-rich soils and permafrost. Ecosystem C and nutrient cycles in tundra are driven by complex interactions between plants and their environment. However, root dynamics are one of the least understood aspects of plant growth in the Arctic. We synthesized available literature on tundra roots and discussed their representation in terrestrial biosphere models. Belowground biomass in tundra ecosystems can be an order of magnitude larger than aboveground biomass. Data on root production and turnover in tundra is sparse, limiting our understanding of the controls over root dynamics in these systems. Roots are shallowly distributed in the thin layer of soil that thaws each year, and are often found in the organic horizon at the soil surface. Species-specific differences in root distribution, mycorrhizal colonization, and resource partitioning may affect plant species competition under changing climatic conditions. Model representation of belowground processes has increased in complexity over recent years, but data are desperately needed to fill the gaps in model treatment of tundra roots. Future research should focus on estimates of root production and lifespan, and interactions between roots and the surrounding soil across the diversity of tundra ecosystems in the Arctic.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnis, Patrick

    2013-06-28

    During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Measuring Clouds at SGP with Stereo Photogramme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the form of the Point Cloud of Cloud Points Product (PCCPP). The PCCPP will: provide context on life-cycle stage and cloud position for vertically pointing radars, lidars, and...

  5. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Title: VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international ...

  6. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Poellot, M. 14 ; Rutledge, S. A. 9 ; Schwaller, M. 10 more ; Tokay, A. 15 ; Williams, C. R. 16 ; Wolff, D. B. 2 ; Xie, S. 17 ; Zipser, E. J. 18 less + Show ...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a distinctly different INP population in comparison to long range transported desert or urban and regional land-sourced INP, and that the layering of marine within other...

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Duli Chand J.-Y. Christine Chiu Xiquan Dong Jerome Fast Andrew Gettelman Steven Ghan Scott Giangrande Mary Gilles Anne Jefferson Michael Jensen Pavlos Kollias Chongai Kuang...

  9. Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a double-fence intercomparison reference wind protection for the weighing precipitation ... their measurement errors as a function of wind speed, thus aiming at providing a ...

  10. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases ... properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top ...

  11. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remote sensing for resolving and studying the above processes? (i.e., Satellite CalVal) We have recently added a fourth study focused on the transport and evolution of...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - WB57 Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Central Facility near Lamont, Oklahoma where a raft of active and passive remote sensors continuously operate. We requested flight hours...

  14. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic ...

  15. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  16. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W.

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  17. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets Derived from Ground-based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which could eventually facilitate aerosol-cloud interactions. (Kim, Klein, Norris, JGR, 2005) SD z (m) SD LWP (g m -2 ) Efficacy of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions - ...

  18. 915 MHz Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory M Jensen MJ ... Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory M Jensen, ...

  19. ARM: AOS: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter AOS: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  20. ARM - Evaluation Product - CMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data. Cloud microphysical properties derived from Mace's data of atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates are regridded to a...

  1. Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud. Credit: Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud Cavitation Collapse PI Name:...

  2. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these fields include cloud altitude, cloud amount, liquid and ice content, particle size spectra, and radiative fluxes at the surface and the TOA. Comparisons with Atmospheric...

  3. City of Red Cloud, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Cloud, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red Cloud Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402-746-2215 Website: www.redcloudnebraska.comgover...

  4. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining ... Title: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface ...

  5. ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  6. Cloud microphysical relationships and their implication on entrainment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud microphysical relationships and their implication on entrainment and mixing mechanism for the stratocumulus clouds measured during the VOCALS project Citation Details ...

  7. Summary of workshop session F on electron-cloud instabilities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Summary of workshop session F on electron-cloud instabilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of workshop session F on electron-cloud instabilities ...

  8. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of convection, clouds and radiative heating rate and fluxes using the ARM ... as well as cloud water contents in producing net radiative fluxes closer to observations. ...

  9. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  10. Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu ... A better understanding of cloud water content and its large-scale distribution ...

  11. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  12. Final Report on the Development of an Improved Cloud Microphysical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facilities (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative ... integrated over all bin sizes, liquid water content LWC, extinction of liquid clouds ...

  13. Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Many of the ...

  14. ARM: Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR): transmitted RF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transmitted RF power Title: ARM: Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR): transmitted RF power Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR): transmitted RF power Authors: Karen ...

  15. USING CLOUD CLASSIFICATION TO MODEL SOLAR VARIABILITY Matthew...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hourly cloud classified satellite images are compared to multiple years of ground measured ... type of cloud or weather pattern, as classified by NOAA. Instinctively, the type of ...

  16. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Title: Tropical Cloud Properties ... in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. ...

  17. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. ...

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility: Part 2. The Vertical Redistribution of Radiant Energy by Clouds. ... Documentation with data of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the ...

  19. Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    amplify tropical North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: CLOUD AND DUST FEEDBACK AND AMO Title: Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North Atlantic ...

  20. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Tribal Consultation and Stakeholder Outreach Session: Kotzebue

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  1. Energy Department Announces Second Round of National Strategy for the Arctic Region Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  2. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Stakeholder Outreach Meeting: Dutch Harbor/Unalaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  3. National Strategy for the Arctic Region Tribal Consultation Session: Dutch Harbor/Unalaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the second round of tribal consultations and stakeholder outreach meetings on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR), 10-Year Plan to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Arctic Region.

  4. Dual-wavelength millimeter-wave radar measurements of cirrus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, the University of Massachusetts` 33-GHz/95-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) participated in the multi-sensor Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Operation Period (IOP), which was conducted at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART). During the 3-week experiment, CPRS measured a variety of cloud types and severe weather. In the context of global warming, the most significant measurements are dual-frequency observations of cirrus clouds, which may eventually be used to estimate ice crystal size and shape. Much of the cirrus data collected with CPRS show differences between 33-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity measurements that are correlated with Doppler estimates of fall velocity. Because of the small range of reflectivity differences, a precise calibration of the radar is required and differential attenuation must also be removed from the data. Depolarization, which is an indicator of crystal shape, was also observed in several clouds. In this abstract we present examples of Mie scattering from cirrus and estimates of differential attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen that were derived from CART radiosonde measurements.

  5. Scheduling Multilevel Deadline-Constrained Scientific Workflows on Clouds Based on Cost Optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malawski, Maciej; Figiela, Kamil; Bubak, Marian; Deelman, Ewa; Nabrzyski, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a cost optimization model for scheduling scientific workflows on IaaS clouds such as Amazon EC2 or RackSpace. We assume multiple IaaS clouds with heterogeneous virtual machine instances, with limited number of instances per cloud and hourly billing. Input and output data are stored on a cloud object store such as Amazon S3. Applications are scientific workflows modeled as DAGs as in the Pegasus Workflow Management System. We assume that tasks in the workflows are grouped into levels of identical tasks. Our model is specified using mathematical programming languages (AMPL and CMPL) and allows us to minimize themore » cost of workflow execution under deadline constraints. We present results obtained using our model and the benchmark workflows representing real scientific applications in a variety of domains. The data used for evaluation come from the synthetic workflows and from general purpose cloud benchmarks, as well as from the data measured in our own experiments with Montage, an astronomical application, executed on Amazon EC2 cloud. We indicate how this model can be used for scenarios that require resource planning for scientific workflows and their ensembles.« less

  6. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  7. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-06-18

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

  8. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  9. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2012-01-19

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  10. HOT HYDROGEN IN DIFFUSE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Duley, Walt W.; Williams, David A. E-mail: wwduley@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-08-20

    Laboratory evidence suggests that recombination of adsorbed radicals may cause an abrupt temperature excursion of a dust grain to about 1000 K. One consequence of this is the rapid desorption of adsorbed H{sub 2} molecules with excitation temperatures of this magnitude. We compute the consequences of injection of hot H{sub 2} into cold diffuse interstellar gas at a rate of 1% of the canonical H{sub 2} formation rate. We find that the level populations of H{sub 2} in J = 3, 4, and 5 are close to observed values, and that the abundances of CH{sup +} and OH formed in reactions with hot hydrogen are close to the values obtained from observations of diffuse clouds.

  11. Photolysis rates in correlated overlapping cloud fields: Cloud-J 7.3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prather, M. J.

    2015-05-27

    A new approach for modeling photolysis rates (J values) in atmospheres with fractional cloud cover has been developed and implemented as Cloud-J – a multi-scattering eight-stream radiative transfer model for solar radiation based on Fast-J. Using observed statistics for the vertical correlation of cloud layers, Cloud-J 7.3 provides a practical and accurate method for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The combination of the new maximum-correlated cloud groups with the integration over all cloud combinations represented by four quadrature atmospheres produces mean J values in an atmospheric column with root-mean-square errors of 4% or less compared with 10–20% errors using simpler approximations. Cloud-Jmore » is practical for chemistry-climate models, requiring only an average of 2.8 Fast-J calls per atmosphere, vs. hundreds of calls with the correlated cloud groups, or 1 call with the simplest cloud approximations. Another improvement in modeling J values, the treatment of volatile organic compounds with pressure-dependent cross sections is also incorporated into Cloud-J.« less

  12. Photolysis rates in correlated overlapping cloud fields: Cloud-J 7.3c

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prather, M. J.

    2015-08-14

    A new approach for modeling photolysis rates (J values) in atmospheres with fractional cloud cover has been developed and is implemented as Cloud-J – a multi-scattering eight-stream radiative transfer model for solar radiation based on Fast-J. Using observations of the vertical correlation of cloud layers, Cloud-J 7.3c provides a practical and accurate method for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The combination of the new maximum-correlated cloud groups with the integration over all cloud combinations by four quadrature atmospheres produces mean J values in an atmospheric column with root mean square (rms) errors of 4 % or less compared with 10–20 % errorsmore » using simpler approximations. Cloud-J is practical for chemistry–climate models, requiring only an average of 2.8 Fast-J calls per atmosphere vs. hundreds of calls with the correlated cloud groups, or 1 call with the simplest cloud approximations. Another improvement in modeling J values, the treatment of volatile organic compounds with pressure-dependent cross sections, is also incorporated into Cloud-J.« less

  13. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  14. Absorption of solar radiation in broken clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.; Zhuravleva, T.B.

    1996-04-01

    It is recognized now that the plane-parallel model unsatisfactorily describes the transfer of radiation through broken clouds and that, consequently, the radiation codes of general circulation models (GCMs) must be refined. However, before any refinement in a GCM code is made, it is necessary to investigate the dependence of radiative characteristics on the effects caused by the random geometry of cloud fields. Such studies for mean fluxes of downwelling and upwelling solar radiation in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range were performed by Zuev et al. In this work, we investigate the mean spectral and integrated absorption of solar radiation by broken clouds (in what follows, the term {open_quotes}mean{close_quotes} will be implied but not used, for convenience). To evaluate the potential effect of stochastic geometry, we will compare the absorption by cumulus (0.5 {le} {gamma} {le} 2) to that by equivalent stratus ({gamma} <<1) clouds; here {gamma} = H/D, H is the cloud layer thickness and D the characteristic horizontal cloud size. The equivalent stratus clouds differ from cumulus only in the aspect ratio {gamma}, all the other parameters coinciding.

  15. Evaluation of cloud prediction and determination of critical relative humidity for a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, N.L.; Guo, Z.; Ackerman, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvannia State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically using cloud observations obtained at Coffeyville, Kansas, as part of the Second International satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment campaign. Seventeen cases were selected for simulation during a November-December 1991 field study. MM5 was used to produce two sets of 36-km simulations, one with and one without four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA), and a set of 12-km simulations without FDDA, but nested within the 36-km FDDA runs.

  16. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  17. Method for preventing thaw settlement along offshore arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duthweiler, F.C.

    1987-06-30

    A method is described for installing a warm fluid-bearing pipeline across an arctic seafloor, the method comprising: (1) drilling a series of boreholes along the seafloor through a thawed zone of subsea soil to penetrate a distance into a zone of permafrost; (2) circulating a warm circulation fluid through the boreholes to create a slump trough on the surface of the seafloor by creating a prethawing zone in the permafrost zone; and (3) installing a pipeline bearing a warm fluid along the bottom of the slump trough without causing further substantial slumping along the seafloor.

  18. DOE Final Report on Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Schlosser, C. Adam; Melillo, Jerry M.; Anthony, Katey Walter; Kicklighter, David; Gao, Xiang

    2015-11-03

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  19. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Rmillard, J.; Szyrmer, W.

    2011-07-02

    Several aspects of spectral broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloud-scale observations of microphysics and dynamics are essential to guide and evaluate corresponding modeling efforts. Profiling, millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three moments of the recorded cloud radar Doppler spectra, the radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity, and spectrum width, are often used to retrieve cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. Such retrievals are subject to errors introduced by the assumptions made in the inversion process. Here, we introduce two additional morphological parameters of the radar Doppler spectrum, the skewness and kurtosis, in an effort to reduce the retrieval uncertainties. A forward model that emulates observed radar Doppler spectra is constructed and used to investigate these relationships. General, analytical relationships that relate the five radar observables to cloud and drizzle microphysical parameters and cloud turbulence are presented. The relationships are valid for cloud-only, cloud mixed with drizzle, and drizzle-only particles in the radar sampling volume and provide a seamless link between observations and cloud microphysics and dynamics. The sensitivity of the five observed parameters to the radar operational parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spectra velocity resolution are presented. The predicted values of the five observed radar parameters agree well with the output of the forward model. The novel use of the skewness of the radar Doppler spectrum as an early qualitative predictor of drizzle onset in clouds is introduced. It is found that skewness is a parameter very sensitive to early drizzle generation. In addition, the significance of the five parameters of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum for constraining drizzle microphysical retrievals is discussed.

  20. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Mosaic Treatment of Subgrid Cloud-Radiation Interaction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Cloud-Based Transportation Management System Delivers Savings Cloud-Based Transportation Management System Delivers Savings October 21, 2014 - 1:53pm Addthis DOE's cloud based transportation management system (ATLAS) offers dramatically enhanced capabilities and modernization. ATLAS provides a powerful user-friendly system built to allow access to information to meet transportation needs. Its processes promote regulatory compliance, while providing access to qualified carriers and

  1. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL

  2. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; et al

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore » observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds

  3. X.509 Authentication/Authorization in FermiCloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Timm, Steven

    2014-11-11

    We present a summary of how X.509 authentication and authorization are used with OpenNebula in FermiCloud. We also describe a history of why the X.509 authentication was needed in FermiCloud, and review X.509 authorization options, both internal and external to OpenNebula. We show how these options can be and have been used to successfully run scientific workflows on federated clouds, which include OpenNebula on FermiCloud and Amazon Web Services as well as other community clouds. We also outline federation options being used by other commercial and open-source clouds and cloud research projects.

  4. Developing and Evaluating Ice Cloud Parameterizations by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by remote sensing is that the transfer functions which relate the observables (e. g., radar Doppler spectrum) to cloud properties (e. g., ice water content, or IWC) are not...

  5. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  6. Building a private cloud with Open Nebula

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Short Ryan Glenn Ross Nordeen Mentors: Andree Jacobson ISTI-OFF David Kennel DCS-1 LA-UR 10-05197 Why use Virtualized Cloud Computing for HPC? * Support Legacy Software Stacks *...

  7. HPC CLOUD APPLIED TO LATTICE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; Nishimura, Hiroshi; James, Susan; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-18

    As Cloud services gain in popularity for enterprise use, vendors are now turning their focus towards providing cloud services suitable for scientific computing. Recently, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) introduced the new Cluster Compute Instances (CCI), a new instance type specifically designed for High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. At Berkeley Lab, the physicists at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been running Lattice Optimization on a local cluster, but the queue wait time and the flexibility to request compute resources when needed are not ideal for rapid development work. To explore alternatives, for the first time we investigate running the Lattice Optimization application on Amazon's new CCI to demonstrate the feasibility and trade-offs of using public cloud services for science.

  8. Posters Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Radiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Takahashi, T., and K. Kuhara. 1993. Precipitation mechanisms of cumulonimbus clouds at Pohnpei, Micronesia. Meteor. Soc. Japan 71:21-31. Takano, Y., and K. N. Liou. 1989. Radiative ...

  9. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest ... 1977 and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000. ...

  10. Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane cloud hunting Methane cloud hunting Los Alamos researchers go hunting for methane gas over the Four Corners area of northwest New Mexico and find a strange daily pattern. July 12, 2015 methane map Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is also a potent greenhouse gas, trapping energy in the atmosphere. Last year NASA released satellite images showing a hot spot in the area where New Mexico, Colorado, Utah and Arizona meet, prompting scientists to go in search of the sources.

  11. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-06-18

    I present a summary of topics relevant to the electron-cloud build-up and dissipation that were presented at the International Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects 'ECLOUD 07' (Daegu, S. Korea, April 9-12, 2007). This summary is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the talks. Rather, I focus on those developments that I found, in my personal opinion, especially interesting. The contributions, all excellent, are posted in http://chep.knu.ac.kr/ecloud07/.

  12. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  13. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  14. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  15. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  16. Magellan Explores Cloud Computing for DOE's Scientific Mission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explores Cloud Computing for DOE's Scientific Mission Magellan Explores Cloud Computing for DOE's Scientific Mission March 30, 2011 Cloud Control -This is a picture of the Magellan management and network control racks at NERSC. To test cloud computing for scientific capability, NERSC and the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) installed purpose-built testbeds for running scientific applications on the IBM iDataPlex cluster. (Photo Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt) Cloud computing is gaining

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Campaign Links Final Campaign Summary BAECC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15, Scott, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Extended Radiosonde IOP 2014.05.01, Nicoll, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 2014.04.01, Thornton, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Day and Night cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fraction - Cloud Inter-Compariosn IOP results Day and Night cloud fraction - Cloud Inter-Compariosn IOP results Genkova, Iliana University of Illinois-Champaign Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory We present results from the CIC IOP from March-may, 2003. Day time and night time cloud fraction retrieval algorithms have been presented and intercompared. Amount of low, middle and high cloud have been estimated and compared to

  19. Tanker mooring, storage for sub-Arctic waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, K.I.; King, R.D.; Post, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    The expansion of exploration into sub-arctic offshore waters has created a need for tanker mooring facilities for floating storage vessels and tanker loading. In many sub-arctic areas mooring facilities are subject to wind, wave and current conditions which approach conditions in the North Sea during storm seasons. In other seasons, the same facilities will be subject to impact and overturning forces from drifting ice floes and massive ice ridges. A study to develop suitable concepts and preliminary designs for such tanker mooring facilities is discussed. The study was limited to areas where risk of iceberg collision may be ignored, but where ice conditions generally occur 4-6 months during each year with ice coverage ranging up to 100% during this period. The scope of the study required development of suitable concepts and preliminary design studies for three basic SPM tanker loading and storage systems: for direct loading of ice-strengthened shuttle tankers; with a permanently moored icebreaking storage vessel with storage capacity for 1,400,000 bbl of crude oil; and with submerged storage capacity for 1,400,00 bbl of crude oil.

  20. Star formation relations in nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Neal J. II; Heiderman, Amanda; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin

    2014-02-20

    We test some ideas for star formation relations against data on local molecular clouds. On a cloud by cloud basis, the relation between the surface density of star formation rate and surface density of gas divided by a free-fall time, calculated from the mean cloud density, shows no significant correlation. If a crossing time is substituted for the free-fall time, there is even less correlation. Within a cloud, the star formation rate volume and surface densities increase rapidly with the corresponding gas densities, faster than predicted by models using the free-fall time defined from the local density. A model in which the star formation rate depends linearly on the mass of gas above a visual extinction of 8 mag describes the data on these clouds, with very low dispersion. The data on regions of very massive star formation, with improved star formation rates based on free-free emission from ionized gas, also agree with this linear relation.

  1. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    /hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bins). Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions (containing 33 bins). Droplet nucleation (activation) is derived from the analytical calculation of super-saturation, which is used to determine the sizes of aerosol particles to be activated and the corresponding sizes of nucleated droplets. Primary nucleation of each type of ice crystal takes place within certain temperature ranges. A detailed description of these explicitly parameterized processes can be found in Khain and Sednev (1996) and Khain et al. (1999, 2001). 2.3 Case Studies Three cases, a tropical oceanic squall system observed during TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment, which occurred over the Pacific Ocean warm pool from November 1992 to February 1993), a midlatitude continental squall system observed during PRESTORM (Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central, which occurred in Kansas and Oklahoma during May-June 1985), and mid-afternoon convection observed during CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers – Florida Area Cumulus Experiment, which occurred in Florida during July 2002), will be used to examine the impact of aerosols on deep, precipitating systems. 3. SUMMARY of RESULTS • For all three cases, higher CCN produces smaller cloud droplets and a narrower spectrum. Dirty conditions delay rain formation, increase latent heat release above the freezing level, and enhance vertical velocities at higher altitude for all cases. Stronger updrafts, deeper mixed-phase regions, and more ice particles are simulated with higher CCN in good agreement with observations. • In all cases, rain reaches the ground early with lower CCN. Rain suppression is also evident in all three cases with high CCN in good agreement with observations (Rosenfeld, 1999, 2000 and others). Rain

  2. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 1. Overview of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Background The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) 1002 Area of the Alaska North Slope represents an area of 1.5 million acres. The ANWR Coastal Plain Area includes the 1002 Area, State of Alaska lands to the 3-mile limit from the coast line, and approximately 92,000 acres of Native Inupiat lands.

  3. On the relationship among cloud turbulence, droplet formation and drizzle as viewed by Doppler radar, microwave radiometer and lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1999-09-01

    Cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and lidar remote sensing data acquired during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) are analyzed to address the relationship between (1) drop number concentration and cloud turbulence as represented by vertical velocity and vertical velocity variance and (2) drizzle formation and cloud turbulence. Six cases, each of about 12 hours duration, are examined; three of these cases are characteristic of nondrizzling boundary layers and three of drizzling boundary layers. In all cases, microphysical retrievals are only performed when drizzle is negligible (radar reflectivity{lt}{minus}17dBZ). It is shown that for the cases examined, there is, in general, no correlation between drop concentration and cloud base updraft strength, although for two of the nondrizzling cases exhibiting more classical stratocumulus features, these two parameters are correlated. On drizzling days, drop concentration and cloud-base vertical velocity were either not correlated or negatively correlated. There is a significant positive correlation between drop concentration and mean in-cloud vertical velocity variance for both nondrizzling boundary layers (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and boundary layers that have experienced drizzle (r=0.38). In general, there is a high correlation (r{gt}0.5) between radar reflectivity and in-cloud vertical velocity variance, although one of the boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibited a negative correlation between these parameters. However, in the subcloud region, all boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibit a negative correlation between radar reflectivity and vertical velocity variance. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  4. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  5. THE LOCAL LEO COLD CLOUD AND NEW LIMITS ON A LOCAL HOT BUBBLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Heiles, Carl; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Meyer, David M.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    2011-07-10

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the local Leo cold cloud (LLCC), a very nearby, very cold cloud in the interstellar medium (ISM). Through stellar absorption studies we find that the LLCC is between 11.3 pc and 24.3 pc away, making it the closest known cold neutral medium cloud and well within the boundaries of the local cavity. Observations of the cloud in the 21 cm H I line reveal that the LLCC is very cold, with temperatures ranging from 15 K to 30 K, and is best fit with a model composed of two colliding components. The cloud has associated 100 {mu}m thermal dust emission, pointing to a somewhat low dust-to-gas ratio of 48 x10{sup -22} MJy sr{sup -1} cm{sup 2}. We find that the LLCC is too far away to be generated by the collision among the nearby complex of local interstellar clouds but that the small relative velocities indicate that the LLCC is somehow related to these clouds. We use the LLCC to conduct a shadowing experiment in 1/4 keV X-rays, allowing us to differentiate between different possible origins for the observed soft X-ray background (SXRB). We find that a local hot bubble model alone cannot account for the low-latitude SXRB, but that isotropic emission from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) does reproduce our data. In a combined local hot bubble and SWCX scenario, we rule out emission from a local hot bubble with an 1/4 keV emissivity greater than 1.1 Snowdens pc{sup -1} at 3{sigma}, four times lower than previous estimates. This result dramatically changes our perspective on our local ISM.

  6. A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    1996-04-01

    An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.

  7. Cloud classification using whole-sky imager data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buch, K.A. Jr.; Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    Clouds are one of the most important moderators of the earth radiation budget and one of the least understood. The effect that clouds have on the reflection and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation is strongly influenced by their shape, size, and composition. Physically accurate parameterization of clouds is necessary for any general circulation model (GCM) to yield meaningful results. The work presented here is part of a larger project that is aimed at producing realistic three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings of cloud scenes based on measured data from real cloud scenes. These renderings will provide the important shape information for parameterizing GCMs. The specific goal of the current study is to develop an algorithm that automatically classifies (by cloud type) the clouds observed in the scene. This information will assist the volume rendering program in determining the shape of the cloud. Much work has been done on cloud classification using multispectral satellite images. Most of these references use some kind of texture measure to distinguish the different cloud types and some also use topological features (such as cloud/sky connectivity or total number of clouds). A wide variety of classification methods has been used, including neural networks, various types of clustering, and thresholding. The work presented here uses binary decision trees to distinguish the different cloud types based on cloud features vectors.

  8. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 ...

  9. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot ...

  10. A 20-Year Dataset of Downwelling Longwave Flux at the Arctic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    when there is little or no solar radiation in the central Arctic basin, the surface energy budget is dominated by the ... surface- based, reanalysis, and satellite-retrieved datasets. ...

  11. Tribes Provide Input on 10-Year Plan for Renewable Energy in the Arctic Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The DOE Office of Indian Energy hosted a second round of tribal consultations and outreach meetings throughout Alaska in February and March to gather input on the National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR).

  12. The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Impact...

  13. Analysis of Crude Oil Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ted Stevens that the Energy Information Administration provide an assessment of federal oil and natural gas leasing in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska.

  14. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  15. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 2. Analysis Discussion Resource Assessment The USGS most recent assessment of oil and gas resources of ANWR Coastal Plain (The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska, Open File Report 98-34, 1999) provided basic information used in this study. A prior assessment was completed in 1987 by the USGS.

  16. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Executive Summary This Service Report, Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment, was prepared for the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources at the request of Chairman Frank H. Murkowski in a letter dated March 10, 2000. The request asked the Energy Information

  17. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Glossary ANILCA: Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act ANS: Alaskan North Slope ANWR: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge BBbls: billion barrels Bbls: barrels Daily Petroleum Production Rate: The amount of petroleum extracted per day from a well, group of wells, region, etc. (usually expressed in barrels per day) EIA: Energy Information

  18. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Preface Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment is a product of the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Reserves and Production Division. EIA, under various programs, has assessed foreign and domestic oil and gas resources, reserves, and production potential. As a policy-neutral

  19. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 3. Summary The 1.5 million-acre coastal plain of the 19 million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is the largest unexplored, potentially productive geologic onshore basin in the United States. The primary area of the coastal plain is the 1002 Area of ANWR established when ANWR was created. A decision on permitting the exploration and development

  20. Active layer dynamics and arctic hydrology and meteorology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Man`s impact on the environment is increasing with time. To be able to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on an ecosystems, it is necessary first to understand all facets of how the ecosystems works: what the main processes (physical, biological, chemical) are, at what rates they proceed, and how they can be manipulated. Arctic ecosystems are dominated by physical processes of energy exchange. This project has concentrated on a strong program of hydrologic and meteorologic data collection, to better understand dominant physical processes. Field research focused on determining the natural annual and diurnal variability of meteorologic and hydrologic variables, especially those which may indicate trends in climatic change. Comprehensive compute models are being developed to simulate physical processes occurring under the present conditions and to simulate processes under the influence of climatic change.

  1. Development, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification of high-fidelity arctic sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana S.

    2010-09-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and due to feedback effects the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice to model physical parameters. A new sea ice model that has the potential to improve sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code and the MPM sea ice code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness, and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  2. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH:USING ARM OBSERVATIONS & ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE CAM3 CLOUDS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STOCHASTIC CLOUD-RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, Richard

    2013-08-22

    The long-range goal of several past and current projects in our DOE-supported research has been the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global models. The main objective of the present project being reported on here has been to develop and apply advanced statistical techniques, including Bayesian posterior estimates, to diagnose and evaluate features of both observed and simulated clouds. The research carried out under this project has been novel in two important ways. The first is that it is a key step in the development of practical stochastic cloud-radiation parameterizations, a new category of parameterizations that offers great promise for overcoming many shortcomings of conventional schemes. The second is that this work has brought powerful new tools to bear on the problem, because it has been a collaboration between a meteorologist with long experience in ARM research (Somerville) and a mathematician who is an expert on a class of advanced statistical techniques that are well-suited for diagnosing model cloud simulations using ARM observations (Shen).

  3. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, Mian; De Luca, N.; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Liu, Xiaohong; Mann, G. W.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Yun, Yuxing; Zhang, Kai

    2014-03-07

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea-ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea-ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004-2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g−1 for an earlier Phase of AeroCom models (Phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g−1 for a more recent Phase of AeroCom models (Phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g−1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90◦N) atmospheric residence time for BC in Phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition

  4. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2013-07-24

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while

  5. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam C.; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Ed; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-06-24

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. 29 In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling 30 observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases 31 more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce 32 unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several 33 simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size 34 distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect 35 simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean 36 graupel and snow water contents across models. 37

  6. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2016-04-27

    There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric vertical structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season.In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements were made of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV)more » and the liquid water path (LWP) of trade cumulus clouds, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol from instrumentation at a ground observatory and on small unmanned aircraft. We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV < 40 kg m–2), a criterion which acts to filter the data to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region.We then use the aircraft and ground-based measurements to explore possible mechanisms behind this observed aerosol–LWP correlation. The increase in cloud liquid water is found to coincide with a lowering of the cloud base, which is itself attributable to increased boundary layer humidity in polluted conditions. High pollution is found to correlate with both higher temperatures and higher humidity measured throughout the boundary layer. A large-scale analysis, using satellite observations and meteorological reanalysis, corroborates these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Boundary Layer Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBoundary Layer Cloud IOP Campaign Links Campaign Images ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Boundary Layer Cloud IOP 2005.07.11 - 2005.08.07 Lead Scientist : William Shaw For data sets, see below. Abstract Investigators from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists from a number of other institutions, carried out a month of intensive measurements at

  8. Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vang, Leng; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis

    2014-09-01

    In collaborating scientific research arena it is important to have an environment where analysts have access to a shared of information documents, software tools and be able to accurately maintain and track historical changes in models. A new cloud-based environment would be accessible remotely from anywhere regardless of computing platforms given that the platform has available of Internet access and proper browser capabilities. Information stored at this environment would be restricted based on user assigned credentials. This report reviews development of a Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities (CAC) as a web portal for PRA tools.

  9. Dynamics of Arctic and Sub-Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Circulation: Diagnosis of Mechanisms and Biases Using Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric T. DeWeaver

    2010-02-17

    The overall goal of work performed under this grant is to enhance understanding of simulations of present-day climate and greenhouse gas-induced climate change. The examination of present-day climate also includes diagnostic intercomparison of model simulations and observed mean climate and climate variability using reanalysis and satellite datasets. Enhanced understanding is desirable 1) as a prerequisite for improving simulations; 2) for assessing the credibility of model simulations and their usefulness as tools for decision support; and 3) as a means to identify robust behaviors which commonly occur over a wide range of models, and may yield insights regarding the dominant physical mechanisms which determine mean climate and produce climate change. A further objective is to investigate the use of data assimilation as a means for examining and correcting model biases. Our primary focus is on the Arctic, but the scope of the work was expanded to include the global climate system.

  10. Dynamics of Arctic and Sub-Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Circulation: Diagnosis of Mechanisms and Biases Using Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric T. DeWeaver

    2010-01-19

    This is the final report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER64434 to Eric DeWeaver at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The overall goal of work performed under this grant is to enhance understanding of simulations of present-day climate and greenhouse gas-induced climate change. Enhanced understanding is desirable 1) as a prerequisite for improving simulations; 2) for assessing the credibility of model simulations and their usefulness as tools for decision support; and 3) as a means to identify robust behaviors which commonly occur over a wide range of models, and may yield insights regarding the dominant physical mechanisms which determine mean climate and produce climate change. A furthe objective is to investigate the use of data assimilation as a means for examining and correcting model biases. Our primary focus is on the Arctic, but the scope of the work was expanded to include the global climate system to the extent that research targets of opportunity present themselves. Research performed under the grant falls into five main research areas: 1) a study of data assimilation using an ensemble filter with the atmospheric circulation model of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in which both conventional observations and observations of the refraction of radio waves from GPS satellites were used to constrain the atmospheric state of the model; 2) research on the likely future status of polar bears, in which climate model simluations were used to assess the effectiveness of climate change mitigation efforts in preserving the habitat of polar bears, now considered a threatened species under global warming; 3) as assessment of the credibility of Arctic sea ice thickness simulations from climate models; 4) An examination of the persistence and reemergence of Northern Hemisphere sea ice area anomalies in climate model simulations and in observations; 5) An examination of the roles played by changes in net radiation and surface relative humidity in determine the

  11. Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Many uncertainties contribute to the highly variable model radiation fields: the aging of ... layer, and how the low clouds adjust to smoke-radiation and smoke-cloud interactions. ...

  12. Analysis of In situ Observations of Cloud Microphysics from M...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud Microphysics from M-PACE Final Report, DOE Grant Agreement No. DE-FG02-06ER64168 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of In situ Observations of Cloud ...

  13. W-Band ARM Cloud Radar - Specifications and Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W-Band ARM Cloud Radar - Specifications and Design K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest ... to develop and deploy the W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) at the SGP central facility. ...

  14. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and ... cumulus under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g ...

  15. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-05-01

    We simulate electron cloud build-up in a grooved vacuumchamber including the effect of space charge from the electrons. Weidentify conditions for e-cloud suppression and make contact withprevious estimates of an effective secondary electron yield for groovedsurfaces.

  16. Treatments of Inhomogeneous Clouds in a GCM Column Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of fractal stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2434 -2455. Chou, M.-D., M. J. Suarez, C.-H. Ho, M. M.-H. Yan, and K.-T. Lee, 1998: Parameterizations for cloud...

  17. ARM - Evaluation Product - ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud microphysical property ensemble data set created by assembling existing ARM cloud ... One purpose of developing such an ensemble data set is to provide a rough estimate of the ...

  18. Biogenic Aerosols„Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary T Petj ... DOESC-ARM-15-051 Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign ...

  19. Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation Using a Feedback System in the CERN SPS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of E-Cloud Driven ...

  20. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  2. Observations of the Madden Julian Oscillation for Cloud Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dyn.) Manus MJO signal in downwelling SW cloud radiative forcing GRL paper submitted Y. Wang, C. Long, and J. Mather Manus MJO signal in retrieved cloud amount GRL paper...

  3. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M.

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  4. Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) bulk cloud microphysics parameterization to the treatment of stratiform clouds in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). The RAMS predicts mass concentrations of cloud water, cloud ice, rain and snow, and number concnetration of ice. We have introduced the droplet number conservation equation to predict droplet number and it`s dependence on aerosols.

  5. LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? Dubey, Manvendra DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Chylek, Petr DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Reisner, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory Porch, William Los Alamos National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties We report high fidelity observations of the spatial and thermal

  6. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics M. P. Jensen and A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies Columbia University New York, New York Introduction Populations of tropical convective clouds are mainly comprised of three types: shallow trade cumulus, mid-level cumulus congestus and deep convective clouds (Johnson et al. 1999). Each of these cloud types has different impacts on the local radiation and water budgets.

  7. ARM - PI Product - Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsTropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al.,

  8. The dependence of cloud particle size and precipitation probability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect Hongfei Shao and Guosheng Liu Meteorology Department, Florida State University INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Anthropogenic aerosols enhance cloud reflectance of solar...

  9. Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud Cavitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collapse | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Initiation of cloud cavitation collapse for 50,000 bubbles Initiation of cloud cavitation collapse for 50,000 bubbles. Jonas Sukys, ETH Zurich Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud Cavitation Collapse PI Name: Petros Koumoutsakos PI Email: petros@ethz.ch Institution: ETH Zurich Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 72 Million Year: 2016 Research Domain: Engineering Cloud cavitation collapse-the evolution

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMarine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Campaign Links MAGIC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC): Measuring the Composition of Aerosol Particles 2013.07.01, Lewis, AMF Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC): Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations 2013.07.01, McBride, AMF Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC): Marine Ice Nuclei Collections 2013.06.01, DeMott, AMF Marine ARM GPCI

  11. Model of E-Cloud Instability in the Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-06-24

    Simple model of electron cloud is developed in the paper to explain e-cloud instability of bunched proton beam in the Fermilab Recycler. The cloud is presented as an immobile snake in strong vertical magnetic field. The instability is treated as an amplification of the bunch injection errors from the batch head to its tail. Nonlinearity of the e-cloud field is taken into account. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  12. Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions Feingold, Graham NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Frisch, Shelby NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Category: Cloud Properties We will present an analysis of the effect of aerosol on clouds at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. New methods for retrieving cloud droplet effective radius with radar (MMCR), multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), and microwave

  13. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for

  14. To the Cloud! Apidae Helps Modelers Turn Information into Knowledge |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy To the Cloud! Apidae Helps Modelers Turn Information into Knowledge To the Cloud! Apidae Helps Modelers Turn Information into Knowledge October 26, 2015 - 2:41pm Addthis Apidae is a collection of cloud-based simulation and data analysis tools that help modelers better understand their models. Image credit: BUILDlab. Apidae is a collection of cloud-based simulation and data analysis tools that help modelers better understand their models. Image credit: BUILDlab. Apidae

  15. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dong, Xiquan

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  16. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xiquan

    2014-05-05

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  17. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on ... Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater ...

  18. Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Waston, B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.

  19. Argonne's Magellan Cloud Computing Research Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), discusses the Department of Energy's new $32-million Magellan project, which designed to test how cloud computing can be used for scientific research. More information: http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091014a.html

  20. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Assessment of the ECMWF Model over the Arctic Land Using Observations from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment Submitter: Xie, S., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Xie, S., S. A. Klein, J. J. Yio, A. C. M. Beljaars, C. N. Long, and M. Zhang, (2006): An Assessment of the ECMWF Model over the Arctic Land Using Observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic

  1. Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana Introduction The Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Intensive Operational Period (CIC IOP) occurred at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility site in Lamont, Oklahoma from mid-February to mid-April 2003 (Kassianov et al. 2004).

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Validation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) the Scanning High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) flew on the Proteus high altitude aircraft with the ARM-UAV instrumentation. ...

  3. ARM - Campaign Instrument - swfluxanal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP Download Data Point Reyes CA, USA; Mobile Facility, 2005.03.14 - 2005.09.14 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment...

  4. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  5. Water clouds in Y dwarfs and exoplanets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Lupu, Roxana; Greene, Tom; Saumon, Didier; Lodders, Katharina

    2014-05-20

    The formation of clouds affects brown dwarf and planetary atmospheres of nearly all effective temperatures. Iron and silicate condense in L dwarf atmospheres and dissipate at the L/T transition. Minor species such as sulfides and salts condense in mid- to late T dwarfs. For brown dwarfs below T {sub eff} ∼ 450 K, water condenses in the upper atmosphere to form ice clouds. Currently, over a dozen objects in this temperature range have been discovered, and few previous theoretical studies have addressed the effect of water clouds on brown dwarf or exoplanetary spectra. Here we present a new grid of models that include the effect of water cloud opacity. We find that they become optically thick in objects below T {sub eff} ∼ 350-375 K. Unlike refractory cloud materials, water-ice particles are significantly nongray absorbers; they predominantly scatter at optical wavelengths through the J band and absorb in the infrared with prominent features, the strongest of which is at 2.8 μm. H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} CIA are dominant opacity sources; less abundant species may also be detectable, including the alkalis, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3}. PH{sub 3}, which has been detected in Jupiter, is expected to have a strong signature in the mid-infrared at 4.3 μm in Y dwarfs around T {sub eff} = 450 K; if disequilibrium chemistry increases the abundance of PH{sub 3}, it may be detectable over a wider effective temperature range than models predict. We show results incorporating disequilibrium nitrogen and carbon chemistry and predict signatures of low gravity in planetary mass objects. Finally, we make predictions for the observability of Y dwarfs and planets with existing and future instruments, including the James Webb Space Telescope and Gemini Planet Imager.

  6. ARM - PI Product - Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Azores ProductsCloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores [ research data - ASR funded ] The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud OD Sensor TWST Cloud OD Sensor TWST Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15 - 2014.08.31 Lead Scientist : Herman Scott For data sets, see below. Abstract This deployment

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC):

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Campaign Links Final Campaign Summary ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) 2012.10.01, Lewis, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC): Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data 2012.10.01 - 2013.09.30 Lead Scientist : J.-Y.

  9. Icy Cirrus Clouds to Be Studied This Spring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Icy Cirrus Clouds to Be Studied This Spring Mid-latitude cirrus clouds, which are composed solely of ice crystals, will be the focus of an intensive operational period (IOP) in April and May 2004 at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) SGP site. Researchers will be probing the clouds with aircraft-based instruments to gather detailed information about the clouds' physical characteristics. To make measurements in cirrus clouds, which generally form in the atmosphere at and above 20,000 feet

  10. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs

  11. Clouds and snowmelt on the north slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T.; Stamnes, K.; Bowling, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Clouds have a large effect on the radiation field. Consequently, possible changes in cloud properties may have a very substantial impact on climate. Of all natural surfaces, seasonal snow cover has the highest surface albedo, which is one of the most important components of the climatic system. Interactions between clouds and seasonal snow cover are expected to have a significant effect on climate and its change at high latitudes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity of the surface cloud-radiative forcing during the period of snowmelt at high latitudes. The primary variables investigated are cloud liquid path (LWP) and droplet equivalent radius (r{sub e}). We will also examine the sensitivity of the surface radiative fluxes to cloud base height and cloud base temperature.

  12. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 1. Cloud studies. Part 1. Cloud physics. Part 2. Development of the atomic cloud. Part 3. Cloud-tracking photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.E.; Gustafson, P.E.; Kellogg, W.W.; McKown, R.E.; McPherson, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    The cloud-physics project was primarily intended to fulfill a requirements for detailed information on the meteorological microstructure of atomic clouds. By means of a tracking and photographic network extending halfway around Eniwetok Atoll, the behavior of the first three clouds of Operation Greenhouse were observed and recorded. The rise of the fourth cloud was observed visually from only one site. The analysis of these observations, combined with information about the local weather conditions, gives a fairly complete picture of the development of each of the clouds. Particular emphasis was placed on the earlier phases of development, and the heights and sizes of the cloud parts have been determined as functions of time. A summary of important features of some previous atomic clouds are included for comparison.

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as calculated cloud forcing values allow an assessment of (1) cloud occurrence and morphology differences between the Arctic Coastal Zone and the Open Arctic Ocean, (2) how the...

  14. Geochemistry of clathrate-derived methane in Arctic Ocean waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2010-03-15

    Alterations to the composition of seawater are estimated for microbial oxidation of methane from large polar clathrate destabilizations, which may arise in the coming century. Gas fluxes are taken from porous flow models of warming Arctic sediment. Plume spread parameters are then used to bracket the volume of dilution. Consumption stoichiometries for the marine methanotrophs are based on growth efficiency and elemental/enzyme composition data. The nutritional demand implied by extra CH{sub 4} removal is compared with supply in various high latitude water masses. For emissions sized to fit the shelf break, reaction potential begins at one hundred micromolar and falls to order ten a thousand kilometers downstream. Oxygen loss and carbon dioxide production are sufficient respectively to hypoxify and acidify poorly ventilated basins. Nitrogen and the monooxygenase transition metals may be depleted in some locations as well. Deprivation is implied relative to existing ecosystems, along with dispersal of the excess dissolved gas. Physical uncertainties are inherent in the clathrate abundance, patch size, outflow buoyancy and mixing rate. Microbial ecology is even less defined but may involve nutrient recycling and anaerobic oxidizers.

  15. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.

    2010-06-21

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented in a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both subgrid-scale supersaturation and cloud formation. This new scheme treats the effects of aerosol on cloud formation and ice freezing in an improved manner, and both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are included. The scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity compared to the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) are shown to decrease the frequency of occurrence of supersaturation, and improve the comparison with observations at 192 hPa. Homogeneous freezing alone can not reproduce observed ice crystal number concentrations at low temperatures (<205 K), but the addition of heterogeneous IN improves the comparison somewhat. Increases in heterogeneous IN affect both high level cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds. Increases in cirrus clouds lead to a more cloudy and moist lower troposphere with less precipitation, effects which we associate with the decreased convective activity. The change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations, but the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere is still large because of changes in water vapor. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and the net radiative fluxes by an amount that is comparable to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations. Further improvements on the representation of mesoscale temperature perturbations, heterogeneous IN and the competition between homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are needed.

  16. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Science and Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; T Jackson; B.Kustas; PJ Lamb; GM McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Turner

    2007-06-30

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign is a field experiment designed to collect a comprehensive data set that can be used to quantify the interactions that occur between the atmosphere, biosphere, land surface, and subsurface. A particular focus will be on how these interactions modulate the abundance and characteristics of small and medium size cumuliform clouds that are generated by local convection. These interactions are not well understood and are responsible for large uncertainties in global climate models, which are used to forecast future climate states. The campaign will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations.

  17. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  18. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  19. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  20. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the