National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for arc furnace source

  1. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines ...

  2. Toughened Graphite Electrode for High Heat Electric Arc Furnaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL to melt steel, titanium, and other scrap metal in industrial electric arc furnaces. ... Applications and Industries Electric arc furnace steel manufacturing Steel refinement and ...

  3. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  4. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E.; Lee, Steven G.

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  5. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, Stephan T.; Battleson, Daniel M.; Rademacher, Jr., Edward L.; Cashell, Patrick V.; Filius, Krag D.; Flannery, Philip A.; Whitworth, Clarence G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

  6. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-03-24

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

  7. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  8. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  9. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of

  10. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  11. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  12. COASTING ARC ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1957-09-10

    An improved ion source is described and in particular a source in which the ions are efficiently removed. The plasma is generated in a tubular amode structure by the oscillation of electrons in an axial magnetic field, as in the Phillips Ion Gage. The novel aspect of the source is the expansion of the plasma as it leaves the anode structure, so as to reduce the ion density at the axis of the anode and present a uniform area of plasma to an extraction grid. The structure utilized in the present patent to expand the plasma comprises flange members of high permeability at the exitgrid end of the amode to diverge the magnetic field adjacent the exit.

  13. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  14. A new frequency domain arc furnace model for iterative harmonic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayordomo, J.G.; Beites, L.F.; Asensi, R.; Izzeddine, M.; Zabala, L.; Amantegui, J.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new frequency domain Arc Furnace model for Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) by means of a Newton method. Powerful analytical expressions for harmonic currents and their derivatives are obtained under the balanced conditions of the system. The model offers a three phase configuration where there is no path for homopolar currents. Moreover, it contemplates continuous and discontinuous evolution of the arc current. The solution obtained is validated by means of time domain simulations. Finally, the model was integrated in a harmonic power flow where studies have been performed in a network with more than 700 busbars and 7 actual Arc Furnace Loads.

  15. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maekinen, A.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.; Niskanen, J.

    2013-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  16. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  17. An Optical Sensor for Post-Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    Real-time measurement of off-gas composition could enable dynamic control of electric arc furnaces (EAFs), optimizing steelmaking electrical energy input and reducing carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. However, offgas measurement is very difficult due to the extremely dusty, hot, and gas-laden steelmaking environment.

  18. Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission.

  19. D-C electric arc furnace -- A trend-setting technology in steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, H.G.; Patuzzi, A.A. ); Nix, E.H. )

    1994-05-01

    Advantages of the d-c furnace in comparison with the a-c system include: a major reduction in electrode consumption; lower power consumption; less flicker; and improved temperature and composition control. Of the four basic types of bottom electrode (anode) design, the fin-type system provides closer control of arc behavior. With a current maximum tapping weight of 150 tons, full potential is limited by the maximum diameter of available electrodes.

  20. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1994-02-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

  1. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  2. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  3. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  4. Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.

    1995-11-21

    A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission. 3 figs.

  5. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  6. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  7. Production of high quality steels using the scrap/electric arc furnace route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houpert, C.; Lanteri, V.; Jolivet, J.M.; Guttmann, M.; Birat, J.P.; Jallon, M.; Confente, M.

    1996-12-31

    Europe, after North America, is increasing the share of electric arc furnace steelmaking at the expense of integrated steel production and the trend appears to be long term. The driving forces for this change are strong: availability of scrap, social pressure to recycle materials and economic benefits to be reaped from the small structure associated with this short and slim production route. The increasing use of scrap does raise some problems however, in terms of the tramp element build up within the scrap deposit over time. Scrap pretreatment, which aims at separating steel from non-ferrous material during preparation, is thus attracting a lot of attention. The purpose of the present work was to investigate quantitatively the potential problems related to increased levels in tramp elements, with two objectives: identify, on a case by case basis, the currently existing practical limits and devise countermeasures to further extend these limits by better controlling process parameters for instance.

  8. Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

    1983-06-14

    Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

  9. A review of the use of anthracite in electric arc furnace steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozelle, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    The applications of anthracite in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking, include the adjustment of hot metal carbon content, the generation of foamy slags, and its use as a support fuel in the EAF to reduce power consumption per tonne of product. Incentives to use support fuel in EAF steelmaking include the reduction of electric power consumption without reducing plant output. As such, the concept can reduce steelmaking costs and can serve as a basis for maximizing an EAF operation`s demand side management program. The use of carbon and oxygen additions to the EAF can cause significant release of energy within the furnace. This energy can offset a portion of the electrical energy required by the system for production of steel. Reduced consumption of electricity per tonne of hot metal is the result Electrode consumption and tap to tap times can also be reduced. significant interest in the use of anthracite as EAF support fuel, as well as the other applications of anthracite in EAF steelmaking, have combined to establish the EAF steelmaking trade as a significant market sector for anthracite. This discussion is a review of key anthracite properties and production considerations, and their interplay with the requirements of the EAF process.

  10. Entropy in an Arc Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminska, A.; Dudeck, M

    2008-03-19

    The entropy properties in a D.C. argon arc plasma source are studied. The local thermodynamical entropy relations are established for a set of uniform sub-systems (Ar, Ar{sup +}, e) in order to deduce the entropy balance equation in presence of dissipative effects and in the case of a thermal non equilibrium. Phenomenological linear laws are deduced in near equilibrium situation. The flow parameters inside the plasma source are calculated by a Navier-Stokes fluid description taking into account a thermal local non equilibrium. The entropy function is calculated in the plasma source using the values of the local variables obtained from the numerical code.

  11. Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, W.; Li, M.; Chen, L.

    2012-02-15

    In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

  12. Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

    2003-12-31

    Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present in the off-gas emanating from the EAF. The laser beam is transmitted through the gas stream at the fourth hole of the EAF, and provides a real-time, in situ measurement that can be used for process optimization. Two sets of field tests were performed in parallel with Stantec's extractive probe off-gas system, and the tests confirm the TDL sensor's operation and applicability for electric steel making. The sensor measures real-time, in situ line-of-sight carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations between 5% and 35% CO, and measures off-gas temperature in the range of 1400 to 1900 K. In order to achieve commercial-ready status, future work is required to extend the sensor for simultaneous CO and CO{sub 2} concentration measurements. In addition, long-term endurance tests including process optimization must be completed.

  13. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  14. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  15. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chekh, Yu.; Zhirkov, I. S.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M. P.

    2010-02-15

    A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10{sup -2} mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance.

  17. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  18. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  19. Measurement of total ion current from vacuum arc plasma sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, E.M.; Savkin, K.P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.; Nikolaev, A.G.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.

    2006-03-15

    The total ion current generated by a vacuum arc plasma source was measured. The discharge system investigated allowed ion collection from the arc plasma streaming through a hemispherical mesh anode with geometric transparency of 72%. A range of different cathode materials was investigated, and the arc current was varied over the range of 50-500 A. We find that the normalized ion current (I{sub ion}/I{sub arc}) depends on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5% to 19% and generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The application of a strong axial magnetic field in the cathode and arc region leads to increased normalized ion current, but only by virtue of enhanced ion charge states formed in a strong magnetic field.

  20. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  1. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  2. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2010-01-15

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a {sup 7}Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10{sup 12} charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  3. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  4. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency ...

  5. Arc plasma simulation of the KAERI large ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    In, S. R.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.

    2008-02-15

    The KAERI large ion source, developed for the KSTAR NBI system, recently produced ion beams of 100 keV, 50 A levels in the first half campaign of 2007. These results seem to be the best performance of the present ion source at a maximum available input power of 145 kW. A slight improvement in the ion source is certainly necessary to attain the final goal of an 8 MW ion beam. Firstly, the experimental results were analyzed to differentiate the cause and effect for the insufficient beam currents. Secondly, a zero dimensional simulation was carried out on the ion source plasma to identify which factors control the arc plasma and to find out what improvements can be expected.

  6. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  7. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  8. Arc Position Sensing Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can be taken of the electric current conduction path within vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces for industries that use specialty metals such as nickel, titanium, and zirconium. ...

  9. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  10. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  11. Supersonic Argon Flow In An Arc Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izrar, B.; Dudeck, M.; Andre, P.; Elchinger, M. F.; Aubreton, J.

    2006-01-15

    The plasma properties inside a D.C. arc-jet operating with argon is analysed by means of a continuum description taking into account non equilibrium ionization processes and dissipative effects. The relaxation of the different physical processes inside the nozzle and the evolution of the Mach number are aanalysed.

  12. Evaluation of the three-phase, electric arc melting furnace for treatment of simulated, thermally oxidized radioactive and mixed wastes. Part 1: Design criteria and description of integrated waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Hartman, A.D.

    1995-06-01

    The US Bureau of Mines and the Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor EG and G Idaho Inc., are collaborating on a multiyear research project to evaluate the applicability of three-phase, electric-arc furnace melting technology to vitrify materials simulating low-level radioactive and mixed wastes buried or stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and other DOE sites. The melter is sealed, 1-t (1.1-st), three-phase, 800-kV {center_dot} A electric arc melting furnace with 10.2-cm- (4-in-) diameter graphite electrodes, water-cooled roof and sidewalls, and four water-cooled feed tubes. A water-cooled copper fixture provides for continuous tapping of slag. An instrumented air pollution control system (APCS) with access ports for analysis and a feeder based on screw conveyors and a bucket elevator are dedicated to the facility. Test data are provided by an arc furnace analyzer and by sensors indicating feed rate; slag temperature; and temperature, pressure, and velocity in the APCS. These data are received by a data logger, digitized, and transmitted to a personal computer for storage and display. This unique waste treatment facility is available for public and private use on a cost-sharing basis.

  13. Arc discharge regulation of a megawatt hot cathode bucket ion source for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yahong; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Li Jun; Liang Lizhen; Collaboration: NBI Team

    2012-01-15

    Arc discharge of a hot cathode bucket ion source tends to be unstable what attributes to the filament self-heating and energetic electrons backstreaming from the accelerator. A regulation method, which based on the ion density measurement by a Langmuir probe, is employed for stable arc discharge operation and long pulse ion beam generation. Long pulse arc discharge of 100 s is obtained based on this regulation method of arc power. It establishes a foundation for the long pulse arc discharge of a megawatt ion source, which will be utilized a high power neutral beam injection device.

  14. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils concept (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Spaedtke, P.

    2012-02-15

    The main limitation to further improve the performance of ECR ion sources is set by the magnet technology related to the multipole magnet field used for the closed minimum-B structure. The JYFL ion source group has sought different approaches to improve the strength of the minimum-B structure required for the production of highly charged ion beams. It was found out that such a configuration can be realized with arc shaped coils. The first prototype, electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils (ARC-ECRIS), was constructed and tested at JYFL in 2006. It was confirmed that such an ion source can be used for the production of highly charged ion beams. Regardless of several cost-driven compromises such as extraction mirror ratio of 1.05-1.2, microwave frequency of 6.4 GHz, and beam line with limited capacity, Ar{sup 4+} beam intensity of up to 2 {mu}A was measured. Subsequent design study has shown that the ARC-ECRIS operating at the microwave frequency above 40 GHz could be constructed. This specific design would be based on NbTi-wires and it fulfills the experimental magnetic field scaling laws. In this article, the ARC-ECRIS concept and its potential applications will be described.

  15. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  16. Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S. H. Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup ?} beam with ? {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 ??mm?mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup ?}}/I{sub H{sup ?}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

  17. Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zanner, Frank J.; Williamson, Rodney L.; Smith, Mark F.

    1994-12-13

    The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

  18. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Khizhnyak, V. I.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2008-02-15

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 {mu}s, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  19. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  20. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van; Schram, D. C.

    2008-09-15

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

  1. How Common are Noise Sources on the Crash Arc of Malaysian Flight 370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Kunkle, Thomas David; Stead, Richard J.

    2014-10-21

    Malaysian Flight 370 disappeared nearly without a trace. Besides some communication handshakes to the INMASAT satellite, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring system could have heard the aircraft crash into the southern Indian Ocean. One noise event from Cape Leeuwin has been suggested by Stead as the crash and occurs within the crash location suggested by Kunkle at el. We analyze the hydrophone data from Cape Leeuwin to understand how common such noise events are on the arc of possible locations where Malaysian Flight 370 might have crashed. Few other noise sources were found on the arc. The noise event found by Stead is the strongest. No noise events are seen within the Australian Transportation Safety Board (ATSB) new search location until the 10th strongest event, an event which is very close to the noise level.

  2. Long-pulse arc-discharge plasma source with cold cathode for diagnostic neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deichuli, P. P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Stupishin, N. V.

    2008-02-15

    Long-pulse cold cathode arc-discharge plasma generators have been successfully used as high-quality hydrogen ion sources for plasma diagnostic neutral beams. One of the main advantages of this type of plasma source is a high proton fraction (80%-90%). However, the lifetime of the plasma source is limited due to intensive electrode's erosion, especially at the cathode region. An optimized design of the cathode and the nearest electrodes is found which reduces the erosion and allows us to increase the pulse length. The plasma source produces the extracted ion current up to 3 A at a low angular divergence, and at the pulse duration up to 2 s.

  3. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk ; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  4. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns.

  5. Tube furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  6. Gas Sensors Based on Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from a Mini-Arc Plasma Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Ganhua; Huebner, Kyle L.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija; Chen, Junhong

    2006-01-01

    Minimore » aturized gas sensors or electronic noses to rapidly detect and differentiate trace amount of chemical agents are extremely attractive. In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a functional tin oxide nanoparticle gas sensor. Tin oxide nanoparticles are first synthesized using a convenient and low-cost mini-arc plasma source. The nanoparticle size distribution is measured online using a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS). The product nanoparticles are analyzed ex-situ by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for morphology and defects, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy for elemental composition, electron diffraction for crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for surface composition. Nonagglomerated rutile tin oxide ( SnO 2 ) nanoparticles as small as a few nm have been produced. Larger particles bear a core-shell structure with a metallic core and an oxide shell. The nanoparticles are then assembled onto an e-beam lithographically patterned interdigitated electrode using electrostatic force to fabricate the gas sensor. The nanoparticle sensor exhibits a fast response and a good sensitivity when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol vapor in air.« less

  7. Characterization of an atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, X.; Cheron, B. G.; Yan, J. H.; Yu, L.; Cen, K. F.

    2008-05-15

    In the framework of studies devoted to hazardous waste destruction, an original dc double anode plasma torch has been designed and tested, which produces an elongated, weak fluctuation and reproducible plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet are investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals by combined means of fast Fourier transform and Wigner distribution. In our experiment, the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra and Wigner distributions exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which reveals that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the undulation of the power supply and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. In addition, the microscopic properties of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber are investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy, which yields excitation, electronic, rotational, and vibrational temperatures, as well as the electron number density. The results allow us to examine the validity criteria of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc. The measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma in the core region is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions.

  8. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.; Meneghetti, G.

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  9. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  10. Characterization of a Filtered High Current Pulsed Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma Source: Plasma Transport Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangines, R.; Tarrant, R. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Andruczyk, D.

    2008-03-19

    Studies of plasma behavior produced by a filtered high current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc system are reported. Titanium plasma is initiated from the cathode by surface flash over triggering at the centre of the cathode disk. The multiple arc spots move outwards due to their mutual repulsion and the arc current pulse is terminated as the arc spots reach the edge of the cathode disk. The plasma moves into a positively biased quarter-torus magnetic filter and is guided towards the substrate position located 150 mm beyond the filter exit. Electron density and plasma current measurements have been employed to analyze the transport of the plasma associated with different cathode currents, and its dependence on confining magnetic field and bias conditions. For a given cathode current, the optimum plasma transport to the substrate requires the right combination of the strength of the confining magnetic field and the magnetic filter positive bias. The optimum values of these two parameters were found to increase with increasing cathode current. Initially the optimum throughput of plasma increases more strongly than the arc current (roughly 1.5 times the increase in the current); however, at high cathode current regimes (2.4 kA) a significant change of the plasma behavior is seen and transport efficiency is reduced.

  11. Babcock and Wilcox cyclone furnace vitrification. Technology demonstration summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration of the Babcock and Wilcox Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology was conducted in November 1991. This Demonstration occurred at the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Alliance Research Center (ARC) in Alliance, OH. The B and W cyclone furnace may be used for thermal treatment of soils contaminated with organics, metals, and radionuclides. The cyclone furnace is designed to destroy organic contaminants and to immobilize metals and radionuclides in a vitrified soil matrix (slag).

  12. Vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirov, R. Kh. Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Lizyakin, G. D.; Polishchuk, V. P.; Samoilov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-10-15

    Results from experimental studies of a vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot on the heated cathode are presented. Such an arc can be used as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The experiments were performed with a gadolinium cathode, the properties of which are similar to those of an uranium arc cathode. The heat flux from the plasma to the cathode (and its volt equivalent) at discharge voltages of 4-15 V and discharge currents of 44-81 A, the radial distribution of the emission intensity of gadolinium atoms and singly charged ions in the arc channel at a voltage of 4.3 V, and the plasma electron temperature behind the anode were measured. The average charge of plasma ions at arc voltages of 3.5-8 V and a discharge current of 52 A and the average rate of gadolinium evaporation in the discharge were also determined.

  13. Effect of non-uniform electron energy distribution function on plasma production in large arc driven negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T.; Koga, S.; Terasaki, R.; Hatayama, A.; Inoue, T.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-02-15

    Spatially non-uniform electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an arc driven negative ion source (JAEA 10A negative ion source: 10 A NIS) is calculated numerically by a three-dimensional Monte Carlo kinetic model for electrons to understand spatial distribution of plasma production (such as atomic and ionic hydrogen (H{sup 0}/H{sup +}) production) in source chamber. The local EEDFs were directly calculated from electron orbits including electromagnetic effects and elastic/inelastic collision forces. From the EEDF, spatial distributions of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} production rate were obtained. The results suggest that spatial non-uniformity of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} productions is enhanced by high energy component of EEDF.

  14. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  15. Furnace Pressure Controllers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet highlights the benefits of precise furnace pressure control in process heating systems.

  16. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB{sub 6}-filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-02-15

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 {mu}H inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 {mu}sx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H{sup -} ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 {mu}s and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  17. Mechanism of surface modification of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using a gas tungsten arc heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labudovic, M.; Kovacevic, R.; Kmecko, I.; Khan, T.I.; Blecic, D.; Blecic, Z.

    1999-06-01

    The surface modification of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy using a gas tungsten arc, as a heat source, was studied. The experimental results show that the titanium alloy surface can be melted and nitrided using pure nitrogen or a nitrogen/argon mixture shielding atmosphere. The resolidified surfaces are 0.9 to 1.2-mm thick and contain titanium nitride dendrites, {alpha}-titanium, and {alpha}{double_prime}-titanium (martensite). The average dendrite arm spacing is influenced by the electrode speed. Small titanium nitride dendrites are homogeneously distributed in the resolidified surfaces. The microstructure and phase constitution in the resolidified surfaces were determined and analyzed, and the mechanism of the formation of titanium nitrides is discussed. The results show that the nitriding kinetics obey parabolic laws and are, therefore, controlled by nitrogen diffusion. The nitrogen-concentration depth profiles, calculated using Fick`s second law of diffusion, are compared to experimental nitrogen depth profiles, showing satisfactory agreement.

  18. Furnaces Data | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Furnaces Data Furnaces Data Furnaces Data Email (79.43 KB) Questions on 2014 LCC spreadsheet 2014-10-28 (378.96 KB) DOE Furnace Rule111414 Email (43.29 KB) 111414 Letter to DOE-c ...

  19. Ion sources with arc-discharge plasma box driven by directly heated LaB{sub 6} electron emitter or cold cathode (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Alexander A.; Davydenko, Vladimir I.; Deichuli, Petr P.; Shulzhenko, Grigori I.; Stupishin, Nikolay V.

    2008-02-15

    In the Budker Institute, Novosibirsk, an ion source with arc-discharge plasma box has been developed in the recent years for application in thermonuclear devices for plasma diagnostics. Several modifications of the ion source were provided with extracted current ranging from 1 to 7 A and pulse duration of up to 4 s. Initially, the arc-discharge plasma box with cold cathode was used, with which pulse duration is limited to 2 s by the cathode overheating and sputtering in local arc spots. Recently, a directly heated LaB{sub 6} electron emitter was employed instead, which has extended lifetime compared to the cold cathode. In the paper, characteristics of the beam produced with both arrangements of the plasma box are presented.

  20. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A coal based dri and molten metal process for long range replacement of blast furnaces and coke ovens

  1. Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whellock, J.G.; Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

  2. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  3. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paired Straight Hearth Furnace A Coal Based DRI and Molten Metal Process for Long Range Replacement of Blast Furnaces and Coke Ovens The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further signifcant gains in energy effciency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alterna- tive high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI)

  4. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

  5. Furnace Standard Analysis Discussion Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standard * Using field intelligence and thoughtful analysis - assess and quantify the effects a regional or national condensing standard for natural gas furnaces could have on energy efficiency and environmental objectives.  Provide insight on the potential impact limiting customer choices for heating systems could have on overall energy usage, cost, and carbon emissions outcomes.  Provide all data, models and sources of information to DOE and other stakeholders, to gain their confidence

  6. Study of the feasibility of distributed cathodic arc as a plasma source for development of the technology for plasma separation of SNF and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A. Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-12-15

    One of the key problems in the development of plasma separation technology is designing a plasma source which uses condensed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear wastes as a raw material. This paper covers the experimental study of the evaporation and ionization of model materials (gadolinium, niobium oxide, and titanium oxide). For these purposes, a vacuum arc with a heated cathode on the studied material was initiated and its parameters in different regimes were studied. During the experiment, the cathode temperature, arc current, arc voltage, and plasma radiation spectra were measured, and also probe measurements were carried out. It was found that the increase in the cathode heating power leads to the decrease in the arc voltage (to 3 V). This fact makes it possible to reduce the electron energy and achieve singly ionized plasma with a high degree of ionization to fulfill one of the requirements for plasma separation of SNF. This finding is supported by the analysis of the plasma radiation spectrum and the results of the probe diagnostics.

  7. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  8. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  9. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  10. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  11. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 * September 2005 Industrial Technologies Program Furnace Pressure Controllers Furnace draft, or negative pres- sure, is created in fuel-fired furnaces when high temperature gases ...

  12. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnaces Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential furnaces, a product category ...

  13. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  14. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  15. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a ...

  16. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

    1997-04-15

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived. 5 figs.

  17. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Zanner, Frank J.; Grose, Stephen M.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived.

  18. Source-plane reconstruction of the giant gravitational arc in A2667: A candidate Wolf-Rayet galaxy at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Covone, Giovanni; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Izzo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ∼ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z {sub 850} band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec{sup –2} and a characteristic radius r{sub s} = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ∼ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (∼1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  19. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (ARC EXTERNAL TO BLOCK)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.H.

    1958-09-01

    This patent pentains to an ion producing mechanism employed in a calutron which has the decided advantage of an increased amount of ionization effectuated by the arc, and a substantially uniform arc in poiat of time, i arc location and along the arc length. The unique features of the disclosed ion source lie in the specific structural arrangement of the source block, gas ionizing passage, filament shield and filament whereby the arc is established both within the ionizing passage and immediately outside the exit of the ionizing passage at the block face.

  20. Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces.

  1. Metal vapor plasma behavior during vacuum arc remelting of alloy 718

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanner, F.J.; Maguire, M.C.; Williamson, R.L. ); Adasczik, C.B. ); Roberts, R.R. ); Strohecker, R. )

    1992-01-01

    A production vacuum arc remelt (VAR) furnace was modified to enable direct viewing of the metal vapor arc and molten electrode tip during melting of 432 mm dia. alloy 718 electrodes into 508 mm dia. ingots. Diffuse and constricted arcing conditions were characterized using high speed cinematography, standard video format, and monochromatic imaging. Constricted arcing was observed while melting electrodes contaminated with oxide slag of the type used for refractory linings in vacuum induction furnaces. Monochromatic imaging was used in visualize the ion distribution in the arc plasma; these images clearly showed whether the arc operated in a diffuse or constricted model. Diffuse arc melting conditions were very similar to those previously reported in the literature for smaller laboratory sized melts.

  2. Metal vapor plasma behavior during vacuum arc remelting of alloy 718

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanner, F.J.; Maguire, M.C.; Williamson, R.L.; Adasczik, C.B.; Roberts, R.R.; Strohecker, R.

    1992-05-01

    A production vacuum arc remelt (VAR) furnace was modified to enable direct viewing of the metal vapor arc and molten electrode tip during melting of 432 mm dia. alloy 718 electrodes into 508 mm dia. ingots. Diffuse and constricted arcing conditions were characterized using high speed cinematography, standard video format, and monochromatic imaging. Constricted arcing was observed while melting electrodes contaminated with oxide slag of the type used for refractory linings in vacuum induction furnaces. Monochromatic imaging was used in visualize the ion distribution in the arc plasma; these images clearly showed whether the arc operated in a diffuse or constricted model. Diffuse arc melting conditions were very similar to those previously reported in the literature for smaller laboratory sized melts.

  3. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  4. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  5. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  7. WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries,...

  8. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  9. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  10. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  11. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. ... can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces ...

  12. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; White, Jack C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  13. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerdemann, S.J.; White, J.C.

    1998-08-04

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag. 1 fig.

  14. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; White, Jack C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  15. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerdemann, S.J.; White, J.C.

    1999-10-19

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  16. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  17. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  20. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  1. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  2. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  3. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  4. Glass Furnace Model Version 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-05-06

    GFM2.0 is a derivative of the GFM code with substantially altered and enhanced capabilities. Like its predecessor, it is a fully three-dimensional, furnace simulation model that provides a more accurate representation of the entire furnace, and specifically, the glass melting process, by coupling the combustion space directly to the glass batch and glass melt via rigorous radiation heat transport models for both the combustion space and the glass melt. No assumptions are made with regardmore » to interfacial parameters of heat, flux, temperature distribution, and batch coverage as must be done using other applicable codes available. These critical parameters are calculated. GFM2.0 contains a processor structured to facilitate use of the code, including the entry of teh furnace geometry and operating conditions, the execution of the program, and display of the computational results. Furnace simulations can therefore be created in a straightforward manner.« less

  5. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  6. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  7. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  8. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  9. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  10. Recovery of iron and copper from copper smelting furnace slags by carbon injection. Report of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paige, J.I.; Paulson, D.L.; Hunter, W.

    1982-09-01

    The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, conducts research on methods to minimize the requirements for mineral raw materials through conservation, substitution, and increased minerals and metals recovery from primary and secondary domestic resources. To further this goal, prior Bureau research had devised a pyrometallurgical technique (RI 8211) to recover metallic iron and copper from molten copper smelting furnace slags by carbothermic reduction. As a continuation of this Bureau research on the carbon injection technique, reverberatory and electric furnace slags were treated in an 800-kva electric arc furnace by simultaneously top feeding the slag and injecting coke breeze into the bottom of the molten bath.

  11. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  12. Weld arc simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burr, Melvin J.

    1990-01-30

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  13. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via

  14. Geneva Steel blast furnace improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Hills, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Geneva Steel is located in Utah and is situated near the western edge of the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Wasatch Front. Geneva's No. 1, 2 and 3 are the only remaining operating blast furnaces in the United States west of the Mississippi River. They were originally constructed in 1943 to support steelmaking during World War II. During the early 60's all three furnaces were enlarged to their current working volume. Very few major improvements were made until recently. This discussion includes a brief historical perspective of operating difficulties associated with practice, design and equipment deficiencies. Also included is an overview of blast furnace improvements at Geneva found necessary to meet the demands of modern steelmaking. Particular emphasis will be placed on casthouse improvements.

  15. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  16. Furnace Litigation Settled | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnace Litigation Settled Furnace Litigation Settled May 2, 2014 - 11:07am Addthis On June 27, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published in the Federal Register a direct ...

  17. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  18. DC arc weld starter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campiotti, Richard H. (Tracy, CA); Hopwood, James E. (Oakley, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  19. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  20. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  1. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  2. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  3. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  4. Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capabilities - Energy Innovation Portal Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing capabilities Award winning solar manufacturing process National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology <p> <em>The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor manufacturers with energy efficient methods to process devices in a high throughput capacity. &nbsp;</em></p> The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor

  5. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  6. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  7. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  8. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  9. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  10. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  11. Ex Parte Contact on Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contact on Furnaces Ex Parte Contact on Furnaces PDF icon Ex Parte Email3-28-2015 More Documents & Publications Furnaces Data RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGAAPGA Questions re...

  12. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  13. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, Nathan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  14. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  15. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: ...

  16. Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Furnace Creek...

  17. DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm ...

  18. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More ...

  19. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  20. Welding arc initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  1. Welding arc initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  2. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T.; Burgardt, P.

    2011-04-15

    During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

  3. Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... CrC silver- gray 2300 650 corrosion and oxidation resistance; Al and Mg die casting ZrN ... and K. G. Mller, "The anodic vacuum arc and its application to coatings," J. Vac. ...

  4. ARC | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ARC ARC will make tiny "movies" of thermonuclear and stockpile experiments The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) performed the first programmatic experiments with Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on December 1-3, 2015. ARC, a petawatt-class laser with peak power that will exceed a quadrillion watts, is designed to produce brighter, more penetrating, higher-energy

  5. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  6. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G.; Jelenich, L.; Ward, R.F.

    1995-12-01

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  7. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  8. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  9. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  10. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  11. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  12. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  13. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  14. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency. As solar cells move through a manufacturer's production line, they must be oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched, and layered. Heat is an

  15. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Infiltration in Furnaces Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #5 Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (January 2006) (237.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Furnace Pressure Controllers Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired

  16. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a circular-shaped blower fan for furnaces and air conditioners. As homeowners switch on their forced-air furnaces in preparation for cold weather, they may be unaware of how furnace blowers can impact HVAC efficiency. In fact, studies show that the most common blowers have efficiencies of only 10%-15%.

  17. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  18. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  19. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  20. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  1. Probing instabilities in arc plasma devices using binary gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorui, S.; Vysohlid, M.; Heberlein, J. V. R.; Pfender, E.

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents an experimental approach to identify the sources of instabilities in arc plasma devices. The phenomena of demixing in arcs have been utilized to explore the characteristics of different instabilities. Problems in explaining the observed behavior with our current understanding of the phenomena are discussed. Hydrogen is used as a secondary gas with argon as the primary plasma gas for this study. Results indicate that the observed behavior such as steady, takeover, and restrike modes of instabilities in arcs may essentially originate from the thin boundary layer over the anode wall primarily at the location of the anodic arc root. The bulk core flow apparently does not play any significant role in such instabilities. Arc currents rather than flow rates control the behavior of the instabilities in frequency space. Bifurcation of the system behavior and evidence for the existence of quadratic zones in flow space of binary gas mixtures separating steady and unsteady behavior are discussed.

  2. Thermocapillary and arc phenomena in stainless steel welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, S.W.; Olson, D.L.; Burgardt, P.

    1999-02-01

    This investigation characterized the effects of power level and Gaussian heat source size on thermocapillary-induced weld shape and estimated the relative influence of various possible arc phenomena in determining weld shape. Welds made with the CTAW process were compared with similar ones made with a conduction-mode EBW process and the differences were related to arc effects. Evidence of thermocapillary flow was readily apparent in both the GTA welds and the conduction-mode EB welds and was qualitatively similar in both. The similarity between the results obtained with the two processes serves to demonstrate that thermocapillary convection is the dominant factor in heat-to-heat weld shape variability. However, a similar one-to-one correspondence between welds produced with the two processes does not exist. Especially at high power, the EB welds showed stronger thermocapillary convection than the GTA welds. One important arc factor that limits thermocapillary flow in ar welds appears to be an increase in arc size with arc length and arc current. A non-Gaussian arc power distribution in GTAW seems to be most important in limiting the fluid flow. Apparently, the arc power distribution is more nearly rectangular in shape for an argon gas arc. At higher currents, above 200 A, plasma shear force may also be an important contributor to weld shape development. The conduction-mode EB welds demonstrate that thermocapillary flow reversal probably does not occur in welds made with a simple Gaussian heat source. The complex shape behavior is likely a result of an arc effect such as plasma shear.

  3. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  4. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  5. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  6. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  7. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Andrew H.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  8. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  9. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  10. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  11. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O.; Hallin, M.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  12. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  13. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  14. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the ...

  15. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  16. Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the past few weeks, my forced-air gas furnace has been on the fritz. I blame this on the fact that I haven't been as diligent as I should have been with regular furnace maintenance.

  17. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnaces The blast furnace (BF) is the most widely used ironmaking process in the U.S. A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgi- cal coke. This results in substantial improvement in furnace effciency and thus the reductions of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Costs - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Costs October 21, 2011 In this photo, the cavity inside the furnace is glowing white-hot during a simulated firing, while a drawer-like door is open to show the mouth of the furnace. Enlarge image The cavity inside the Solar Optical Furnace glows white hot during a simulated firing of a solar cell. Credit: Dennis Schroeder Solar cells, the heart of the photovoltaic industry, must be tested for mechanical strength, oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched,

  19. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential furnaces, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Performance of a direct combustion biomass furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kranzler, G.A.; Stone, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    A prototype concentric vortex biomass furnace and ram bale feeder were designed and tested. A clear stack was maintained over a turndown ratio of 2:1 and excess air range of 50 to 250%. Stack temperatures ranged up to 700/sup 0/C. Average conversion efficiency was 64%. Maximum heat release was 0.4 MJ/hr.

  1. Performance of a direct combustion biomass furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kranzler, G.A.; Stone, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    A prototype concentric vortex biomass furnace and ram bale feeder were designed and tested. A clear stack was maintained over a turndown ratio of 2:1 and excess air range of 50 to 250%. Stack temperature ranged up to 700 degrees C. Average conversion efficiency was 64%. Maximum heat release was 0.4 MJ/hr.

  2. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  3. Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule DOE Furnace Rule (111.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Focus Series: Philadelphia Energyworks: In the City of Brotherly Love, Sharing Know-How Leads to Sustainability The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013 Collaborating With Utilities on Residential Energy Efficiency

  4. SOURCE?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the direction and maintanence of the core code * The code base is platform- neutral ... Its core function is to allow users to merge multiple sources of building energy data into ...

  5. American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class Thank you for the opportunity to brief your staff in recent weeks on an impact analysis of a national condensing furnace standard, which was conducted jointly by the American Gas Association (AGA), the American Public Gas Association (APGA), and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). AGA e-mail for DOE Furnace Product Class (83.56 KB) AGA Cover Letter for Furnace Product Class White Paper

  6. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Wednesday, 29 October 2014 00:00 Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved

  7. APPARATUS FOR ARC WELDING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lingafelter, J.W.

    1960-04-01

    An apparatus is described in which a welding arc created between an annular electrode and a workpiece moves under the influence of an electromagnetic field about the electrode in a closed or annular path. This mode of welding is specially suited to the enclosing of nuclear-fuel slugs in a protective casing. For example, a uranium slug is placed in an aluminum can, and an aluminum closure is welded to the open end of the can along a closed or annular path conforming to the periphery of the end closure.

  8. Ryuku Arc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Ryuku Arc Details Areas (5) Power Plants (8) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Country(ies) Japan...

  9. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  10. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  11. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry.

  12. Electric arc welding gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  13. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the

  14. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C.; Steiger, R.; Jeschar, R.

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  15. Measurement of total ion current from vacuum arc plasmasources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim M.; Savkin, Konstantin P.; Yushkov, Georgiu Yu.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.; Anders, A.; Brown, Ian G.

    2005-07-01

    The total ion current generated by a vacuum arc plasma source was measured. The discharge system investigated allowed ion collection from the arc plasma streaming through a hemispherical mesh anode with geometric transparency of 72 percent. A range of different cathode materials was investigated, and the arc current was varied over the range 50-500 A. We find that the normalized ion current (Iion/Iarc) depends on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent and generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The application of a strong axial magnetic field in the cathode and arc region leads to increased normalized ion current, but only by virtue of enhanced ion charge states formed in a strong magnetic field.

  16. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  17. When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M. )

    1993-04-01

    About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

  18. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  19. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  20. Reducing the Risk of Arc-Faults

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arc-fault detection algorithms by: 1. Performing arcing tests at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) with AFCI prototypes to verify their functionality on...

  1. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W.

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  2. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  3. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  4. Cavity based furnace for wafer screening - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Cavity based furnace for wafer screening National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology NREL Principal Engineer Bhushan Sopori has fired up an optical furnace he developed to efficiently fabricate solar cells. NREL Principal Engineer Bhushan Sopori has fired up an optical furnace he developed to efficiently fabricate solar cells. Technology Marketing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

  5. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure January 3, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Department of Energy (DOE) has published a final rule regarding test procedures for residential furnace fans. 79 FR 500 (January 3, 2014). Find more information on the rulemaking, including milestones, statutory authority, rulemaking documents, and any other related rulemakings. All notices, public

  6. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. ); Anderson, G.L. )

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  7. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency...

  8. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels....

  9. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF), developed by NREL, uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency.

  10. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  11. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ALKALI METALS; EVAPORATION; FURNACES; ...

  12. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and ...

  13. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Steel Success Story - Ironmaking: Quality and Supply Critical to Steel Industry Paired Straight Hearth Furnace Ironmaking Process Alternatives ...

  14. DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication Philadelphia Gas Works (POW), the largest ... have on POW, its customers, the City of Philadelphia and the air quality of this region. ...

  15. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    When the energy transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are ... reduction in furnace heat losses will be multiplied by the overall available heat factor. ...

  16. Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  17. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  18. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  19. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  20. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  1. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  2. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  3. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  4. An Iridate with Fermi Arcs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Iridate with Fermi Arcs Print Researchers have discovered that "Fermi arcs," which are much-debated features found in the electronic structure of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates, can also be found in an iridate (iridium oxide) compound. At the ALS, the researchers observed the electronic structure of strontium iridate as it evolved through different doping levels and temperatures by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with in situ electron doping

  5. Modernizing furnaces with recuperative burners in the metal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdoulay, F.; Drewery, P.

    1982-01-01

    Industrial burners equipped with means of preheating the combustion air with the hot combustion products offer significant savings in heat-processing energy consumption. As evidence in some forging furnaces recently outfitted with recuperative burners, reductions in energy consumption range from 30 to 60%. Such burners are particularly well-suited for high-temperature, direct-heating furnaces.

  6. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  7. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  8. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  9. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  10. Operating a blast furnace using dried top gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundrat, D.M.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of operating a blast furnace, comprising: introducing into the top of the furnace a charge containing metal oxide, coke and flux, collecting a top gas CO, H[sub 2], carbon dioxide and water from the furnace, increasing the reducing potential of said collected top gas by removing water but without removing carbon dioxide from at least a portion of said collected top gas thereby forming a dried top gas, heating said dried top gas to form a heated dried top gas, introducing said heated dried top gas into the lower half of the stack of the furnace at a position above which said coke is not reactive and introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrogenaceous fuel into the bosh of the furnace whereby said metal oxide is reduced to a molten metal using said heated dried top gas.

  11. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  12. ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, D.H.; Yockey, H.P.; Schmidt, F.H.

    1959-04-14

    An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to thereby align the arc chamber in the biock with the cathode and magnetic field in the tank. With this arrangement the elements of the ion source are capable of precise adjustment with respect to one another, promoting increased source efficiency.

  13. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  14. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  15. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  16. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E.; Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  17. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  18. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  19. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and

  20. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  1. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Metal vapor arc ion plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1986-09-09

    A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

  3. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  4. 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Consumer Furnaces and Boilers

  5. Arc-Fault Detector Algorithm Evaluation Method Utilizing Prerecorded...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This pulse was fed into the AFD circuit to better tune the arc-fault detector. Figure 4 shows the string current (Hall Effect), the arc-fault voltage (Arc V (TEK)), and the arcing ...

  6. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. . Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  7. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  8. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces;...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical ...

  9. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop and implement technologies that address advanced combustion diagnostics and rapid Btu measurements of fuels. These are the fundamental weaknesses associated with the combustion processes of a furnace.

  10. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air through ductwork in residential heating and cooling equipment. ...

  11. AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-publication Furnace NOPR AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR_Email (50.37 KB) Questions for DOE Furnace NOPR - 030615-c (2) (94.63 KB) DOE Reponse to AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR_Email.pdf (52.31 KB) Follow-Up Email from APGA (57.65 KB) More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 Furnaces Data RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031

  12. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfd_blastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry EA-1745: Finding of No Significant Impact

  13. Alloys for Ethylene Production Furnaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Alloys for Ethylene Production Furnaces Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryEthylene production is one of the most energy intensive processes in the chemical industry, due to the decoking necessary to maintain ethylene furnace tubes. DescriptionOak Ridge National Laboratory and its industrial partners are developing

  14. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief | Department of Energy Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat

  15. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

    1980-06-06

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  16. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K.; Stephens, Albert E.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  17. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  18. Characterization of arcs in frequency domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Inca, R.; Siegl, G.; Faugel, H.; Braun, F.; Eckert, B.; Bobkov, V.; El Khaldi, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2009-11-26

    Arc detection systems are developed for ICRH on ITER to prevent arcs from damaging the RF components. One of the detectors, the Sub-Harmonic Arc Detector (SHAD) is based on the detection of the frequencies emitted in the MHz range by arcs [R1]. To ensure the high level of reliability required for this safety system, it is necessary to demonstrate that these frequencies present a signal with a Signal to Noise Ratio high enough to be detected under the wide range of operational conditions (frequency, power, configuration) and for the different types of arcs that can appear in the feeding lines and on the antennas (vacuum arc, glow discharge, multipactor-induced discharge). For each type of arc, we analyze the evolution of the frequency spectrum relative to the evolution of other electrical parameters (reflected power, voltage)

  19. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  20. The 1994 intermediate reline of H-3 furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, J.D.; Nanavati, K.S.; Spirko, E.J.; Wakelin, D.H.

    1995-12-01

    LTV Steel`s Indiana Harbor Works H-3 Blast Furnace was rebuilt in 1988 to provide reliable operations at high production rates without damage to the shell for an overall campaign. This Rebuild included: (1) complete bosh and partial stack shell replacement; (2) a spray cooled carbon bosh; (3) a row of staves at the mantle and six rows of stack staves, all stack staves had noses (ledges at the top of the stave) with the exception of row 5; (4) silicon carbide filled semi graphite brick for the bosh, silicon carbide brick from the mantle area and to the top of stave row No. 1, super duty brick in front of the remaining staves and phosphate bonded high alumina brick in the upper stack; (5) movable throat armor; (6) upgraded instrumentation to follow furnace operation and lining wear occurring in the furnace. No work was done to the hearth walls and bottom, since these had been replaced in 1982 with a first generation graphite cooled design and has experienced 7.7 million NTHM. The furnace was blown in November 18, 1988 and operated through September 3, 1994, at which time it was blown down for its first intermediate repair after 7.85 million NTHM. This paper summarizes the operation of the furnace and then discusses the major aspects of the 1994 intermediate repair.

  1. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  2. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  3. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backus, J.G.

    1957-12-24

    This patent relates to ion sources and more particularly describes an ion source for a calutron which has the advantage of efficient production of an ion beam and long operation time without recharging. The source comprises an arc block provided with an arc chamber connected to a plurality of series-connected charge chambers and means for heating the charge within the chambers. A cathode is disposed at one end of the arc chamber and enclosed hy a vapor tight housing to protect the cathode. The arc discharge is set up between the cathode and the block due to a difference in potentials placed on these parts, and a magnetic field is aligned with the arc discharge. Cooling of the arc block is accomplished by passing coolant through a hollow stem secured at one end to the block and rotatably mounted at the other end through the wall of the calutron. The ions are removed through a slit in the arc chamber by accelerating electrodes.

  4. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H.

    1995-12-01

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  5. Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

    2006-09-06

    The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

  6. Overvoltage protector using varistor initiated arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Coaxial conductors are protected against electrical overvoltage by at least one element of non-electroded varistor material that adjoins each other varistor element and conductor with which it contacts. With this construction, overvoltage current initiated through the varistor material arcs at the point contacts between varistor elements and, as the current increases, the arcs increase until they become a continuous arc between conductors, bypassing the varistor material.

  7. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  8. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less

  9. ScanArc ASA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: ScanArc ASA Place: Hoyanger, Norway Product: Norway-based firm that provides advice on and develops processes and applications of plasma energy....

  10. Northeast Honshu Arc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Northeast Honshu Arc Details Areas (5) Power Plants (8) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Country(ies) Japan...

  11. Arc-Fault Detector Algorithm Evaluation Method Utilizing Prerecorded Arcing Signatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arc-Fault Detector Algorithm Evaluation Method Utilizing Prerecorded Arcing Signatures Jay Johnson 1 and Jack Kang 2 1 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA 2 Sensata Technologies, Attleboro, MA, USA ABSTRACT Abstract - The 2011 National Electrical Code® Article 690.11 requires photovoltaic systems on or penetrating a building to include a DC arc-fault protection device. In order to satisfy this requirement, new Arc-Fault Detectors (AFDs) are being developed by multiple

  12. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H.

    1995-12-01

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  13. NREL's Optical Cavity Furnace Brings Together a Myriad of Advances for Processing Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner, the Optical Cavity Furnace. The innovative furnace uses light and unique light-induced effects to make higher-efficiency solar cells at lower cost.

  14. Development and Validation of a Coupled Combustion Space/Glass Bath Furnace Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Glass Furnace Simulation Model will Improve Energy Use and Efficiency While Reducing Emissions. Competitive and regulatory pressures are motivating glass manufacturers to seek new ways to improve productivity while reducing furnace enery use and emission.

  15. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnace fans.

  16. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W.; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  17. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase the energy efficiency of process heating systems. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #8 Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (September 2005) (280.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System Using

  18. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S.; Korzekwa, Deniece R.

    1999-01-01

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egelja, A.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-05-09

    The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below, the natural gas flame must extend over a large portion of the glass melt. Therefore modern high efficiency burners are not used in these furnaces. The natural gas is injected as a jet, and a jet flame forms in the flow of air entering the furnace. In most current glass furnaces the energy required to melt the batch feed stock is about twice the theoretical requirement. An improved understanding of the heat transfer and two phase flow processes in the glass melt and solid batch mix offers a substantial opportunity for energy savings and consequent emission reductions. The batch coverage form and the heat flux distribution have a strong influence on the glass flow pattern. This flow pattern determines to a significant extent the melting rate and the quality of glass.

  20. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    2004-03-02

    Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation, reduction of the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, and lessened tendency to corrosion at the tube wall, in a multi-burner furnace are obtained by reducing the flow rate of combustion air to the burners and selectively individually feeding oxidant to only some of the burners.

  1. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  2. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  3. Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur; Brinch, Jon Christian; Johansen, Kai

    2005-12-27

    The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

  4. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L.; Hu, J.

    2008-11-15

    Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.

  6. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  7. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  8. Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 14, 2006 Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 14, 2006 February 10, 2006 An ...

  9. Boron nitride ablation studies in arc jet facilities (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Boron nitride ablation studies in arc jet facilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boron nitride ablation studies in arc jet facilities You are ...

  10. ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  11. Composition and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of alkaline arc lavas: Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, A.K.; Hart, S.R.; Frey, F.A. )

    1990-05-10

    The SiO{sub 2}-undersaturated lavas from Lihir island, Papua New Guinea, like most arc lavas are highly enriched in Sr, Ba, K, Rb, and Cc and depleted in Hf, Ta, Nb, and Ti relative to ocean floor basalts and oceanic island basalts. These alkali-rich lavas have arc trace element signatures and Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic systematics. However, they are not a product of present-day subduction, as this volcanism has tapped mantle which was enriched by prior subduction episodes. The narrow range of Pb isotopic compositions suggest a cogenetic origin for these lavas. During the fractionation of the primitive Lihir lavas, elements normally considered incompatible (i.e., the light rare earth elements (LREE), Rb, Th, and P) have high bulk solid/melt partition coefficients (0.15-1.5). Relatively higher partition coefficients during formation of the evolved lavas produced crossing rare earth element (REE) patterns, and primitive lavas have higher incompatible elements abundances than evolved lavas. The Lihir lavas have lower alkali, Sr, Ba, K, Rb, Cs, and LREE abundances than other Tabar-Feni lavas. They are derived from a less enriched mantle source rather than by a higher degree of melting of a source similar to that of the other islands. The similarity of Sm/Nd ratios of these undersaturated arc lavas to those of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline arc lavas and the moderate chondrite-normalized La/Yb (la/Yb{sub cn} = 3-7) indicates that there has been limited enrichment of the LREE relative to the heavy REE during generation of the arc-modified source mantle. The alkaline nature of these lavas reflects their generation, in a tensional tectonic environment, from a fossil arc mantle region that has undergone extreme arc enrichment of alkali and alkaline earth elements during two earlier subduction episodes.

  12. Note: A new regulation method of stable operation of high power cathode ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. C.; Xie, Y. H. Hu, C. D.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, S.; Liang, L. Z.; Liu, Z. M.

    2015-05-15

    The hot cathode ion source will tend to be unstable when operated with high power and long pulse. In order to achieve stable operation, a new regulation method based on the arc power (discharge power) feedback control was designed and tested on the hot cathode ion source test bed with arc discharge and beam extraction. The results show that the new regulation method can achieve stable arc discharge and beam extraction. It verifies the success of feedback control of arc source with arc power.

  13. RF Arc Detection in ICRH RDL Antennas by Phase Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Khaldi, M.; Vulliez, K.; Magne, R.; Bosia, G.

    2009-11-26

    A voltage breakdown in an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system is usually detected as an abrupt change in the module of the reflection coefficient |{gamma}in| at the power source output. The same effect can be due to a large load variation. This study is carried out by constructing a electrical model for a Tore Supra ITER-like antenna (TS ILA), and to analyse how a voltage breakdown, localized in any part of the system, modifies several electrical parameters of the circuit (with respect to perfect match conditions), as detected at the location of the monitoring points. The phase difference between the reflections coefficients measured at the output of tuning network when an arc strikes in one of two Resonant double loop (RDL) sections of the ICRH TS ILA appears to be the most promising parameter to detect the arc and identify its position. It is also significantly insensitive to a load variation so an arc and edge localized modes (ELMs) can be distinguished.

  14. A Glove Box Enclosed Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reevr, E, M; Robino, C.V.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes an inert atmosphere enclosed gas-tungsten arc welding system which has been assembled in support of the MC2730, MC2730A and MC 3500 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Enhanced Surveillance Program. One goal of this program is to fabricate welds with microstructures and impurity levels which are similar to production heat source welds previously produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mound Facility. These welds will subsequently be used for high temperature creep testing as part of the overall component lifetime assessment. In order to maximize the utility of the welding system, means for local control of the arc atmosphere have been incorporated and a wide range of welding environments can easily be evaluated. The gas-tungsten arc welding system used in the assembly is computer controlled, includes two-axis and rotary motion, and can be operated in either continuous or pulsed modes. The system can therefore be used for detailed research studies of welding impurity effects, development of prototype weld schedules, or to mimic a significant range of production-like welding conditions. Fixturing for fabrication of high temperature creep test samples have been designed and constructed, and weld schedules for grip-tab and test welds have been developed. The microstructure of these welds have been evaluated and are consistent with those used during RTG production.

  15. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-02-24

    An ion source is described wherein a portion of the filament serving as a cathode for the arc is protected from the effects of non-ionized particles escaping from the ionizing mechanism. In the described ion source, the source block has a gas chamber and a gas passage extending from said gas chamber to two adjacent faces of the source block. A plate overlies the passage and abuts one of the aforementioned block faces, while extending beyond the other face. In addition, the plate is apertured in line with the block passage. The filament overlies the aperture to effectively shield the portion of the filament not directiy aligned with the passage where the arc is produced.

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-05-12: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces, Extension of Comment Period

  17. ISSUANCE 2016-09-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  18. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  19. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  20. Measure Guideline: High-Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces L. Brand and W. Rose Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit October 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors or affiliates makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  1. Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

  2. AdaptiveARC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Biomass Product: Waste-to-clean-energy startup is developing an arc-plasma reactor Website: www.adaptivearc.com Coordinates: 33.07959, -117.22539 Show Map Loading...

  3. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  5. Motion characteristics of long ac arcs in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Shanqiang; He Jinliang; Zeng Rong; Zhang Bo; Xu Guozheng; Chen Weijiang

    2007-01-29

    Experiments on the motion of long alternating current arcs in atmospheric air show that the anode and cathode arc roots have different motion characteristics because of different formation mechanisms. During a half cycle of the arc current, the anode arc root moves towards the direction of magnetic force and occasionally has a jumping motion, while the cathode arc root moves sufficiently slow to consider it stationary and hardly has any jump. The arc column has a complex shape and moves under the drive of the magnetic force and is also quickened by the lower arc root.

  6. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  7. Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspenion of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  8. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment wiht the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  9. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

    1990-11-13

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are disclosed. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig.

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  12. Effects of shielding gas compositions on arc plasma and metal transfer in gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Z. H.; Liao, S. M.; Tsai, H. L.

    2010-02-15

    This article presents the effects of shielding gas compositions on the transient transport phenomena, including the distributions of temperature, flow velocity, current density, and electromagnetic force in the arc and the metal, and arc pressure in gas metal arc welding of mild steel at a constant current input. The shielding gas considered includes pure argon, 75% Ar, 50% Ar, and 25% Ar with the balance of helium. It is found that the shielding gas composition has significant influences on the arc characteristics; droplet formation, detachment, transfer, and impingement onto the workpiece; and weld pool dynamics and weld bead profile. As helium increases in the shielding gas, the droplet size increases but the droplet detachment frequency decreases. For helium-rich gases, the current converges at the workpiece with a 'ring' shape which produces non-Gaussian-like distributions of arc pressure and temperature along the workpiece surface. Detailed explanations to the physics of the very complex but interesting transport phenomena are given.

  13. 2014-06-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fans; Final Rule | Department of Energy 25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace Fans; Final Rule 2014-06-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace Fans; Final Rule This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding energy conservation standards for furnace fans, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on June 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy

  14. 2015-02-10 Issuance Energy Conservation Standard for Residential Furnaces;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting | Department of Energy 0 Issuance Energy Conservation Standard for Residential Furnaces; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting 2015-02-10 Issuance Energy Conservation Standard for Residential Furnaces; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking and public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnaces, as issued by the

  15. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy 3 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for furnaces and boilers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 13, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  18. AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGA-APGA Questions_Ex Parte_Email (68.75 KB) AGA_APGA_Shipments_Questions_2015-04-23 (26.5 KB) More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR August 20, 2014 meeting with DOE representatives regarding the remand of the DOE Direct Final Rule as it relates to efficiency standards for non-weatherized gas furnaces 2015-12-30 Energy Conservation Program:

  19. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test ...

  20. Minimization of Blast Furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose proposed CFD model will focus on the complex physics and chemistry found within the upper part of the blast furnace.

  1. Cost efficiency of flame-guniting the lining of open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronov, M.V.; Kozenko, N.I.; Moiseenko, V.D.; Bondarenko, A.G.

    1988-05-01

    The use of flame-guniting for lining repair to the open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces of a number of Soviet plants is reviewed. Equipment and technology for flame-guniting the lining of furnaces, which provide for both local and general repairs to the walls, roofs, and bottoms of furnaces, are discussed. Methods are given for calculating expenditures for repair work and determining the cost efficiency of flame guniting relative to the increased number of heats per lining life. Results are given from calculations of the projected cost-efficiency of using flame-guniting for furnace lining repair at the metallurgical plants of the Ukranian Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy.

  2. New additive retards coke formation in ethylene furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Adding relatively small amounts of a new additive to the feed stream of a steam cracker can inhibit coke formation on the metal surfaces of processing equipment and increase furnace run time. The additive comprises a variable mixture of four to six inorganic salts in aqueous solution. The components of the additive mixture can be varied, as needed, for processing heavy feed materials such as heavy naphtha and gas oil. The process was first tested at a Korean petrochemical plant and is now operating successfully at a commercial facility in Russia. The results of the Korean trial are presented here.

  3. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H.

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  4. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  5. Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-12-31

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  6. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ARC WELDING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noland, R.A.; Stone, C.C.

    1960-05-10

    An apparatus and method are given for forming a welding arc which is rotated by a magnetic field very rapidly about an annular electrode so that a weld is produced simultaneously over all points of an annular or closed path. This invention inhibits outgassing from the jacket of a fuel slug which is being welded by adjusting the pressure throughout the welding cycle to establish a balance between the gas pressure within the jacket and that of the atmosphere surrounding the jacket. Furthermore, an improved control of the magnetic field producing rotation of the welding arc is disclosed whereby this rotation is prevented from splashing about the metal being welded as the welding arc makes it molten.

  7. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

  8. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke; Imuta, Akira

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  9. Investigation on oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jian; Li Yinghong; Xing Fei

    2009-10-01

    Wedge oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow was investigated theoretically, experimentally, and numerically in this paper. Using thermal choking model, the change in oblique shock wave was deduced, which refer that the start point of shock wave shifts upstream, the shock wave angle decreases, and its intensity weakens. Then the theoretical results were validated experimentally in a Mach 2.2 wind tunnel. On the test conditions of arc discharge power of approx1 kW and arc plasma temperature of approx3000 K, schlieren photography and gas pressure measurements indicated that the start point of shock wave shifted upstream of approx4 mm, the shock wave angle decreased 8.6%, and its intensity weakened 8.8%. The deduced theoretical results match the test results qualitatively, so thermal mechanism and thermal choking model are rational to explain the problem of oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma. Finally, numerical simulation was developed. Based on thermal mechanism, the arc discharge plasma was simplified as a thermal source term that added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The simulation results of the change in oblique shock wave were consistent with the test results, so the thermal mechanism indeed dominates the oblique shock wave control process.

  10. Arc Flash Protection | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Arc Flash Absorber in Bangalore Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Arc Flash Absorber in Bangalore Take a sneak peek into the high-voltage lab in Bangalore and learn how GE researchers are helping to stabilize electrical distribution. You Might Also Like Munich_interior_V 10 Years ON: From the Lab

  11. Influence of a transverse magnetic field on arc root movements in a dc plasma torch: Diamagnetic effect of arc column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Keun Su

    2009-03-23

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the anodic arc root movement inside a dc plasma torch has been investigated. The arc voltage fluctuation, which represents the degree of the arc instability, was reduced to 28.6% of the original value and the high frequency components in the voltage signal also decreased in their magnitudes. The inherent arc instability in a dc thermal plasma torch seems to be suppressed by a diamagnetic effect of the arc column. Furthermore, the measured voltage wave forms indicated that the arc root attachment mode would be controllable by a transverse magnetic field.

  12. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Sirgado, M.

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  13. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  14. American Ref Fuel Corporation ARC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ref Fuel Corporation ARC Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Ref-Fuel Corporation (ARC) Place: Montvale, NJ, New Jersey Zip: 76450 Product: Focused on waste-to-energy...

  15. Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on ...

  16. DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH INTENSITY ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-01-01

    A device is described for producing an energetic d-c carbon arc discharge between widely spaced electrodes with arc currents in excess of 100 amperes in a magnetic field of about 3000 gauss and witnin an evacuated enclo sure at a pressure of about 10/sup -5/ mm Hg. No defining electrodes are used in the device, thus essentially eliminating the problems of shorting which heretofore limited the amount of current that could be produced in an arc discharge. The energetic carbon arc discharge is sustained by the potential across the electrodes and by carbon ions and electrons released from the electrodes during arc operation. A large part of the potential drop of the arc occurs along the arc and many energetic electrons reach the anode because the arc pressure is relatively low, and few collisions occur. The carbon discharge is also an efficient ion pump.

  17. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  18. Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U.

    1995-12-01

    Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

  19. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  1. Pairing, pseudogap and Fermi arcs in cuprates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminski, Adam; Kondo, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Gu, Genda

    2014-04-29

    We use Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the relationship between the pseudogap, pairing and Fermi arcs in cuprates. High quality data measured over a wide range of dopings reveals a consistent picture of Fermiology and pairing in these materials. The pseudogap is due to an ordered state that competes with superconductivity rather than preformed pairs. Pairing does occur below Tpair ~ 150K and significantly above Tc, but well below T* and the doping dependence of this temperature scale is distinct from that of the pseudogap. The d-wave gap is present below Tpair, and its interplay with strong scattering creates artificial Fermi arcs for Tc ? T ? Tpair. However, above Tpair, the pseudogap exists only at the antipodal region. This leads to presence of real, gapless Fermi arcs close to the node. The length of these arcs remains constant up to T*, where the full Fermi surface is recovered. As a result, we demonstrate that these findings resolve a number of seemingly contradictory scenarios.

  2. Pairing, pseudogap and Fermi arcs in cuprates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaminski, Adam; Kondo, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Gu, Genda

    2014-04-29

    We use Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the relationship between the pseudogap, pairing and Fermi arcs in cuprates. High quality data measured over a wide range of dopings reveals a consistent picture of Fermiology and pairing in these materials. The pseudogap is due to an ordered state that competes with superconductivity rather than preformed pairs. Pairing does occur below Tpair ~ 150K and significantly above Tc, but well below T* and the doping dependence of this temperature scale is distinct from that of the pseudogap. The d-wave gap is present below Tpair, and its interplay with strong scatteringmore » creates “artificial” Fermi arcs for Tc ≤ T ≤ Tpair. However, above Tpair, the pseudogap exists only at the antipodal region. This leads to presence of real, gapless Fermi arcs close to the node. The length of these arcs remains constant up to T*, where the full Fermi surface is recovered. As a result, we demonstrate that these findings resolve a number of seemingly contradictory scenarios.« less

  3. Gas tungsten arc welder with electrode grinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  4. NETL Issues Licenses for its Arc Position Sensing Technology | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Issues Licenses for its Arc Position Sensing Technology NETL Issues Licenses for its Arc Position Sensing Technology May 27, 2015 - 8:57am Addthis NETL Issues Licenses for its Arc Position Sensing Technology The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has issued two licenses involving its Arc Position Sensing (APS) technology to KW Associates LLC, an Oregon-based company founded by the technology's inventors. APS technology is a patented,

  5. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  6. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  7. Theory of the arc discharge in air blast breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, H.F.

    1980-08-01

    The complete set of equations obtaining in the arc's length element are given. The arc length is determined when the external circuit equations are closed by an expression for the arc inductance as a function of the radius and length, in addition to our relationships for the radius and voltage gradients.

  8. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-05-12

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

  9. Numerical investigation of the double-arcing phenomenon in a cutting arc torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancinelli, B. R.; Minotti, F. O.; Kelly, H.; Prevosto, L.

    2014-07-14

    A numerical investigation of the double-arcing phenomenon in a cutting arc torch is reported. The dynamics of the double-arcing were simulated by using a two-dimensional model of the gas breakdown development in the space-charge layer contiguous to the nozzle of a cutting arc torch operated with oxygen. The kinetic scheme includes ionization of heavy particles by electron impact, electron attachment, electron detachment, electronion recombination, and ionion recombination. Complementary measurements during double-arcing phenomena were also conducted. A marked rise of the nozzle voltage was found. The numerical results showed that the dynamics of a cathode spot at the exit of the nozzle inner surface play a key role in the raising of the nozzle voltage, which in turn allows more electrons to return to the wall at the nozzle inlet. The return flow of electrons thus closes the current loop of the double-arcing. The increase in the (floating) nozzle voltage is due to the fact that the increased electron emission at the spot is mainly compensated by the displacement current (the ions do not play a relevant role due to its low-mobility) until that the stationary state is achieved and the electron return flow fully-compensates the electron emission at the spot. A fairly good agreement was found between the model and the experiment for a spot emission current growth rate of the order of 7??10{sup 4}?A/s.

  10. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  11. Effect of chlorine on furnace wall corrosion in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, S.C.; Daniel, P.L.; Seeley, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    The corrosion resistance of several commercial alloys was investigated in laboratory retort tests under a reducing/sulfidizing mixed gas at 700 and 900 F (371 and 482 C) for 1,000 hours. The test conditions were designed to simulate the corrosion of furnace walls in the combustion zone of utility boilers burning sulfur/chlorine-bearing coal substoichiometrically. Corrosion rates of these alloys were determined and compared to those obtained from a previous study in which the same alloys were evaluated under chlorine-free substoichiometric combustion environments. Results of the two studies reveal that the presence of chlorine in the reducing/sulfidizing mixed gas has a negligible effect on the corrosion behavior of these alloys in this gas at 700 F (371 C), whereas a beneficial effect was observed at 900 F (482 C). The beneficial effect implies that the presence of HCl may impede the sulfidation attack by H{sub 2}S under certain substoichiometric combustion environments.

  12. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  13. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  14. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The

  15. On the formation and origin of substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs inferred from conjugate space-ground observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-10-27

    In this study, magnetotail processes and structures related to substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs remain poorly understood mostly due to the lack of adequate observations. In this study we make a comparison between ground-based optical measurements of the premidnight growth phase/onset arcs at subauroral latitudes and magnetically conjugate measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) at ~780 km in altitude and by the Van Allen Probe B (RBSP-B) spacecraft crossing L values of ~5.0–5.6 in the premidnight inner tail region. The conjugate observations offer a unique opportunity to examine the detailed features of the arc location relative to large-scale Birkeland currents and of the magnetospheric counterpart. Our main findings include (1) at the early stage of the growth phase the quiet auroral arc emerged ~4.3° equatorward of the boundary between the downward Region 2 (R2) and upward Region 1 (R1) currents; (2) shortly before the auroral breakup (poleward auroral expansion) the latitudinal separation between the arc and the R1/R2 demarcation narrowed to ~1.0°; (3) RBSP-B observed a magnetic field signature of a local upward field-aligned current (FAC) connecting the arc with the near-Earth tail when the spacecraft footprint was very close to the arc; and (4) the upward FAC signature was located on the tailward side of a local plasma pressure increase confined near L ~5.2–5.4. These findings strongly suggest that the premidnight arc is connected to highly localized pressure gradients embedded in the near-tail R2 source region via the local upward FAC.

  16. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  17. Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma of Thallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2006-10-02

    Thallium arc plasma was investigated in a vacuum arc ionsource. As expected from previous consideration of cathode materials inthe Periodic Table of the Elements, thallium plasma shows lead-likebehavior. Its mean ion charge state exceeds 2.0 immediately after arctriggering, reaches the predicted 1.60 and 1.45 after about 100 microsecand 150 microsec, respectively. The most likely ion velocity is initially8000 m/s and decays to 6500 m/s and 6200 m/s after 100 microsec and 150microsec, respectively. Both ion charge states and ion velocities decayfurther towards steady state values, which are not reached within the 300microsec pulses used here. It is argued that the exceptionally high vaporpressure and charge exchange reactions are associated with theestablishment of steady state ion values.

  18. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  19. Arc Casting Intermetallic Alloy (Materials Preparation Center)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Arc casting of intermetallic (La-Ni-Sn) AB5 alloy used for metal hydride hydrogen storage. Upon solidification the Sn is partially rejected and increases in concentration in the remaining liquid. Upon completing solidification there is a great deal of internal stress in the ingot. As the ingot cools further the stress is relieved. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  20. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  1. Ion charge state fluctuations in vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yushkov, Georgy Yu

    2004-12-14

    Ion charge state distributions of cathodic vacuum arcs have been investigated using a modified time-of-flight method. Experiments have been done in double gate and burst gate mode, allowing us to study both systematic and stochastic changes of ion charge state distributions with a time resolution down to 100 ns. In the double gate method, two ion charge spectra are recorded with a well-defined time between measurements. The elements Mg, Bi, and Cu were selected for tests, representing metals of very different properties. For all elements it was found that large stochastic changes occur even at the limit of resolution. This is in agreement with fast changing arc properties observed elsewhere. Correlation of results for short times between measurements was found but it is argued that this is due to velocity mixing rather than due to cathode processes. The burst mode of time-of-flight measurements revealed the systematic time evolution of ion charge states within a single arc discharge, as opposed to previous measurements that relied on data averaged over many pulses. The technique shows the decay of the mean ion charge state as well as the level of material-dependent fluctuations.

  2. [A variable frequency microwave furnace]. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL91-0055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-12-08

    The goals of this CRADA were to: (1) development and demonstrate a highly frequency-agile microwave furnace; (2) explore applications of the furnace for materials processing; and (3) develop control systems and packaging that are robust, user-friendly, and suitable for sale as a turnkey system. Microwave Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) designed, built, and successfully brought to market a benchtop Variable Frequency Microwave Furnace (VFMF). The concept has demonstrated advantages in polymer curing, waste remediation, and diamond (CVD). Through experimentation and modeling, the VFMF approach has gained credibility within the technical community.

  3. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  4. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  5. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time.

  6. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) offers rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum...

  7. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS BASED INVESTIGATION OF SENSITIVITY OF FURNACE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS TO BURNER FLOW CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc Cremer; Zumao Chen; Dave Wang; Paul Wolff

    2004-06-01

    This is the extended second Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts.

  8. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  9. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  10. (Acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam furnace)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohriner, E.K.; Howell, C.R.

    1990-09-18

    The travelers observed the acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam (EB) furnace constructed by Leybold (Hanau) Technologies prior to disassembly and shipping. The testing included: (1) operation of the mold withdrawal system (2) vacuum pumping and vacuum chamber leak-up rates, (3) power stability at full power, (4) x-radiation monitoring at full power, and (5) demonstration of system interlocks for loss of water cooling, loss of vacuum, loss of power, and emergency shutdown. Preliminary training was obtained in furnace operation, EB gun maintenance, and use of the programmable logic controller for beam manipulation. Additional information was obtained on water-cooling requirements and furnace platform construction necessary for the installation. The information gained and training received will greatly assist in minimizing the installation and startup operation costs of the furnace.

  11. Building America Expert Meeting: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, Larry

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  14. The use of muffle furnaces with microwave heating in the analysis of natural and technological objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshcheeva, I.Y.; Belenkaya, S.N.; Kubrakova, I.V.

    2008-12-15

    The analytical possibilities are considered of using a new type of equipment - microwave muffle furnaces - when performing the operations of incineration and roasting. A two- to threefold decrease in a warm-up time for a furnace with the use of microwave heating, a 3- to 16-fold decrease in the total duration of the analysis, and a twofold improvement in reproducibility of s{sub r} results are shown as exemplified by the processing of coal samples and technological products.

  15. research, Development, and Field Testing of Thermochemical Recuperation for High Temperature Furnace

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Project Objective b h b l h h l * Substantiate technical f l feasibility of f Thermochemical Recuperation (TCR) concept and economic viability including identification of technical scale up and including identification of technical scale up and manufacturability concerns * Increase furnace thermal efficiency to 61% Increase furnace thermal efficiency to 61% * Reduce Natural Gas usage ~ 21% * Reduce Carbon footprint ~ 21% * Reduce NO X > 21% (due to flue gas recirculation) 2 Technical

  16. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  17. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  18. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  19. Final report on process modeling of cupola furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the first phase of the AFS/DOE program on mathematical modeling of cupola behavior, covering the period May 19, 1989 to July 19, 1990. The objective of the program is to develop a comprehensive mathematical model of the cupola furnace for on-line and off-line process control and optimization. The work is being carried out by five organizations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology with responsibility for heat transfer and fluid flow modeling, and incorporation of the chemical models being developed by the University of Michigan team. Modern Equipment Company has the responsibility of compiling information on needed sensors for monitoring operation and providing materials data to be used for cupola input. General Motors, Central Foundry Division, is investigating the potential to augment the mathematical models with artificial intelligence programs. Lastly, General Motors Research laboratories are charged with providing accurate cupola operational data to test the models being developed. To date, a one-dimensional steady state model has been developed which considers heat transfer, fluid flow and important chemical processes: combustion, iron composition development, limestone calcination and iron oxidation. The model is based on established physico-chemical principles and data available in the literature. Model predictions compare favorably with data obtained in a production sale cupola, operating under carefully controlled, but realistic, conditions. At the present time, the chemical sub-models are being incorporated into the master program, and a complete working cupola model is expected by September 1990. 43 refs.

  20. Rapid mapping tool : an ArcMap extension /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linger, S. P.; Rich, P. M.; Walther, D.; Witkowski, M. S.; Jones, M. A.; Khalsa, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    Cartographic production laboratories produce large volumes of maps for diverse customers. Turnaround time and consistency are key concerns. The Rapid Mapping Tool is an ArcMap based tool that enables rapid creation of maps to meet customer needs. This tool was constructed using VB/VBA, ArcObjects, and ArcGIS templates. The core capability of ArcMap is extended for custom map production by storing specifications associated with a map or template in a companion XML document. These specifications include settings and preferences used to create custom maps. The tool was developed as a component of an enterprise GIS, which enables spatial data management and delivery using ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Oracle, and a web-based request tracking system.

  1. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  2. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  3. Method for controlling gas metal arc welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smartt, Herschel B.; Einerson, Carolyn J.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1989-01-01

    The heat input and mass input in a Gas Metal Arc welding process are controlled by a method that comprises calculating appropriate values for weld speed, filler wire feed rate and an expected value for the welding current by algorithmic function means, applying such values for weld speed and filler wire feed rate to the welding process, measuring the welding current, comparing the measured current to the calculated current, using said comparison to calculate corrections for the weld speed and filler wire feed rate, and applying corrections.

  4. Method for controlling gas metal arc welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smartt, H.B.; Einerson, C.J.; Watkins, A.D.

    1987-08-10

    The heat input and mass input in a Gas Metal Arc welding process are controlled by a method that comprises calculating appropriate values for weld speed, filler wire feed rate and an expected value for the welding current by algorithmic function means, applying such values for weld speed and filler wire feed rate to the welding process, measuring the welding current, comparing the measured current to the calculated current, using said comparison to calculate corrections for the weld speed and filler wire feed rate, and applying corrections. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Darwin: The Third DOE ARM TWP ARCS Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale in October 1996 when the first Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) began collecting data on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). ...

  6. Advanced RenewableEnergy Company ARC Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (ARC Energy) Place: Nashua, New Hampshire Product: New Hampshire-based stealth mode LED substrate manufacture equipment provider which aims to lower the cost of LEDs....

  7. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  8. Asymmetric injection of cathodic arc plasma into a macroparticlefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2004-02-11

    The cathodic arc plasmas produced by cathode spots usuallyinclude macroparticles, which is undesirable for many applications. Acommon way of removing macroparticles is to use curved solenoid filterswhich guide the plasma from the source to the substrate. In this work, anarc source with relatively small cathode is used, limiting the possiblelocations of plasma production. The relative position of cathodic arcsource and macroparticle filtered was systematically varied and thefiltered plasma current was recorded. It was found that axis-symmetricplasma injection leads to maximum throughput only if an anode aperturewas used, which limited the plasma to near-axis flow by scraping offplasma at larger angles to the axis. When the anode aperture was removed,more plasma could enter the filter. In this case, maximum filtered ioncurrent was achieved when the plasma was injected off-axis, namely offsetin the direction where the filter is curved. Such behavior wasanticipated because the plasma column in the filter is known to beshifted by ExB and centrifugal drift as well as by non-axis-symmetriccomponents of the magnetic field in the filter entrance and exit plane.The data have implications for plasma transport variations caused bydifferent spot locations on cathodes that are not small compared to thefilter cross section.

  9. On the formation and origin of substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs inferred from conjugate space-ground observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-10-27

    In this study, magnetotail processes and structures related to substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs remain poorly understood mostly due to the lack of adequate observations. In this study we make a comparison between ground-based optical measurements of the premidnight growth phase/onset arcs at subauroral latitudes and magnetically conjugate measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) at ~780 km in altitude and by the Van Allen Probe B (RBSP-B) spacecraft crossing L values of ~5.0–5.6 in the premidnight inner tail region. The conjugate observations offer a unique opportunity to examine the detailed features of the arcmore » location relative to large-scale Birkeland currents and of the magnetospheric counterpart. Our main findings include (1) at the early stage of the growth phase the quiet auroral arc emerged ~4.3° equatorward of the boundary between the downward Region 2 (R2) and upward Region 1 (R1) currents; (2) shortly before the auroral breakup (poleward auroral expansion) the latitudinal separation between the arc and the R1/R2 demarcation narrowed to ~1.0°; (3) RBSP-B observed a magnetic field signature of a local upward field-aligned current (FAC) connecting the arc with the near-Earth tail when the spacecraft footprint was very close to the arc; and (4) the upward FAC signature was located on the tailward side of a local plasma pressure increase confined near L ~5.2–5.4. These findings strongly suggest that the premidnight arc is connected to highly localized pressure gradients embedded in the near-tail R2 source region via the local upward FAC.« less

  10. High-current lanthanum-hexaboride electron emitter for a quasi-stationary arc plasma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davydenko, V. I. Ivanov, A. A. Shul’zhenko, G. I.

    2015-11-15

    A high-current electron emitter on the basis of lanthanum hexaboride is developed for quasi-stationary arc plasma generators of ion sources. The emitter consists of a set of LaB{sub 6} washers interleaved with washers made of thermally extended graphite. The emitter is heated by the current flowing through the graphite washers. The thermal regime of emitter operation during plasma generation is considered. The emitter has been successfully used in the ion sources of the diagnostic injectors of fast hydrogen atomic beams.

  11. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosa, R.J.; Pollina, R.J.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. Two phenomena that can effect the analysis of slag leakage current have been investigated and found significant. These are: (1) transverse current along the slag layer in the insulator walls of an MHD duct, and (2) electrode surface voltage drops. Both tend to reduce the value inferred for average plasma conductivity and increase the value inferred for axial leakage current. These two effects in combination are potentially capable of explaining the high leakage inferred. Corrosion on the water side of metal MHD duct wall elements has been examined in CDIF and Mark 7 generators. It appears to be controllable by adjusting the pH of the water and/or by controlling the dissolved oxygen content.

  12. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a

  13. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  14. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  15. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  16. Mechanism of carbon nanostructure synthesis in arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, M.; Shashurin, A.; Volotskova, O.; Raitses, Y.; Beilis, I. I.

    2010-05-15

    Plasma enhanced techniques are widely used for synthesis of carbon nanostructures. The primary focus of this paper is to summarize recent experimental and theoretical advances in understanding of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) synthesis mechanism in arcs, and to describe methods of controlling arc plasma parameters. Fundamental issues related to synthesis of SWNTs, which is a relationship between plasma parameters and SWNT characteristics are considered. It is shown that characteristics of synthesized SWNTs can be altered by varying plasma parameters. Effects of electrical and magnetic fields applied during SWNT synthesis in arc plasma are explored. Magnetic field has a profound effect on the diameter, chirality, and length of a SWNT synthesized in the arc plasma. An average length of SWNT increases by a factor of 2 in discharge with magnetic field and an amount of long nanotubes with the length above 5 {mu}m also increases in comparison with that observed in the discharge without a magnetic field. In addition, synthesis of a few-layer graphene in a magnetic field presence is discovered. A coupled model of plasma-electrode phenomena in atmospheric-pressure anodic arc in helium is described. Calculations indicate that substantial fraction of the current at the cathode is conducted by ions (0.7-0.9 of the total current). It is shown that nonmonotonic behavior of the arc current-voltage characteristic can be reproduced taking into account the experimentally observed dependence of the arc radius on arc current.

  17. What makes an electric welding arc perform its required function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correy, T.B.

    1982-09-01

    The physics of direct current and alternating current welding arcs, the heat transfer of direct current welding arcs, the characteristics of dc welding and ac welding power supplies and recommendations for the procurement and maintenance of precision power supplies are discussed. (LCL)

  18. Arrangement, Dopant Source, And Method For Making Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Krygowski, Thomas W.

    1999-10-26

    Disclosed is an arrangement, dopant source and method used in the fabrication of photocells that minimize handling of cell wafers and involve a single furnace step. First, dopant sources are created by depositing selected dopants onto both surfaces of source wafers. The concentration of dopant that is placed on the surface is relatively low so that the sources are starved sources. These sources are stacked with photocell wafers in alternating orientation in a furnace. Next, the temperature is raised and thermal diffusion takes place whereby the dopant leaves the source wafers and becomes diffused in a cell wafer creating the junctions necessary for photocells to operate. The concentration of dopant diffused into a single side of the cell wafer is proportional to the concentration placed on the respective dopant source facing the side of the cell wafer. Then, in the same thermal cycle, a layer of oxide is created by introducing oxygen into the furnace environment after sufficient diffusion has taken place. Finally, the cell wafers receive an anti-reflective coating and electrical contacts for the purpose of gathering electrical charge.

  19. Applicability of moire deflection tomography for diagnosing arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yunyun; Song Yang; He Anzhi; Li Zhenhua

    2009-01-20

    The argon arc plasma whose central temperature, 1.90x10{sup 4} K, is used as a practical example for an experiment to research the applicability of moire deflection tomography in arc plasma flow-field diagnosis. The experimental result indicates that moire deflection of the measured argon arc plasma is very small, even smaller than that of a common flame with the maximal temperature of nearly 1.80x10{sup 3} K. The refractive-index gradient in moire deflection tomography mainly contributes to the temperature gradient in essence when the probe wavelength and pressure are certain in plasma diagnosis. The applicable temperature ranges of moire deflection tomography in the argon arc plasma diagnosis are given with the probe wavelength 532 nm at 1 atm in certain measuring error requirements. In a word, the applicable temperature range of moire deflection tomography for arc plasma diagnosis is intimately related to the probe wavelength and the practical measuring requirements.

  20. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  1. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  2. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  3. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M.; Zuo, G.

    1995-12-01

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  4. Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxen, H.

    1998-06-01

    The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

  5. Three-dimensional nonsteady heat-transfer analysis of an indirect heating furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, H.; Umeda, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Wantanabe, T.; Mitutani, T. ); Arai, N.; Hasatani, M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an accurate design method for industrial furnaces from the viewpoint of heat transfer. The authors carried out a three-dimensional nonsteady heat-transfer analysis for a practical-size heat- treatment furnace equipped with radiant heaters. The authors applied three software package programs, STREAM, MORSE, and TRUMP, for the analysis of the combined heat-transfer problems of radiation, conduction, and convection. The authors also carried out experiments of the heating of a charge consisting of packed bolts. The authors found that the air swirled inside the furnace. As for the temperature in each part in the furnace, analytical results were generally in close agreement with the experimental ones. This suggests that our analytical method is useful for a fundamental heat- transfer-based design of a practical-size industrial furnace with an actual charge such as packed bolts. As for the temperature distribution inside the bolt charge (work), the analytical results were also in close agreement with the experimental ones. Consequently, it was found that the heat transfer in the bolt charge could be described with an effective thermal conductivity.

  6. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  7. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  8. Tracking down the origin of Arc plasma science. I. Early pulsed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    down the origin of Arc plasma science. I. Early pulsed and oscillating discharges Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tracking down the origin of Arc plasma science. ...

  9. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Vodopyanov, A. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.

    2012-02-15

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent ''minimum-B'' structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap - axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 {mu}s) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  10. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  11. Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Ekmann, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

  12. Hoogovens blast furnace No. 6 -- The first eleven years of a continuing campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tijhuis, G.; Toxopeus, H.; Berg, H. van den; Vliet, C. van der

    1997-12-31

    Blast furnace No. 6 of Hoogovens Steel has just completed its eleventh year of the fourth (running) campaign, with a total production of approx. 23 million metric tonnes of hot metal. During the last reline in 1985 the furnace was equipped with a third taphole and a bell-less top. The lining consists of graphite and semi-graphite and the cooling consists of a dense pattern of copper plate coolers. The current campaign is marked by several important operational events, in particular the high productivity and PCI rates, but also by the remarkable performance of the lining which has shown limited wear in the first four years of the campaign, and hardly any reduction of the lining thickness in the last seven years. This paper discusses the design of the furnace, and the history of the current campaign with respect to its productivity, PCI rates and lining wear.

  13. The formation of an ore free blast furnace center by bell charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exter, P. den; Steeghs, A.G.S.; Godijn, R.; Chaigneau, R.; Timmer, R.M.C.; Toxopeus, H.L.; Vliet, C. van der

    1997-12-31

    A research program has been started to clarify and support the central gas flow control philosophy of Hoogovens` bell-charged No. 7 blast furnace. Small scale burdening experiments and sampling of the stock surface during shut-downs suggest that a sufficiently high central gas flow is an important condition for maintenance of an ore free, highly permeable furnace center and that fluidization of coke plays a part in its formation. On the basis of these experiments a hypothesis was formulated regarding the formation of an ore free blast furnace center, but could not be confirmed satisfactorily. Forthcoming full-scale burdening experiments will provide a better insight in the burden distribution and its control.

  14. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  15. Up-grade of process control system, U.S. Steel Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camlic, R.L. [U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works; Goodman, N.J. [Kvaerner Davy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The No. 8 blast furnace at US Steel`s Fairfield, AL facility is the only blast furnace remaining in operating at the plant. The blast furnace has a production capacity of 5,500 tons per day of hot metal and provides 100% of the iron requirements for the steel plant that has an annual production capacity of 2,200,000 tons of steel. Therefore, any outage on No. 8 blast furnace has a major impact on the operation of the total Fairfield facility. During the planning stages of the latest reline outage of No. 8 blast furnace, significant measures were taken to insure that maximum production of iron was maintained before and immediately after the outage. A significant portion of the reline activity was centered on the total replacement of the existing process control system. The scope of replacement was so extensive that it was determined that if all areas of the process control system were replaced during the reline outage, then the installation and commissioning of the new system would have been the critical path on the project. In addition, the requirements for training and start-up of the new process control system would have imposed risks to obtaining maximum production after the reline outage, as operators experienced the learning curve of the new system. It was therefore decided that the critical areas of the new process control system would be installed before the reline outage. In addition, all training and start-up activities would take place on the new working system while it was operating in a `shadow` mode in parallel with the existing system. This would provide a proven process control system for blast furnace operations before the reline outage, and eliminate the learning curve after the outage. The reline outage is described.

  16. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.

    2015-10-07

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine powermoreperformance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.less

  17. Electrochemical transfer of oxygen during direct current arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.H.; Frost, R.H.; Olson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Weld metal oxygen content is important for control of weld metal microstructure and notch toughness. Low oxygen contents promote low toughness bainitic structures. Moderate oxygen levels favor a tough acicular ferrite structure, and high oxygen levels promote lower toughness grain boundary and Widmanstaetten side plate structures. The objective of this research was to examine electrochemical oxygen transfer as a function of welding process variables, polarity, and the relative importance of conduction across plasma-metal and slag-metal interfaces for: submerged arc welding (SAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. SAW and SMAW were made in DCEN and DCEP polarities on structural steel and copper substrates. GTAW were made on steel substrates in DCEN polarity. The experimental results show that both thermochemical and electrochemical reactions are important for oxygen transfer, and that there are differences in the electrochemical reactions at slag-metal and plasma-metal interfaces. Both electrochemical and thermochemical reactions are significant for direct current arc welding processes. The arc plasma acts as an electrolyte for arc welding processes and electrochemical reactions occur at the plasma-metal interface have chemical effects opposite to those at the slag metal interface. This is caused by the fact that only positive ions exist in the arc plasma in large concentrations.

  18. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. . Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  19. Bosh repairs No. 3 blast furnace, Edgar Thomson Plant Mon Valley Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoupis, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the steps taken from quenching to dry out of the furnace to repair the bosh area of the No.3 blast furnace. Inspection of the area revealed that there was no brick anywhere in the bosh. Brick in the tuyere breast area had been peeled back to reveal the steel plate, and descaling revealed 14 pipes fully exposed. None were leaking, but one seemed badly deteriorated. Conventional repairs could not take place before the scheduled blow-in. Installation of coolers were instead tried.

  20. Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

  1. Numerical simulation of carbon arc discharge for nanoparticle synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundrapu, M.; Keidar, M.

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge with catalyst-filled carbon anode in helium background was used for the synthesis of carbon nanoparticles. In this paper, we present the results of numerical simulation of carbon arc discharges with arc current varying from 10 A to 100 A in a background gas pressure of 68 kPa. Anode sublimation rate and current voltage characteristics are compared with experiments. Distribution of temperature and species density, which is important for the estimation of the growth of nanoparticles, is obtained. The probable location of nanoparticle growth region is identified based on the temperature range for the formation of catalyst clusters.

  2. Acoustic stabilization of electric arc instabilities in nontransferred plasma torches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rat, V.; Coudert, J. F.

    2010-03-08

    Electric arc instabilities in dc plasma torches lead to nonhomogeneous treatments of nanosized solid particles or liquids injected within thermal plasma jets. This paper shows that an additional acoustic resonator mounted on the cathode cavity allows reaching a significant damping of these instabilities, particularly the Helmholtz mode of arc oscillations. The acoustic resonator is coupled with the Helmholtz resonator of the plasma torch limiting the amplitude of arc voltage variations. It is also highlighted that this damping is dependent on friction effects in the acoustic resonator.

  3. Qualitative experiment with arc discharges on negatively biased solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuninaka, Hitoshi )

    1990-12-01

    The present ground simulation of arc discharges using heat-sensitive materials in dense Ar plasma can preclude interactions with the vacuum chamber wall due to its plasma shielding. The results obtained suggest that arc discharges occurred only on the surface of the masked model, and on the model with a clean conductor. Discharge frequency depended on substrate temperature, and surface luminosity was observed on the insulator mask; this last feature suggests that electrons are incident from the conductor region onto the mask. It is necessary to construct a new theory for the arc discharge integrating the effects of the surface gas adsorption/desorption and the secondary electrons. 14 refs.

  4. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  5. Growth and characterization of AuN films through the pulsed arc technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devia, A. Castillo, H.A.; Benavides, V.J.; Arango, Y.C.; Quintero, J.H.

    2008-02-15

    AuN films were produced through the PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physics Vapor Deposition) method, using the pulsed arc technique in a mono-vaporizer noncommercial system, which consists of a chamber with two faced electrodes, and a power controlled system. In order to obtain the films, an Au Target with 99% purity and stainless steel 304 were used as target and substrate respectively. Nitrogen was injected in gaseous phase at 2.3 mbar pressure, and a discharge of 160 V was performed, supplied by the power controlled source. Au4f and N1s narrow spectra were analyzed using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy)

  6. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  7. A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Miocene...

  8. West Flank Coso FORGE: ArcGIS data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Blankenship

    2015-12-21

    Geologic ArcGIS data of West Flank Coso, Ca FORGE site from a unpublished map by Rich Whitmarsh. The zip file includes a DEM, hillshade and four shapefiles of the general outlines of FORGE area.

  9. Ohmic contacts for solar cells by arc plasma spraying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Mandayam C.; Roessler, Barton; Loferski, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The method of applying ohmic contacts to a semiconductor, such as a silicon body or wafer used in solar cells, by the use of arc plasma spraying, and solar cells resulting therefrom.

  10. Synthesis of silicon nanotubes by DC arc plasma method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tank, C. M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2012-06-05

    Plasma synthesis is a novel technique of synthesis of nanomaterials as they provide high rate of production and promote metastable reactions. Very thin walled silicon nanotubes were synthesized in a DC direct arc thermal plasma reactor. The effect of parameters of synthesis i.e. arc current and presence of hydrogen on the morphology of Si nanoparticles is reported. Silicon nanotubes were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Local Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM).

  11. Arc Vault Significantly Reduces Electrical Hazards | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arc Vault Significantly Reduces Electrical Hazards Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Arc Vault Significantly Reduces Electrical Hazards GE Global Research 2012.05.01 Recently, technology developed at GE Global Research received high praise from industry leaders for its ability to shield industrial -

  12. Blast furnace gas fired boiler for Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir), Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Strickland, A.; Kimsesiz, E.; Temucin, I.

    1996-11-01

    Eregli Demir ve Celik Fabriklari T.A.S. (Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc.), known as Erdemir, is a modern integrated iron and steel works on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, producing flat steel plate. Facilities include two blast furnaces, coke ovens, and hot and cold rolling mills, with a full supporting infrastructure. Four oil- and gas-fired steam boilers provide steam for electric power generation, and to drive steam turbine driven fans for Blast Furnace process air. Two of these boilers (Babcock and Wilcox Type FH) were first put into operation in 1965, and still reliably produce 100 tons/hour of steam at a pressure of 44 bar and a temperature of 410 C. In 1989 Erdemir initiated a Capacity Increase and Modernization Project to increase the steel production capability from two million to three million tons annually. This project also incorporates technology to improve the product quality. Its goals include a reduction in energy expenses to improve Erdemir`s competitiveness. The project`s scheduled completion is in late 1995. The by-product gases of the blast furnaces, coke ovens, and basic oxygen furnaces represent a considerable share of the consumed energy in an integrated iron and steel works. Efficient use of these fuels is an important factor in improving the overall efficiency of the operation.

  13. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces Fans; Correction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On January 3, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a final rule in the Federal Register that established the test procedure for residential furnace fans. Due to drafting errors, that document inadvertently removed necessary incorporation by reference material in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This final rule rectifies this error by once again adding the removed material.

  14. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  15. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State's Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  16. Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damkroger, B.

    1998-04-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal. 8 figs.

  17. Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damkroger, Brian

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal.

  18. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  19. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  20. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi

    1997-12-31

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

  1. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Performance Furnace Blowers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovations profile describes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's work with furnace blower design that led to the creation of a standard for rating blowers, credits for the use of good blowers in Federal tax credit programs and energy codes, and consideration in current federal rulemaking procedures.

  2. Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-04

    A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into

  3. ARC will make tiny "movies" of thermonuclear and stockpile experiments

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) ARC will make tiny "movies" of thermonuclear and stockpile experiments Wednesday, January 13, 2016 - 12:00am Installation of part of ARC preamplifer systems. X-ray radiograph of a backlit grid produced on the first programmatic ARC shot. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) performed the first programmatic experiments with Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on December 1-3, 2015. ARC, a petawatt-class laser with peak power

  4. Effects of current on droplet generation and arc plasma in gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, J.; Tsai, H. L.

    2006-09-01

    In gas metal arc welding (GMAW), a technology using pulsed currents has been employed to achieve the one-droplet-per-pulse (ODPP) metal transfer mode with the advantages of low average currents, a stable and controllable droplet generation, and reduced spatter. In this paper, a comprehensive model was developed to study the effects of different current profiles on the droplet formation, plasma generation, metal transfer, and weld pool dynamics in GMAW. Five types of welding currents were studied, including two constant currents and three wave form currents. In each type, the transient temperature and velocity distributions of the arc plasma and the molten metal, and the shapes of the droplet and the weld pool were calculated. The results showed that a higher current generates smaller droplets, higher droplet frequency, and higher electromagnetic force that becomes the dominant factor detaching the droplet from the electrode tip. The model has demonstrated that a stable ODPP metal transfer mode can be achieved by choosing a current with proper wave form for given welding conditions.

  5. Extracting source parameters from beam monitors on a chopper spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The intensity distributions of beam monitors in direct-geometry time-of-flight neutron spectrometers provide important information about the instrument resolution. For short-pulse spallation neutron sources in particular, the asymmetry of the source pulse may be extracted and compared to Monte Carlo source simulations. An explicit formula using a Gaussian-convolved Ikeda-Carpenter distribution is given and compared to data from the ARCS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  6. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  7. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H.; Grisse, H.J.; Speranza, B.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  8. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  9. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Metal Melting and Casting Unit Tantalum Crucible Welder Oxy-Gon High Temperature Quenching Furnace GCA Vacuum Industries Vacuum Furnace NRC - High Temperature Vacuum Furnace Nonconsumable Arc Casting Furnace Vacuum Induction Melting/Chill Casting Furnaces Arc Melting/Chill Casting Furnaces Box Furnaces Resistance heated vacuum distillation/sublimation furnaces Electrotransport Purification Furnace 2250 psi High Pressure Hydrogen Charging furnace 1000°C Hydrofluorination furnace

  10. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  11. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  12. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  13. Late Cenozoic fault kinematics and basin development, Calabrian arc, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knott, S.D.; Turco, E.

    1988-08-01

    Current views for explaining the present structure of the Calabrian arc emphasize bending or buckling of an initially straight zone by rigid indentation. Although bending has played an important role, bending itself cannot explain all structural features now seen in the arc for the following reasons: (1) across-arc extension is inconsistent with buckling, (2) north-south compression predicted by a bending mechanism to occur in the internal part of a curved mountain belt is not present in the Calabrian arc, and (3) lateral shear occurs throughout the arc, not just along the northern and southern boundaries. The model presented here is based on lateral bending of mantle and lower crust (demonstrated by variation in extension in the Tyrrhenian basin) and semibrittle faulting and block rotation in the upper crust. These two styles of deformation are confined to the upper plate of the Calabrian subduction system. This deformation is considered to have been active from the beginning of extension in the Tyrrhenian basin (late Tortonian) and is still active today (based on Holocene seismicity). Block rotations are a consequence of lateral heterogeneous shear during extension. Therefore, some of the observed rotation of paleo-magnetic declinations may have occurred in areas undergoing extension and not just during thrusting. Inversion of sedimentary basins by block rotation is predicted by the model. The model will be a useful aid in interpreting reflection seismic data and exploring and developing offshore and onshore sedimentary basins in southern Italy.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  15. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  16. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  17. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  18. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  19. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  20. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  1. Process Simulation of Gas Metal Arc Welding Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-06

    ARCWELDER is a Windows-based application that simulates gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of steel and aluminum. The software simulates the welding process in an accurate and efficient manner, provides menu items for process parameter selection, and includes a graphical user interface with the option to animate the process. The user enters the base and electrode material, open circuit voltage, wire diameter, wire feed speed, welding speed, and standoff distance. The program computes the size andmore » shape of a square-groove or V-groove weld in the flat position. The program also computes the current, arc voltage, arc length, electrode extension, transfer of droplets, heat input, filler metal deposition, base metal dilution, and centerline cooling rate, in English or SI units. The simulation may be used to select welding parameters that lead to desired operation conditions.« less

  2. Parallel vacuum arc discharge with microhollow array dielectric and anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jinghua; Zhou, Lin; Fu, Yuecheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Rongkun; Chen, Faxin; Li, Linbo; Meng, Shijian

    2014-07-15

    An electrode configuration with microhollow array dielectric and anode was developed to obtain parallel vacuum arc discharge. Compared with the conventional electrodes, more than 10 parallel microhollow discharges were ignited for the new configuration, which increased the discharge area significantly and made the cathode eroded more uniformly. The vacuum discharge channel number could be increased effectively by decreasing the distances between holes or increasing the arc current. Experimental results revealed that plasmas ejected from the adjacent hollow and the relatively high arc voltage were two key factors leading to the parallel discharge. The characteristics of plasmas in the microhollow were investigated as well. The spectral line intensity and electron density of plasmas in microhollow increased obviously with the decease of the microhollow diameter.

  3. Darwin : The Third DOE ARM TWP ARCS Site /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, William E.; Jones, L. A.; Baldwin, T.; Nitschke, K.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program began operations in its Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale in October 1996 when the first Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) began collecting data on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Two years later, in November 1998, a second ARCS began operations on the island of Nauru in the Central Pacific. Now a third ARCS has begun collecting data in Darwin, Australia. The Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites are operated through collaborative agreements with the PNG National Weather Service, The Nauru Department of Industry and Economic Development (IED), and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) Special Services Unit (SSU) respectively. All ARM TWP activities in the region are coordinated with the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) based in Apia, Samoa. The Darwin ARM site and its role in the ARM TWP Program are discussed.

  4. Muon Acceleration with RLA and Non-scaling FFAG Arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasiliy Morozov,Alex Bogacz,Dejan Trbojevic

    2010-05-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are the most likely means to achieve the rapid acceleration of shortlived muons to multi-GeV energies required for Neutrino Factories and TeV energies required for Muon Colliders. In this paper, we present a novel return-arc optics design based on a Non Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) lattice that allows 5 and 9 GeV/c muons of both charges to be transported in the same string of magnets. The return arcs are made up of super cells with each super cell consisting of three triplets. By employing combined function magnets with dipole, quadrupole, sextupole and octupole magnetic field components, each super cell is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final periodic orbit offsets for both 5 and 9 GeV/c muon momenta. This solution would reduce the number of arcs by a factor of 2, simplifying the overall design.

  5. Muon acceleration with RLA and non-scaling FFAG ARCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozov, V.S.; Trbojevic, D.; Bogacz, A.

    2010-05-23

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are the most likely means to achieve the rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV energies required for Neutrino Factories and TeV energies required for Muon Colliders. In this paper, we present a novel return-arc optics design based on a Non Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) lattice that allows 5 and 9 GeV/c muons of both charges to be transported in the same string of magnets. The return arcs are made up of super cells with each super cell consisting of three triplets. By employing combined function magnets with dipole, quadrupole, sextupole and octupole magnetic field components, each super cell is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final periodic orbit offsets for both 5 and 9 GeV/c muon momenta. This solution would reduce the number of arcs by a factor of 2, simplifying the overall design.

  6. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter`s operating characteristics.

  7. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  8. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  9. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30% of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. As a result, large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  10. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  11. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  12. Electric-resistance furnace for melting ash from municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakao, Tsuyoshi; Nakahara, Keisuke; Akashi, Tetsuo

    1997-12-31

    Existing landfill capacity is dwindling in Japan and it is difficult to find new landfill sites because of strong opposition from residents. Under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law in 1991 in Japan, fly ashes from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator have to be treated by one of the four methods: (1) vitrification, (2) solidification by cement, (3) stabilization using chemical agents, or (4) extraction with acid or other solvent. In these four technologies, the vitrification technology has some advantages: decreasing ash volume which can solve the landfill problem, de-taxiing ash, and utilization of its products from residues. NKK has developed an electric resistance furnace for melting MSW incineration residues and built a demonstration plant (24t/d). The performance test results showed as follows; (1) Si, Al, and Ca tended to become the molten slag. Cu, P, and Fe tended to become the molten metal. Pb, Zn, and Cd tended to become the molten fly ash. (2) HCl from the slag resistance electric furnace was 60 ppm and very low compared with other melting systems. (3) Decomposition rate of dioxins was 99 % in the melting furnace. (4) Concentration of heavy metals in the molten slag was low and leaching of heavy metals was below Japanese regulation.

  13. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  14. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim

    2008-08-15

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  15. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P.; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  16. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  17. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  18. Thermocapillary and arc phenomena in stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, S.W.

    1993-10-01

    Goal was to study effect of power level and distribution on thermocapiilary-induced weld shape and of arc factors on weld shape. Thermocapillarity was apparent in both conduction mode EB welds and GTA welds, particularly in the former. A non-Gaussian arc distribution is suggested for accounting for the differences between the twoss processes. At higher current levels (200--300 A), plasma shear force also contributes to weld shape development. Evidence suggests that thermocapillary flow reversal is not a factor in normal GTA welds; EDB flow reversal occurs only at high power density levels where the keyhole mode is present.

  19. ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  Joint Submitters Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1181 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1181 USA Larry Schneider Phone: (505) 845-7135 Fax: (505) 845-7685 Email: lxschne@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate represen- tation of this product.

  20. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-05-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.