Sample records for aquifers depleted fields

  1. Stream aquifer interactions: analytical solution to estimate stream depletions caused by stream stage fluctuations and pumping wells near streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intaraprasong, Trin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is composed of three parts of contributions. Systems of a fully penetrating pumping well in a confined aquifer near a fully penetrating stream with and without streambeds are discussed in Chapter II. In Chapter III, stream-aquifer...

  2. Stream aquifer interactions: analytical solution to estimate stream depletions caused by stream stage fluctuations and pumping wells near streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intaraprasong, Trin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is composed of three parts of contributions. Systems of a fully penetrating pumping well in a confined aquifer near a fully penetrating stream with and without streambeds are discussed in Chapter II. In Chapter III, stream-aquifer...

  3. Inducinga CO2 leak into ashallow aquifer (CO2FieldLab EUROGIA+ project): Monitoring the CO2 plume in groundwaters.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (saline aquifer, depleted oil/gas reservoir), aquifers are ubiquitousin the overlying sedimentary pile in case of unwanted CO2leakages from a storage site. Independently from the nature of the reservoir

  4. The hydrogeochemistry of pond and rice field recharge : implications for the arsenic contaminated aquifers in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, Rebecca B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shallow aquifers in Bangladesh, which provide drinking water for millions and irrigation water for innumerable rice fields, are severely contaminated with geogenic arsenic. Water mass balance calculations show that ...

  5. Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles Dudley Stark School.S.A. would occur between 1965 and 1970. Oil production in the U.S.A. actually peaked in 1970 and has been declining since then. Hubbert used a logistic curve to approximate the rate of oil production. Deffeyes [2

  6. Managing the risk of CO2 leakage from deep saline aquifer reservoirs through the creation of a hydraulic barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - up in the storage reservoir. For some man-made leakages (e.g. abandoned well), and more importantlyGHGT-10 Managing the risk of CO2 leakage from deep saline aquifer reservoirs through the creation emissions. Depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers are seen as possible storage reservoirs

  7. Field studies of virus transport in a heterogeneous sandy aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Jason Robert

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water. Ground water transport models can be used to predict the transport of viruses. However, if current public domain virus transport models are to be used for this purpose, they need to be verified under operating field conditions. To evaluate...

  8. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AUBURN UNIVERSITY FIELD EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Auburn University Thermal Energy Storage , LBL No. 10194.Mathematical modeling of thermal energy storage in aquifers,of Current Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Programs (in

  9. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AUBURN UNIVERSITY FIELD EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C.F. , 1980, "Aquifer Thermal Energy - Parameter Study" (infrom the Auburn University Thermal Energy Storage , LBL No.studies in aquifer thermal energy , Presented at the ~~~~~~~

  10. Prediction of pressure depletion from wireline and mud logs, Golden Trend field, Garvin County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, R.P.; White, F.W.; Struckel, J.C.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Golden Trend, a giant oil field encompassing several overlapping Pennsylvanian stratigraphic traps on the eastern flank of the Anadarko basin, has undergone a resurgence in the 1980s with deeper drilling for pre-Pennsylvanian targets. Approximately 200 new wells in and near the Antioch Southwest, Panther Creek, and Elmore Northeast waterflood units (T2, 3N, R2, 3W) have encountered evidence of undrained reserves in both established and new pay intervals of Pennsylvanian Hart and Gibson sandstones. Although all porous Hart and Gibson sandstones in the study area were originally oil bearing, evaluation of the state of depletion is necessary for planning future recompletions to these reservoirs. In general, wireline and mud logs over intervals with known production histories exhibit characteristics suggestive of pressure depletion, even in areas of old waterfloods. The most consistent parameters correlating to low reservoir pressure are lost circulation, lack of an increase in penetration rate when drilling porous sandstone, excessive gas effect on neutron-density logs, and low methane and total gas levels on the mud logs. The resistivity invasion profile also reflects lower pressure, but is subtle. The SP curve and gas composition on the mud log do not vary substantially as a function of pressure. Visual sample shows are slightly weaker in depleted sandstones, but are less reliable, owing to dependence on reservoir quality and variations between geologists on oral descriptions of show quality.

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb(MillionCubic Feet) Depleted Fields

  12. THE MAGNETIC FIELD PILE-UP AND DENSITY DEPLETION IN THE MARTIAN MAGNETOSHEATH: A COMPARISON WITH THE PLASMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    THE MAGNETIC FIELD PILE-UP AND DENSITY DEPLETION IN THE MARTIAN MAGNETOSHEATH: A COMPARISON Global Surveyor (MGS) and theWind spacecraft we show that the region of magnetic field pile of the terrestrial magnetopause when the magnetic field piles up against the obstacle and particles in the pile

  13. SOI detector with drift field due to majority carrier flow - an alternative to biasing in depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a SOI detector with drift field induced by the flow of majority carriers. It is proposed as an alternative method of detector biasing compared to standard depletion. N-drift rings in n-substrate are used at the front side of the detector to provide charge collecting field in depth as well as to improve the lateral charge collection. The concept was verified on a 2.5 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} large detector array with 20 {micro}m and 40 {micro}m pixel pitch fabricated in August 2009 using the OKI semiconductor process. First results, obtained with a radioactive source to demonstrate spatial resolution and spectroscopic performance of the detector for the two different pixel sizes will be shown and compared to results obtained with a standard depletion scheme. Two different diode designs, one using a standard p-implantation and one surrounded by an additional BPW implant will be compared as well.

  14. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in a Saline Reservoir and Depleted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling CO 2 Sequestration in a Saline Reservoir and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate The Regional CO 2 Sequestration Potential of The Ozark Plateau Aquifer System,...

  15. Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column heights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column that the CO2 is in a dense phase (either liquid or supercritical). Accurate assessment of the storage capacity also requires an estimation of the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored beneath the reservoir seal

  16. Seasonal dynamics in costal aquifers : investigation of submarine groundwater discharge through field measurements and numerical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Holly Anne, 1976-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fresh and saline groundwater flowing from coastal aquifers into the ocean comprise submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). This outflow is an important pathway for the transport of nutrients and contaminants, and has ...

  17. Stream depletion by groundwater pumping from leaky Vitaly A. Zlotnik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Stream depletion by groundwater pumping from leaky aquifers Vitaly A. Zlotnik Department Maximum Stream Depletion Rate, which is defined as a maximum fraction of the pumping rate supplied focused on hy- draulic connection between a stream and an aquifer for pumping wells in alluvial valleys

  18. Modelling of Depletion-Induced Microseismic Events by Coupled Reservoir Simulation: Application to Valhall Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fractures/faults. A flow-deformation coupled reservoir geomechanical modelling approach has been applied. Coupled 3D geomechanical (deformation and fluid flow) simulations for Valhall field were conducted. Well in flow rate correlations in the field). The coupled 3D geomechanical simulation provides a tool

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  20. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  1. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  3. Subsurface Biogeochemical Heterogeneity (Field-scale removal of U(VI) from groundwater in an alluvial aquifer by electron donor amendment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Derek R. Lovley; A. L. N’Guessan; Kelly Nevin; C. T. Resch; Evan Arntzen; Jenny Druhan; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin; Dick Dayvault; Dawn Holmes; Ken Williams; Susan Hubbard; Steve Yabusaki; Yilin Fang; D.C. White; John Komlos; Peter Jaffe

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determine if biostimulation of alluvial aquifers by electron donor amendment can effectively remove U(VI) from groundwater at the field scale. Uranium contamination in groundwater is a significant problem at several DOE sites. In this project, the possibility of accelerating bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) as a means of decreasing U(VI) concentrations in groundwater is directly addressed by conducting a series of field-scale experiments. Scientific goals include demonstrating the quantitative linkage between microbial activity and U loss from groundwater and relating the dominant terminal electron accepting processes to the rate of U loss. The project is currently focused on understanding the mechanisms for unexpected long-term ({approx}2 years) removal of U after stopping electron donor amendment. Results obtained in the project successfully position DOE and others to apply biostimulation broadly to U contamination in alluvial aquifers.

  4. Analysis of the semianalytical method for matching aquifer influence functions using an analytical model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega, Leonardo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a heterogeneous aquifer of unknown size and shape, ics. Aquifer Influence Functions (AIF) can be used to model the aquifer pressure behavior from field production and pressure data. Two methods have been used in the past to accomplish this...

  5. Radon Concern in the Hickory Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Amanda

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Randolph conducts her research at a small field site in the Katemcy Creek watershed in northern Mason and southern McCulloch counties. She hopes to gather enough data to achieve the first step in a long-term assessment of radionuclides in the Hickory... in the world's aquifers that are geologically and hydrologically similar to the Hickory aquifer,? she said, anticipating her research leading to further investigations of relationships between radon gas and its parent nuclides, aquifer mineralogy...

  6. Production management techniques for water-drive gas reservoirs. Field No. 4; mid-continent aquifer gas storage reservoir. Volume 1. Topical report, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, T.L.; Obernyer, S.L.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed reservoir characterization and numerical simulation study is presented for a mid-continent aquifer gas storage field. It is demonstrated that rate optimization during both injection and withdrawal cycles can significantly improve the performance of the storage reservoir. Performance improvements are realized in the form of a larger working volume of gas, a reduced cushion volume of gas, and decrease in field water production. By utilizing these reservoir management techniques gas storage operators will be able to minimize their base gas requirements, improve their economics, and determine whether the best use for a particular storage field is base loading or meeting peak day requirements. Volume I of this two-volume set contains a detailed technical discussion.

  7. Dynamic leakage of faults during differential depletion: Theory, models, and examples from the Niger delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, N.L.; Kaars Sijpestein, C.H.; Osai, L.N.; Okoli, O.C. (Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies of fault sealing have addressed possible fault leakage during secondary migration due to the effects of increased hydrocarbon-water capillary pressure, fracturing, or small-scale incremental fault movements. Of equal importance to production geologists is the failure and leakage of faults during field development due to differential depletion of adjacent fault blocks. This paper examines the unique problems associated with this dynamic leakage of faults. It is theoretically shown that the fault sealing mechanism, and the extent of the seal, directly influences the failure process which in turn results in a variety of favorable and unfavorable effects on field development. The qualitative models give considerable insight into such aspects as oil-column expansion and resaturation losses, interfault block aquifer support (with important implications to material balance calculations), possible leakage or spillage of oil across faults, and potential fault failure during (re)injection projects. Examples of dynamic fault leakage are presented from selected fields of the Niger delta.

  8. Depleted Uranium Technical Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Washington, DC 20460 EPA-402-R-06-011 December 2006 #12;#12;Depleted Uranium Technical Brief EPA of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division ii #12;iii #12;FOREWARD The Depleted Uranium

  9. A simulation model for generation of aquifer characteristics and contaminant concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deena, Jayaram

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation model was developed to generate aquifer characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, porosity and organic carbon content. The variability of aquifer characteristics is represented by the fields generated using the simulation model. Random...

  10. Effects of aquifer interconnection resulting from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory evaluated the effects of aquifer interconnection caused by the collapse of cavities formed in coal seams by two small underground coal gasification experiments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Flow models and field measurements were used to show that the water from one or both of the upper aquifers enters the collapse, rubble and flows down to the lowest aquifer (the gasified coal seam) where it flows away from the collapse zones. The investigations showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the collapse rubble is less than that of the aquifers and provides only a moderately permeable interconnection between them, a marked reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the gasified coal seam near the collapse zones restricts the flow in the seam, away from them; changes in the hydraulic head and flow patterns caused by aquifer interconnection extend generally only 60-90 m away from the experiment sites, whereas flow in the uppermost aquifer at one of the sites may be influenced as far away as 122 m. At both sites, the aquifer interconnection allows water from the uppermost (sand) aquifer, which contains the poorest quality water of the 3 aquifers, to enter one or both of the underlying aquifers.

  11. Hydraulic characterization of aquifers by thermal response testing: Validation by large-scale tank and field experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    et al., 1992]. Thermal monitoring downgradient or in the vicinity of an artificial heat source has (TRTs) are a common field method in shallow geothermics to estimate thermal properties of the ground. During the test, a constantly heated fluid is circulated in closed tubes within a vertical borehole heat

  12. Subsurface microbial community structure correlates with uranium redox phases during in situ field manipulation in a contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term field manipulation experiments investigating the effects of subsurface redox conditions on the fate and transport of soluble uranium(VI) were conducted over a 3 year period at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. In the highly contaminated source zone, introduction of ethanol to the subsurface stimulated native denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, iron-reducing and fermentative microorganisms and reduced U to below 0.03 mg/L. Subsequently, oxygen and nitrate were experimentally re-introduced into the subsurface to examine the potential for re-oxidation and re-mobilization of U(IV). Introduction of oxygen or nitrate caused changes in subsurface geochemistry and re-oxidation of U. After reoxidation, the subsurface experienced several months of starvation conditions before ethanol injection was restored to reduce the treatment zone. Subsurface microorganisms were characterized by community fingerprinting, targeted population analyses, and quantitative PCR of key functional groups in 50 samples taken during multiple phases of field manipulation. Statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the microbial community would co-vary with the shifts in the subsurface geochemistry. The level of hydraulic connectivity of sampling wells to the injection well was readily tracked by microbial community analysis. We demonstrate quantitatively that specific populations, especially Desulfosporosinus, are heavily influenced by geochemical conditions and positively correlate with the immobilization of uranium. Following nitrate reoxidation, populations of Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate reducing organisms (Thiobacillus) showed an increase in relative abundance.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1971, storage of Solar Energy in a Bandy- Gravel Ground. 2.Aquifer Storage of Heated Water: A Field Experuuent. GroundStorage of Heated Water: Part II - Numerical Simulation of Field Results. Ground

  14. Field scale evaluation of the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor and assessment of river-aquifer interaction at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site / by Andrew Scott Alden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alden, Andrew Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors (ISPFS), recently developed by Dr. Sanford Ballard at Sandia National Laboratories, were field tested at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site near College Station, Texas. The Flow Sensors use a thermal...

  15. Field scale evaluation of the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor and assessment of river-aquifer interaction at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site / by Andrew Scott Alden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alden, Andrew Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors (ISPFS), recently developed by Dr. Sanford Ballard at Sandia National Laboratories, were field tested at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site near College Station, Texas. The Flow Sensors use a thermal...

  16. Aquifer behavior with reinjection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonet, Euclides Jose

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rates, so only the latter is considered here. Six cases have been treated here. They are: f) A linear aquifer of finite width and extent. Water is injected into the aquifer at point x, y at constant rate. The pres- 0 0 sure along the line x = o... is maintained at zero pressure. See Figure f. Equations showing the potential distribution, rates, velocity and cumulative influx have been developed. Certain numerical results are shown. 2) A linear aquifer of finite width and extent. Water is injected...

  17. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions: Phase 1 -- Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing and Phase 2 -- Solubilization test and partitioning and interwell tracer tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km{sup 2} in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation.

  18. Aquifer behavior with reinjection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonet, Euclides Jose

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AQUIFER BEHAVIOR WITH REINJECTION A Thesis By EUCLIDES JOSE BONET Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARUM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, f967 Major Subject... Petroleum Engineering AQUIFER BEHAVIOR WITH REINJECTION A Thesis By E UC LI DES JOSE BONE T Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) May, 1967 ACKNOWLEDGMENT Thanks are due to Petroleo Brasilerio S...

  19. Field-Derived Hydraulic Properties for Perched-Water Aquifer Wells 299-E33-350 and 299-E33-351, Hanford Site B-Complex Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During February and March 2014, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted hydraulic (slug) tests at 200-DV-1 Operable Unit wells 299-E33-350 (C8914) and 299-E33-351 (C8915) as part of B-Complex Area Perched-Water characterization activities at the Hanford Site 200-East Area. During the construction/completion phase of each well, two overlapping depth intervals were tested within the unconfined perched-water aquifer contained in the silty-sand subunit of the Cold Creek Unit. The purpose of the slug-test characterization was to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity for the perched-water aquifer at these selected well locations.

  20. Analyzing aquifers associated with gas reservoirs using aquifer influence functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Targac, Gary Wayne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - teristics of the associated aquifer are vital to proper management of the reservoir. Typically, the reservoir and associated aquifer are located in a geologic setting which is highly faulted. Limited geologic and seismic knowledge exists about...ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  1. Analyzing aquifers associated with gas reservoirs using aquifer influence functions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Targac, Gary Wayne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE V z May 1988 z V z z I- Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Approved as to style and content by: (Chair of Committ R...

  2. Depleted uranium disposal options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B. M.; Ranek, N. L.; Goldberg, M.; Avci, H. I.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been produced in the United States since the 1940s as part of both the military program and the civilian nuclear energy program. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the agency responsible for managing most of the depleted UF{sub 6} that has been produced in the United States. The total quantity of depleted UF{sub 6} that DOE has to or will have to manage is approximately 700,000 Mg. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the various alternatives for managing this material. This paper evaluates and summarizes the alternative of disposal as low-level waste (LLW). Results of the analysis indicate that UF{sub 6} needs to be converted to a more stable form, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, before disposal as LLW. Estimates of the environmental impacts of disposal in a dry environment are within the currently applicable standards and regulations. Of the currently operating LLW disposal facilities, available information indicates that either of two DOE facilities--the Hanford Site or the Nevada Test Site--or a commercial facility--Envirocare of Utah--would be able to dispose of up to the entire DOE inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}.

  3. Aquifer thermal energy storage: a survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, C.F.; Hopkins, D.; Hellstroem, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disparity between energy production and demand in many power plants has led to increased research on the long-term, large-scale storage of thermal energy in aquifers. Field experiments have been conducted in Switzerland, France, the United States, Japan, and the People's Republic of China to study various technical aspects of aquifer storage of both hot and cold water. Furthermore, feasibility studies now in progress include technical, economic, and environmental analyses, regional exploration to locate favorable storage sites, and evaluation and design of pilot plants. Several theoretical and modeling studies are also under way. Among the topics being studied using numerical models are fluid and heat flow, dispersion, land subsidence or uplift, the efficiency of different injection/withdrawal schemes, buoyancy tilting, numerical dispersion, the use of compensation wells to counter regional flow, steam injection, and storage in narrow glacial deposits of high permeability. Experiments to date illustrate the need for further research and development to ensure successful implementation of an aquifer storage system. Some of the areas identified for further research include shape and location of the hydrodynamic and thermal fronts, choice of appropriate aquifers, thermal dispersion, possibility of land subsidence or uplift, thermal pollution, water chemistry, wellbore plugging and heat exchange efficiency, and control of corrosion.

  4. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridge

  5. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  6. FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  8. Transboundary aquifers: Southwestern states assess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Mexico borders. The federally funded project, known as United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment, will provide a scientific foundation for state and local officials to address pressing water resources challenges in the United States... heavily on groundwater in aquifers. Municipal and other water users are increasing their use of groundwater, raising concerns about the long-term quality and availability of this supply, Michelsen said. ?Groundwater is the major and, in many areas...

  9. Transboundary aquifers: Southwestern states assess 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 14 Southwestern states assess Researchers from three universities in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona and from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering on a new project to evaluate aquifers that span the United States... and Mexico borders. The federally funded project, known as United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment, will provide a scientific foundation for state and local officials to address pressing water resources challenges in the United States...

  10. Acceleration of Field-Scale Bioreduction of U(VI) in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer: Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Phil

    2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium mill tailings sites provide access to uranium-contaminated groundwater at sites that are shallow and low hazard, making it possible to address the following scientific objectives: (1) Determine the dominant electron accepting processes at field sites with long-term metal/rad contamination; (2) Define the biogeochemical transformations that may be important to either natural or accelerated bioremediation under field conditions; and (3) Examine the potential for using biostimulation (electron donor addition) to accelerate reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) at the field scale.

  11. Characterizing aquifer heterogeneity using hydraulic tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wachter, Brian James

    2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    such as sands and gravels because these materials drain the water so quickly. The K value is highly localized and only represents the portion of the aquifer in which the core was taken. When working with unconsolidated sediments, care must be taken to pack...?????. .?????.1 17 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Map of field site and layout of wells used in study (figure modified from Engard, 2006). Figure 2: MOG setup for tomography study. Figure 3: Packed versus unpacked response in an observation well...

  12. Geophysical constraints on contaminant transport modeling in a heterogeneous fluvial aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Chunmiao

    Geophysical constraints on contaminant transport modeling in a heterogeneous fluvial aquifer Jerry the geophysically derived hydraulic conductivity representation in numerical simulations of the natural the effectiveness of geophysically derived and flowmeter based representations of the hydraulic conductivity field

  13. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak RidgeAquifers for Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of

  14. Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYearVehicle Fuel2.9

  15. Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through 1996)through6,805,490

  16. AQUIFER CHARACTERIZATION JOHN S. BRIDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioremediation Site in southwestern Michigan, where detailed estimates of aquifer properties were needed to accurately simulate multi-component reactive transport and to design an effective bioremediation strategy-long continuous cores was collected in the vicinity of the bioremediation-system delivery wells. These cores were

  17. Rotational Mixing and Lithium Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinsonneault, M H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I review basic observational features in Population I stars which strongly implicate rotation as a mixing agent; these include dispersion at fixed temperature in coeval populations and main sequence lithium depletion for a range of masses at a rate which decays with time. New developments related to the possible suppression of mixing at late ages, close binary mergers and their lithium signature, and an alternate origin for dispersion in young cool stars tied to radius anomalies observed in active young stars are discussed. I highlight uncertainties in models of Population II lithium depletion and dispersion related to the treatment of angular momentum loss. Finally, the origins of rotation are tied to conditions in the pre-main sequence, and there is thus some evidence that enviroment and planet formation could impact stellar rotational properties. This may be related to recent observational evidence for cluster to cluster variations in lithium depletion and a connection between the presence of planets and s...

  18. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Proceed- ings of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Work-Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Energy storage in Aquifers.In Proceed- ings of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Work-

  20. Seymour Aquifer Water Quality Improvement Project Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sij, J.; Morgan, C.; Belew, M.; Jones, D.; Wagner, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer underlying over 300,000 acres in 20 counties in northwest central Texas. High nitrate concentrations are widespread in the Seymour Aquifer. Median nitrate levels in Knox, Haskell, Baylor, Hall, Wichita...

  1. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  2. Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The Virginia Blue Ridge And Piedmont Provinces Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  3. Aquifer Protection Area Land Use Regulations (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations describe allowable activities within aquifer protection areas, the procedure by which such areas are delineated, and relevant permit requirements. The regulations also describe...

  4. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withAnnual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors' InformationLarge-Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and

  5. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  6. Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Print Wednesday, 06 February 2013 00:00 Particles or aerosols can be directly released...

  7. Adsorption and depletion of polyelectrolytes from charged surfaces Adi Shafira)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andelman, David

    Adsorption and depletion of polyelectrolytes from charged surfaces Adi Shafira) and David Andelmanb and scaling arguments are presented to model polyelectrolyte adsorption from semidilute solutions onto charged surfaces. Using numerical solutions of the mean-field equations, we show that adsorption exists only

  8. THE SNAKE RIVER PLAIN AQUIFER THE SNAKE RIVER...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the complex to be found in the aquifer are volatile organic contaminants - particularly carbon tetrachloride ("carbon tet"). The carbon tet found in the aquifer is attributed to...

  9. ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS - - A SURVEY OF RECENT THEORETICAL STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature underground thermal energy storage. In Proc. Th~al modeling of thermal energy storage in aquifers. In ~~-Mathematical modeling; thermal energy storage; aquifers;

  10. aquifer beneath yucca: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AQUIFER BIBI. IOGRAPHY... Wauters, John F 2012-06-07 38 Modelling Bioremediation of Uranium Contaminated Aquifers Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary:...

  11. aquifer recharge areas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes across4 Fisher, Andrew 4 Investigation of Possible Extra Recharge During Pumping in Nottinghant .Aquifer Geosciences Websites Summary: completely from aquifer...

  12. aquifer recharge investigations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Investigation of Possible Extra Recharge During Pumping in Nottinghant .Aquifer Geosciences Websites Summary: completely from aquifer...

  13. aquifer testing recommendations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sand-And-Gravel Aquifer Santa; Christopher J. Richards 3 Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  14. alto piura aquifer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An impermeable layer isolates these two aquifers. This layer is deleted in some area and causes connection between two aquifers. This relationship affects the unconfined...

  15. AQUIFER STORAGE SITE EVALUATION AND MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Mike

    CO2 AQUIFER STORAGE SITE EVALUATION AND MONITORING Edited and compiled by Martin Smith, David Campbell, Eric Mackay and Debbie Polson Understanding the challenges of CO2 storage: results of the CASSEM Project Im agecopyrightofNERC #12;#12;CO2 Aquifer storage site evaluation and monitoring EDITED

  16. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Diffusion of 14C into Nevada Test Site Carbonate Aquifer Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Hershey; William Howcroft; Paul W. Reimus

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of groundwater flow velocities at the Nevada Test Site is important since groundwater is the principal transport medium of underground radionuclides. However, 14C-based groundwater velocities in the carbonate aquifers of the Nevada Test Site are several orders of magnitude slower than velocities derived from the Underground Test Area regional numerical model. This discrepancy has been attributed to the loss or retardation of 14C from groundwater into the surrounding aquifer matrix making 14C-based groundwater ages appear much older. Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the retardation of 14C in the carbonate aquifers at the Nevada Test Site. Three sets of experiments were conducted evaluating the diffusion of 14C into the carbonate aquifer matrix, adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the pore surfaces of the carbonate matrix, and adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the fracture surfaces of the carbonate aquifer. Experimental results a nd published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities from the Lower Carbonate Aquifer were applied to a 14C retardation model. The model produced an extremely wide range of retardation factors because of the wide range of published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities (over three orders of magnitude). Large retardation factors suggest that groundwater with very little measured 14C activity may actually be very young if matrix porosity is large relative to the fracture porosity. Groundwater samples collected from highly fractured aquifers with large effective fracture porosities may have relatively small correction factors, while samples from aquifers with a few widely spaced fractures may have very large correction factors. These retardation factors were then used to calculate groundwater velocities from a proposed flow path at the Nevada Test Site. The upper end of the range of 14C correction factors estimated groundwater velocities that appear to be at least an order of magnitude too high compared to published velocities. The lower end of the range of 14C correction factors falls within the range of reported velocities. From these results, future experimental studies (both laboratory and field scale) to support 14C groundwater age dating should focus on obtaining better estimates of aquifer properties including matrix and fracture porosities.

  17. How soft repulsion enhances the depletion mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Rovigatti; Nicoletta Gnan; Alberto Parola; Emanuela Zaccarelli

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate binary mixtures of large colloids interacting through soft potentials with small, ideal depletants. We show that softness has a dramatic effect on the resulting colloid-colloid effective potential when the depletant-to-colloid size ratio $q$ is small, with significant consequences on the colloidal phase behaviour. We also provide an exact relation that allows us to obtain the effective pair potential for {\\it any} type of colloid-depletant interactions in the case of ideal depletants, without having to rely on complicated and expensive full-mixture simulations. We also show that soft repulsion among depletants further enhances the tendency of colloids to aggregate. Our theoretical and numerical results demonstrate that --- in the limit of small $q$ --- soft mixtures cannot be mapped onto hard systems and hence soft depletion is not a mere extension of the widely used Asakura-Oosawa potential.

  18. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  19. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Hickory Sandstone Aquifer near Camp Air in northern Mason and southern McCulloch counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaney, Cynthia Daphine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hickory Sandstone is the primary source of ground water for the Western Uano Region of Central Texas. Irrigation from the Hickory Aquifer has been intensive for the past 15 years. Available hydrogeologic data for development of a management model... are very limited. Localized detailed studies of the spatial and temporal variations within the aquifer were conducted to provide data for characterization of the ground-water flow system. Field investigations of the Hickory Sandstone included geologic...

  20. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid-fluid heat storage systems in the ground; extractions0 Thermal storage of cold water in ground water aquifers forA. 8 1971, Storage of solar energy in a sandy-gravel ground:

  1. Streamline simulation of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tunison, Douglas Irvin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLS) are a recognized source of groundwater contamination. Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) shows promise in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness over traditional "pump and treat" NAPL remediation...

  2. The Edwards Aquifer: An Economic Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrifield, John D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Griffin, Ronald C.; Emerson, Peter M.; Collinge, Robert A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    now served by the Edwards Aquifer. A system of transferable groundwater rights is commendable for several reasons. It is flexible because it accomodates unforeseeable future shifts in demand. Transferable rights allow voluntary action on behalf...

  3. Modelling Bioremediation of Uranium Contaminated Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotter, Ben E G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclide extraction, processing and storage have resulted in a legacy of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater aquifers worldwide. An emerging remediation technology for such sites is the in situ immobilisation of ...

  4. aquifers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    31 Gulf Service Station... Neathery, Jeffrey Stephen 2012-06-07 331 Evaluation of kinetic controls on sulfate reduction in a contaminated wetland-aquifer system Texas A&M...

  5. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HAUSZ, W. , 1977. "Seasonal Storage in District Heating,"District Heating, July-August-September, 1977, pp. 5-11.aquifer storage for district heating and cooling. C. W.

  6. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersB. Quale. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in water in theSecond Annual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors'

  7. A new pseudo time for geopressured aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villegas, Mauricio Eduardo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time variable linearizes the pressure behavior of a single fluid flowing through a porous medium. Four cases were simulated: (1) three different aquifers at different states of flow and at a constant rate of water influx and, (2) a variable rate... to the diffusivity equati. on when nonlinear behavior exist and when rate changes are not very important. Traditional methods to calculate water influx in geopressured aquifers are improved by using the new Pseudo Time. DEDICATION To my family for what I am...

  8. A new pseudo time for geopressured aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villegas, Mauricio Eduardo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NEW PSEUDO TIME FOR GEOPRESSURED AQUIFERS A Thesis by MAURICIO EDUARDO VILLEGAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A NEW PSEUDO TIME METHOD FOR GEOPRESSURED AQUIFERS A Thesis by MAURICIO EDUARDO VILLEGAS Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Robert A. Watte ger (Chair of Comm ee) Dr. James E. Russell (Member) Dr...

  9. Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Briner

    Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  10. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  11. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  12. Aquitard control of stream-aquifer interaction and flow to a horizontal well in coastal aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dongmin

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    from aquitard as a source term inside the aquifer which is called Hantush�s assumption (1964), we linked flows in aquitard and aquifer by the idea of continuity of flux and drawdown. The result in this chapter is compared with that of Zhan and Park...

  13. A numerical procedure to model and monitor CO2 sequestration in aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    sequestration over very long periods of time. The analysis of CO2 underground storage safety in the long term procedure to model and monitor CO2 sequestration in aquifers ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2 (31.6C, 7.38 MPa). First industrial scale CO2 injection project: Sleipner gas field (North Sea

  14. Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, W.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates. (LCL)

  15. Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

  16. Utilizing weak pump depletion to stabilize squeezed vacuum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Denker; Dirk Schütte; Maximilian H. Wimmer; Trevor A. Wheatley; Elanor H. Huntington; Michèle Heurs

    2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and demonstrate a pump-phase locking technique that makes use of weak pump depletion (WPD) - an unavoidable effect that is usually neglected - in a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). We show that the phase difference between seed and pump beam is imprinted on both light fields by the non-linear interaction in the crystal and can be read out without disturbing the squeezed output. Our new locking technique allows for the first experimental realization of a pump-phase lock by reading out the pre-existing phase information in the pump field. There is no degradation of the detected squeezed states required to implement this scheme.

  17. ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS - - A SURVEY OF RECENT THEORETICAL STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    underground thermal energy storage. In Proc. Th~rmal1980), 'I'hermal energy storage? in a confined aquifer·--al modeling of thermal energy storage in aquifers. In ~~-

  18. A Lumped Parameter Model for the Edwards Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaya, Roberto; Wanakule, Nisai

    A lumped parameter model has been developed to simulate monthly water levels and spring flows in the Edwards Aquifer. It is less complex and easier to use than the existing complex finite difference models for the Edwards Aquifer. The lumped...

  19. Analyzing aquifer driven reservoirs using a computer-oriented approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flumerfelt, Raymond William

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on knowledge of the aquifer properties, nor does it depend specifically on a large amount of accurate pressure and production data. Instead, an initial reservoir model, based on the flow properties, boundary conditions, and geometry of the aquifer, is refined...

  20. A Lumped Parameter Model for the Edwards Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaya, Roberto; Wanakule, Nisai

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lumped parameter model has been developed to simulate monthly water levels and spring flows in the Edwards Aquifer. It is less complex and easier to use than the existing complex finite difference models for the Edwards Aquifer. The lumped...

  1. Economic and Hydrologic Implications of Proposed Edwards Aquifer Management Plans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Carl R.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Williams, R. Lynn; Jordan, Wayne R.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Edwards Aquifer underlies a large region in south central Texas extending from west of Uvalde to Austin. The karstic aquifer supports irrigated agriculture in the western part of the region, provides the sole source of water supply for San...

  2. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  3. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas ?a, storage in aquifers in the midwestern U.S states of Illinois and Indiana and salt caverns

  4. Seymour Aquifer Water Quality Improvement Project Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sij, J.; Morgan, C.; Belew, M.; Jones, D.; Wagner, K.

    on over 2,500 acres. NRCS also began funding irrigation improvements in Haskell, Knox, Baylor, Wilbarger, Hardeman and Foard counties through the Seymour Aquifer Special Emphasis Area. Since this Special Emphasis Area was established in 2004, over $16.../Need Statement Figure 1. Seymour Aquifer Region (TWDB 2004). The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow, unconfined aquifer formed by isolated pockets of alluvial deposits (Figure 1). It underlies over 300,000 acres in 20 counties in north central Texas...

  5. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM:...

  6. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and...

  7. acute tryptophan depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Psychopharmacology ISSN 0269-8811 SAGE Publications Ltd 12 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  8. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This...

  9. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

  10. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  11. Radon Concern in the Hickory Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Amanda

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Hickory Aquifer's groundwater poses health risks for residents in the area. Radon is a natural, radioactive gas that may be found indoors in air or drinking water. Radon is the decay product of radium, so radon indi- rectly reflects the presence... of radium. Radon in groundwater occurs from the decay of radium both within the aquifer host rock and in the groundwater itself. It does not react chemically with either, however, because it is a noble or inert gas. About 1 percent to 2 percent...

  12. Aquifer characterization and groundwater modeling in support of remedial actions at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carman, J.D. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer characterization studies were performed to develop a hydrogeologic understanding of an unconfined shallow aquifer at the Weldon Spring site west of St. Louis, Missouri. The 88-ha site became contaminated because of uranium and thorium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. Slug and pumping tests provided valuable information on the lateral distribution of hydraulic conductivities, and packer tests and lithologic information were used to determine zones of contrasting hydrologic properties within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, finite- element groundwater flow model was developed and used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system at the site. The results of this study show that groundwater flow through the system is predominantly controlled by a zone of fracturing and weathering in the upper portion of the limestone aquifer. The groundwater flow model, developed and calibrated from field investigations, improved the understanding of the hydrogeology and supported decisions regarding remedial actions at the site. The results of this study illustrate the value, in support of remedial actions, of combining field investigations with numerical modeling to develop an improved understanding of the hydrogeology at the site.

  13. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability. Preliminary simulation results show good agreement between classical instability solutions and numerical predictions of finger growth and spacing obtained using different gas/liquid viscosity ratios, relative permeability and capillary pressure models. Further studies are recommended to validate these results over a broader range of conditions.

  14. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  15. Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchliya, Abhishek

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage of carbon dioxide is being actively considered for the reduction of green house gases. To make an impact on the environment CO2 should be put away on the scale of gigatonnes per annum. The storage capacity of deep saline aquifers...

  16. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  17. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  18. Uranium partitioning under acidic conditions in a sandy soil aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Serkiz, S.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Johnson, L.M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Environmental Systems Engineering] [and others

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The partitioning of uranium in an aquifer down gradient of two large mixed waste sites was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH redox potential and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation. This involved generation of field-derived, batch sorption, and reactive mineral surface sorption data. Field-derived distribution coefficients for uranium at these waste sites were found to vary between 0.40 and 15,000. Based on thermodynamic speciation modeling and a comparison of field and laboratory data, gibbsite is a potential reactive mineral surface present in modified soils at the sites. Uranium partitioning data are presented from field samples and laboratory studies of background soil and the mineral surface gibbsite. Mechanistic and empirical sorption models fit to the field-derived uranium partitioning data show an improvement of over two orders of magnitude, as measured by the normalized sum of errors squared, when compared with the single K{sub d} model used in previous risk work. Models fit to batch sorption data provided a better fit of sorbed uranium than do models fit to the field-derived data.

  19. Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

  20. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference

  1. Commonness, population depletion and conservation biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queensland, University of

    and alleviate significant depletion events. Priority species Judgements about extinction risk are key drivers to be targets for conservation invest- ment. Indeed, high extinction risk typifies the most iconic species, flagship or indicator species [2­4]), the use of extinction risk to set conservation priorities has

  2. Demonstration of jackhammer incorporating depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, L E; Hoard, R W; Carter, D L; Saculla, M D; Wilson, G V

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Government currently has an abundance of depleted uranium (DU). This surplus of about 1 billion pounds is the result of an enrichment process using gaseous diffusion to produce enriched and depleted uranium. The enriched uranium has been used primarily for either nuclear weapons for the military or nuclear fuel for the commercial power industry. Most of the depleted uranium remains at the enrichment process plants in the form of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}). The Department of Energy (DOE) recently began a study to identify possible commercial applications for the surplus material. One of these potential applications is to use the DU in high-density strikers/hammers in pneumatically driven tools, such as jack hammers and piledrivers to improve their impulse performance. The use of DU could potentially increase tunneling velocity and excavation into target materials with improved efficiency. This report describes the efforts undertaken to analyze the particulars of using DU in two specific striking applications: the jackhammer and chipper tool.

  3. University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project report on the third long-term cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyer, M.C.; Hallgren, J.P.; Uebel, M.H.; Delin, G.N.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Sterling, R.L.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system has been operated as a field test facility (FTF) since 1982. The objectives were to design, construct, and operate the facility to study the feasibility of high-temperature ATES in a confined aquifer. Four short-term and two long-term cycles were previously conducted, which provided a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. The third long-term cycle (LT3) was conducted to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact that heated water storage had on the aquifer. For LT3, the source and storage wells were modified so that only the most permeable portion, the Ironton-Galesville part, of the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer was used for storage. This was expected to improve storage efficiency by reducing the surface area of the heated volume and simplify analysis of water chemistry results by reducing the number of aquifer-related variables which need to be considered. During LT3, a total volume of 63.2 {times} 10{sup 3} m {sup 3} of water was injected at a rate of 54.95 m{sup 3}/hr into the storage well at a mean temperature of 104.7{degrees}C. Tie-in to the reheat system of the nearby Animal Sciences Veterinary Medicine (ASVM) building was completed after injection was completed. Approximately 66 percent (4.13 GWh) of the energy added to the aquifer was recovered. Approximately 15 percent (0.64 GWh) of the usable (10 building. Operations during heat recovery with the ASVM building`s reheat system were trouble-free. Integration into more of the ASVM (or other) building`s mechanical systems would have resulted in significantly increasing the proportion of energy used during heat recovery.

  4. Aquifer sensitivity assessment modeling at a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.C.; Abert, C.C. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 480 square-mile region within Will County, northeastern Illinois was used as a test region for an evaluation of the sensitivity of aquifers to contamination. An aquifer sensitivity model was developed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) with ARC/INFO software to overlay and combine several data layers. Many of the input data layers were developed using 2-dimensional surface modeling (Interactive Surface Modeling (ISM)) and 3-dimensional volume modeling (Geologic Modeling Program (GMP)) computer software. Most of the input data layers (drift thickness, thickness of sand and gravel, depth to first aquifer) were derived from interpolation of descriptive logs for water wells and engineering borings from their study area. A total of 2,984 logs were used to produce these maps. The components used for the authors' model are (1) depth to sand and gravel or bedrock, (2) thickness of the uppermost sand and gravel aquifer, (3) drift thickness, and (4) absence or presence of uppermost bedrock aquifer. The model is an improvement over many aquifer sensitivity models because it combines specific information on depth to the uppermost sand and gravel aquifer with information on the thickness of the uppermost sand and gravel aquifer. The manipulation of the source maps according to rules-based assumptions results in a colored aquifer sensitivity map for the Will County study area. This colored map differentiates 42 aquifer sensitivity map areas by using line patterns within colors. The county-scale model results in an aquifer sensitivity map that can be a useful tool for making land-use planning decisions regarding aquifer protection and management of groundwater resources.

  5. Convective stability analysis of the long-term storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dongxiao

    formations, such as unmineable coal beds, depleting oil reservoirs, depleting gas reservoirs, and deep saline

  6. Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 23-site monitoring well network located in the Trinity Aquifer region of Central Texas, with all wells penetrating the Middle Trinity Aquifer, was used with available values of aquifer storativity and specific yield to estimate recharge...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy, Energy Storage Division through thegeneration and energy storage, Presented at Frontiers ofIn Proceed- ings of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Work-

  8. Methane-eating microbes found in Illinois aquifer | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Mahomet aquifer is protected by its glacial ancestry; growing and receding glaciers laid alternating blankets of fine glacial "till" and coarser gravel. When humans...

  9. Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gas pressurized aquifers confined underneath impermeable layers, within both the volcanic rock pile and the underlying Pleistocene loose sediments. Degassing mostly occurs in...

  10. aquifers geochemical results: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industrial sectors in the area. However, increasing water demand and sustained heavy pumping from the aquifer ... Zhu, Ni, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  11. aquifer system idaho: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scatterer InSAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater pumping and artificial Geosciences Websites Summary: characterize the storage properties of...

  12. aquifer system brazil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of southern England a simple methodology Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 485495 (2002) EGS Physics Websites Summary: Estimating daily recharge to the Chalk aquifer of...

  13. Chemical and Isotopic Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the Geothermal System at Long Valley, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Chemical...

  14. alluvial aquifer nicaragua: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 kyears B.P. and prevailed in the early Holocene (10 Klinger, Yann 427 Hydrogeologic Controls on Bioactive Zone Development in Biostimulated Aquifers University of Kansas - KU...

  15. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Aquifer Storage Reservoir...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Aquifer Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  16. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  17. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  18. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  19. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  20. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  1. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  2. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  3. Uranio impoverito: perché? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germano D'Abramo

    2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of understanding the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  4. acute catecholamine depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about NM biosynthesis, and it is not known where Sulzer, David 9 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  5. THEORETICAL STUDIES IN LONG-TERM THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers.of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrencethe Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage program managed by

  6. SEASONAL THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS-MATHEMATICAL MODELING STUDIES IN 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage." Lawrence BerkeleyP, Andersen, "'rhermal Energy Storage in a Confined Aquifer~University Thermal Energy Storage Experiment." Lawrence

  7. SEASONAL THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS-MATHEMATICAL MODELING STUDIES IN 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage." Lawrence Berkeleythe Auburn University Thermal Energy Storage Experiment."LBL~l0208 SEASONAL THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS~

  8. THEORETICAL STUDIES IN LONG-TERM THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers.of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrencewithin the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage program managed

  9. SEASONAL THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS-MATHEMATICAL MODELING STUDIES IN 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aspects of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage." Lawrencethe Auburn University Thermal Energy Storage Experiment."LBL~l0208 SEASONAL THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS~

  10. THEORETICAL STUDIES IN LONG-TERM THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers.Proceedings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,within the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage program managed

  11. Depleted Uranium in Kosovo Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unep Scientific; Mission Kosovo

    2.1 UNEP’s role in post-conflict environmental assessment................................................9 2.2 Depleted uranium............................................................10

  12. Review of simulation techniques for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, J.W.; Faust, C.R.; Miller, W.J.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The storage of thermal energy in aquifers has recently received considerable attention as a means to conserve and more efficiently use energy supplies. The analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems will rely on the results from mathematical and geochemical models. Therefore, the state-of-the-art models relevant to ATES was reviewed and evaluated. These models describe important processes active in ATES including ground-water flow, heat transport (heat flow), solute transport (movement of contaminants), and geochemical reactions. In general, available models of the saturated ground-water environment are adequate to address most concerns associated with ATES; that is, design, operation, and environmental assessment. In those cases where models are not adequate, development should be preceded by efforts to identify significant physical phenomena and relate model parameters to measurable quantities. Model development can then proceed with the expectation of an adequate data base existing for the model's eventual use. Review of model applications to ATES shows that the major emphasis has been on generic sensitivity analysis and site characterization. Assuming that models are applied appropriately, the primary limitation on model calculations is the data base used to construct the model. Numerical transport models are limited by the uncertainty of subsurface data and the lack of long-term historical data for calibration. Geochemical models are limited by the lack of thermodynamic data for the temperature ranges applicable to ATES. Model applications undertaken with data collection activities on ATES sites should provide the most important contributions to the understanding and utilization of ATES. Therefore, the primary conclusion of this review is that model application to field sites in conjunction with data collection activities is essential to the development of this technology.

  13. Number of Existing Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousandDecade Year-0 Year-1(Million1. Capacity and43 43 43

  14. Aquifer Sampling Tube Results for Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Peterson, Robert E.

    2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and discusses results of the fiscal year 2003 sampling event associated with aquifer tubes along the Columbia River in the northern Hanford Site. Aquifer tube data help define the extent of groundwater contamination near the river, determine vertical variations in contamination, monitor the performance of interim remedial actions near the river, and support impact studies.

  15. Investigation of Possible Extra ~Recharge During Pumping in Nottinghant .Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Investigation of Possible Extra ~Recharge During Pumping in Nottinghant .Aquifer by Jiu J. Jiaoa Abstract Approaches to investigate possible recharge during a pumping test period are demonstrated by analyzing the pumping test data from the Nottingham aquifer, UK. The pumping lasted more than 200 days

  16. Results of Aquifer Tests Performed Near R-Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiergesell, R.A.

    2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aquifer testing described in this report was conducted in response to USEPA comments (WSRC, 1998) on the Rev. 0 R-Reactor Seepage Basins RFI/RI Report (WSRC, 1998a), Appendix G, Groundwater Contaminant Transport Modeling for the R-Reactor Seepage Basins (RRSB)/108-4R Overflow Basin Operable Unit. The R-area regional flow model described in Appendix G of the RFI/RI is based on small-scale and/or indirect measures of hydraulic conductivity, including laboratory tests, slug tests, cone penetration testing (CPT) and lithologic core descriptions. The USEPA proposed and SRS- agreed that large-scale conductivity estimates from multiple well pumping tests would be beneficial for validating the model conductivity field. Overall, the aquifer test results validate the 1998 R-area regional groundwater flow model.

  17. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  18. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  19. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  20. IMPROVED NUMERICAL METHODS FOR MODELING RIVER-AQUIFER INTERACTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Sue Tillery; Phillip King

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new option for Local Time-Stepping (LTS) was developed to use in conjunction with the multiple-refined-area grid capability of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) groundwater modeling program, MODFLOW-LGR (MF-LGR). The LTS option allows each local, refined-area grid to simulate multiple stress periods within each stress period of a coarser, regional grid. This option is an alternative to the current method of MF-LGR whereby the refined grids are required to have the same stress period and time-step structure as the coarse grid. The MF-LGR method for simulating multiple-refined grids essentially defines each grid as a complete model, then for each coarse grid time-step, iteratively runs each model until the head and flux changes at the interfacing boundaries of the models are less than some specified tolerances. Use of the LTS option is illustrated in two hypothetical test cases consisting of a dual well pumping system and a hydraulically connected stream-aquifer system, and one field application. Each of the hypothetical test cases was simulated with multiple scenarios including an LTS scenario, which combined a monthly stress period for a coarse grid model with a daily stress period for a refined grid model. The other scenarios simulated various combinations of grid spacing and temporal refinement using standard MODFLOW model constructs. The field application simulated an irrigated corridor along the Lower Rio Grande River in New Mexico, with refinement of a small agricultural area in the irrigated corridor.The results from the LTS scenarios for the hypothetical test cases closely replicated the results from the true scenarios in the refined areas of interest. The head errors of the LTS scenarios were much smaller than from the other scenarios in relation to the true solution, and the run times for the LTS models were three to six times faster than the true models for the dual well and stream-aquifer test cases, respectively. The results of the field application show that better estimates of daily stream leakage can be made with the LTS simulation, thereby improving the efficiency of daily operations for an agricultural irrigation system. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors appreciatively acknowledge support for Sue Tillery provided by Sandia National Laboratories' through a Campus Executive Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) research project.Funding for this study was provided by Directed Research and Development (LDRD) research project.

  1. AQUIFER TESTING AND REBOUND STUDY IN SUPPORT OF THE 100-H DEEP CHROMIUM INVESTIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMOOT JL

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) second Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) 5-year review (DOEIRL-2006-20, The Second CERCLA Five-Year Review Report for the Hanford Site) set a milestone to conduct an investigation of deep hexavalent chromium contamination in the sediments of the Ringold upper mud (RUM) unit, which underlies the unconfined aquifer in the 100-H Area. The 5-year review noted that groundwater samples from one deep well extending below the aquitard (i.e., RUM) exceeded both the groundwater standard of 48 parts per billion (ppb) (Ecology Publication 94-06, Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Statute and Regulation) and the federal drinking water standard of 100 {mu}g/L for hexavalent chromium. The extent of hexavalent chromium contamination in this zone is not well understood. Action 12-1 from the 5-year review is to perform additional characterization of the aquifer below the initial aquitard. Field characterization and aquifer testing were performed in the Hanford Site's 100-H Area to address this milestone. The aquifer tests were conducted to gather data to answer several fundamental questions regarding the presence of the hexavalent chromium in the deep sediments of the RUM and to determine the extent and magnitude of deeper contamination. The pumping tests were performed in accordance with the Description of Work for Aquifer Testing in Support of the 100-H Deep Chromium Investigation (SGW-41302). The specific objectives for the series of tests were as follows: (1) Evaluate the sustainable production of the subject wells using step-drawdown and constant-rate pumping tests. (2) Collect water-level data to evaluate the degree of hydraulic connection between the RUM and the unconfined (upper) aquifer (natural or induced along the well casing). (3) Evaluate the hydraulic properties of a confined permeable layer within the RUM.; (4) Collect time-series groundwater samples during testing to evaluate the extent and persistence of hexavalent chromium in the deeper zones. Use data collected to refine the current conceptual model for the 100-H Area unconfined aquifer and the RUM in this area. (5) Evaluate the concentration 'rebound' in the unconfined aquifer of hexavalent chromium and the contaminants of concern during shutdown of the extraction wells. Measure co-contaminants at the beginning, middle, and end of each pumping test. The RUM is generally considered an aquitard in the 100-HR-3 OU; however, several water-bearing sand layers are present that are confined within the RUM. The current hydrogeologic model for the 100-H Area aquifer system portrays the RUM as an aquitard layer that underlies the unconfined aquifer, which may contain permeable zones, stringers, or layers. These permeable zones may provide pathways for chromium to migrate deeper into the RUM under certain hydrogeologic conditions. One condition may be the discharge of large volumes of cooling water that occurred near the former H Reactor, which caused a mound of groundwater to form 4.9 to 10.1 m (16 to 33 ft) above the natural water table. The cooling water reportedly contained 1 to 2 mglL of hexavalent chromium for corrosion prevention. Three alternate hypotheses for the introduction of hexavalent chromium into the RUM are as follows: (1) Local groundwater with higher concentrations of hexavalent chromium originating from reactor operations at H Reactor was driven by high heads from groundwater mounding in the unconfined aquifer into the RUM via permeable pathways in the upper surface of the RUM. (2) Local groundwater with hexavalent chromium was introduced from the unconfined aquifer via well boreholes, either during drilling or as a result of poor well construction, allowing hydraulic communication between the unconfined aquifer and the RUM. (3) Hexavalent chromium migrated across the Hom area within the more permeable zones of the RUM. The three wells used for the aquifer pumping tests (199-H3-2C, 199-H4-12C, and 199-H4-15CS) exhibit hexavalent chromium contamination in confined aqu

  2. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

  3. Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchliya, Abhishek

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to the Computer Modeling Group (CMG) and Kappa Engineering for providing the uninterrupted license of the software packages. I am grateful to Mr. Bob Brugman from CMG for his help with the GEM-GHG (Green House Gas) module of CMG. I would like to extend my... biological sinks of CO 2 and decreasing the carbon intensity of fossil fuels should be considered. Out of all the potential mitigation options for stabilizing atmospheric GHG concentrations, including injection into deep oceans, depleted oil reservoirs...

  4. Number of Existing Natural Gas Aquifers Storage Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousandDecade Year-0 Year-1(Million1. Capacity and43 43 43 43

  5. Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arreola-Triana, Alejandra

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 tx H2O Fall 2012 Story by Alejandra Arreola-Triana In the Rolling Plains of Texas, the Seymour Aquifer is the major source of water for Haskell, Jones and Knox counties. #31;e water from the Seymour Aquifer, however, contains nitrate levels... are working on ways to manage the nitrate levels in this aquifer. Tracking the source Nitrates in groundwater can come from runo#27;, fertilizer use, leaks from septic tanks, sewage and erosion of natural deposits, according to the U.S. Environmental...

  6. Directional depletion interactions in shaped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Scala; P. G. De Sanctis Lucentini

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Entropic forces in colloidal suspensions and in polymer-colloid systems are of long-standing and continuing interest. Experiments show how entropic forces can be used to control the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Significant advances in colloidal synthesis made in the past two decades have enabled the preparation of high quality nano-particles with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions, indicating that such particles can be utilized as "artificial atoms" to build new materials. To elucidate the effects of the shape of particles upon the magnitude of entropic interaction, we analyse the entropic interactions of two cut-spheres. We show that the solvent induces a strong directional depletion attraction among flat faces of the cut-spheres. Such an effect highlights the possibility of using the shape of particles to control directionality and strength of interaction.

  7. Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erin Mentuch; Alexis Brandeker; Marten H. van Kerkwijk; Ray Jayawardhana; Peter H. Hauschildt

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate cluster ages from lithium depletion in five pre-main-sequence groups found within 100 pc of the Sun: TW Hydrae Association, Eta Chamaeleontis Cluster, Beta Pictoris Moving Group, Tucanae-Horologium Association and AB Doradus Moving Group. We determine surface gravities, effective temperatures and lithium abundances for over 900 spectra through least squares fitting to model-atmosphere spectra. For each group, we compare the dependence of lithium abundance on temperature with isochrones from pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks to obtain model dependent ages. We find that the Eta Chamaelontis Cluster and the TW Hydrae Association are the youngest, with ages of 12+/-6 Myr and 12+/-8 Myr, respectively, followed by the Beta Pictoris Moving Group at 21+/-9 Myr, the Tucanae-Horologium Association at 27+/-11 Myr, and the AB Doradus Moving Group at an age of at least 45 Myr (where we can only set a lower limit since the models -- unlike real stars -- do not show much lithium depletion beyond this age). Here, the ordering is robust, but the precise ages depend on our choice of both atmospheric and evolutionary models. As a result, while our ages are consistent with estimates based on Hertzsprung-Russell isochrone fitting and dynamical expansion, they are not yet more precise. Our observations do show that with improved models, much stronger constraints should be feasible: the intrinsic uncertainties, as measured from the scatter between measurements from different spectra of the same star, are very low: around 10 K in effective temperature, 0.05 dex in surface gravity, and 0.03 dex in lithium abundance.

  8. Microscale Depletion of High Abundance Proteins in Human Biofluids...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides...

  9. atp depletion precedes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evolves, because new precedents are generated by the form... Smolin, Lee 2012-01-01 15 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  10. analogues deplete androgen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with androgens has been shown to increase growth rate in fishes (Ron et al., 1995 13 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  11. antioxidant defence depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and defence reactions. Priya Roy; Ramamurthy Dhandapani Department Of Microbiology 15 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  12. administration depletes mitochondrial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recombination is widespread in plant mtDNA. Recombinant molecules have Nicolas Galtier 6 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  13. approaching waterflood depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are shown in Table 5 of the Appendix. Figure... Pettitt, Bobby Eugene 1963-01-01 19 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  14. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to the DOE Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) in Lexington, Kentucky and the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project in Paducah, Kentucky and...

  15. aerosol depletion test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address... Chen, Guoqiang 2002-01-01 10 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  16. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground...

  17. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1975. Underground Storage of Treated Water: A Field Test.1975. "Underground Storage of Treated Water: A Field Test,"

  18. Migration and trapping of CO? in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMinn, Christopher William

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mitigation of climate change requires a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C0 2) emissions. One promising tool for achieving this is the large-scale injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers. After injection, upward ...

  19. Simulation analysis of the unconfined aquifer, Raft River Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Simulation analysis of the unconfined aquifer, Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho-Utah Abstract This study...

  20. Underground helium travels to the Earth's surface via aquifers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of South America; it supplies water to more than 15 million people. Scientists found helium pools in this aquifer and is released to the atmosphere when the water reaches the...

  1. Seawater circulation in coastal aquifers : processes and impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karam, Hanan Nadim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the subterranean domain of chemical cycling in coastal oceans abutting permeable aquifers, where transport through sediments is dominated by advection, rather than diffusion. We investigate the mechanisms ...

  2. aquifer colombia estudio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    availability of ground water and the impact of withdrawals on existing users and the environment Sand-And-Gravel Aquifer Santa; Christopher J. Richards 33 Water temperature as a...

  3. aquifer column studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping...

  4. Analyzing aquifer driven reservoirs using a computer-oriented approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flumerfelt, Raymond William

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new computer-oriented approach for analyzing aquifer driven reservoirs incorporates both geological and historical pressure data to determine original hydrocarbons-in-place and to forecast production. This new approach does not rely entirely...

  5. On the solute transport in an aquifer-aquitard system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, Aiguo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is composed of five chapters and three major contributions are presented in Chapter II, III and IV. Chapter I provided a review of studies on solute transport in aquifer-aquitard system. If the aquitard is considered, two...

  6. Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Duane Dee

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA A Thesis by Duane Dee Hicks Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTEPslA A Thesis by Duane Dec Hicks Approved as to style and content by Bill Batchclor (Chair of Committee...

  7. Methanogens in Central Texas aquifers: a microbiological and molecular study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacRae, Martha Jean Davies

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHANOGENS IN CENTRAL TEXAS AQUIFERS: A MICROBIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY A Thesis by MARTHA JEAN DAVIES MACRAE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillmen of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Oceanography METHANOGENS IN CENTRAL TEXAS AQUIFERS: A MICROBIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY A Thesis by MARTHA JEAN DAVIES MACRAE Approved as to style and content by: James W. Ammerman (Chair...

  8. Hydrogeology and groundwater modeling of a Calvert Bluff aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, James

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROGEOLOGY AND GROUNDWATER MODELING OF A CALVERT BLUFF AQUIFER A Thesis by JAMES LAWRENCE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1989 Major Subject: Geology HYDROGEOLOGY AND GROUNDWATER MODELING OF A CALVERT BLUFF AQUIFER A Thesis by James Lawrence Approved as to style and content by: Patrick A. Domenico (Chair of Committee) Donald L. Reddell (Member) Robert R...

  9. Application of the decline curve method to aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potnis, Girish Vijay

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPLICATION OF THE DECLINE CURVE METHOD TO AQUIFERS A Thesis by GIRISH VIJAY POTNIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ADAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1992 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering APPLICATION OF THE DECLINE CURVE METHOD TO AQUIFERS A Thesis by GIRISH VIJAY POTNIS Approved as to style and content by: Steven W. Poston (Chair of Committee) Thomas . Blasingame (member) James E...

  10. Uranium Removal from Groundwater via In Situ Biostimulation: Field-Scale Modeling of Transport and Biological Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Long, Philip E.; Resch, Charles T.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Komlos, John; Jaffe, Peter R.; Morrison, Stan J.; Dayvault, Richard; White, David C.; Anderson, Robert T.

    2007-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2002 and 2003, bioremediation experiments in the unconfined aquifer of the Old Rifle UMTRA field site in western Colorado provided evidence for the immobilization of hexavalent uranium in groundwater by iron-reducing Geobacter sp. stimulated by acetate amendment. As the bioavailable Fe(III) terminal electron acceptor was depleted in the zone just downgradient of the acetate injection gallery, sulfate-reducing organisms came to dominate the microbial community. In the present study, we use multicomponent reactive transport modeling to analyze data from the 2002 field experiment to 1) identify the dominant transport and biological processes controlling uranium mobility during biostimulation, 2) determine field-scale parameters for these modeled processes, and 3) apply the calibrated process models to history match observations during the 2003 field experiment. In spite of temporally and spatially variable observations during the field-scale biostimulation experiments, the coupled process simulation approach was able to establish a quantitative characterization of the principal flow, transport, and reaction processes that could be applied without modification to describe the 2003 field experiment. Insights gained from this analysis include field-scale estimates of bioavailable Fe(III) mineral, and the magnitude of uranium bioreduction during biostimulated growth of the iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing microorganisms.

  11. Single-well tracer methods for hydrogeologic evaluation of target aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, S.H.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designing an efficient well field for an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project requires measuring local groundwater flow parameters as well as estimating horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity. Effective porosity determines the volume of aquifer needed to store a given volume of heated or chilled water. Ground-water flow velocity governs the migration of the thermal plume, and dispersion and heat exchange along the flow path reduces the thermal intensity of the recovered plume. Stratigraphic variations in the aquifer will affect plume dispersion, may bias the apparent rate of migration of the plume, and can prevent efficient hydraulic communication between wells. Single-well tracer methods using a conservative flow tracer such as bromide, along with pumping tests and water-level measurements, provide a rapid and cost-effective means for estimating flow parameters. A drift-and-pumpback tracer test yields effective porosity and flow velocity. Point-dilution tracer testing, using new instrumentation for downhole tracer measurement and a new method for calibrating the point-dilution test itself, yields depth-discrete hydraulic conductivity as it is affected by stratigraphy, and can be used to estimate well transmissivity. Experience in conducting both drift-and-pumpback and point-dilution tests at three different test sites has yielded important information that highlights both the power and the limitations of the single-well tracer methods. These sites are the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center (UASRC) ATES well field and the VA Medical Center (VA) ATES well field, both located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and the Hanford bioremediation test site north of Richland, Washington.

  12. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Polluted with Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of uranium-contaminated aquifers would result in the removaluranium concentrations decreased rapidly within the monitoring well field resulting in removal

  13. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  14. Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 ozone depletion has been much studied as a case history in the interaction between environmental science the photochemistry of ozone in order to illustrate how scientific learning has the potential to mislead policy makers

  15. Crude Depletion Conditions for XKCM1 Arshad Desai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    Crude Depletion Conditions for XKCM1 Arshad Desai 3/17/95 Problems: The main problem with immunodepletion of crude CSF extracts is that they activate during or soon after immunodepletion. Empirically well in crude). However, we have never been able to cycle a depleted crude - all assays were performed

  16. Pumping induced depletion from two streams Dongmin Sun a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Author's personal copy Pumping induced depletion from two streams Dongmin Sun a , Hongbin Zhan b-domain and becomes identical to that of Hunt [Hunt B. Unsteady stream depletion from ground water pumping. Ground of the shortest distance from the pumping well to the other stream over the shortest distance between the two

  17. Evaluating mechanisms of nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Evaluating mechanisms of nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment in the intermediate-depth Atlantic to evaluate competing hypotheses for the cause of observed nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment isotopic equilibration at low temperatures (i.e., 13C enrichment). Although this export adds nutrients

  18. Supercontinuum Stimulated Emission Depletion Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesoine, Michael; Bose, Sayantan; Petrich, Jacob; Smith, Emily

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercontinuum (SC) stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence lifetime imaging is demonstrated by using time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) detection. The spatial resolution of the developed STED instrument was measured by imaging monodispersed 40-nm fluorescent beads and then determining their fwhm, and was 36 ± 9 and 40 ± 10 nm in the X and Y coordinates, respectively. The same beads measured by confocal microscopy were 450 ± 50 and 430 ± 30 nm, which is larger than the diffraction limit of light due to underfilling the microscope objective. Underfilling the objective and time gating the signal were necessary to achieve the stated STED spatial resolution. The same fluorescence lifetime (2.0 ± 0.1 ns) was measured for the fluorescent beads by using confocal or STED lifetime imaging. The instrument has been applied to study Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled F-actin-rich projections with dimensions smaller than the diffraction limit of light in cultured cells. Fluorescence lifetimes of the actin-rich projections range from 2.2 to 2.9 ns as measured by STED lifetime imaging.

  19. The Hazard Posed by Depleted Uranium Munitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steve Fetter And; Steve Fetter A

    This paper assesses the radiological and chemical hazards resulting from the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. Due to the low radioactivity of DU, radiological hazards to individuals would become significant in comparison to natural background radiation doses only in cases of prolonged contact---for example, when shards of a DU penetrator remain embedded in a soldier's body. Although the radiation doses to virtually all civilians would be very low, the cumulative "population dose" resulting from the dispersal of hundreds of tons of DU, as occurred during the Gulf War, could result in up to ten cancer deaths. It is highly unlikely that exposures of persons downwind from the use of DU munitions or consuming food or water contaminated by DU dust would reach the estimated threshold for chemical heavy-metal effects. The exposures of soldiers in vehicles struck by DU munitions could be much higher, however, and persons who subsequently enter such vehicles without adequate respiratory protection could potentially be at risk. Soldiers should be trained to avoid unnecessary exposure to DU, and vehicles struck by DU munitions should be made inaccessible to curious civilians. INTRODUCTION

  20. Rice Field Geochemistry and Hydrology: An Explanation for Why Groundwater Irrigated Fields in Bangladesh are Net Sinks of Arsenic from Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, Rebecca B.

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated groundwater transfers tens of cubic kilometers of water and thousands of tons of arsenic from aquifers to rice fields each year. Here we combine observations ...

  1. Cost estimate report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a cost analysis of the long-term storage of depleted uranium in the form of uranium metal. Three options are considered for storage of the depleted uranium. These options are aboveground buildings, partly underground vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are presented. In the first case, all the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) generated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) prior to July 1993 would be stored at the storage facility (100% Case). In the second case, half the depleted uranium metal would be stored at this storage facility (50% Case). In the third case, one-quarter of the depleted uranium metal would be stored at the storage facility (25% Case). The technical basis for the cost analysis presented in this report is principally found in the companion report, ANL/EAD/TM-100, ''Engineering Analysis Report for the Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride: Storage of Depleted Uranium Metal'', prepared by Argonne National Laboratory.

  2. Well injectivity during CO2storage operations in deep saline aquifers 6 Part 2: Numerical simulations of drying, salt deposit mechanisms and role of7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 2 3 4 5 Well injectivity during CO2storage operations in deep saline aquifers ­6 Part 2 or industrial units and stored in underground geological reservoirs.30 Return on experience withCO2 injection-well field scale is proposed. This approach is of major40 importance because it makes it possible

  3. FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above.

  4. Analysis of Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrade, M.; Rago, F.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Peters, E.; Dorfman, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal aquifer, located southeast of Lake Charles, Louisiana, is modeled by a two-dimensional geopressured-geothermal simulator. This aquifer is a sandstone within the Frio formation at depths between 15,000 to 15,640 ft with a net porous thickness of 250 ft, a calculated in-situ permeability (from drawdown data) of 17 md, an estimated porosity of 24%, a uniaxial compaction coefficient of 4.5 x 10/sup -7/ psi/sup -1/ and a solution gas-water ratio of 11 SCF/STB all at the initial reservoir pressure of 12,060 psi. These parameters are typically pressure sensitive in geopressured-geothermal aquifers and are critically important to aquifer performance. Several simulation experiments are conducted which investigate the effects of varying initial values for these parameters with the experimentally determined values as means. The simulations give both optimistic and pessimistic expectations for aquifer performance. The expected life of the geopressured-geothermal well is reported for each simulation.

  5. Multivariate analysis of cross-hole georadar velocity and attenuation tomograms for aquifer zonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    for characterizing heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. A multivariate statistical technique, known as k-means cluster in a well-studied alluvial aquifer. A comparison of the clustered tomographic section with well-log data

  6. The 1997 Irrigation Suspension Program for the Edwards Aquifer: Evaluation and Alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keplinger, Keith O.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    (drought) Management Rules. The Aquifer region, however, experienced a wet Spring in 1997, so that even irrigators not enrolled in the program applied little or no irrigation water. If conditions were dry in Spring 1997, aquifer simulation results indicate...

  7. Geochemical modeling of an aquifer storage and recovery project in Union County, Arkansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ni, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sparta aquifer in Union County, Arkansas has served as an important potable water supply to the public and industrial sectors in the area. However, increasing water demand and sustained heavy pumping from the aquifer ...

  8. Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    to the aquifer for 1999 and 2000. As part of the investigation, the Edwards Aquifer Research & Data Center (EARDC) staff worked with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and local groundwater conservation districts to install five new recording well monitors...

  9. Modeling the High Plains Aquifer's Response to Land Use and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dermyer, Reuben

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Plains Aquifer is extremely important to the economic life of Kansas and the surrounding states, but water is being withdrawn from the aquifer much faster than it is being recharged. Due to the importance of ...

  10. The 1997 Irrigation Suspension Program for the Edwards Aquifer: Evaluation and Alternatives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keplinger, Keith O.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (drought) Management Rules. The Aquifer region, however, experienced a wet Spring in 1997, so that even irrigators not enrolled in the program applied little or no irrigation water. If conditions were dry in Spring 1997, aquifer simulation results indicate...

  11. A Farm-Level Evaluation of Agricultural Profit and Ground Water Quality: Texas Seymour Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Manzoor; Lacewell, Ronald D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Ozuna, Teofilo Jr.; Benson, Verel W.; Harris, Billy L.; Dyke, Paul T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seymour Aquifer of north-central Texas is known to have elevated levels of nitrates. The design of economically sound policies for reducing agriculture's nitrate contribution to the aquifer suggests a need to evaluate alternative management...

  12. A simulation model for generation of aquifer characteristics and contaminant concentrations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deena, Jayaram

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remediation of natural systems such as aquifers requires a thorough characterization of its physical and hydraulic properties. Variability in physical and hydraulic properties of aquifers makes design and operation of suitable remediation process...

  13. Stochastic estimation of aquifer geometry using seismic refraction data with borehole depth constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jinsong [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hubbard, Susan S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Korneev, V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gaines, David [University of Tennessee; Baker, Gregory S. [University of Tennessee; Watson, David [ORNL

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a Bayesian model to invert surface seismic refraction data with depth constraints from boreholes for characterization of aquifer geometry and apply it to seismic and borehole data sets collected at the contaminated Oak Ridge National Laboratory site in Tennessee. Rather than the traditional approach of first inverting the seismic arrival times for seismic velocity and then using that information to aid in the spatial interpolation of wellbore data, we jointly invert seismic first arrival time data and wellbore based information, such as depths of key lithological boundaries. We use a staggered grid finite difference algorithm with second order accuracy in time and fourth order accuracy in space to model seismic full waveforms and use an automated method to pick the first arrival times. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to draw many samples from the joint posterior probability distribution, on which we can estimate the key interfaces and their associated uncertainty as a function of horizontal location and depth. We test the developed method on both synthetic and field case studies. The synthetic studies show that the developed method is effective at rigorous incorporation of multiscale data and the Bayesian inversion reduces uncertainty in estimates of aquifer zonation. Applications of the approach to field data, including two surface seismic profiles located 620 m apart from each other, reveal the presence of a low velocity subsurface zone that is laterally persistent. This geophysically defined feature is aligned with the plume axis, suggesting it may serve as an important regional preferential flow pathway.

  14. Computer Simulation of Reservoir Depletion and Oil Flow from the Macondo Well Following the Deepwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer Simulation of Reservoir Depletion and Oil Flow from the Macondo Well Following, 2010, Computer simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following......................................................................................................................................... 7 Reservoir Depletion

  15. Applications of Ensemble-based Data Assimilation Techniques for Aquifer Characterization using Tracer Data at Hanford 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Hammond, Glenn E.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface aquifer characterization often involves high parameter dimensionality and requires tremendous computational resources if employing a full Bayesian approach. Ensemble-based data assimilation techniques, including filtering and smoothing, are computationally efficient alternatives. Despite the increasing number of applications of ensemble-based methods in assimilating flow and transport related data for subsurface aquifer charaterization, most are limited to either synthetic studies or two-dimensional problems. In this study, we applied ensemble-based techniques for assimilating field tracer experimental data obtained from the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at the Hanford 300 Area. The forward problem was simulated using the massively-parallel three-dimensional flow and transport code PFLOTRAN to effectively deal with the highly transient flow boundary conditions at the site and to meet the computational demands of ensemble-based methods. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of ensemble-based methods for characterizing a heterogeneous aquifer by sequentially assimilating multiple types of data. The necessity of employing high performance computing is shown to enable increasingly mechanistic non-linear forward simulations to be performed within the data assimilation framework for a complex system with reasonable turnaround time.

  16. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer characterization samples: 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Keenan, M.A.; Van Pelt, R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Rossabi, J.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples were collected during the A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer Characterization (Phase I) Program. The samples were analyzed for chlorinated VOCs by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and MicroSeeps Ltd. All samples were sealed in the field immediately upon retrieval of the core and subsampling. A total of 113 samples locations were selected for analysis. The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of SRTC analyzed all locations in duplicate (226 samples). MicroSeeps Ltd was selected as the quality assurance (QA) check laboratory. MicroSeeps Ltd analyzed 40 locations with 4 duplicates (44 samples). The samples were collected from seven boreholes in A/M Area in the interval from 200 feet deep to the total depth of the boring (360 feet deep nominal); samples were collected every 10 feet within this interval. The sampling zone corresponds approximately to the Crouch Branch Aquifer in A/M Area. The overall A/M Area Crouch Branch Aquifer characterization objectives, a brief description of A/M Area geology and hydrology, and the sample locations, field notes, driller lithologic logs, and required procedural documentation are presented in WSRC (1993).

  17. Plasma depletion layer model for low Alfven Mach number: Comparison with ISEE observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrugia, C.J. [Department of Mathematics, Science and Technical Education, University of Malta, Msida (Malta)] [Department of Mathematics, Science and Technical Education, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham; Erkaev, N.V. [Computer Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia)] [Computer Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russia); Biernat, H.K. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)] [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria); Lawrence, G.R. [Space Science Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton (England)] [Space Science Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton (England); Elphic, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Together with the magnetic shear across the magnetopause, the solar wind Alfven Mach number, M{sub A{infinity}} plays a central role in determining the structure of the magnetosheath. Recent theoretical modeling has shown, in particular, that as M{sub A{infinity}} decreases, the region adjacent to the sunward side of the magnetopause where the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) exerts a strong influence on the flow (i.e., the so-called plasma depletion layer), is no longer confined to a thin layer {approximately}0.3 Earth radii (R{sub E}) thick but occupies an increasingly larger fraction of the magnetosheath. Furthermore, the model predicts the possibility of a plasma depletion layer for low M{sub A{infinity}}, irrespective of the size of the magnetic shear at the magnetopause. In this paper we study three examples of low latitude ISEE 2 passes through the dayside magnetosheath near noon: December 3, 1979; October 5, 1979; and November 11, 1979. In all three examples, M{sub A{infinity}} was lower than normal. During the December 3 pass (which we treat qualitatively), we find evidence of a plasma depletion layer when the IMF was pointing south. On the other two passes (which we study quantitatively), the interplanetary magnetic field was strongly northward pointing, leading to low magnetic shear at the respective magnetopause crossings. The October 5 pass was under steady interplanetary conditions and we find good agreement between theory and data. Temporal variations of the interplanetary medium during the November 11 pass necessitated an extension of the steady state theory to encompass piecewise steady (on average) interplanetary conditions. Better agreement with the data results when the theory is extended further to correct the total pressure at the sunward side of the magnetopause by integrating the magnetic tension term across the layer. For wide plasma depletion layers, this correction can be substantial.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  18. Global microRNA depletion suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sidi

    MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly ...

  19. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  20. alarming oxygen depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T. Doan; Q. Cao; L. Selavo; Y. Wu; L. Fang; Z. He; S. Lin; J. Stankovic 2006-01-01 37 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  1. The economics of fuel depletion in fast breeder reactor blankets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Shelby Templeton

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast breeder reactor fuel depletion-economics model was developed and applied to a number of 1000 MWe UMBR case studies, involving radial blanket-radial reflector design, radial blanket fuel management, and sensitivity ...

  2. Hydraulics of horizontal wells in fractured shallow aquifer systems Eungyu Parka,*, Hongbin Zhanb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Hydraulics of horizontal wells in fractured shallow aquifer systems Eungyu Parka,*, Hongbin Zhanb Accepted 1 May 2003 Abstract An analysis of groundwater hydraulic head in the vicinity of a horizontal well in fractured or porous aquifers considering confined, leaky confined, and water-table aquifer boundary

  3. Singlehole GPR reflection imaging of solute transport in a granitic aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Singlehole GPR reflection imaging of solute transport in a granitic aquifer Caroline Dorn,1 Niklas mmaperture fractures. A dipole tracer test was performed in a granitic aquifer by injecting a saline solution of solute transport in a granitic aquifer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L08401, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047152. 1

  4. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to...

  5. Saving for dry days: Aquifer storage and recovery may help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    underground storage (MUS) of recoverable water. The Committee on Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water uses MUS ?to denote purposeful recharge of water into an aquifer system for intended recovery and use as an element of long-term water...tx H2O | pg. 2 Saving for dry days Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 3 Aquifer storage and recovery may help With reoccurring droughts and growing population, Texas will always be looking for better ways to save or use water. Some water...

  6. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  7. Saving for dry days: Aquifer storage and recovery may help 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 2 Saving for dry days Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 3 Aquifer storage and recovery may help With reoccurring droughts and growing population, Texas will always be looking for better ways to save or use water. Some water... suppliers in Texas are turning to aquifer storage and recovery. During the dry summer of 2008, the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) had enough assets in its ?bank? (of water) to make with- drawals to meet the needs of its customers. The water bank...

  8. Determining the Fate of Herbicides in the Ogallala Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, A. D.; Wiese, A. F.; Jones, O. R.; Mathers, A. C.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    8-1 1 12 August 1971 termining The Fate of Herbicides in the Ogallala Aquifer Fine textured soils "., ..'. ::: .::::.. a ...... Sandy rolls .. .... - [ Little or no water O Miles 100 U in Ogalla la formation Sand dunes -c Texas ABM... indicate that a dual-porpo+e "" in a sand aquifer that is accidentally contamin~r " by herbicides will not be a serious hazard if the '" l (1 is pumped soon after recharging. Since dual-purr. . wells are normally used for seasonal recharpinr I...

  9. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF{sub 6} is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings.

  10. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

  11. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

  12. Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scatena-Wachel DE

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

  13. Comparing Approaches to Locating Boreholes in Spatially Heterogeneous Aquifers Sean A. McKenna, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenna, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Abstract Limited sampling of an aquifer

  14. Investigating cross-contamination of aquifers Paul M. Santi John E. McCray Jamie L. Martens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigating cross-contamination of aquifers Paul M. Santi · John E. McCray · Jamie L. Martens Abstract Shallow aquifers can cross-contaminate deeper aquifers through penetration of an intervening of several of these techniques at three sites ex- periencing aquifer cross-contamination, the authors con

  15. Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

  16. Economic and Hydrologic Implications of Proposed Edwards Aquifer Management Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Carl R.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Williams, R. Lynn; Jordan, Wayne R.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    on water elevation in a reference well located in San Antonio. Four variants of the plans were analyzed using an annual economic/hydrologic simulation model of the aquifer. The model simulates water use by the agricultural, industrial and municipal sectors...

  17. Analytical solution for Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 geo-sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias, S.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs Simon A.1. Introduction Depleted oil and gas reservoirs (DOGRs)

  18. Descriptive analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, R.W.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) was examined. A key to ATESs attractiveness is its simplicity of design and construction. The storage device consists of two ordinary water wells drilled into an aquifer, connected at the surface by piping and a heat exchanger. During the storage cycle water is pumped out of the aquifer, through the heat exchanger to absorb thermal energy, and then back down into the aquifer through the second well. The thermal storage remains in the aquifer storage bubble until required for use, when it is recovered by reversing the storage operation. For many applications the installation can probably be designed and constructed using existing site-specific information and modern well-drilling techniques. The potential for cost-effective implementation of ATES was investigated in the Twin Cities District Heating-Cogeneration Study in Minnesota. In the study, ATES demonstrated a net energy saving of 32% over the nonstorage scenario, with an annual energy cost saving of $31 million. Discounting these savings over the life of the project, the authors found that the break-even capital cost for ATES construction was $76/kW thermal, far above the estimated ATES development cost of $23 to 50/kW thermal. It appears tht ATES can be highly cost effective as well as achieve substantial fuel savings. ATES would be environmentally beneficial and could be used in many parts of the USA. The existing body of information on ATES indicates that it is a cost-effective, fuel-conserving technique for providing thermal energy for residential, commercial, and industrial users. The negative aspects are minor and highly site-specific, and do not seem to pose a threat to widespread commercialization. With a suitable institutional framework, ATES promises to supply a substantial portion of the nation's future energy needs. (LCL)

  19. Status Report and Proposal Concerning the Supply of Depleted Uranium Metal Bands for a Particle Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Status Report and Proposal Concerning the Supply of Depleted Uranium Metal Bands for a Particle Detector

  20. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  1. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  2. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  3. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  4. Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the reference manual of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program, and is the primary document for the transfer of technical information of the STES Program. It has been issued in preliminary form and will be updated periodically to include more technical data and results of research. As the program progresses and new technical data become available, sections of the manual will be revised to incorporate these data. This primary document contains summaries of: the TRW, incorporated demonstration project at Behtel, Alaska, Dames and Moore demonstration project at Stony Brook, New York, and the University of Minnesota demonstration project at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; the technical support programs including legal/institutional assessment; economic assessment; environmental assessment; field test facilities; a compendia of existing information; numerical simulation; and non-aquifer STES concepts. (LCL)

  5. Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*, Lee D. Bryant,, Andreas Matzinger obtained from 11 eutrophic lakes and suggests a model describing the consumption of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the hypolimnia of eutrophic lakes as a result of only two fundamental processes: O2 is consumed (i) by settled

  6. Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Bouvier

    2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Israelian et al. (2004) reported that exoplanet host stars are lithium depleted compared to solar-type stars without detected massive planets, a result recently confirmed by Gonzalez (2008). We investigate whether enhanced lithium depletion in exoplanet host stars may result from their rotational history. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow and fast solar-type rotators from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the age of the Sun and compare them to the distribution of rotational periods observed for solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 5 Gyr. We show that slow rotators develop a high degree of differential rotation between the radiative core and the convective envelope, while fast rotators evolve with little core-envelope decoupling. We suggest that strong differential rotation at the base of the convective envelope is responsible for enhanced lithium depletion in slow rotators. We conclude that lithium-depleted exoplanet host stars were slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) and argue that slow rotation results from a long lasting star-disk interaction during the PMS. Altogether, this suggests that long-lived disks (> 5 Myr) may be a necessary condition for massive planet formation/migration.

  7. Population and Climate Change: How Depletion of Nature and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    , Deforestation, Desertification, etc Inputs: 1. Energy Oil, Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Biomass, Renewables, etc 2 of Energy · Incorporates INPUTS, including DEPLETION of SOURCES · Incorporates OUTPUTS, including POLLUTION and antibiotics (living longer) 2) Use of fossil fuels in agriculture starting in the 1950's: - fertilizers

  8. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  9. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    that combines these previous two methods to characterize the diffusivity of a packed bed of microspheres of depleted uranium (DU) metal, which have a nominal diameter of 250 micrometers. The new apparatus is designated as the Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA...

  10. Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minsley, B.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Morgan, F.D.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity {approx}500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution.

  11. Modeling of thermal energy storage in groundwater aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, David Bryan

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , nuclear fission, fusion, geo- thermal energy, and solar energy as potential alternate energy sources to replace natural gas and oil. Of these, soIar energy is one of the most promisino alternate energy sources for space heating and cooling. Solar...MODELING OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN GROUNDWATER AQUIFERS A Thesis by DAVID BRYAN REED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979...

  12. Geothermal development of the Madison group aquifer: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, J.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A geothermal well has been drilled at the St. Mary's Hospital in Pierre, South Dakota. The well is 2176 feet deep and artesian flows 375 gpm at 106/sup 0/F. The well is producing fluids from the Mississippian Madison Group, a sequence of carbonate rocks deposited over several western states. The project was funded to demonstrate the goethermal potential of this widespread aquifer. This case study describes the development of the project through geology, drilling, stimulation, and testing.

  13. Methanogens in Central Texas aquifers: a microbiological and molecular study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacRae, Martha Jean Davies

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) to determine if lithology and water characteristics favor one type of bacteria over another, 3) to determine if viable methanogens are present in the sampled aquifers; and 4) to determine if the abundance of biogenic methane correlates with the presence... flow filtration to recover viruses and dissolved DNA from eutrophic and oligotrophic seawater. Jiang et aL (44) also utilized vortex flow filtration to concentrate particulate DNA, chlorophyll a, and bacteria from fresh water, estuarine, coastal...

  14. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  15. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  16. Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75°C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil dissolves into the vapor phase. As the vapor phase moves up through the stratigraphic column, pressures and temperatures decrease, resulting in significant condensation of oil components. The heaviest organic components condense early in this process (at higher pressures and temperatures), while the lighter components tend to remain in the vapor phase until much lower pressures and temperatures are reached. Based on the model assumptions, the final concentrations of COI to reach an aquifer at 1,520 kPa and 25°C were quite significant for benzene and toluene, whereas the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that reach the aquifer were very small. This work demonstrates a methodology that can provide COI source term concentrations in CO2 leaking from a reservoir and entering an overlying aquifer for use in risk assessments.

  17. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underly- ing a former refinery. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization

  18. Large-scale impact of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: A sensitivity study on pressure response in stratified systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifer near the ground surface to the storage formation.below the ground surface. The storage formation is boundedstorage formation, and Aquifer 8 the uppermost aquifer nearest to the ground

  19. Effect of sediment concentration on artificial well recharge in a fine sand aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Mohammed Ataur

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the aquifer and also the shape of the water profile in the model aquifer during the period of recharge. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The flow of water through porous materials follows a law first discovered experimentally in 1856 by Henri Darcy (12), a... WITH TAP WATER AND SEDIMENT-LADEN WATER 74 76 77 Appendix AVERAGE CONDUCTIVITY IN ONE FOOT SECTIONS OF THE AQUIFER 84 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 3-1 Model Recharge Well with Accessori. es 14 3-2 Pie-shaped Model Well and Aquifer Sector Viewed...

  20. Sensitivity analysis of aquifer parameter estimations based on the Laplace equation with linearized boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    boundary conditions Jozsef Szilagyi Conservation and Survey Division, University of Nebraska analysis Citation: Szilagyi, J., Sensitivity analysis of aquifer parameter estimations based on the Laplace

  1. BPA, electric co-op and irrigation district testing aquifer recharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electric co-op and irrigation district testing aquifer recharge Dispatching recharge pumping could save money and relieve electricity oversupply Portland, Ore. - The Bonneville...

  2. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion, unlike ORIGEN, which only depletes the isotopes specified by the user. This means that depletions done by MRTAU more accurately reflect reality. MRTAU also allows the user to build new isotope data sets, which means any isotope with nuclear data could be depleted, something that would help predict the outcomes of nuclear reaction testing in materials other than fuel, like beryllium or gold.

  3. Uranio impoverito: perch'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Abramo, G

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of the author of understanding the reasons of the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  4. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  5. Critical analysis of plume containment modeling in a thin heterogeneous unconfined aquifer: application to a bulk fuel storage terminal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Karl Edward

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reported hydrocarbon contamination and subsequent consultant work at a bulk fuel storage terminal has instigated the need to critically analyze modeling techniques in thin, heterogeneous, unconfined aquifers. This study provides an aquifer...

  6. Improving land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model better than a deeper soil profile?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer modelAL. : LAND-SURFACE MODEL HYDROLOGY Changnon, S. , et al. (land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model

  7. Interactions and Implications of a Collector Well with a River in an Unconfined Aquifer with Regional Background Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dugat, William D., IV

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the petroleum industry and hydrologic sciences. This study improved the understanding of the interaction of collector wells and the aquifers/reservoirs they tap by numerically modeling flux exchanges between a collector well and a river in an unconfined aquifer...

  8. Critical analysis of plume containment modeling in a thin heterogeneous unconfined aquifer: application to a bulk fuel storage terminal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Karl Edward

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reported hydrocarbon contamination and subsequent consultant work at a bulk fuel storage terminal has instigated the need to critically analyze modeling techniques in thin, heterogeneous, unconfined aquifers. This study provides an aquifer...

  9. Barriers to water marketing: opinions of major pumpers on water marketing issues in the Edwards Aquifer region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Laura Maureen

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater use is a contentious issue in the Edwards Aquifer region of Texas. Many environmentalists are advocating groundwater law reform, much to the chagrin of property rights advocates. Establishment of tighter controls in the Edwards Aquifer...

  10. Interactions and Implications of a Collector Well with a River in an Unconfined Aquifer with Regional Background Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dugat, William D., IV

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the petroleum industry and hydrologic sciences. This study improved the understanding of the interaction of collector wells and the aquifers/reservoirs they tap by numerically modeling flux exchanges between a collector well and a river in an unconfined aquifer...

  11. Storage capacity and injection rate estimates for CO? sequestration in deep saline aquifers in the conterminous United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczewski, Michael Lawrence

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A promising method to mitigate global warming is injecting CO? into deep saline aquifers. In order to ensure the safety of this method, it is necessary to understand how much CO? can be injected into an aquifer and at what ...

  12. Design and Implementation of a C02 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to utilize reservoir characteristics and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. Also the project seeks to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field.

  13. Dust acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron depleted superthermal dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahmansouri, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alinejad, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical investigation has been made on the oblique propagation of arbitrary dust-acoustic solitary waves in an electron depleted magnetized dusty plasma which consists of kappa distributed ions and negatively charged warm dust fluid. The electron number density is assumed to be sufficiently depleted owing to the electron attachment during the dust charging process, i.e., n{sub e} Much-Less-Than n{sub i}. The propagation properties of two possible modes (in the linear regime) are investigated. It is found that deviation of ions from thermodynamic equilibrium leads to a decrease of the phase velocity of both modes. A nonlinear pseudopotential approach is employed to derive an energy-like equation which admits to investigate the occurrence of stationary solitary wave solution for the propagation of arbitrary amplitude. The effects of superthermality, obliqueness, and external magnetic field on the existence domain and nature of these solitary waves are discussed. Only negative polarity of solitary waves is found to exist. It is shown that an increase of ion superthermality leads to the appearance of the solitary waves with smaller Mach numbers. The influence of dust temperature on the existence domain of solitary structures is increase of the permitted Mach number. It is also found that the superthermality supports the solitary structures with larger amplitude.

  14. DMAPS: a fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor - analog performance characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Havránek; Tomasz Hemperek; Hans Krüger; Yunan Fu; Leonard Germic; Tetsuichi Kishishita; Theresa Obermann; Norbert Wermes

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed since the late 1990s based on silicon substrates with a thin epitaxial layer (thickness of 10-15 $\\mu$m) in which charge is collected on an electrode, albeit by disordered and slow diffusion rather than by drift in a directed electric field. As a consequence, the signal is small ($\\approx$ 1000 e$^-$) and the radiation tolerance is much below the LHC requirements by factors of 100 to 1000. In this paper we present the development of a fully Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) based on a high resistivity substrate allowing the creation of a fully depleted detection volume. This concept overcomes the inherent limitations of charge collection by diffusion in the standard MAPS designs. We present results from a test chip EPCB01 designed in a commercial 150 nm CMOS technology. The technology provides a thin (50 $\\mu$m) high resistivity n-type silicon substrate as well as an additional deep p-well which allows to integrate full CMOS circuitry inside the pixel. Different matrix types with several variants of collection electrodes have been implemented. Measurements of the analog performance of this first implementation of DMAPS pixels will be presented.

  15. Potential Risks of Freshwater Aquifer Contamination with Geosequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Robert

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantial leakage of CO{sub 2} from deep geological strata to shallow potable aquifers is likely to be rare, but chemical detection of potential leakage nonetheless remains an integral component of any safe carbon capture and storage system. CO{sub 2} that infiltrates an unconfined freshwater aquifer will have an immediate impact on water chemistry by lowering pH in most cases and by altering the concentration of total dissolved solids. Chemical signatures in affected waters provide an important opportunity for early detection of leaks. In the presence of CO{sub 2}, trace elements such as Mn, Fe, and Ca can increase by an order of magnitude or more above control concentrations within 100 days. Therefore, these and other elements should be monitored along with pH as geochemical markers of potential CO{sub 2} leaks. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity can also be rapidly responsive to CO{sub 2} and are stable indicators of a leak. Importantly, such changes may be detectable long before direct changes in CO{sub 2} are observed. The experimental results also suggest that the relative severity of the impact of leaks on overlying drinking-water aquifers should be considered in the selection of CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. One primary selection criteria should be metal and metalloid availability, such as uranium and arsenic abundance, to carefully monitor chemical species that could trigger changes above maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Overall, the risks of leakage from underground CO{sub 2} storage are real but appear to be manageable if systems are closely monitored.

  16. Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    ) in deep saline aquifers is considered one of the most effective methods for carbon sequestration., 48, W09539, doi:10.1029/2012WR011939.* 1. Introduction [2] Carbon sequestration in deep salineEffect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

  17. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains two appendices to the main report. The first lists the aquifers in the 12 geographic regions of the USA and characterizes each as containing sands and gravels or limestones or volcanic rock. The second appendix tabulates the hydrologic characteristics of each aquifer. (LCL)

  18. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  19. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  20. The Influence of Topology on Hydraulic Conductivity in a Sand-and-Gravel Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Influence of Topology on Hydraulic Conductivity in a Sand-and-Gravel Aquifer by Roger H. Morin1 and tracer testing was conducted in a single well that penetrated a sand-and-gravel aquifer at the U, and tortuosity that primarily control the hydraulic conductivity. Results show that F correlates well with K

  1. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  2. 1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sailhac, Pascal

    1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

  3. Information content of slug tests for estimating hydraulic properties in realistic, high-conductivity aquifer scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Information content of slug tests for estimating hydraulic properties in realistic, high for partially-penetrating slug tests in unconfined aquifers (Malama et al., in press) provides a semi the ultimate goal of determining aquifer properties such as hydraulic conductivity K and specific storage Ss

  4. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards., 2007, Characterizing hydraulic properties and ground-water chemistry in fractured-rock aquifers: A user

  5. Limiting Pumping from the Edwards Aquifer: An Economic Investigation of Proposals, Water Markets and Springflow Guarantees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Limiting Pumping from the Edwards Aquifer: An Economic Investigation of Proposals, Water Markets for pumping and springflow which in turn provides water for recreation and habitat for several endangered species. A management authority is charged with aquifer management and is mandated to reduce pumping

  6. Measuring The Effectiveness of Groundwater Management Policies for the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamache, Kevin Robert

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    rate of decline in groundwater levels in the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer in Texas after establishment of a GCD. The data did not show a correlation between the water allocation method used and the impact on average annual drawdown of the aquifer. The study...

  7. A Fractal Interpretation of Controlled-Source Helicopter Electromagnetic Survey Data Seco Creek, Edwards Aquifer, TX 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, Kathryn T.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Edwards aquifer lies in the structurally complex Balcones fault zone and supplies water to the growing city of San Antonio. To ensure that future demands for water are met, the hydrological and geophysical properties of the aquifer must be well...

  8. Aquifer operator scaling and the effect on solute mixing and dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bäumer, Boris

    Aquifer operator scaling and the effect on solute mixing and dispersion David A. Benson Geology settings. Most previous models have used isotropic scaling characterized by a single scalar Hurst, are associated with thicker layering of aquifer sediments and more preferential, unmixed transport. Therefore

  9. Determining the Fate of Herbicides in the Ogallala Aquifer.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, A. D.; Wiese, A. F.; Jones, O. R.; Mathers, A. C.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer A. D. SCHNEIDER, A. F. WIESE, 0. R. JONES AND A. C. M.~THERS* 11 , I jvi~i\\ \\~!~llI~llR~ ARE RECHARGED by nat~~ral or arti- ,, , iiti;~l jlrocesses, they may receive runoff from [I. , :iillltar;~l lands. In the Texas High Plains, dual- [, rp..., if needed. Nitrate and nitrite were cleterminetl by tl,c ,i~ mated, colormetric procedures of Kamphake, H.II~I~ - and Cohen (5). Herbicides in the water samples were dete~~ll~~ with a Barber-Coleman Moclel 5360 gas chromatoy equipped with a radium 226...

  10. Application of the decline curve method to aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potnis, Girish Vijay

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    k = value of pointin time = value of point in time n = value of point in time 39 REFERENCES 1. Fetkovich, M. J. : "Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves, " JPT (June 1980) 1065-1077. 2. Havlena, D. and Odeh, A. S. : "The Material Balance...APPLICATION OF THE DECLINE CURVE METHOD TO AQUIFERS A Thesis by GIRISH VIJAY POTNIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ADAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December...

  11. Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arreola-Triana, Alejandra

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Groundwater nitrates in the Seymour Aquifer: problem or resource? Texas High Plains and Rolling Plain project. #31;e aim of this project is to understand how nitrates move through the soil and how they can be managed to improve water quality in underlying... it is a slow process and it may take several years before we see improvement.? Putting nitrates to work AgriLife Research environmental soil scientist Dr. Paul DeLaune is exploring one of these best management practices. Last July, Ale and De...

  12. Precision Dual-Aquifer Dewatering at a Low Level Radiological Cleanup in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosnell, A. S.; Langman, J. W. Jr.; Zahl, H. A.; Miller, D. M.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Cleanup of low-level radioactive wastes at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey during the period October, 2000 through November, 2001 required the design, installation and operation of a dual-aquifer dewatering system to support excavation of contaminated soils. Waste disposal pits from a former rare-earth processing facility at the WISS had been in contact with the water table aquifer, resulting in moderate levels of radionuclides being present in the upper aquifer groundwater. An uncontaminated artesian aquifer underlies the water table aquifer, and is a localized drinking water supply source. The lower aquifer, confined by a silty clay unit, is flowing artesian and exhibits potentiometric heads of up to 4.5 meters above grade. This high potentiometric head presented a strong possibility that unloading due to excavation would result in a ''blowout'', particularly in areas where the confining unit was < 1 meter thick. Excavation of contaminated materials w as required down to the surface of the confining unit, potentially resulting in an artesian aquifer head of greater than 8 meters above the excavation surface. Consequently, it was determined that a dual-aquifer dewatering system would be required to permit excavation of contaminated material, with the water table aquifer dewatered to facilitate excavation, and the deep aquifer depressurized to prevent a ''blowout''. An additional concern was the potential for vertical migration of contamination present in the water table aquifer that could result from a vertical gradient reversal caused by excessive pumping in the confined system. With these considerations in mind, a conceptual dewatering plan was developed with three major goals: (1) dewater the water table aquifer to control radionuclide migration and allow excavation to proceed; (2) depressurize the lower, artesian aquifer to reduce the potential for a ''blowout''; and (3) develop a precise dewatering level control mechanism to insure a vertical gradient reversal did not result in cross-contamination. The plan was executed through a hydrogeologic investigation culminating with the design and implementation of a complex, multi-phased dual-aquifer dewatering system equipped with a state of the art monitoring network.

  13. Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from investigate the hydraulic response to recharge of a fractured aquifer, using a frequency domain approach scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

  14. Permanent scatterer InSAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater pumping and artificial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amelung, Falk

    with an artificial recharge program, long-term, residual, inelastic aquifer-system compaction (subsidenceSAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater pumping and artificial rechargePermanent scatterer InSAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater

  15. MODELING OF CO2 LEAKAGE UP THROUGH AN ABANDONED WELL FROM DEEP SALINE AQUIFER TO SHALLOW FRESH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MODELING OF CO2 LEAKAGE UP THROUGH AN ABANDONED WELL FROM DEEP SALINE AQUIFER TO SHALLOW FRESH restricted to: (i) supercritical CO2 injection and storage within the Dogger reservoir aquifer, (ii) CO2 the cement-rock formation interface in the abandoned well (iii) impacts on the Albian aquifer water quality

  16. Using complex resistivity imaging to infer biogeochemical processes associated with bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orozco, A. Flores; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Kemna, A.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments at the Department of Energy's Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site near Rifle, Colorado (USA) have demonstrated the ability to remove uranium from groundwater by stimulating the growth and activity of Geobacter species through acetate amendment. Prolonging the activity of these strains in order to optimize uranium bioremediation has prompted the development of minimally-invasive and spatially-extensive monitoring methods diagnostic of their in situ activity and the end products of their metabolism. Here we demonstrate the use of complex resistivity imaging for monitoring biogeochemical changes accompanying stimulation of indigenous aquifer microorganisms during and after a prolonged period (100+ days) of acetate injection. A thorough raw-data statistical analysis of discrepancies between normal and reciprocal measurements and incorporation of a new power-law phase-error model in the inversion were used to significantly improve the quality of the resistivity phase images over those obtained during previous monitoring experiments at the Rifle IRFC site. The imaging results reveal spatiotemporal changes in the phase response of aquifer sediments, which correlate with increases in Fe(II) and precipitation of metal sulfides (e.g., FeS) following the iterative stimulation of iron and sulfate reducing microorganism. Only modest changes in resistivity magnitude were observed over the monitoring period. The largest phase anomalies (>40 mrad) were observed hundreds of days after halting acetate injection, in conjunction with accumulation of Fe(II) in the presence of residual FeS minerals, reflecting preservation of geochemically reduced conditions in the aquifer - a prerequisite for ensuring the long-term stability of immobilized, redox-sensitive contaminants, such as uranium.

  17. Using complex resistivity imaging to infer biogeochemical processes associated with bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores-Orozco, Adrian; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Kemna, Andreas

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments at the Department of Energy’s Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site near Rifle, Colorado (USA) have demonstrated the ability to remove uranium from groundwater by stimulating the growth and activity of Geobacter species through acetate amendment. Prolonging the activity of these strains in order to optimize uranium bioremediation has prompted the development of minimally-invasive and spatially-extensive monitoring methods diagnostic of their in situ activity and the end products of their metabolism. Here we demonstrate the use of complex resistivity imaging for monitoring biogeochemical changes accompanying stimulation of indigenous aquifer microorganisms during and after a prolonged period (100+ days) of acetate injection. A thorough raw-data statistical analysis of discrepancies between normal and reciprocal measurements and incorporation of a new power-law phase-error model in the inversion were used to significantly improve the quality of the resistivity phase images over those obtained during previous monitoring experiments at the Rifle IRFC site. The imaging results reveal spatiotemporal changes in the phase response of aquifer sediments, which correlate with increases in Fe(II) and precipitation of metal sulfides (e.g., FeS) following the iterative stimulation of iron and sulfate reducing microorganism. Only modest changes in resistivity magnitude were observed over the monitoring period. The largest phase anomalies (>40 mrad) were observed hundreds of days after halting acetate injection, in conjunction with accumulation of Fe(II) in the presence of residual FeS minerals, reflecting preservation of geochemically reduced conditions in the aquifer – a prerequisite for ensuring the long-term stability of immobilized, redox-sensitive contaminants, such as uranium.

  18. Research into the Characterization of Brackish Water and Disposal of Desalination Reject Water in Saline Aquifers and Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.

    landmark legislation that should provide greatly expanded opportunities to beneficially use concentrates from the desalination of brackish groundwater or to streamline the disposal as a waste product. House Bill 2654 (passed in the 80th Legislative session...

  19. Research into the Characterization of Brackish Water and Disposal of Desalination Reject Water in Saline Aquifers and Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brackish groundwater is a valuable “drought-proof” resource that is plentiful in much of Texas. If treated by available desalination technologies, brackish groundwater resources could help many regions of Texas cope with pressing water shortages...

  20. Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Depletion-Induced Interactions for Soft Matter Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler N. Shendruk; Martin Bertrand; James L. Harden; Gary W. Slater; Hendrick W. de Haan

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (WCA) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

  1. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, S.E.; Hanrahan, E.J.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}. The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed.

  2. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  3. Fabrication options for depleted uranium components in shielded containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrington, S.B.; Thompson, J.E.; Coates, C.W.

    1994-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an attractive material for the gamma-shielding components in containers designed for the storage, transport, and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes or spent nuclear fuel. The size and weight of these components present fabrication challenges. A broad range of technical expertise, capabilities, and facilities for uranium manufacturing and technology development exist at the Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities and within commercial industry. Several cast and wrought processes are available to fabricate the DU components. Integration of the DU fabrication capabilities and physical limitations for handling the DU components into the early design phase will ensure a fabricable product.

  4. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  5. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture.

  6. University of Michigan adds Depletion Capability to MPACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program TheSite Map SiteResearchMichigan adds Depletion

  7. Water balance investigations of groundwater depletion in Asia : information needs and uncertainty analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiang, Julie E. (Julie Ega), 1971-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irrigated agriculture is an essential component of global food production. In many regions of the world, and Asia in particular, groundwater is a major source of irrigation water. Over-pumping of groundwater aquifers has ...

  8. Short-and long-time behavior of aquifer drainage after slow and sudden recharge according to the linearized Laplace equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    not fully penetrate the aquifer, the solution still produces good results [Szilagyi, J. Sensitivity analysis

  9. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  10. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Avci, H.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bradley, C.E. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  11. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  12. Cysteamine-induced depletion of somatostatin and prolactin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Martin, J.B.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol (CSH), given in vivo or in vitro, rapidly but reversibly depletes immunoreactive somatostatin (irSS) in the central nervous system and gut as well as biological and immunological prolactin (PRL) activity in both the anterior pituitary and blood of the rat. This depletion of irSS and PRL is dose dependent and cannot be accounted for by release of either compound. Basal and potassium-stimulated SS release is reduced from hypothalamic tissue in vitro in CSH-treated animals. PRL secretion induced both pharmacologically and physiologically is abolished after CSH administration. Furthermore, CSH reduces cellular PRL content in a number of hyperprolactinemic states. The mechanism by which CSH reduces PRL levels is not clear, but it does not appear to act through the dopamine receptor nor does it alter the morphological structure of the lactotrope in normal animals. Most likely, CSH acts by interacting with the disulfide bonds of PRL, thus rendering the molecule both immunologically and biologically inactive.

  13. Hydrochemistry and hydrogeologic conditions within the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Webber, W.D.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Flow System Characterization Task. Pacific Northwest Laboratory examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system for the US Department of Energy (DOE). As part of this activity, groundwater samples were collected over the past 2 years from selected wells completed in the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt. The hydrochemical and isotopic information obtained from these groundwater samples provides hydrologic information concerning the aquifer-flow system. Ideally, when combined with other hydrologic property information, hydrochemical and isotopic data can be used to evaluate the origin and source of groundwater, areal groundwater-flow patterns, residence and groundwater travel time, rock/groundwater reactions, and aquifer intercommunication for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report presents the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydrochemical properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report provides the hydrogeologic characteristics (Section 2.0) and hydrochemical properties (Section 3.0) for groundwater within this system. A detailed description of the range of the identified hydrochemical parameter subgroups for groundwater in the upper basalt confined aquifer system is also presented in Section 3.0. Evidence that is indicative of aquifer contamination/aquifer intercommunication and an assessment of the potential for offsite migration of contaminants in groundwater within the upper basalt aquifer is provided in Section 4.0. The references cited throughout the report are given in Section 5.0. Tables that summarize groundwater sample analysis results for individual test interval/well sites are included in the Appendix.

  14. Parametric down conversion with a depleted pump as a model for classical information transmission capacity of quantum black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Alsing

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we extend the investigation of Adami and Ver Steeg [Class. Quantum Grav. \\textbf{31}, 075015 (2014)] to treat the process of black hole particle emission effectively as the analogous quantum optical process of parametric down conversion (PDC) with a dynamical (depleted vs. non-depleted) `pump' source mode which models the evaporating black hole (BH) energy degree of freedom. We investigate both the short time (non-depleted pump) and long time (depleted pump) regimes of the quantum state and its impact on the Holevo channel capacity for communicating information from the far past to the far future in the presence of Hawking radiation. The new feature introduced in this work is the coupling of the emitted Hawking radiation modes through the common black hole `source pump' mode which phenomenologically represents a quantized energy degree of freedom of the gravitational field. This (zero-dimensional) model serves as a simplified arena to explore BH particle production/evaporation and back-action effects under an explicitly unitary evolution which enforces quantized energy/particle conservation. Within our analogous quantum optical model we examine the entanglement between two emitted particle/anti-particle and anti-particle/particle pairs coupled via the black hole (BH) evaporating `pump' source. We also analytically and dynamically verify the `Page information time' for our model which refers to the conventionally held belief that the information in the BH radiation becomes significant after the black hole has evaporated half its initial energy into the outgoing radiation. Lastly, we investigate the effect of BH particle production/evaporation on two modes in the exterior region of the BH event horizon that are initially maximally entangled, when one mode falls inward and interacts with the black hole, and the other remains forever outside and non-interacting.

  15. Geology and hydrogeology of the Edwards Aquifer Transition Zone, Bexar County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neathery, Jeffrey Stephen

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the Edwards Aquifer (Figure 5). Rainfall and stream flow on the Balcones Fault Zone/Transition Zone also contributes to the water migrating to and recharging the Edwards Aquifer. Water 14 OKLAHOMA ARKANSAS TEXAS l a g/ CENTRAL I I(l TEXAS I I PLA M I... WATER LINE Glen Roee Llmeetone aneltlon Z one F Oem ~ lion FLOWING ARTESIAN WELL nanna fa an r aaneltlon Z one DWA AQUIFER EDWARDS PLATEAU BALCONES ESCARPMENT Glen Roe e Lime alone ALCONE FAULT ZONE Generalized cross section...

  16. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Microbial ecology and carbon cycling in Texas aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chuanlun; Grossman, E.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology); MacRae, M.; Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the relationship between microbial activity and carbon cycling in the subsurface, the authors performed geochemical and microbiological analyses on ground-waters from 15 wells in three aquifers in Texas--the Edwards (Ed), the Wilcox-Carrizo (WC), and the Sparta-Queen City (SQC). Samples were collected from 128 to 976 m depth. Total bacteria enumerated by direct count methodology range from 1.6 [times] 10[sup 3] to 4.0 [times] 10[sup 4] cells/ml. In both the (SQC) and (WC) aquifers, total bacterial counts decrease with depth. Total counts in (SQC) waters decrease from 6 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 217 m to 2 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 616 m; total counts in (WC) waters decrease from 32 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 369 m to [approximately]5 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 907 m. Except for two wells, all of the waters contained trace to large amounts of methane. Carbon isotopic analyses of dissolved and head-gas methane range from [minus]80 to [minus]9[per thousand]. Light [delta] C-13 values for methane indicate methane production by bacteria without secondary alteration while heavy [delta] C-13 values for methane strongly suggest methane oxidation, probably by sulfate reduction. delta C-13 values of DIC for high bicarbonate waters indicate a source of CO[sub 2] associated with methanogenesis through fermentation reactions and CO[sub 2] reduction. No correlation is found between the response to the archaebacterial probe and methane content in water, probably due to the limited sensitivity of the archaebacterial probe. However, anaerobic laboratory incubations of water samples in nutrient media showed significant production of methane for all cultured samples except those showing isotopic evidence for methane oxidation. This suggests that methanogens may be present in all waters except those in which methane oxidation has occurred.

  18. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tognelli, Emanuele; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary (LDB). To do that we computed almost 12000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_sun by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross-sections, plasma electron screening, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical elements abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy elements mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, alpha_ML). As a first step, we studied the effect of varying these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input/parameters without an a priori assumption of independence. Such an approach allowed us to build for the first time the cumulative error stripe, which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical LDB age. We found that the cumulative error stripe ...

  19. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  20. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  1. Balance of enthalpy and entropy in depletion forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukenik, Shahar; Harries, Daniel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solutes added to solutions often dramatically impact molecular processes ranging from the suspension or precipitation of colloids to biomolecular associations and protein folding. Here we revisit the origins of the effective attractive interactions that emerge between and within macromolecules immersed in solutions containing cosolutes that are preferentially excluded from the macromolecular interfaces. Until recently, these depletion forces were considered to be entropic in nature, resulting primarily from the tendency to increase the space available to the cosolute. However, recent experimental evidence indicates the existence of energetically-dominated mechanisms. In this review we follow the emerging characteristics of the different observed mechanisms. By compiling a set of available thermodynamic data for processes ranging from protein folding to protein-protein interactions, we show that excluded cosolutes can act through different mechanisms that correlate to a large extent with their molecular proper...

  2. Military use of depleted uranium assessment of prolonged population exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannardi, C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can leave to toxicological hazards; annual dose limit for population can be exceeded on short-term period (years) for soil inhalation. As a consequence, in targeted sites cleaning up must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special cautions have to be adopted altogether to reduce unaware exposures, taking into account the amount of the avertable dose.

  3. Multi-scale Modeling of 1-D Permeability Fields Marco A. R. Ferreira1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    of contaminant plumes in aquifers and the production of petroleum from oil fields. In the particular case of production of petroleum from mature fields, part of the available information for the estimation of permeability fields is the production data. To incorporate such information in formal statistical analysis

  4. The Effect of Ashe Juniper Removal on Groundwater Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazan, Roberto

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding groundwater recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities. As population around San Antonio continues...

  5. CO[subscript 2] migration in saline aquifers. Part 2. Capillary and solubility trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMinn, C. W.

    The large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric CO[subscript 2] emissions to mitigate climate change. An accurate assessment of the post-injection ...

  6. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  7. Hydrologic and hydraulic assessment of artificial recharge in the Sparta Aquifer of Union County, Arkansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sowby, Robert B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater pumping from the Sparta aquifer in Union County, Arkansas, has long exceeded natural recharge, threatening the regional water supply. An alternative water-supply project, completed in 2004, now provides treated ...

  8. Simulation of microbial transport and carbon tetrachloride biodegradation in intermittently-fed aquifer columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulation of microbial transport and carbon tetrachloride biodegradation in intermittently associated with carbon tetrachloride (CT) biodegradation in laboratory aquifer columns operated with a pulsed Hydrology: Groundwater transport; KEYWORDS: biodegradation, carbon tetrachloride, microbial transport

  9. Physical and chemical effects of CO2 storage in saline aquifers of the southern North Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Niklas

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most promising mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Deep saline aquifers are seen as the most efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites, ...

  10. Rapid nutrient load reduction during infiltration of managed aquifer recharge in an agricultural groundwater basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Andrew

    , treated wastewater and sources influenced by agricultural activity (Ma & Spalding, 1997; Drewes, 2009Rapid nutrient load reduction during infiltration of managed aquifer recharge in an agricultural; denitrification; agriculture; water quality Received 6 October 2010; Accepted 26 July 2011 INTRODUCTION Artificial

  11. STIMULATION OF GEOTHERMAL AQUIFERS Paul Kruger and Henry J. Ramey, J r .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    . STIMULATION OF GEOTHERMAL AQUIFERS Paul Kruger and Henry J. Ramey, J r . Co o f Geothermal Formations . . . . . . . . 6 Table 2: Water Quali t y Constituents-Water Distribution Coefficients . . . . . . . . 62 Table 7: Gaseous Constituents i n Geothermal Fluids . . . . . . 64

  12. Three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1994 status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.

  13. acidic uranium-contaminated aquifer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    availability of ground water and the impact of withdrawals on existing users and the environment Sand-And-Gravel Aquifer Santa; Christopher J. Richards 30 Water temperature as a...

  14. Regression Based Investigation of Pumping Limits and Springflow Within the Edwards Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Regression Based Investigation of Pumping Limits and Springflow Within the Edwards Aquifer K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A Model to Study the Effects of Pumping Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Investigation of the Effects of Pumping Allocations on Springflow

  15. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  16. Rock-water interactions of the Madison Aquifer, Mission Canyon Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spicer, James Frank

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and provide an excellent framework in which to study rockwater interactions in highly saline aquifers. Geochemical speciation was coupled with data visualization interpretations in order to understand specific rock-water interactions that occur...

  17. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  18. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  19. Analysis of No-Flow Boundaries in Mixed Unconfined-Confined Aquifer Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerlan, Kent A.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    As human population increases, demand for water supplies will cause an increase in pumping rates from confined aquifers which may become unconfined after long-term pumping. Such an unconfined-confined conversion problem has not been fully...

  20. activity-dependent vmat-mediated depletion: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by which this main- tenance is achieved. Its functions include Huettner, James E. 3 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  1. ampt-induced monoamine depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monoaminergic and peptidergic signaling due (more) Wragg, Rachel T. 2010-01-01 8 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  2. acid depleted space-flown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D Hermier 1, D Catheline 2,D Hermier D Catheline Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 2 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  3. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  4. androgen depletion up-regulates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with androgens has been shown to increase growth rate in fishes (Ron et al., 1995 17 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  5. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  6. An investigation of pneumatic control on immiscible contaminant migration in confined aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, John David

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF PNEUMATIC CONTROL ON IMMISCIBLE CONTAMINANT MIGRATION IN CONFINED AQUIFERS A Thesis by JOHN DAVID WATTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF PNEUMATIC CONTROL ON IMMISCIBLE CONTAMINANT MIGRATION IN CONFINED AQUIFERS A Thesis by JOHN DAVID %VATTS Approved as to style and content by: W e . mes...

  7. A parametric and economic investigation of an energy system utilizing aquifer storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tostengard, Stephen Gilbert

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Chairman of Committee) (Co-Chairman of Committee) (He d. of Department (Member) e ber) December 1980 ABSTRACT A Parametric and Economic Investigation of an Energy System Utilizing Aquifer Storage. (Dec. 1980) Stephen Gilbert Tostengard B. S. , Texas Lutheran... College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Or. Richard R. Davison Dr. William B. Harris Aquifers may be used as long-term storage facilities i'or heated or chilled water. Computer models were used to simulate the thermal response of an aquafer...

  8. Effect of sediment concentration on artificial well recharge in a fine sand aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Mohammed Ataur

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION ON ARTIFICIAL WELL RECHARGE IN A FINE SAND AQUIFER A Thesis By MD. ATAUR RAHMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1968 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering EFFECT OF SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION ON ARTIFICIAL WELL RECHARGE IN A FINE SAND AqUIFER A Thesis By MD. ATAUR RAHMAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of ommitt ) ( a o...

  9. Geology and hydrogeology of the Edwards Aquifer Transition Zone, Bexar County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neathery, Jeffrey Stephen

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE EDWARDS AQUIFER TRANSITION ZONE, BEXAR COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by JEFFREY STEPHEN HEATHERY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AQh University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Geology GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE EDWARDS AQUIFER TRANSITION ZONE, BEXAR COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by JEFFREY STEPHEN HEATHERY Approved as to style and content by: Chris pher C. Mathewson...

  10. Effect of methane pulsation on methanotropic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in an in-situ model aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Ranjan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF METHANE PULSATION ON METHANOTROPHIC BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN AN IN-SITU MODEL AQUIFER A Thesis by RAN JAN NATARAJAN Submitted to the OIIice of Graduate Studies of Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering EFFECT OF MET~ PULSATION ON METHANOTROPHIC BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN AN IN-SITU MODEL AQUIFER A Thesis by RAN JAN NATARA JAN Submitted...

  11. Effect of methane pulsation on methanotropic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in an in-situ model aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Ranjan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF METHANE PULSATION ON METHANOTROPHIC BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN AN IN-SITU MODEL AQUIFER A Thesis by RAN JAN NATARAJAN Submitted to the OIIice of Graduate Studies of Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment... of Department) August 1993 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering ABSTRACT Effect of Methane Pulsation on Methanotrophic Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene in an in-situ Model Aquifer. (August 1993) Ranjan Natarajan, B. E. , P. S. G College...

  12. HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

  13. Mapping DNAPL transport contamination in sedimentary and fractured rock aquifers with high resolution borehole seismic imaging Project No. SF11SS13 FY01 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, J.T.; Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E.; Williams, K.H.; Flexser, S.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the work performed in the first year of a three-year project funded by the USDOE's Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA). The objectives of this project are to develop, demonstrate and evaluate, at appropriate field sites, the utility of high frequency seismic imaging methods to detect and characterize non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in sedimentary and fractured rock aquifers. Field tests consist of crosswell seismic tomography acquired before, during and after any remediation action that would potentially affect fluid distributions. Where feasible, other characterization data is obtained, such as crosswell radar, borehole conductivity and cone penetration testing (CPT). Crosswell data are processed to obtain tomographic images, or two-dimensional distributions, of velocity and attenuation. The interpretation of the tomograms utilizes all available site characterization data to relate the geophysical attributes to lithology and fluid phase heterogeneities. Interpretations are validated by evaluation and testing of field cores. Laboratory tests on core retrieved from surveyed locations are performed to determine the relationships between geophysical parameters and solid and fluid phase composition. In the case of sedimentary aquifers, proof of principle has been demonstrated previously in homogeneous sand-packs at the centimeter and half-meter scale (Geller and Myer, 1995; Geller et al., 2000). The field tests will provide proof-of-principle at the field-scale, by working in an unconsolidated sand aquifer with known presence of NAPL. The ability to upscale from the laboratory to the field is evaluated by conducting field measurements over a range of frequencies that overlap the lowest frequencies used in the laboratory tests. In the fractured rock case, previous field work has shown that fracture zones can be detected by crosswell seismic tomography (Daley et al., 2001; Daley et al., 2000). Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the seismic wave signature is sensitive to the fracture stiffness, and that stiffness is affected by fracture-filling fluids (Pyrak-Nolte and Morris, 2000; Pyrak-Nolte, 1996). The field and laboratory experience provide a physical basis for the potential detection of fractures that would be the important flow paths for NAPL contaminants.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Precipitation Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Cesalea

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation Variations on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Climate Change Impacts Cesalea N. Osborne Environmental Science Haskell Indian Nations University This project was sponsored by Kiksapa Consulting... through NASA CAN NNX10AU65A The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer spans five counties in south-central Oklahoma: Carter, Coal, Johnston, Murray, and Pontotoc Base Data • Aquifer study area, roads, rural/non-rural communities, state/county boundaries Methodology...

  15. Developing conservation plan for the Edwards Aquifer: Stakeholders reach consensus resolution to balance protection of endangered species and water use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Courtney

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fall 2012 tx H2O 17 Story by Courtney Smith ] Comal and San Marcos springs are the only known habitats for eight federally listed threatened or endangered species. Photo courtesy of the Edwards Aquifer Authority. What does it take... Aquifer region of Texas achieved a milestone in a struggle that has lasted nearly six decades. Working together, participants in the Edwards Aquifer Recovery Implementation Program (EARIP) developed a habitat conservation plan that will protect...

  16. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  17. Separating the dynamical effects of climate change and ozone depletion. Part

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    ) fixed at 1960 levels and ozone depleting substances (ODSs) varying in time, 2) ODSs fixed at 1960 levels averaged wave drag in SH spring and summer, as well as for final warming dates. Ozone depletion a significant impact on the stratosphere on both a global and a regional scale. Over the past three decades

  18. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  19. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley impact crop produc- tion in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for 50

  20. Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasuvan, Varavut

    Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

  1. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing, waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  2. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  3. Mechanism of action of cysteamine in depleting prolactin immunoreactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagar, S.M.; Millard, W.J.; Martin, J.B.; Murchison, S.C.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thiol reagent cysteamine (CSH) depletes anterior pituitary cells of immunoreactive PRL both in vivo and in vitro. The authors examined the hypothesis that CSH affects either the solubility or immunoreactivity of PRL through a mechanism involving thiol-disulfide exchange. Adult female rats were treated with either CSH (300 mg/kg, sc) or an equimolar dose of ethanolamine as a control. Anterior pituitary glands were extracted in 0.1 M sodium borate buffer, pH 9.0. Treatment of pituitary extracts with beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) destroys the immunoreactivity of PRL. However, extraction in the presence of reduced glutathione or CSH of pituitaries of rats treated with CSH restores immunoreactive PRL to control levels. Extracts were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). On gels of pituitary extracts of CSH-treated rats, the band that comigrates with purified PRL is diminished compared to that in ethanolamine-treated controls. However, extraction of the pituitaries in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer followed by chemical reduction with BME restores the PRL band. Therefore, CSH acts on PRL through a thiol-related mechanism to yield a product that is poorly soluble in aqueous buffer at pH 9 and is poorly immunoreactive. Dispersed anterior pituitary cells in tissue culture were incubated with L-(TVS)methionine to radiolabel newly synthesized peptides. PAGE followed by autoradiography confirmed the above results obtained in vivo.

  4. Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

  5. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team's principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Benefits of the delta K of depletion benchmarks for burnup credit validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, D. [NuclearConsultants.com, 187 Faith Circle, Boalsburg, PA 16827 (United States); Machiels, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Inc., 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) burnup credit validation is demonstrated using the benchmarks for quantifying fuel reactivity decrements, published as 'Benchmarks for Quantifying Fuel Reactivity Depletion Uncertainty,' EPRI Report 1022909 (August 2011). This demonstration uses the depletion module TRITON available in the SCALE 6.1 code system followed by criticality calculations using KENO-Va. The difference between the predicted depletion reactivity and the benchmark's depletion reactivity is a bias for the criticality calculations. The uncertainty in the benchmarks is the depletion reactivity uncertainty. This depletion bias and uncertainty is used with the bias and uncertainty from fresh UO{sub 2} critical experiments to determine the criticality safety limits on the neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. The analysis shows that SCALE 6.1 with the ENDF/B-VII 238-group cross section library supports the use of a depletion bias of only 0.0015 in delta k if cooling is ignored and 0.0025 if cooling is credited. The uncertainty in the depletion bias is 0.0064. Reliance on the ENDF/B V cross section library produces much larger disagreement with the benchmarks. The analysis covers numerous combinations of depletion and criticality options. In all cases, the historical uncertainty of 5% of the delta k of depletion ('Kopp memo') was shown to be conservative for fuel with more than 30 GWD/MTU burnup. Since this historically assumed burnup uncertainty is not a function of burnup, the Kopp memo's recommended bias and uncertainty may be exceeded at low burnups, but its absolute magnitude is small. (authors)

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb(Million Barrels)of Elements)

  8. U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear JanPropane, No.1 and

  9. A comparison of delayed radiobiological effects of depleted-uranium munitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Vitale, B; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Vitale, Bruno

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battle-field use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium munitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical principles and radiological effects to make such a comparison. In fact, it is shown that this comparison can be made with very simple and convincing arguments so that the main technical conclusions of the paper are undisputable -- although it would be worthwhile to supplement the hand calculations presented in the paper by more detailed computer simulations in order to consolidate the conclusions and refute any possible objections.

  10. Evaluation of the Nordland Group overburden as an effective seal for the Sleipner CO2 storage site (offshore Norway) using analytical and stochastic modelling techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoll, Grant Douglas

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields situated beneath the North Sea are currently being proposed as storage repositories for anthropogenic CO2 captured from point source emitters in the UK and mainland Europe. ...

  11. Burying Carbon under the Sea: An Initial Exploration of Public Opinions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    thousands of years. Storage sites include off-shore (and on-shore) geological reservoirs, such as depleted oil and gas fields and saline aquifers under the sea-bed; schemes to inject CO2 directly into deep

  12. Impact of Fractures on CO2 Storage Monitoring: Keys for an Integrated Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    storage in fractured reservoirs (depleted hydrocarbon fields or brine aquifers) requires the study fluids, connected and/or non-connected fractures, the presence of Oil & Gas Science and Technology ­ Rev

  13. Apports de la gochimie des gaz rares la surveillance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    energy from coal, oil or gas combustions, CO2 could be stored in geological reservoirs like aquifers, coal beds, and depleted oil or gas fields. Storing CO2 in geological formations implies to control

  14. Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  15. Economic comparison of CAES designs employing hardrock, salt, and aquifer storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, R.W.; Schainker, R.B.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic performance of three CAES designs is briefly examined. Each design was developed by a different A and E under different assumptions and constraints, and each employed a different type of air storage facility: a hardrock-mined cavity, a solution-mined salt deposit, and an aquifer. The results indicate that aquifer and salt storage facilities cost roughly 60 to 70% of the equivalent hardrock-mined cavern. In this comparison the aquifer storage facility was somewhat less expensive than the salt cavity, but this difference could be reversed with different salt and/or aquifer characteristics. For instance, if the aquifer had been less permeable, then more wells would have been required for the same power level, and total storage cost would have been higher. The major difference between the plant cost estimates lies not in the cost of storage facilities, but rather in vendor estimates of turbomachinery cost. And, since turbomachinery contributes about half of total plant cost, this difference could be critical to the decision to build a CAES plant.

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF DUPOLY TO RECYCLE DEPLETED URANIUM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS,J.W.; LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; RUTENKROGER,S.P.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUPoly, depleted uranium (DU) powder microencapsulated in a low-density polyethylene binder, has been demonstrated as an innovative and efficient recycle product, a very durable high density material with significant commercial appeal. DUPoly was successfully prepared using uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) ''green salt'' obtained from Fluor Daniel-Fernald, a U.S. Department of Energy reprocessing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. Samples containing up to 90 wt% UF{sub 4} were produced using a single screw plastics extruder, with sample densities of up to 3.97 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3} measured. Compressive strength of as-prepared samples (50-90 wt% UF4 ) ranged from 1682 {+-} 116 psi (11.6 {+-} 0.8 MPa) to 3145 {+-} 57 psi (21.7 {+-} 0.4 MPa). Water immersion testing for a period of 90 days produced no visible degradation of the samples. Leach rates were low, ranging from 0.02 % (2.74 x 10{sup {minus}6} gm/gm/d) for 50 wt% UF{sub 4} samples to 0.72 % (7.98 x 10{sup {minus}5} gm/gm/d) for 90 wt% samples. Sample strength was not compromised by water immersion. DUPoly samples containing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), a DU reprocessing byproduct material stockpiled at the Savannah River Site, were gamma irradiated to 1 x 10{sup 9} rad with no visible deterioration. Compressive strength increased significantly, however: up to 200% for samples with 90 wt% UO{sub 3}. Correspondingly, percent deformation (strain) at failure was decreased for all samples. Gamma attenuation data on UO{sub 3} DUPoly samples yielded mass attenuation coefficients greater than those for lead. Neutron removal coefficients were calculated and shown to correlate well with wt% of DU. Unlike gamma attenuation, both hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous materials interact to attenuate neutrons.

  17. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  18. Ultrasonic thickness sampling plan for the depleted uranium hexafluoride program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.; Lykins, M.L.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages depleted uranium hexafluoride that is stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders located at three DOE sites. The disposition of any particular cylinder for storage, handling, and transfer is based on the condition of the cylinder, where condition is ultimately reflected by the minimum wall thickness of a cylinder. Currently, the wall thickness of a cylinder may be measured using either a hand-held ultrasonic transducers or an automated scanner. At the Portsmouth site, the cylinder program is currently committed to a sampling plan that requires sampling 10% of the cylinders moved during the cylinder relocation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present a statistically-based sampling plan to be considered for use within the three site cylinder management program. This plan is designed to meet the following objectives: (1) allow determination of the current condition of the cylinder populations within the accuracy and confidence specified by cylinder program management, and (2) be sufficient for the models to be used for modeling purposes. The first objective does not require modeling in the sense of making assumptions about the corrosion process for the populations involved. By avoiding such additional assumptions, this may result in stronger statements to be made about the populations in question. Assumptions must be made regarding corrosion of the cylinders through time. The second objective depends on the particular model used. In this report, two basic methods are used in determining sample sizes. The sample sizes are intended to be conservative because it may be that other models are developed for use within the Program.

  19. Environmental impacts of options for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monette, F. A.; Allison, T.; Avci, H. I.; Biwer, B. M.; Butler, J. P.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chang, J.-J.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.; Lazaro, M. A.; LePoire, D. J.; Tomasko, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Wilkins, B. D.

    2001-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated options for managing its depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) inventory in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (PEIS) of April 1999. Along with the impacts from other management options, the PEIS discussed the environmental impacts from the disposal of depleted uranium oxide, which could result from the chemical conversion of depleted UF{sub 6}. It has been suggested that the depleted UF{sub 6} could also be converted to uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) and disposed of. This report considers the potential environmental impacts from the disposal of DOE's depleted UF{sub 6} inventory after its conversion to UF{sub 4}. The impacts were evaluated for the same three disposal facility options that were considered in the PEIS for uranium oxide: shallow earthen structures, belowground vaults, and mines. They were evaluated for a dry environmental setting representative of the western United States. To facilitate comparisons and future decision making, the depleted UF{sub 4} disposal analyses performed and the results presented in this report are at the same level of detail as that in the PEIS.

  20. JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING / MARCH/APRIL 2000 / 125 SOLUTION FOR A STREAM DEPLETION PROBLEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    DEPLETION PROBLEM By Prabhata K. Swamee,1 Govinda C. Mishra,2 and Bhagu R. Chahar3 ABSTRACT: River recharge

  1. Proposal concerning the participation of CERN in the procurement of depleted-uranium sheets for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal concerning the participation of CERN in the procurement of depleted-uranium sheets for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

  2. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  3. Impact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up scaling from experimental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    flow rate and capillary properties on the desiccation mechanisms. Keywords: supercritical CO2, dryingImpact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up - France Abstract Injection of CO2 in geological reservoirs or deep aquifers is nowadays studied

  4. TWO-DIMENSIONAL REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING OF CO2 INJECTION IN A SALINE AQUIFER AT THE SLEIPNER SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    model of long-term geological storage of carbon dioxide. A data set from the Utsira formation assemblages are considered in the Utsira formation, a sand formation that is highly permeable and a shale or gas reservoirs, (ii) unmineable coal beds and (iii) saline aquifers. Deep saline aquifers offer

  5. Isotope characterization of shallow aquifers in the Horombe region, South of Madagascar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fareze, L P; Ramaroson, V; Andriambololona, Raoelina; Andriamiarintsoa, G; Razafitsalama, P R; Rahobisoa, J J; Randrianarison, H; Ranaivoarisoa, A; Marah, H

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study deals with the problem of evaluation of the recharge mechanism and the characterization of the groundwater flow system in the basement shallow aquifer, which is one of the groundwater resource in the semi-arid South region of Madagascar. Stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) and tritium are used to achieve with accuracy the hydrogeological and geochemical dynamics study. Chemical analysis is used to provide complementary information to the investigation. A space distribution of tritium concentration and isotopic composition in groundwater shows evidence of two opposite categories of aquifers, which is confirmed by the chemical analysis results and by the geological features of the study site. Some groundwater flow path directions have been identified in the study area thanks to the tritium concentration space distribution and the geological formation. Besides, the groundwater recharge of the shallow aquifers in the South of Madagascar has been characterized by the exponential mixing mode...

  6. Detections of MTBE in surficial and bedrock aquifers in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grady, S.J. [Geological Survey, Hartford, CT (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in 24% of water samples collected from surficial and bedrock aquifers in areas of New England. MTBE was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound among the 60 volatile chemicals analyzed and was present in 33 of 133 wells sampled from July 1993 through September 1995. The median MTBE concentration measured in ground-water samples was 0.45 microgram per liter and concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 microgram per liter. The network of wells sampled for MTBE consisted of 103 monitoring wells screened in surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers and 30 domestic-supply wells in fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers. Seventy-seven percent of all MTBE detections were from 26 shallow monitoring wells screened in surficial aquifers. MTBE was detected in42% of monitoring wells in urban areas. In agricultural areas, MTBE was detected i 8% (2 of 24) of wells and was not detected in undeveloped areas. Sixty-two percent of the MTBE detections in surficial aquifers were from wells within 0.25 mile of gasoline stations or underground gasoline storage tanks; all but one of these wells were in Connecticut and Massachusetts, where reformulated gasoline is used. MTBE was detected in 23% of deep domestic-supply wells that tapped fractured bedrock aquifers. MTBE was detected in bedrock wells only in Connecticut and Massachusetts; land use near the wells was suburban to rural, and none of the sampled bedrock wells were within 0.25 mile of a gasoline station.

  7. Elucidating geochemical response of shallow heterogeneous aquifers to CO2 leakage using high-performance computing: Implications for monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Siirila, Erica R.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting and quantifying impacts of potential carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage into shallow aquifers that overlie geologic CO2 storage formations is an important part of developing reliable carbon storage techniques. Leakage of CO2 through fractures, faults or faulty wellbores can reduce groundwater pH, inducing geochemical reactions that release solutes into the groundwater and pose a risk of degrading groundwater quality. In order to help quantify this risk, predictions of metal concentrations are needed during geologic storage of CO2. Here, we present regional-scale reactive transport simulations, at relatively fine-scale, of CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers run on the PFLOTRAN platform using high-performance computing. Multiple realizations of heterogeneous permeability distributions were generated using standard geostatistical methods. Increased statistical anisotropy of the permeability field resulted in more lateral and vertical spreading of the plume of impacted water, leading to increased Pb2+ (lead) concentrations and lower pH at a well down gradient of the CO2 leak. Pb2+ concentrations were higher in simulations where calcite was the source of Pb2+ compared to galena. The low solubility of galena effectively buffered the Pb2+ concentrations as galena reached saturation under reducing conditions along the flow path. In all cases, Pb2+ concentrations remained below the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. Results from this study, compared to natural variability observed in aquifers, suggest that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations may be a better geochemical indicator of a CO2 leak under the conditions simulated here.

  8. Biotransformation involved in sustained reductive removal of uranium in contaminant aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress made from August 2004 to July 2005. During this period research focused primarily on obtaining a better understanding of the factors controlling the reduction of U(VI) during in situ uranium bioremediation as well as investigating the potential for using electrodes as an alternative electron donor to promote in situ uranium reduction. Analysis of the 2003 experiment at the field study site in Rifle, CO was completed. The results demonstrated the substantial heterogeneity of the zone undergoing bioremediation, both in terms of geochemistry and microbiology. The lack of U(VI) reduction under sulfate-reducing conditions was clearly documented. The need for more detailed sampling both with time and with depth in the aquifer was demonstrated. For the first time a comparison between the composition of the microbial community in the sediments and the microbes in the corresponding groundwater was attempted. The findings from this study are important not only in further demonstrating the potential for in situ uranium bioremediation, but also for indicating how methods and sampling approaches should be improved in the future. A manuscript summarizing these findings has been accepted for publication in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. In summer of 2004 a new field experiment was conducted at the Rifle site. A novel feature of this study was much more intensive sampling in order to better define the progression of microbial processes during in situ uranium bioremediation. The results demonstrated that stimulation of in situ uranium bioremediation with added acetate was a repeatable phenomenon and that U(VI) reduction was clearly linked to the presence and activity of microorganisms in the family Geobacteraceae. A manuscript summarizing these results is in preparation. A surprising result of the field studies at the Rifle site was that although Geobacter species actively reduced U(VI) in the groundwater, removing it from solution, a high percentage of the uranium in sediments was recovered as U(VI). In order to evaluate this further, studies were conducted in which sediments from the Rifle site were incubated under strict anaerobic conditions. This permitted accurate monitoring of the uranium speciation in the sediments as well as in the groundwater over time. When acetate was added to simulate the in situ uranium bioremediation strategy, U(VI) in the groundwater was reduced with a corresponding increase in U(IV) in the sediments. However, the U(VI) in the sediments was not reduced, even after long-term incubations. The resistance of U(VI) adsorbed to sediments to microbial reduction was not previously suspected and has important implications for in situ uranium bioremediation.

  9. Impact of background flow on dissolution trapping of carbon dioxide injected into saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapaka, Saikiran

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While there has been a large interest in studying the role of dissolution-driven free convection in the context of geological sequestration, the contribution of forced convection has been largely ignored. This manuscript considers CO$_2$ sequestration in saline aquifers with natural background flow and uses theoretical arguments to compute the critical background velocity needed to establish the forced convective regime. The theoretical arguments are supported by two dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations which demonstrate the importance of forced convection in enhancing dissolution in aquifers characterised by low Rayleigh numbers.

  10. A parametric and economic investigation of an energy system utilizing aquifer storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tostengard, Stephen Gilbert

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CLIMATE. . 5. RESULTS PROM SOLAR& COLD CLIMATE. . 6. RESULTS PROM SPRAY POR SEVERAL LOCATIONS. . 7. RESULTS PROM SPRAY POR AMARILLO. . 8. EXAMPLE OP SOLAR AVERAGING PROCESS. . 9. WET-BULB DATA POR SPRAY. 39 . . 50 . . 70 . . 76 . . 78 . . 159... aquifer at a mild climate. 52 8. Recovery efficiency for a 30. 48 m aquii'er in a mild climate. 9. Recovery efficiency for a 15. 24 m aquifer in a cold climate. 10 ' Recovery efficiency versus injection volume 53 for cold water injection...

  11. The recovery of crude oil spilled on a ground water aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malter, Paul Lawrence

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE RECOVERY OF CRUDE OIL SPILLED ON A GROUND WATER AQUIFER A Thesis by PAUL LAWRENCE MALTER Approved as to style and content by: oy W, ann, J (Ch irman of Committee) / Dona McDona (Head of Department) as (Me ) 0 s Le a . ~e e (Member...) May 1983 ABSTRACT The Recovery of Crude Oil Spilled on a Ground Water Aquifer. (Nay 1983) Paul Lawrence Malter, B. S. , Texas A6K University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Roy W. Bann, Jr. Case histories of previous petroleum spill cleanups...

  12. Legal and regulatory issues affecting the aquifer thermal energy storage concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of legal and regulatory issus that potentially can affect implementation of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) concept are examined. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  13. Apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMurtrey, Ryan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moor, Kenneth S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); Moses, John M. (Dedham, MA); Barker, Donna L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from an aquifer remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating aquifers contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  14. Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haugen, Sigurd Arild

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONTROL O' NATEP, CONING IN GAS RESERVOIRS BY INJECTII4G CAS INTO THE AQUIFER A Thesis by SIGURD ARILD HAUGEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Member May 1980 I~SGi9". p ABSTRACT Control of Water Coninc ir, Gas Reservoirs by Injecting Gas into the Aquifer (May 1980) Sigurd Arild Haugen, Dis. Ing. , Roga)and Regional College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. A. Morse The production...

  15. Energy Conclave 2010 The global energy concerns of depleting fossil fuels and climate change have put

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    at the rapidly increasing energy demand, the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increased concern over globalEnergy Conclave 2010 8th - 15th The global energy concerns of depleting fossil fuels and climate

  16. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  17. Environmental Air and water pollution, extinction of species, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ecosystem ecology, environmental health, and environmental conservation and sustainability. The curriculumEnvironmental Sciences Air and water pollution, extinction of species, depletion of ozone to examine and understand complex environmental issues, to predict environmental change, and to participate

  18. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  19. arginase-induced l-arginine depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in presence or absence of L-arginine. N-hydroxy-nor-l- arginine (nor-NOHA) and alpha 13 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  20. Delayed neutron measurements for Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron emission rates from five very pure actinide samples (Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium) were measured following equilibrium irradiation in fast and thermal neutron fluxes. The relative abundances (alphas) for the first...

  1. allogeneic t-cell depleted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T cells expressed aid mRNA as well as AID protein. We Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 52 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  2. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residue depletion of fenbendazole in healthy and bronchopneumonic calves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weise, Dale Wade

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHARMACOKINETICS AND TISSUE RESIDUE DEPLETION OF FENBENDAZOLE IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC CALVES A Thesis by DALE WADE WEISE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology PHARMACOKINETICS AND TISSUE RESIDUE DEPLETION OF FENBENDAZOLE IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC CALVES A Thesis by DALE WADE WEISE Approved as to style and content by...

  3. Effects of glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine on radiosensitization by oxygen and misonidazole in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrieve, D.C.; Denekamp, J.; Minchinton, A.I.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) has been used to deplete glutathione (GSH) in V79-379A cells in vitro, and the effect on the efficiency of oxygen and misonidazole (MISO) as radiosensitizers has been determined. Treatment with 50 or 500 ..mu..M BSO caused a rapid decline in GSH content to less than 5% of control values after 10 hr of exposure. Removal of BSO resulted in a rapid regeneration of GSH after 50 ..mu..M BSO, but little regeneration was observed over the subsequent 10-hr period after 500 ..mu..M. Cells irradiated in monolayer on glass had an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 3.1. After 10-14 hr pretreatment with 50 ..mu..M BSO, washed cells were radiosensitized by GSH depletion at all oxygen tensions tested. The OER was reduced to 2.6, due to greater radiosensitization of hypoxic cells than aerated ones by GSH depletion. In similar experiments performed with MISO, an enhancement ratio of 2.0 could be achieved with 0.2 mM MISO in anoxic BSO-pretreated cells, compared to 2.7 mM MISO in non-BSO-treated cells. These apparent increases in radiosensitizer efficiency in GSH-depleted cells could be explained on the basis of radiosensitization of hypoxic cells by GSH depletion alone. These results are consistent with hypoxic cell radiosensitization by GSH depletion and by MISO or oxygen acting by separate mechanisms.

  4. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  5. Two different investigations of shallow sandy aquifers inform our thinking about the role of reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in contaminated aquifers and the role of Fe(III)- bearing minerals and grain coatings as sorption substrates of reactive iron minerals in hydrogeological systems. Ground water in a number of settings has been described as having elevated concentrations of dissolved iron in anoxic portions of contaminant plumes (e.g. Baedecker

  6. Natural arsenic contamination of Holocene alluvial aquifers by linked tectonic, weathering, and microbial processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayek, Mostafa

    Natural arsenic contamination of Holocene alluvial aquifers by linked tectonic, weathering tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater-bearing minerals occurs. We propose a ``GBH-As'' model that ties together all of the important tectonic, biologic

  7. Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at the Hanford site in south- central Washington state. Benzoate in south- central Washington state has been a defense materials pro- duction complex since 1943. Carbon

  8. Remediation of CO2 Leakage from Deep Saline Aquifer Storage Based on Reservoir and Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Remediation of CO2 Leakage from Deep Saline Aquifer Storage Based on Reservoir and Pollution Hazards and Safety of CO2 Storage" Division, Orléans, FRANCE www.brgm.fr References Audigane, P., Chiaberge, C., Lions, J., Humez, P., 2009. Modeling of CO2 leakage through an abandoned well from a deep

  9. Controls on the regional-scale salinization of the Ogallala aquifer, Southern High Plains, Texas, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, Jay L.

    of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0053, USA b Department of Geological Sciences, The University of TexasControls on the regional-scale salinization of the Ogallala aquifer, Southern High Plains, Texas, USA Sunil Mehtaa, *, Alan E. Fryara , Jay L. Bannerb a Department of Geological Sciences, University

  10. 2013 Faculty Publications A Cloud-Based Framework for Automating MODFLOW Simulations for Aquifer Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    2013 Faculty Publications A Cloud-Based Framework for Automating MODFLOW Simulations for Aquifer Performance-Based Liquefaction Triggering Models for the SPT. Seismological Society of America 2013 Annual. A Simplified Uniform Hazard Liquefaction Analysis Procedure for Bridges. Transportation Research Record. Kevin

  11. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  12. AQUIFER BIOTHERMOREMEDIATION USING HEAT PUMPS: SOUND THEORETICAL BASIS AND RESULTS ON THERMAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    example, the long-term use of groundwater heat pumps for air conditioning of homes or buildings can induce and hydrogeological background. The presence of organic pollutants in the aquifer can amplify these phenomena/or the well productivity, (ii) an inappropriate temperature for the use of groundwater heat pumps for air

  13. Evaluating the impact of aquifer layer properties on geomechanical response during CO2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical models play an essential role in understanding the facts of carbon dioxide (CO2) geological sequestration in the life cycle of a storage reservoir. We present a series of test cases that reflect a broad and realistic range of aquifer reservoir properties to systematically evaluate and compare the impacts on the geomechanical response to CO2 injection. In this study, a coupled hydro-mechanical model was introduced to simulate the sequestration process, and a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method was introduced to efficiently sample the value of aquifer properties and geometry parameters. Aquifer permeability was found to be of significant importance to the geomechanical response to the injection. To study the influence of uncertainty of the permeability distribution in the aquifer, an additional series of tests is presented, based on a default permeability distribution site sample with various distribution deviations generated by the Monte Carlo sampling method. The results of the test series show that different permeability distributions significantly affect the displacement and possible failure zone.

  14. Analysis of No-Flow Boundaries in Mixed Unconfined-Confined Aquifer Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerlan, Kent A.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated before and is the focus of this thesis. The objective of this thesis is to use both analytical and numerical modeling to investigate groundwater flow in an unconfined-confined aquifer including the no-flow lateral boundary effect and the regional...

  15. Chloride Analysis of the Soils Overlaying the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Emery

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    With a vast amount of people living in semi-arid to arid environments around the globe, the resource of water is valued very highly. The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in SW Texas is a semi-arid zone and was chosen as the site for this study. The Chloride...

  16. Using tracer experiments to determine deep saline aquifers caprocks transport characteristics for carbon dioxide storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for carbon dioxide storage P. Bachaud1,2 , Ph. Berne1 , P. Boulin1,3,4 , F. Renard5,6 , M. Sardin2 , J caprocks from a deep saline aquifer in the Paris basin. Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep bubble. Determination of the diffusion properties is also required since they will govern how dissolved

  17. Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    groundwater, vapor, or oil improves the effective recovery of fluids. In a case study in a thin oil reservoir with the horizontal aquifer units; (4) drilling oper- ations are feasible near the ground surfaces that are obstructed equal to that of 10 vertical wells. In the petroleum industry, horizontal wells improve oil recovery

  18. Monitoring aquifer storage and recovery using multiple geophysical methods , Kristofer Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -gravity methods to monitor an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) project. An abandoned coal mine has been developed into an underground water reservoir in Leyden, Colorado. Excess water from surface sources is injected into the reservoir during winter and then retrieved for use in the summer. Understanding the storage-recovery process

  19. Siderite zonation within the Brent Group: microbial influence or aquifer flow?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    isotopic data (n = 32) to determine which of these two controls (i.e. biochemistry or pore-water flowSiderite zonation within the Brent Group: microbial influence or aquifer flow? M. WILKINSON1 , *, R versa. There is a strong facies control upon siderite formation, with ripple cross-laminated sands being

  20. The Economics of CO2 Transport by Pipeline and Storage in Saline Aquifers and Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economics of CO2 Transport by Pipeline and Storage in Saline Aquifers and Oil Reservoirs Sean T Description Date 0 Original document 1/29/2008 1 Estimate for carbon content of crude oil was incorrect (see p an invaluable summer at the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin working with Sue

  1. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system Xingxing Kuang & Jiu Jimmy negative air pressure can be generated in the vadose zone during pumping. The negative air pressure. The initial water-table depth has a significant effect on the generated negative air pressure. The shallower

  2. Vadose zone influences on aquifer parameter estimates of saturated-zone hydraulic theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Szilagyi* Conservation and Survey Division, University of Nebraska, 113 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588 aquifer properties at the scale of the watershed (Szilagyi et al., 1998). Such work is of the utmost-mail address: jszilagyil@unl.edu (J. Szilagyi). #12;(Fig. 1), and h is the changing phreatic surface

  3. Reactive transport of trace elements and isotopes in the Eutaw coastal plain aquifer, Alabama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yang

    geochemistry, mineralogy, and numerical modeling techniques to study the reactive transport of heavy metals ground- water geochemistry. Because the possible biogeochemical reactions in regional aquifers are quite suggest that that elevated metal concentrations may be derived from bacterial iron and manganese reduction

  4. Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap Jiu Jimmy Jiao1 October 2009. [1] Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping

  5. The Different Characteristics of Aquifer Parameters and Their Implications on Pumping-Test Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    The Different Characteristics of Aquifer Parameters and Their Implications on Pumping-Test Analysis and storativity, under constant-rate pumping conditions. A two-way coordinate is such that the conditions implications on pumping-test designs and interpretation. For example, to estimate the parameters

  6. Mineralogical and Microbial Controls on Iron Reduction in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howson, Andrea Melissa

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    minerals are important controls on iron reduction in natural systems. For the first phase of this research a series of sequential chemical extractions was performed on a core taken from a landfill-leachate-contaminated wetland-aquifer system at the Norman...

  7. Shell Geologist: "It is Critical to Ensure Protection of Freshwater Aquifer Zones in Marcellus Shale Drilling"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Shell Geologist: "It is Critical to Ensure Protection of Freshwater Aquifer Zones in Marcellus Protection in Marcellus Development Wells, Tioga County," at 4 p.m., Wednesday, Sept. 21. Open to the public, the talk will be held in 117 Earth-Engineering Sciences (EES) Building. While Marcellus natural gas

  8. Chloride Analysis of the Soils Overlaying the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Emery

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    With a vast amount of people living in semi-arid to arid environments around the globe, the resource of water is valued very highly. The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in SW Texas is a semi-arid zone and was chosen as the site for this study. The Chloride...

  9. Tide-induced groundwater fluctuation in a coastal leaky confined aquifer system extending under the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Tide-induced groundwater fluctuation in a coastal leaky confined aquifer system extending under, China Abstract. This paper presents the analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation length, dimensionless leakage, and tidal efficiency on the groundwater level fluctuations in the inland

  10. HighResolution Numerical Methods for MicellarPolymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trangenstein, John A.

    been used to study the micellar­ polymer flooding process in enhanced oil recovery [12], [18], [19 in practical im­ plementation of enhanced oil recovery techniques at this time, there is increasing interestHigh­Resolution Numerical Methods for Micellar­Polymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer

  11. An analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    of China. 1. Introduction In most coastal areas, groundwater and seawater are in con- stant communicationAn analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer Jiu of the solution presented in this paper. This solution is based on a conceptual model under the assumption

  12. Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Andrew

    with a regional groundwater model to assess the hydrologic impact of potential MAR placement and operating planning, including evaluation of options for enhancing groundwater resources. Introduction ManagedAssessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling by Tess A. Russo1

  13. Estimation of regional aquifer parameters using baseflow recession data Victor M. Ponce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    's (1963) theoretical model of groundwater flow to a stream is used to estimate regional aquifer parameters diffusiv- ity, hydrogeology, Mexico, Papaloapan. 1 #12;1. Introduction In groundwater hydrology basin. More recent studies have applied Rorabaugh's model to estimate groundwater recharge in diverse

  14. Multiscale Modeling of 1D Permeability Fields Marco A. R. Ferreira 1,2 , Zhuoxin Bi 3 , Mike West 1 , Herbert K. H. Lee 1 and David

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    of contaminant plumes in aquifers and the production of petroleum from oil fields. In the particular case of production of petroleum from mature fields, part of the available information for the estimation of permeability fields is the production data. To incorporate such information in formal statistical analysis

  15. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and competency. The results from these investigations will provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological, deep subsurface CO2 storage and sequestration.

  16. Monte Carlo depletion calculations using VESTA 2.1 new features and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeck, W.; Cochet, B.; Aguiar, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VESTA is a Monte Carlo depletion interface code that is currently under development at IRSN. With VESTA, the emphasis lies on both accuracy and performance, so that the code will be capable of providing accurate and complete answers in an acceptable amount of time compared to other Monte Carlo depletion codes. From its inception, VESTA is intended to be a generic interface code so that it will ultimately be capable of using any Monte-Carlo code or depletion module and that can be tailored to the users needs. A new version of the code (version 2.1.x) will be released in 2012. The most important additions to the code are a burn up dependent isomeric branching ratio treatment to improve the prediction of metastable nuclides such as {sup 242m}Am and the integration of the PHOENIX point depletion module (also developed at IRSN) to overcome some of the limitations of the ORIGEN 2.2 module. The task of extracting and visualising the basic results and also the calculation of physical quantities or other data that can be derived from the basic output provided by VESTA will be the task of the AURORA depletion analysis tool which will be released at the same time as VESTA 2.1.x. The experimental validation database was also extended for this new version and it now contains a total of 35 samples with chemical assay data and 34 assembly decay heat measurements. (authors)

  17. Reservoir characterization and development opportunities in Jacob Field, South-Central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez Depaz, Mirko Joshoe

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the study, determine the oil potential, and make recommendations to improve production. Since no previous reservoir study was performed in this field, the original oil in place and the current status of depletion was unknown. Therefore a complete integrated...

  18. New evidence for ozone depletion in the upper stratosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenov, V.S.; Farrugia, C.J.; Biernat, H.K.; Lebedeva, V.V.; Rijnbeek, R.P. [State Univ. of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [State Univ. of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); [Univ. of Malta, Msida (Malta); [Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Graz (Austria); [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We highlight one result of a time-dependent analysis of reconnection at the terrestrial magnetopause, namely, that the Petschek-type reconnection process is inevitably accompanied by the generation of surface waves. These waves propagate along the magnetopause at a speed which is generally different from that of the shocks and discontinuities bounding the region of heated and accelerated plasma, the so-called outflow region of reconnected plasma. The surface waves play a central role in the reconnection process because it is through them that the perturbations of the magnetic field and velocity normal to the magnetopause are transmitted along the current sheet from the source region to the system at large. Since reconnection acts as a source of surface waves, the present general view that transient phenomena at the magnetopause are due either to surface waves (generated by, for example, variations in the solar wind) or to transient reconnection should be revised in the interests of a more unified treatment.

  19. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others] [and others

    1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  20. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others] [and others

    1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  1. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  2. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Portsmouth site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Portsmouth site, near Portsmouth, Ohio. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Portsmouth site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) management activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  3. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Paducah site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H.

    2001-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Paducah site, near Paducah, Kentucky. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Paducah site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  4. High Resolution Simulation and Characterization of Density-Driven Flow in CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are routinely used to study the process of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers. In this paper TOUGH2-MP. 1. Introduction Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration involves injecting CO2

  5. High-Density PhyloChip profiling of stimulated aquifer microbial communities reveals a complex response to acetate amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handley, Kim M.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Piceno, Y. M.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Peacock, Aaron D.; Bargar, John; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increasing interest in harnessing the functional capacities of indigenous microbial communities to transform and remediate a wide range of environmental contaminants. Information about which community members respond to stimulation can guide the interpretation and development of remediation approaches. To comprehensively determine community membership and abundance patterns among a suite of samples associated with uranium bioremediation experiments we employed a high?density microarray (PhyloChip). Samples were unstimulated, naturally reducing, or collected during Fe(III) (early) and sulfate reduction (late biostimulation) from an acetate re?amended/amended aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, and from laboratory experiments using field?collected materials. Deep community sampling with PhyloChip identified hundreds?to?thousands of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present during amendment, and revealed close similarity among highly enriched taxa from drill?core and groundwater well?deployed column sediment. Overall, phylogenetic data suggested stimulated community membership was most affected by a carryover effect between annual stimulation events. Nevertheless, OTUs within the Fe(III)? and sulfate?reducing lineages, Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacterales, were repeatedly stimulated. Less consistent, co?enriched taxa represented additional lineages associated with Fe(III) and sulfate reduction (for example, Desulfovibrionales; Syntrophobacterales; Peptococcaceae) and autotrophic sulfur oxidation (Sulfurovum; Campylobacterales). These data imply complex membership among highly stimulated taxa, and by inference biogeochemical responses to acetate, a non?fermentable substrate.

  6. Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

  7. Development of a Reliable Fuel Depletion Methodology for the HTR-10 Spent Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sang-Yoon [unaffiliated

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical working group formed in 2007 between NNSA and CAEA to develop a reliable fuel depletion method for HTR-10 based on MCNPX and to analyze the isotopic inventory and radiation source terms of the HTR-10 spent fuel. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Established a fuel depletion methodology and demonstrated its safeguards application; (2) Proliferation resistant at high discharge burnup ({approx}80 GWD/MtHM) - Unfavorable isotopics, high number of pebbles needed, harder to reprocess pebbles; (3) SF should remain under safeguards comparable to that of LWR; and (4) Diversion scenarios not considered, but can be performed.

  8. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Foster, John E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  9. A comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crist, Kevin Craig

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Cuddihy. Predictions fr'om bai. h models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that wau'ld be cleared to blood irom the pu lraana ry region i'o'i)owing an i nba !at i cn exposure were compared . It was f:urd ti... to oxidized depleted uranium (DU) aerosol. The ob, ject. ive of th. is i:hesis was three fold: (1) to determine the dissolution rates for two respirable DU samples, (2) to determine the specific pulmonary clearance characteristics of oxidized DU, (3) Co...

  10. The construction and use of aquifer influence functions in determining original gas in place for water-drive gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gajdica, Ronald Joseph

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS IN DETERMINING ORIGINAL GAS IN PLACE FOR WATER-DRIVE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by RONALD JOSEPH GAJDICA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS IN DETERMINING ORIGINAL GAS IN PLACE FOR MATER-DRIVE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by RONALD JOSEPH...

  11. Options, knowledge, and satisfaction of Texas residents affected by Edwards Aquifer issues: implications for education and government 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Amy Suzette

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OPINIONS, KNOWLEDGE, AND SATISFACTION OF TEXAS RESIDENTS AFFECTED BY EDWARDS AQUIFER ISSUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION AND GOVERNMENT A Thesis by AMY SUZETTE KINNEY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Education ABSTRACT Opinions, Knowledge, and Satisfaction of Texas Residents Affected by Edwards Aquifer Issues: Implications for Education and Government. (December 1994) Amy Suzette Kinney, B. S. , Tarleton State University Chair of Advisory Committee...

  12. Interaction between humans and the physical world is com-plex. Topics such as water management, mineral depletion,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    with a bachelor's degree are found in government agencies, the energy industry, private consulting, construction, mineral depletion, air pollution, soil contamination, invasive species, defor- estation and loss

  13. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  14. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modis, K., E-mail: kmodis@mail.ntua.gr; Sideri, D. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Greece)] [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Greece)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  15. Monitoring CO 2 sequestration into deep saline aquifer and associated salt intrusion using coupled multiphase flow modeling and time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.

  16. OPTIMAL GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE DISPOSAL IN SALINE AQUIFERS IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan D. Hovorka

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.

  17. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Holt, B.D.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clausen, J.L. [Lockheed-Martin Energy Services, Inc., Kevil, KY (United States)] [Lockheed-Martin Energy Services, Inc., Kevil, KY (United States)

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume.

  18. Geophysical modeling of the Franklin Township buried valley, and associated aquifer, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yuejun; Palmer, D.F. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed geophysical survey was conducted in Franklin Township, Portage County, Ohio to delineate a buried valley. A combination of the gravity, electrical resistivity, and surface refraction seismic modeling has been applied to determine the bedrock topography, the lithology of the bedrock, the nature of the glacial fill, and the thickness of the associated aquifer. Three dimensional gravity modeling defines the size and shape of the glacial fill with low density compared to the surrounding bedrock and provides a bedrock topography map with a high resolution. The calculated bedrock topography coincides with the water well data available in the area. Resistivity modeling was used to search for a least-squares fit between the measured and the theoretical curves to evaluate the layer thickness and resistivity. The resistivity profile indicates that there exists an aquifer with the thickness about 50 feet within the glacial fill. The level of the soil moisture and the water table is suggested by the resistivity data as well. The seismic profile supports the bedrock boundary calculated by gravity modeling, and shows that the upper part of the bedrock consists of three layers, upper sandstone, shale, and lower sandstone. The comprehensive geophysical interpretation infers that the pre-glacial valley, cut through Sharon Sandstone, Meadville Shale to Berea Sandstone, was extended and deepened at the northern end, and filled with glacial material derived from the north during the later glacial period, resulting in a thick aquifer in the glacial fill.

  19. DEPLETED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES AS PROBES OF THE IO TORUS PLASMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Christopher T.

    and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA ABSTRACT On the initial pass by Io the Galileo that they were depleted in their energy content. These tubes have not been seen on every return to the Io torus balance with neighboring flux tubes in steady state. Figure 1 shows such pressure balance. The magnitude

  20. Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles breaks down before sunlight returns: smaller ozone hole { Formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC #3; Photo-initiation reactions: Cl 2 h#23; ! 2Cl HOCl h#23; ! OH + Cl #3; Rapid destruction of ozone

  1. Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY G; revised 4 May 2005; accepted 13 May 2005; published 20 August 2005. [1] We use atmospheric ozone density profiles between 35 and 65 km altitude derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements to quantify the ozone

  2. Carbon fixed during fumigation with elevated [CO2] (which was depleted in stable 13C isotope,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon fixed during fumigation with elevated [CO2] (which was depleted in stable 13C isotope, red in a sweetgum plantation after 11 years of CO2-enrichment. Global Change Biology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365 in relatively deep soil. · Final harvest of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory free-air CO2-enrichment (FACE

  3. OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n{sub H}). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as {approx}160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

  4. Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    of natural resources What is truly renewable What is sustainable use Sharper thinking will lead us to better solutions Stock Flow #12;All non-renewable resources are exhaustible Depleted when used natural resources are ambiguous Renewable resources can be used sustainably, or not But only physical

  5. Substitutes for ozone depleting aerosol electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricants. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevilacqua, P.; Clark, K.G.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    With the production of Class I Ozone Depleting Substances discontinued as of January 1996, it became necessary to identify suitable replacements for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethane (TCA) based electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricant products. Two hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-141b) blends were identified as substitutes and recommended for interim use.

  6. Zero discounting and optimal paths of depletion of an exhaustible resource with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ...le of the optimal paths. We show that, in the Cobb-Douglas case, the ratio of the values of the resource and capitalZero discounting and optimal paths of depletion of an exhaustible resource with an amenity value Dasgupta­Heal­Solow model when the stock of natural capital is a direct argument of well-being, besides

  7. Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konhauser, Kurt

    LETTERS Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event Kurt O a decline in the molar nickel to iron ratio recorded in banded iron formations about 2.7 Gyr ago, which we attribute to a reduced flux of nickel to the oceans, a consequence of cooling upper-mantle temperatures

  8. Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4, Canada 3 of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3463037 Solar energy harvesting requires

  9. LBNL Totally Depleted CCD Group Internal Note Last revised 8 November 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL Totally Depleted CCD Group Internal Note Last revised 8 November 2002 Conceptual design for shielding the 200 µm-thick LBNL CCD at the Lick 3-m Coud´e Spectrograph from environmental gamma radiation This note was drafted by Don Groom (LBNL; deg@lbl.gov), but it is based on considerable work by Steve

  10. LBNL Totally Depleted CCD Group Internal Note Last revised 8 November 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL Totally Depleted CCD Group Internal Note Last revised 8 November 2002 Conceptual design for shielding the 200 µm­thick LBNL CCD at the Lick 3­m Coudâ??e Spectrograph from environmental gamma radiation This note was drafted by Don Groom (LBNL; deg@lbl.gov), but it is based on considerable work by Steve

  11. Terrestrial Ozone Depletion Due to a Milky Way Gamma-Ray Burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian C. Thomas; Charles H. Jackman; Adrian L. Melott; Claude M. Laird; Richard S. Stolarski; Neil Gehrels; John K. Cannizzo; Daniel P. Hogan

    2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on cosmological rates, it is probable that at least once in the last Gy the Earth has been irradiated by a gamma-ray burst in our Galaxy from within 2 kpc. Using a two-dimensional atmospheric model we have performed the first computation of the effects upon the Earth's atmosphere of one such impulsive event. A ten second burst delivering 100 kJ/m^2 to the Earth penetrates to the stratosphere and results in globally averaged ozone depletion of 35%, with depletion reaching 55% at some latitudes. Significant global depletion persists for over 5 years after the burst. This depletion would have dramatic implications for life since a 50% decrease in ozone column density results in approximately three times the normal UVB flux. Widespread extinctions are likely, based on extrapolation from UVB sensitivity of modern organisms. Additional effects include a shot of nitrate fertilizer and NO2 opacity in the visible providing a cooling perturbation to the climate over a similar timescale. These results lend support to the hypothesis that a GRB may have initiated the late Ordovician mass extinction (Melott et al. 2004).

  12. Econometric Modelling of World Oil Supplies: Terminal Price and the Time to Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar

    2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a novel approach by which to identify the price of oil at the time of depletion; the so-called terminal price of oil. It is shown that while the terminal price is independent of both GDP growth and the price elasticity of energy...

  13. Quantum dots and etch-induced depletion of a silicon two-dimensional electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    Quantum dots and etch-induced depletion of a silicon two-dimensional electron gas L. J. Klein, K. L coupled quantum dots containing individual electrons whose spins act as qubits.4 We have made recent in a silicon quantum dot can be held constant for up to 11 hours. This fulfills an important milestone towards

  14. Engineering analysis for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S. M.; Kier, P. H.

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and evaluates options for disposing of depleted uranium in the chemical form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}). Two depleted uranium inventories are considered. One results from the original U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of 560,000 metric tons (te) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}); the other inventory is the original DOE inventory augmented by 145,000 te of depleted UF{sub 6} from the United States Enrichment Corporation. Preconceptual designs are included for three disposal options: disposal in a vault, disposal in an engineered trench, and disposal in a deep mine cavity. The disposal container is taken to be either a 30-gallon drum or a 55-gallon drum. Descriptions of the facilities associated with the three disposal options are provided. Staffing estimates for the construction and operation of the facilities are also provided. Wastes and emissions from the facilities during construction, operation, and maintenance have been estimated. Parametric studies have also been performed on the basis of 25% and 50% of the original inventory.

  15. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the south Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within Task V field demonstration. Short progress reports are presented for field demonstration involving: drill horizontal injection wells 6C-25H and 7C-11H; and drill two vertical WAG injectors along South Cowden Unit boundary.

  16. Dewetting of silica surfaces upon reactions with supercritical CO2 and brine: Pore-scale studies in micromodels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Y.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 injected into depleted oil reservoirs may have faster2 sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs - caprocksaline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable

  17. Depletion of glutathione in vivo as a method of improving the therapeutic ratio of misonidazole and SR 2508. [BSO; DEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, N.Y.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) can enhance misonidazole (MISO) radiosensitizing efficacy both in vivo and in vitro. However, such treatments may also enhance the systemic toxicity in animals. The purpose of the present study was to test various ways of depleting GSH levels in a variety of experimental mouse tumors, to measure the improvement in the efficacy of MISO and its less toxic analog SR 2508 by this depletion, and to determine the effect of daily GSH depletion on the toxicity MISO and SR 2508. GSH levels were measured daily for 5 days in tumors, livers and brains of mice injected daily with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), with or without diethylmaleate (DEM). Daily doses of BSO depleted tumor levels of GSH to 20 to 40% of controls by 6 hr after each injection. Injection of DEM 6 hr after BSO further enhanced the depletion. Administration of MISO or SR 2508 at the time of maximum GSH depletion enhanced the MISO efficacy by factors of 2.6 to 8 for depletion to 8% of controls by BSO + DEM, but no enhancement of SR 2508 was seen with tumors at 20% GSH levels achieved with BSO alone in the preliminary experiment. The chronic toxicity of MISO was enhanced not at all or by a factor of up to 2 for BSO and BSO + DEM respectively.

  18. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  19. Design and implementation of a CO2 flood utilizing advanced reservoirs characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching water floods depletion: Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S., Casteel, J.F.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  20. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second object is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The report include work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and demonstration project objective.

  1. An integrated study of the reservoir performance in the Area Central Norte (ACN) region of the Tordillo Field (Argentina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuvio, Raul

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) &om 1932 until 1991, when Tecpetrol S. A. became operator of the field. The Area Central Norte (ACN) region produced by natural depletion until 1993, when secondary recovery efforts were initiated by injecting water...

  2. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  3. Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream’s sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

  4. The Effect of Water Vapor on Cr Depletion in Advanced Recuperator Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable alloy foils are needed for gas turbine recuperators operating at 650--700 C. It has been established that water vapor in the exhaust gas causes more rapid consumption of Cr in austenitic stainless steels leading to a reduction in operating lifetime of these thin-walled components. Laboratory testing at 650--800 C of commercial and model alloys is being used to develop a better understanding of the long-term rate of Cr consumption in these environments. Results are presented for commercial alloys 709, 120 and 625. After 10,000h exposures at 650 C and 700 C in humid air, grain boundary Cr depletion was observed near the surface of all these materials. In the Fe-base alloys, 709 and 120, this depletion led to localized Fe-rich nodule formation. This information then can be used to develop low-cost alternatives to currently available candidate materials.

  5. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion coproduct; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

  6. Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph M. Fenelon; Randell J. Laczniak; and Keith J. Halford

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types—volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in water-level altitudes within any single continuous aquifer range from a few hundred feet in a lower carbonate aquifer to just more than 1,100 feet in a volcanic aquifer. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly southward with minor eastward or westward deviations. Primary exceptions are westward flow in the northern part of the volcanic aquifer and eastward flow in the eastern part of the lower carbonate aquifer. Northward flow in the upper and lower carbonate aquifers in the northern part of the study area is possible but cannot be substantiated because data are lacking. Interflow between continuous aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form the regional ground-water flow system. The implications of these tributary flow paths in controlling transport away from the underground test areas at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain are discussed. The obvious data gaps contributing to uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers and development of water-level contours are identified and evaluated.

  7. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of the DOM are similar to that of the autochthonous DOM.

  8. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Koss, T.C. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Guidance

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  9. Ca depletion and the presence of dust in large scale nebulosities in radiogalaxies (I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Villar-Martin; L. Binette

    1995-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the study of the Calcium depletion is a valid an highly sensitive method for investigating the chemical and physical history of the very extended ionized nebulae seen around radio galaxies (EELR), massive ellipticals and `cooling flow' galaxies. By observing the near IR spectrum of nebular regions characterized by low excitation emission lines (LINER-like), we can use the intensity of the [CaII]$\\lambda\\lambda 7291,7324$\\AA\\ doublet --relative to other lines, like H$\\alpha$-- to infer the amount of Calcium depletion onto dust grains. The presence of dust in these objects --which does not necessarily result in a measurable level of extinction-- would favour a `galactic debris' rather than a `cooling flow' origin for the emitting gas. Before aplying such test to our data, we study four possible alternative mechanisms to dust depletion and which could have explained the absence of the [CaII] lines: a) ionization of Ca$^+$ from its metastable level, b) thermal ionization of Ca$^+$, c) a high ionization parameter and/or a harder ionizing contiuum than usually asummed and d) matter bounded models associated to a hard ionizing continuum. We show that none of these alternative mechanisms explain the absence of the [CaII] lines, except possibly for the highly ionized EELR where a high ionization parameter is required combined with a soft power law. We thus conclude that for the other low excitation emission regions (cooling flows, liners, low excitation EELR), the abscence of the CaII lines {\\it must} be due to the depletion of Calcium onto dust grains.

  10. Development of a Novel Depleted Uranium Treatment Process at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates-Anderson, D; Bowers, J; Laue, C; Fitch, T

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage process was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to treat potentially pyrophoric depleted uranium metal wastes. The three-stage process includes waste sorting/rinsing, acid dissolution of the waste metal with a hydrochloric and phosphoric acid solution, and solidification of the neutralized residuals from the second stage with clay. The final product is a solid waste form that can be transported to and disposed of at a permitted low-level radioactive waste disposal site.

  11. Benefits/impacts of utilizing depleted uranium silicate glass as backfill for spent fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, R.B.; Forsberg, C.W.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment has been made of the benefits and impacts which can be derived by filling a spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canister with depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass at a reactor site. Although the primary purpose of the DUS glass fill would be to enhance repository performance assessment and control criticality of geologic times, a number of benefits to the waste management system can be derived from adding the DUS glass prior to shipment from the reactor site.

  12. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  13. SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Depletion with Parallel KENO in TRITON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL] [ORNL; Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL] [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system is a powerful and robust tool for performing multigroup (MG) reactor physics analysis using either the 2-D deterministic solver NEWT or the 3-D Monte Carlo transport code KENO. However, as with all MG codes, the accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of the MG cross sections that are generated and/or used. While SCALE resonance self-shielding modules provide rigorous resonance self-shielding, they are based on 1-D models and therefore 2-D or 3-D effects such as heterogeneity of the lattice structures may render final MG cross sections inaccurate. Another potential drawback to MG Monte Carlo depletion is the need to perform resonance self-shielding calculations at each depletion step for each fuel segment that is being depleted. The CPU time and memory required for self-shielding calculations can often eclipse the resources needed for the Monte Carlo transport. This summary presents the results of the new continuous-energy (CE) calculation mode in TRITON. With the new capability, accurate reactor physics analyses can be performed for all types of systems using the SCALE Monte Carlo code KENO as the CE transport solver. In addition, transport calculations can be performed in parallel mode on multiple processors.

  14. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  15. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (2MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Nuclear Science and Engineering Department)

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  16. Structure and dynamics of colloidal depletion gels: coincidence of transitions and heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Dibble; M. Kogan; M. J. Solomon

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Transitions in structural heterogeneity of colloidal depletion gels formed through short-range attractive interactions are correlated with their dynamical arrest. The system is a density and refractive index matched suspension of 0.20 volume fraction poly(methyl methacyrlate) colloids with the non-adsorbing depletant polystyrene added at a size ratio of depletant to colloid of 0.043. As the strength of the short-range attractive interaction is increased, clusters become increasingly structurally heterogeneous, as characterized by number-density fluctuations, and dynamically immobilized, as characterized by the single-particle mean-squared displacement. The number of free colloids in the suspension also progressively declines. As an immobile cluster to gel transition is traversed, structural heterogeneity abruptly decreases. Simultaneously, the mean single-particle dynamics saturates at a localization length on the order of the short-range attractive potential range. Both immobile cluster and gel regimes show dynamical heterogeneity. Non-Gaussian distributions of single particle displacements reveal enhanced populations of dynamical trajectories localized on two different length scales. Similar dependencies of number density fluctuations, free particle number and dynamical length scales on the order of the range of short-range attraction suggests a collective structural origin of dynamic heterogeneity in colloidal gels.

  17. Dynamics of microbial community composition and function during in-situ bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nostrand, J.D. Van; Wu, L.; Wu, W.M.; Huang, A.; Gentry, T.J.; Deng, Y.; Carley, J.; Carrol, S.; He, Z.; Gu, B.; Luo, J.; Criddle, C.S.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot-scale system was established to examine the feasibility of in situ U(VI) immobilization at a highly contaminated aquifer (U.S. DOE Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Oak Ridge, TN). Ethanol was injected intermittently as an electron donor to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction, and U(VI) concentrations fell to below the Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard (0.03 mg liter{sup -1}). Microbial communities from three monitoring wells were examined during active U(VI) reduction and maintenance phases with GeoChip, a high-density, comprehensive functional gene array. The overall microbial community structure exhibited a considerable shift over the remediation phases examined. GeoChip-based analysis revealed that Fe(III)-reducing bacterial (FeRB), nitrate-reducing bacterial (NRB), and sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) functional populations reached their highest levels during the active U(VI) reduction phase (days 137 to 370), in which denitrification and Fe(III) and sulfate reduction occurred sequentially. A gradual decrease in these functional populations occurred when reduction reactions stabilized, suggesting that these functional populations could play an important role in both active U(VI) reduction and maintenance of the stability of reduced U(IV). These results suggest that addition of electron donors stimulated the microbial community to create biogeochemical conditions favorable to U(VI) reduction and prevent the reduced U(IV) from reoxidation and that functional FeRB, SRB, and NRB populations within this system played key roles in this process.

  18. High-density PhyloChip profiling of stimulated aquifer microbial communities reveals a complex response to acetate amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handley, Kim M.; Wrighton, Kelly E.; Piceno, Y. M.; Anderson, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Peacock, Aaron; Bargar, John R.; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increasing interest in harnessing the functional diversity of indigenous microbial communities to transform and remediate a wide range of environmental contaminants. Understanding the response of communities to stimulation, including flanking taxa, presents important opportunities for optimizing remediation approaches. We used high-density PhyloChip microarray analysis to comprehensively determine community membership and abundance patterns amongst a suite of samples from U(VI) bioremediation experiments. Samples were unstimulated or collected during Fe(III) and sulfate reduction from an acetate-augmented aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, and from laboratory experiments using field-collected materials. Results showed the greatest diversity in abundant SRB lineages was present in naturally-reduced sediment. Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacterales were consistently identified as the dominant Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (IRB and SRB) throughout acetate amendment experiments. Stimulated communities also exhibited a high degree of functional redundancy amongst enriched flanking members. Not surprisingly, competition for both sulfate and iron was evident amongst abundant taxa, but the distribution and abundance of these ancillary SRB (Peptococcaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Syntrophobacterales), and lineages containing IRB (excluding Desulfobacteraceae) was heterogeneous amongst sample types. Interesting, amongst the most abundant taxa, particularly during sulfate reduction, were Epsilonproteobacteria that perform microaerobic or nitrate-dependant sulfur oxidation, and a number of bacteria other than Geobacteraceae that may enzymatically reduce U(VI). Finally, in depth community probing with PhyloChip determined the efficacy of experimental approaches, notably revealing striking similarity amongst stimulated sediment (from drill cores and in-situ columns) and groundwater communities, and demonstrating that sediment-packed in-situ (down-well) columns served as an ideal method for subsurface biostimulation.

  19. Dynamics of Microbial Community Composition and Function during In Situ Bioremediation of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Nostrand, Dr. Joy D. [Oklahoma University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Wu, Weimin [Stanford University; Huang, Zhijian [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Deng, Ye [University of Oklahoma; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot-scale system was established to examine the feasibility of in situ U(VI) immobilization at a highly contaminated aquifer (U.S. DOE Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Oak Ridge, TN). Ethanol was injected intermittently as an electron donor to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction, and U(VI) concentrations fell to below the Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard (0.03 mg liter 1). Microbial communities from three monitoring wells were examined during active U(VI) reduction and maintenance phases with GeoChip, a high-density, comprehensive functional gene array. The overall microbial community structure exhibited a considerable shift over the remediation phases examined. GeoChip-based analysis revealed that Fe(III)-reducing bacterial (FeRB), nitrate-reducing bacterial (NRB), and sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) functional populations reached their highest levels during the active U(VI) reduction phase (days 137 to 370), in which denitrification and Fe(III) and sulfate reduction occurred sequentially. A gradual decrease in these functional populations occurred when reduction reactions stabilized, suggesting that these functional populations could play an important role in both active U(VI) reduction and maintenance of the stability of reduced U(IV). These results suggest that addition of electron donors stimulated the microbial community to create biogeochemical conditions favorable to U(VI) reduction and prevent the reduced U(IV) from reoxidation and that functional FeRB, SRB, and NRB populations within this system played key roles in this process.

  20. Electrodic voltages accompanying stimulated bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Druhan, J.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Banfield, J.F.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The inability to track the products of subsurface microbial activity during stimulated bioremediation has limited its implementation. We used spatiotemporal changes in electrodic potentials (EP) to track the onset and persistence of stimulated sulfate-reducing bacteria in a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing acetate amendment. Following acetate injection, anomalous voltages approaching -900 mV were measured between copper electrodes within the aquifer sediments and a single reference electrode at the ground surface. Onset of EP anomalies correlated in time with both the accumulation of dissolved sulfide and the removal of uranium from groundwater. The anomalies persisted for 45 days after halting acetate injection. Current-voltage and current-power relationships between measurement and reference electrodes exhibited a galvanic response, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m{sup 2} during sulfate reduction. We infer that the EP anomalies resulted from electrochemical differences between geochemically reduced regions and areas having higher oxidation potential. Following the period of sulfate reduction, EP values ranged from -500 to -600 mV and were associated with elevated concentrations of ferrous iron. Within 10 days of the voltage decrease, uranium concentrations rebounded from 0.2 to 0.8 {mu}M, a level still below the background value of 1.5 {mu}M. These findings demonstrate that EP measurements provide an inexpensive and minimally invasive means for monitoring the products of stimulated microbial activity within aquifer sediments and are capable of verifying maintenance of redox conditions favorable for the stability of bioreduced contaminants, such as uranium.