Sample records for aqueous phase reforming

  1. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  2. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  3. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboartory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for {approx}50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R&D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant.

  4. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous phase analytes Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This two-phase system... in the aqueous phase where it can be easily removed. Microfluidics presents have become a driving force toward... ) Aqueous ... Source: Zahn, Jeffrey...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polymer two-phase Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observed for the aqueous two-phase systems. This view is in accordance... , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, each phase being rich...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous two-phase poly Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    induced multiphase generation in waterorganic solvent mixtures. Summary: , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, each phase being rich...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous two-phase extraction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Furfural is extracted into the organic phase from the aqueous xylose phase as it is produced by acid... only be used with the addition of salt to form a two phase system. We...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous phase source Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basins Research Initiative Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 64 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: phases that includes an aqueous solution, such as the mass change...

  10. Phase and self-assembly transition induced by glycerolborax interaction in an aqueous surfactant two-phase system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Phase and self-assembly transition induced by glycerol­borax interaction in an aqueous surfactant 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b911564a We report that the phase and self-assembly transition in an aqueous in surfactant systems containing pH-sensitive components. Introduction The influence of glycerol on the self-assembly

  11. National Environmenal Policy Act Contracting Reform Guidance: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NEPA Contracting Quality Improvement Team identified several contracting improvements to reduce the cost and time for the NEPA process. The team`s February 1995 report recommended a series of steps to achieve the improvements, including issuance of contracting guidance. The guidance will be issued in three phases. This Phase I guidance implements the team`s short-term recommendations. It provides model statements of work and a sample schedule of contractor deliverables, establishes a pilot program for evaluating performance of NEPA support contractors, and describes information resources available on the DOE NEPA Web.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous phase ph Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for at least 1 minute and spin as in step 4. 7. Remove the aqueous phase to a new tube. 8... . 10. Remove aqueous layer to new tube. 11. Add 110vol 3M NaOAc (pH 5.2) and 3...

  13. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  14. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  15. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  16. Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquidliquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquid­liquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions, 2002 We have studied the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the liquid­liquid phase separation. PEG ternary mixtures solubility partitioning Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic nonionic

  17. Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

  18. Reforming Pyrolysis Aqueous Waste Streams to Process Hydrogen and Hydrocarbons Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes OfficeTexas |4 U.S.1: Reforming Pyrolysis

  19. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  20. Aqueous phase toxicity of West Texas crude oil as influenced by the Rhodococcus H13-A biosurfactant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Beatrice Lorraine

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude Oil PAHs into the aqueous phase. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric (GC/MS) analysis of the water soluble fraction (WSF) was used to determine the degree of PAH partitioning. The acute toxicity of the petroleum PAHs partitioned...

  1. A swollen phase observed between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol in DPPC aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Seto; M. Hishida; H. Nobutou; N. L. Yamada; M. Nagao; T. Takeda

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A swollen phase, in which the mean repeat distance of lipid bilayers is larger than the other phases, is found between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated gel phase in DPPC aqueous solution. Temperature, pressure and ethanol concentration dependences of the structure were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, and a bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was by neutron spin echo. The nature of the swollen phase is similar to the anomalous swelling reported previously. However, the temperature dependence of the mean repeat distance and the bending rigidity of lipid bilayers are different. This phase could be a precursor to the interdigitated gel phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol.

  2. DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance-called "reformed" defence of the rationality of reli- gious belief. The starting-point for this reformed conception concern here. Instead, I will be outlining one way in which the reformed epistemological stance can

  3. Platinum-Modulated Cobalt Nanocatalysts for Low-Temperature Aqueous-Phase Fischer Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hang [Peking University; Zhou, Wu [ORNL; Liu, JinXun [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics; Si, Rui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Sun, Geng [Peking University; Zhong, Mengqi [Peking University; Su, Haiyan [Peking University; Zhao, Huabo [Peking University; Rodrigues, Jose [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Li, Weixue [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics; Kou, Yuan [Peking University; Ma, Ding [Peking University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an important catalytic process for liquid fuel generation, which converts coal/shale gas/biomass-derived syngas (a mixture of CO and H2) to oil. While FTS is thermodynamically favored at low temperature, it is desirable to develop a new catalytic system that could allow working at a relatively low reaction temperature. In this article, we present a one-step hydrogenation reduction route for the synthesis of Pt Co nanoparticles (NPs) which were found to be excellent catalysts for aqueous-phase FTS at 433 K. Coupling with atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and theoretical calculations, the outstanding activity is rationalized by the formation of Co overlayer structures on Pt NPs or Pt Co alloy NPs. The improved energetics and kinetics from the change of the transition states imposed by the lattice mismatch between the two metals are concluded to be the key factors responsible for the dramatically improved FTS performance.

  4. Buffering the aqueous phase pH in water-in-CO{sub 2} microemulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, J.D.; Ziegler, K.J.; Audriani, M.; Lee, C.T. Jr.; Bhargava, P.A.; Johnston, K.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Steytler, D.C. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Sciences] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Sciences

    1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions have been exploited for use in a wide range of applications, including chemical and enzymatic reactions, protein and metal extraction, and the production of nanoparticles. Microemulsions are attractive systems for studying such applications because they have the ability to function as a universal solvent medium by solubilizing high concentrations of both polar and apolar molecules within their dispersed aqueous and continuous oil phases, respectively. The addition of organic and inorganic buffers to nanometer size water-in-CO{sub 2} microemulsion droplets stabilized by ammonium perfluoropolyether (PFPE-NH{sub 4}) results in an increase in pH from 3 to values of 5--7. The effects of temperature, pressure, buffer type, buffer concentration, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} solubility on the pH inside water-in-CO{sub 2} microemulsions and on biphasic water-CO{sub 2} systems were measured by the hydrophilic indicator 4-nitrophenyl-2-sulfonate and were predicted accurately with thermodynamic models. In both systems, modest buffer loadings result in a steep pH jump from 2.5 pH units. Further increases in pH require large amounts of base to overcome buffering due to the carbonic acid-bicarbonate equilibrium. A pH approaching neutrality was obtained in w/c microemulsions with approximately 1.5 mol kg{sup {minus}1} NaOH. At high buffer loadings, the effects of temperature and pressure on pH values are negligible.

  5. Extraction equilibria between organic CMPO-n-dodecane and aqueous nitric acid phases for selected tank waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Counce, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of the transuranium elements from tank-stored wastes is an important step in the cost effective treatment and preparation of these wastes for permanent disposal. One promising method of treatment involves dissolving the tank sludges in acid, followed by extraction of the transuranium species. The TRUEX process, which uses an extracting medium composed of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in an organic solvent such as n-dodecane, is being tested for this purpose. Although CMPO is a powerful extractant for all the actinides, concern arises that certain process chemicals present in the waste will compete for the CMPO. Data will be presented on the pure component equilibrium characteristics of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate and bismuth nitrate partitioned between a nitric acid aqueous phase and a CMPO-n-dodecane organic phase.

  6. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  7. Global distribution of solid and aqueous sulfate aerosols: Effect of the hysteresis of particle phase transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of dimethylsulfide from the ocean biosphere. The timescale of phase transitions, as driven by changes in relative radiation back to space less effectively [Ramaswamy et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2004; Wang and Martin, 2007

  8. Phase Behavior of Aqueous NA-K-MG-CA-CI-NO3 Mixtures: Isopiestic Measurements and Thermodynamic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.S. Gruszkiewiez; D.A. Palmer; R.D. Springer; P. Wang; A. Anderko

    2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive model has been established for calculating thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aqueous systems containing the Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions. The thermodynamic framework is based on a previously developed model for mixed-solvent electrolyte solutions. The framework has been designed to reproduce the properties of salt solutions at temperatures ranging from the freezing point to 300 C and concentrations ranging from infinite dilution to the fused salt limit. The model has been parameterized using a combination of an extensive literature database and new isopiestic measurements for thirteen salt mixtures at 140 C. The measurements have been performed using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) previously designed gravimetric isopiestic apparatus, which makes it possible to detect solid phase precipitation. Water activities are reported for mixtures with a fixed ratio of salts as a function of the total apparent salt mole fraction. The isopiestic measurements reported here simultaneously reflect two fundamental properties of the system, i.e., the activity of water as a function of solution concentration and the occurrence of solid-liquid transitions. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the new isopiestic data as well as literature data for binary, ternary and higher-order subsystems. Because of its high accuracy in calculating vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria, the model is suitable for studying deliquescence behavior of multicomponent salt systems.

  9. Refinement of the Kansas City Plant site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.E.; Hall, S.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Baker, J.L. [AlliedSignal Corp., Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Protection

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a refinement of the site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP). This refinement was prompted by a review of the literature and the results of a limited study that was conducted to evaluate whether pools of DNAPL were present in contaminated locations at the KCP. The field study relied on the micropurge method of sample collection. This method has been demonstrated as a successful approach for obtaining discrete samples within a limited aquifer zone. Samples were collected at five locations across 5-ft well screens located at the base of the alluvial aquifer at the KCP. The hypothesis was that if pools of DNAPL were present, the dissolved concentration would increase with depth. Four wells with highly contaminated groundwater were selected for the test. Three of the wells were located in areas where DNAPL was suspected, and one where no DNAPL was believed to be present. The results demonstrated no discernible pattern with depth for the four wells tested. A review of the data in light of the available technical literature suggests that the fine-grained nature of the aquifer materials precludes the formation of pools. Instead, DNAPL is trapped as discontinuous ganglia that are probably widespread throughout the aquifer. The discontinuous nature of the DNAPL distribution prevents the collection of groundwater samples with concentrations approaching saturation. Furthermore, the results indicate that attempts to remediate the aquifer with conventional approaches will not result in restoration to pristine conditions because the tortuous groundwater flow paths will inhibit the efficiency of fluid-flow-based treatments.

  10. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of fuel cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be released from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. Finally, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Development of the FMT chemical transport simulator: Advective transport sensitivity to aqueous density and mineral volume fraction coupled to phase compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novak, C.F.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fracture-Matrix Transport (FMT) code couples saturated porous media advection and diffusion with mechanistic chemical models for speciation and interphase reactions. FMT is being developed to support actinide solubility and retardation studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), USDOE facility for demonstrating safe disposal of transuranic waste. Hydrologic studies of water-bearing units above the WIPP indicate double-porosity transport behavior in some locations, with groundwater concentrations ranging which potable to highly concentrated. Previously, FMT simulated such systems in two-dimensions on the continuum from advection- to diffusion-dominated, with a user-specified velocity field that allows double-porosity transport. However, aqueous density was assumed constant, and reactive minerals were assumed to occupy negligible volume. Both of these assumptions can be considered poor for evaporite systems, where large changes in porosity and aqueous density can result from high mineral solubilities. Therefore, further development of FMT has relaxed these restrictions, allowing aqueous density to vary with phase composition, and allowing void volume to change as minerals dissolve and precipitate. This paper describes the additional mathematical complexity required to simulate such systems. The sensitivity of advection-dominated transport to these variables is explored through an extended example.

  12. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  13. Fluorous Biphase Synthesis of a Poly(p-phenyleneethynylene) and its Fluorescent Aqueous Fluorous-Phase Emulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jeewoo

    It's just a phase: A highly fluorinated compound with a rigid three-dimensional architecture was synthesized as a monomer for poly(p-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPEs). Fluorous biphase reactions were applied for the synthesis ...

  14. Immigration reform and California agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Philip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reform and California agriculture Philip Martin Professor,proposals for California agriculture. Immigration reformCenter. 196 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE • VOLUME 67 , NUMBER 4

  15. Molecular Simulations of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility: 1. The Expanded-Ensemble Osmotic Molecular Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    +, and Cl-); undissociated molecular units (HgCl2) are the predominant solution solute species.1 such as mercury(II) chloride (HgCl2), only a small fraction of the atoms dissociate into free ions (HgCl+, Hg2 Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase Martin Li´sal,*,, William R. Smith,§ and Jiri´ Kolafa| E. Ha

  16. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polyvinyl alcohol Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upon addition of aqueous salt solutions. It has been known since... , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, ... Source: Loh,...

  18. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  19. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  20. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  1. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications...

  2. FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet Social historians have broadly defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual to the 1920s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse or corruption

  3. Reforming the Private Insurance Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION he prospects for national health care reform are more promising than at any time since 1994. President Obama and Members of Congress have made health care reform a top priority and legislation

  4. Autothermal reforming catalyst and process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.; Karavolis, S.; Lesieur, R. R.; Wnuck, W. G.

    1984-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming catalysts are described particularly adapted for use in autothermal reforming processes. A rhodium catalyst on a calcium oxide impregnated alumina substrate allow the autothermal reforming process to take place with substantially no carbon plugging at oxygen to carbon ratios below what had been considered critical for avoiding carbon plugging of the catalyst in the past.

  5. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  6. 5.10 Tritium Geochemistry And Kd Values 5.10.1 Overview: Important Aqueous-and Solid-Phase Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mainly by the nuclear interaction of nitrogen with fast neutrons induced by cosmic ray reactions, respectively (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Tritium can also be created in nuclear reactors as a result NRC Site Decommissioning Site Plan (SDMP) sites. 5.10.3 Aqueous Speciation Because tritium oxidizes

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  9. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  10. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  11. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  12. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  13. What's right SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Matthew P.

    &Health Reform What's right for you SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum: What's Right for You This session will help you: * demystify the healthcare reform changes * explore your options * learn how

  14. Characterization and Valorization of Aqueous Phases Derived from Liquefaction and Upgrading of Bio-oils Presentations for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Day withCharacterization and Valorization of Aqueous

  15. Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used...

  16. Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral Arterial Tree in CT Angiography1 Justus that cause artifacts in multipath curved planar reformations (MPCPRs) of the peripheral arterial tree in 10-oblique multiplanar reformations perpendicular to the ves- sel centerline (10), and curved planar reformations

  17. Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic Data Sets Acquired with 16­ Detector Row coronal reformations at vari- ous thicknesses were ranked qualitatively by three radiol- ogists. Effective reformations of data acquired in the custom phantom were compared, coronal reformations obtained with the 16

  18. Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults Department of Mathematics University of Texas is to reformalize part of the framework of the Guaranteed Coverage Theorem for QSIM. The intention is not to reformalize every detail of the proof but merely to mention some areas whose reformalization lends deeper

  19. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  20. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform...

  1. Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function of the Concentration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function: December 3, 2003 The cloud point of the surfactant tetrabutylammonium dodecyl sulfate is shown surfactant dissociates 17% of its counterions to aqueous phase. Introduction Clouding is a phenomenon

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  3. Recover heat from steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleshman, J.D. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam reforming is one of the most important chemical processes--it is used in the manufacture of ammonia, hydrogen, methanol, and many chemicals made from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Furthermore, many current trends will increase its importance. For example, methanol for addition to gasoline is likely to be produced by steam reforming. Because steam reforming occurs at high temperatures--typically 750 C--900 C--it generates a large amount of waste heat. Clearly, heat recovery is crucial to process economics. A typical 50,000 Nm[sup 3]/h hydrogen plant using natural gas feed has a radiant heat duty of about 50 MW. At a radiant efficiency of 50% and fuel cost of $3/GJ, this means that the reformer fires $9 million worth of fuel per year. Obviously, this amount of fuel justifies a close loot at ways to reduce costs. This article first provides a brief overview of steam reforming. It then outlines the available heat-recovery options and explains how to select the best method.

  4. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  5. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  6. INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

  7. Prediction of solid-aqueous equilibria: Scheme to combine first-principles calculations of solids with experimental aqueous states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Kristin A.

    We present an efficient scheme for combining ab initio calculated solid states with experimental aqueous states through a framework of consistent reference energies. Our work enables accurate prediction of phase stability ...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution rationalizations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixtures of Water, Poly(ethylene oxide) and Electrolytes (Or Dextran) Summary: the formation of aqueous two-phase systems was investigated by calorimetry measuring...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution effect Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 89 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: phases that includes an aqueous solution, such as the mass change...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution formation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 64 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: phases that includes an aqueous solution, such as the mass change...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous homogeneous solution Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 22 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: phases that includes an aqueous solution, such as the mass change...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions effect Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 89 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: phases that includes an aqueous solution, such as the mass change...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous chemical stability Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    called phenol extraction... in the aqueous phase where it can be easily removed. Microfluidics presents have become a driving force toward Source: Zahn, Jeffrey - Department of...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous medium including Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Abstract Biological treatment methods are effective at destroying polycyclic aromatic hydro- Summary: concentrations in the aqueous phase medium (3 l) were tripled in response...

  15. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  16. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  17. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Steeper, Richard R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  19. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  20. Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

  1. Lessons Learned from Prior Attempts at National Security Reform The Project on National Security Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    Lessons Learned from Prior Attempts at National Security Reform The Project on National Security was their solution effective? 4. What implications for present-day reformers can be drawn from this reform? Lessons learned from each chapter are summarized at the end of each section, and a synthesis of these findings

  2. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  3. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R. J.; Czernik, S.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.; Marda, J.; Dean, A. M.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation by Bob Evans at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review Meeting provides information about NREL's distributed bio-oil reforming efforts.

  4. Comparative case studies of health reform in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health........................................................................................14 1.1 Presenting the Health System Reform policy agenda...................................14 1 ..........................................................................................64 Demand Side Reform.........................................

  5. Apparatus for production of synthesis gas using convective reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karafian, M.; Tsang, I.C.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a system for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons into a hydrogen-rich gas. It comprises a convective reformer device having indirect heat exchange means for partially reforming a feed mixture of hydrocarbons and steam; a steam reforming furnace having a radiant section, reforming tubes in the radiant section, and means for producing radiant heat for the further reforming of the partially reformed effluent; an auto-thermal reformer for fully reforming the effluent; conduit means for passing the partially reformed effluent; conduit means for passing the effluent; and conduit means for passing the fully reformed effluent to supply the heat of reaction for the partial reformation of the hydrocarbon-steam feed mixture.

  6. The Aqueous Thermodynamics and Complexation Reactions of Anionic Silica and Uranium Species to High Concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choppin, Gregory R.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to develop the necessary thermodynamic data, including aqueous phase stability constants and Pitzer ion-interaction parameters, to predict the changes in the aqueous phase chemistry that occur when high ionic strength, highly basic tank wastes enter the vadose zone.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  8. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, Gary J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Weesner, Forrest J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  9. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration...

  10. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy:...

  11. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public...

  12. Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

  13. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003...

  14. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts....

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  16. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  17. Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elby, Andy

    Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials Rachel E. Scherr and Andrew Elby 20742 USA Abstract. Instructors inevitably need to adapt even the best reform materials to suit instructors, and video clips of students working on the materials. Our materials thus facilitate their own

  18. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  19. Reformate Cleanup: The Case for Microchannel Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reformate Cleanup: The Case for Microchannel Architecture DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003 Annual for MicrochannelMicrochannel ArchitectureArchitecture DOE Hydrogen and Fuel CellsDOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003, controls Integrated reformer/fuel cell demonstration at ~2 kWeFY 2002 WGS/PROX catalyst studies

  20. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  1. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  2. AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA Jeffrey Sachs ABSTRACT: The paper reviews the experience of Poland and Russia with economic reform, with occasional comparison to China's experience. The author argues that macroeconomic chaos in Poland and Russia preceded reform and was allayed by reform

  3. September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform; UC Implements Latest Bargaining working conditions and reasonable pension reform. However, AFSCME has rejected UC's proposals. From the start, AFSCME leadership has objected to UC's responsible pension reform -- the kind of reform that

  4. REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH Cecilia TESTA London School of Economics are a reform and a compensating taxation. The main feature of the reform is that it creates gainers and losers on tax parameters. keywords: reform, lobbying, redistribution, economic welfare. 1 #12;Introduction

  5. Diesel Reforming for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D-J.; Sheen, S-H.; Krumpelt, M.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the development of a diesel reforming catalyst and catalytic system development.

  6. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

  7. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  8. Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

  9. Electrical Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act reforms taxes paid by electricity generators to reduce tax rates and imposes replacement taxes in response to the 1997 restructuring of the Montana electric utility industry that allows...

  10. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  12. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing welfare reform Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reventionscience.umn.edu Summary: , poverty, welfare reform, school reform, and health- care reform. An emphasis is given to large... , and dissemination of a variety of programs...

  14. Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  16. Perspective: The road to reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, J.B. (J. Makowski Associates Inc., Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid transformation underway in the utility industry provides ample evidence that the reality of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is sinking in. This law reflected Congress's conclusion that competition in wholesale power generation-at the plant busbar-is a demonstrable reality. It expressed the vision of a fully competitive wholesale generation market, with suppliers linked to markets through a grid that would provide service on a nondiscriminatory basis. But will consumers reap the full benefits of effective competition at the wholesale generation level Or will more disorderly forms of competition emerge, reflecting a hybrid of deregulation and old-fashioned monopoly tactics Along the latter course we run the risk of cost shifts among customer classes, customer defections, diminished utility cooperation, and higher overall costs to society. In short, the vision of a competitive market in wholesale generation will not come about without thoughtful efforts at defining the relevant market, as well as careful attention to the management of a difficult transition away from outmodes mindsets and regulatory models. As a national trade association representing independent power producers (IPPs) and suppliers of goods and services to the competitive wholesale electric generation industry, the Electric Generation Association (EGA) believes that constructive dialogue will yield the best approach to managing this difficult process of transition. In that spirit, the EGA Emerging Operational Issues Committee recently released a while paper, [open quotes]Electrifying Change: Strategies for Structural Reform in the Electric Industry,[close quotes] which forms the basis for this article.

  17. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both conservation and harvest goals. For each Columbia River Basin Environmentally Significant Unit

  18. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  19. Kinetic study of hydrogen sulfide absorption in aqueous chlorine solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). This technique involves H2S mass transfer in an aqueous phase using a gas-liquid contactor. Since H2S is poorly. This scrubbing liquid is just drained when the salt accumulation due to H2S oxidation into sulfate anions becomes Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently removed from gaseous effluents by chemical scrubbing using water

  20. Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

  1. Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped lixmnyoz

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (5801 Eubank, N.E., Apt. #97, Albuquerque, NM 87111); Voigt, James A. (187 Aaramar La., Corrales, NM 87048)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li.sub.x Mn.sub.y O.sub.z precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder.

  2. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous leaves extract Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for at least 1 minute and spin as in step 4. 7. Remove the aqueous phase to a new tube. 8... Total RNA extraction from Arabidopsis and tobacco Allison C. Mallory, Bartel Lab...

  4. Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

  5. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

  6. SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION? David Watts Paulo Atienza to participate. Chile was the pioneer introducing this kind of reforms, through the application of a centralized

  7. How Did Health Care Reform in Massachusetts Impact Insurance Premiums?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, John A.

    It is widely recognized that the 2006 Massachusetts health reforms served as a blueprint for national reform under the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA). As such, there is interest in using the Massachusetts experience to ...

  8. MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zalta, Edward N.

    MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs #12;2 | MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM The Robert Wood Johnson?................................................................................... 8 Government Payment for Health Care -- Causes and Consequences....................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Health Care Is Different -- That's Why Expenditures Matter

  9. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  10. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  11. Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Robin (DeKalb, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bond, Andrew H. (Tallahassee, FL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution.

  12. Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution. 7 figs.

  13. Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

  14. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation September 2012 1 Ofqual: A Level Reform Consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust September 2012 Key Points National Subject to university. We are therefore pleased to respond to this consultation on reforming A levels. Our comments

  15. health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com On March 23, President Obama signed is tracking the myriad other developments of the new health reform law. You can find a wide range of related material, including enacting language, implementing documents, and analysis through the Health Reform

  16. Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform International Columbia University #12;- 1 - - 1 - #12;- 2 - A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform Bruce are fundamental aspects of the present system and that, without reform, they will continue to plague the global

  17. SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Romain RESTOUT December, 2010 REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Universit´e Panth´eon-Assas ERMES Ecole Polytechnique Romain with traded and non traded goods to in- vestigate the sectoral effects of three tax reforms: i) two revenue

  18. WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS? Susie LEE Ingmar SCHUMACHER (in)stability induce financial reforms? Susie Lee1 Ingmar Schumacher2 October 26, 2011 Abstract The article studies whether financial sector (in)stability had an effect on reforms in the fi- nancial sector

  19. the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM Produced by OHSU Strategic Communications -- emphasizing shared decision-making and coordination between providers -- could influence reform in a big way care. health reform is about getting better health outcomes for our communities, improving access

  20. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    -mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high cases. #12;1 Introduction The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function

  1. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  2. Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

  3. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  4. In Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    electricity consumption in industrial countries has caused major air pollution problems. In fact, power plants maintain that governing the electricity industry according to market dynamics, rather than socioIn Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenges Roskilde, Denmark

  5. Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  6. Affordable Care Act & Medicaid Reform in Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Affordable Care Act & Medicaid Reform in Wisconsin Enrollment Trends Chartpack 2013-2014 ACA Open,731 Wisconsinites Living in Poverty Access Health Care Through Medicaid," Press Release, May 19, 2014. http://walker.wi.gov/newsroom/press-release/81731-wisconsinites-living-poverty-access-health-care-through- Medicaid Medicaid & CHIP: April 2014

  7. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    4 Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution Carl Shapiro, University of California the current U.S. patent system allows patent holders to capture private rewards that exceed their social with the patent system and discourage in- novation by others. Economic efficiency is promoted if rewards to patent

  8. Experimental and Numerical Observations of Hydrate Reformation during Depressurization in a Core-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Myshakin, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrate has been predicted to reform around a wellbore during depressurization-based gas production from gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. This process has an adverse effect on gas production rates and it requires time and sometimes special measures to resume gas flow to producing wells. Due to lack of applicable field data, laboratory scale experiments remain a valuable source of information to study hydrate reformation. In this work, we report laboratory experiments and complementary numerical simulations executed to investigate the hydrate reformation phenomenon. Gas production from a pressure vessel filled with hydrate-bearing sand was induced by depressurization with and without heat flux through the boundaries. Hydrate decomposition was monitored with a medical X-ray CT scanner and pressure and temperature measurements. CT images of the hydrate-bearing sample were processed to provide 3-dimensional data of heterogeneous porosity and phase saturations suitable for numerical simulations. In the experiments, gas hydrate reformation was observed only in the case of no-heat supply from surroundings, a finding consistent with numerical simulation. By allowing gas production on either side of the core, numerical simulations showed that initial hydrate distribution patterns affect gas distribution and flow inside the sample. This is a direct consequence of the heterogeneous pore network resulting in varying hydraulic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediment.

  9. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  10. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  11. KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    clarified the role of aqueous-phase production of strong acids in the atmosphere. Oxidation of dissolvedKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ) are the precursors of the strong acids (i.e., HzS04 and HN03) found in precipitation,! the detailed mechanisms

  12. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To give a better understanding of autothermal reforming (ATR), a process which offers an advantageous alternative to steam reforming for H/sub 2/ production for fuel cells because of the wider range of fuels which can be converted, the conversion of individual fuel components was studied. Attempts have been made to characterize the chemical reactions of light and heavy paraffins and aromatics in ATR. Results of studies to determine the effects of operating parameters on the carbon-forming tendency of each hydrocarbon type are reported. The catalyst used for the ATR process was three-layers of supported nickel catalysts, Norton NC-100 spheres in the top zone, cylindrical G-56B tablets in the bottom one, and either ICI 46-I or ICI 46-4 Raschig rings in the middle zone. A summary of the experimental studies of the ATR of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene is presented. (BLM)

  13. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  14. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  15. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  16. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  17. Interim report:feasibility of microscale glucose reforming for renewable hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kirsten (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM)

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-scale aqueous steam reforming of glucose is suggested as a novel method of H{sub 2} production for micro fuel cells. Compact fuel cell systems are a viable alternative to batteries as a portable electrical power source. Compared with conventional lithium polymer batteries, hydrocarbon powered fuel cells are smaller, weigh less, and have a much higher energy density. The goal of this project is to develop a hydrocarbon powered microfuel processor capable of driving an existing microfuel cell, and this interim report provides a summary of the engineering information for microscale reforming of carbohydrates and the summarizes the work completed as of September 2006. Work on this program will continue. Gas analysis of the gas evolved from glucose breakdown using a quadrupole mass spectrometer is now possible due do significant modifications to the vacuum chamber and to the mass spectrometer electronics. Effective adhesion of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 316SS microstructured catalyst plates is still under investigation. Electrophoretic and dip coat methods of catalyst deposition have produced coatings with poor adhesion and limited available Pt surface area.

  18. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport...

  19. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Systems, Sandy Thomas, H2Gen Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, Wei Wei, GE Global Research Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Darlene Steward,...

  20. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to...

  1. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

  2. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  3. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, Ke Liu, GE Global Research Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming, Lanny D. Schmidt, University of Minnesota Low-Cost Hydrogen from Ethanol...

  4. Welfare Impacts of Electricity Generation Sector Reform in the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toba, Natsuko

    2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    the Government lost and there was an air pollution cost. The paper concludes that the reform with private sector participation increased social welfare....

  5. On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer Mark Hemingway, Dr. Joachim Kupe, Joseph Bonadies, Mike Seino, Dr. John Kirwan, - Delphi Powertrain DEER, August...

  6. Compatibility of selected ceramics with steam-methane reformer environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) hasa conversion efficiency of about 85%. Replacement of metal tubes in the reformer with ceramic tubes offers the potential for operation at temperatures high enough to increase the efficiency to 98-99%. However, the two candidate ceramic materials being given strongest consideration, sintered alpha Si carbide and Si carbide particulate-strengthened alumina, have been shown to react with components of the reformer environment. Extent of degradation as a function of steam partial pressure and exposure time has been studied, and results suggest limits under which these structural ceramics can be used in advanced steam-methane reformers.

  7. advance hatchery reform: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Private Insurance Market Renewable Energy Websites Summary: SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION...

  8. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    After-treatment Catalyst Clean Exhaust Effective Catalyst Regeneration Emission Reduction Electricity for On-road and Idling Loads SOFC APU Efficiency Boost Reformers for...

  9. Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries, Vickerstaff, S & Loretto, W 2012, 'Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries: Re University Press. Lain, D., Vickerstaff, S. & Loretto, W. 2012, "Reforming State Pension provision

  10. Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type or Print)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Lucy L.

    Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type Care Structural Reform: What's Happening in Albany and Washington? Changing the Social Determinants of Health Reform in the Pharmaceutical Industry Sustaining Community Health Workers Comparative

  11. Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of their reform. Since infrastructures are characterized by strong technical complementarities, we explore the alignment between organization and technology and should be taken explicitly into account when reforming

  12. Negotiating Education Reform: Teacher Evaluations and Incentives in Chile (1990-2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizala, Alejandra

    Reforms designed to improve the quality of teaching by reforming personnel practices, such as pay for performance arrangements, usually run into opposition from well-organized teacher unions that can either block reform ...

  13. Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries: A Survey of Empirical Evidence on Determinants and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Mota, Raffaella L; Newbery, David; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on electricity reform in developing countries. We find that country institutions and sector governance play an important role in success and failure of reform; reforms appear to have increased operating...

  14. Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Henrich; K. Stratford; D. Marenduzzo; P. V. Coveney; M. E. Cates

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - act contracting reform Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US Pricing Basics and What to Expect from Healthcare Reform By Jack Mycka... health care reform and pricing 12;3 MME LLC 2010 Applied Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes...

  16. Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLowDiscussion-4,611,201.00fiscal reform (EFR)

  17. Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System Tom Simmer, MD Chief;The Challenge of Reform: Accountable Care Organizations (ACO) · ACO's are provider organizations health care delivery Organized Systems of Care Population focus for primary care physicians, hospitals

  18. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    -mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has a important function

  19. BREAKING WITH OR BUILDING ON THE PAST? REFORMING IRISH PUBLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the application of new public management styles to Ireland. Particular attention is paid to the public serviceBREAKING WITH OR BUILDING ON THE PAST? REFORMING IRISH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1958-2008 Niamh? REFORMING IRISH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1958-2008 Niamh Hardiman and Muiris MacCarthaigh Working Papers

  20. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

  1. Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform II Discussion Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform II Discussion Papers The objectives of the Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform (CAER II) project are to contribute to broad-based and sustainable economic, Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support and Research, Center for Economic Growth and Agricultural

  2. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  3. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  4. Electron Microscopy Catalysis Projects: Success Stories from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    interactive behavior of Pt-Re bimetallic clusters supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes serving as model catalyst for aqueous phase reforming process (new)" * Prof....

  5. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  6. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  7. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  8. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous-aqueous polymer phase Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Fysiska institutionen, Uppsala Universitet Collection: Materials Science 32 Research Article Received: 9 June 2010 Revised: 7 September 2010 Accepted: 7 September 2010...

  10. Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Of Wheat Germ Oil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Meizhen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The objective of this study is to investigate the aqueous enzymatic extraction of wheat germ oil. Four enzymes (Viscozyme L, Multifect CX 13l, Multifect CX… (more)

  11. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Department for Education's reformed GCSE subject content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    's reformed GCSE subject content consultation - August 2013 Department for Education: Reformed GCSE subject's reformed GCSE subject content consultation. The proposed changes to science qualifications promote reform and have enclosed a copy for information. 1 ` Direct assessment' is based on the direct assessment

  12. MOVIE "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    , transportation, and health care. 8. Investigate how many of the reform proposals were in place twenty years afterMOVIE ­ "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color) SYNOPSIS Following the death of Mayor Harold Washington, residents and reformers of Chicago still hoped for continued reform in Chicago

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous processing material Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous humor. Collection and Processing of Aqueous Humor Aqueous humor... ... Source: Johnson, Mark - Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University Collection:...

  14. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  15. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

  16. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  17. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  18. aqueous phase equilibria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the equilibrium constant () as a function of pressure of reaction. At equilibrium, the free energy of reaction must be zero. There are two general methods Holliday, Vance T. 3...

  19. aqueous phase catalysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    corroborate asymmetry of catalysis in F0F1-ATP synthase. Zarrabi, Nawid; Diez, Manuel; Graeber, Peter; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Boersch, Michael 2007-01-01 292 Magnetic catalysis in hot...

  20. Integrated process and apparatus for the primary and secondary catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for the essentially autothermal, integrated primary and secondary reforming of hydrocarbons comprising: (a) an internally insulated outer reactor shell adapted for the positioning of primary and secondary reforming zones therein; (b) means defining a primary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell and having catalyst-containing reformer tubes positioned therein, the primary reforming zone not requiring an external fuel fired source of heat for the endothermic primary reforming reaction occurring therein; (c) means for introducing a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream and steam to the outer reactor shell for passage through the reformer tubes in the primary reforming zone; (d) means defining a secondary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell comprising a secondary reforming catalyst bed, a catalyst-free reaction space defining a feed end adjacent to the catalyst bed and a discharge end at the opposite side of the secondary reforming catalyst bed to the feed end; and (e) conduit means positioned entirely within the outer reactor shell and extending through the secondary reforming catalyst bed for passing partly reformed product effluent from the primary reforming zone to the catalyst-free reaction space in the secondary reforming zone.

  1. The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Trudy

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these ...

  2. Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization E. DANIAU* , M. BOUCHEZ in a Scramjet combustion chamber. Another critical point is that mixing and combustion should be sufficiently

  3. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors...

  4. Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

  5. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Senior Advisor to the Secretary Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform 2-11-15JohnMacWilliams FT HOGR.pdf More Documents & Publications Testimony Before...

  6. Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3...

  7. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    X , H 2 2:15 pm Break 2:30 pm 3:45 pm X Arlene Anderson, 4:00 pm Adjourn Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming , National Renewable Energy Lab Investigation of Reaction Networks and...

  8. Electricity Reform in Argentina: Lessons for Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensivereform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries onlyChile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces...

  9. Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClendon, Rodney Prescott

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The study examined urban university faculty members’ perceptions of their presidents’ leadership role in urban school reform. The population for this study consisted of faculty members from five urban research universities. All of the universities...

  10. Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Catalysts for autothermal reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,110,861) awarded Oct 2000: CRADA w/H2Fuel to commercialize reformer Aug 2001: Began work on perovskite catalysts Feb 2002: CRADA w/Süd-Chemie to optimize catalyst performance Oct 2002: Demonstrated conversion

  11. The Dynamics of Reform of India’s Federal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    very different set of policies, India has followed China inIssues in Tax Policy and Reform in India, paper presented atWater Disputes in India: Institutions and Policies,” in

  12. Chemical simulation of hydrogen generation in a plasma fuel reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margarit Bel, Nuria, 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for a plasma fuel reformer or plasmatron has been developed. The model was based in a series of experiments realized at the Plasma Science and Fusion Center with such a plasmatron. The device is set up to produce ...

  13. Isle of Eigg : land reform, people, and power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Daniel Rhys

    2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An historiographical analysis of the present political debates regarding land reform in Scotland provides the point of departure for a case study of the Isle of Eigg and the 1997 purchase of the island by the Isle ofEigg ...

  14. ISSN 1745-9648 Organisation and Reforms of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    of liberalisation of the Slovenian electricity market to a large extent resembles what other EU countries were: electricity reform, restructuring, competition, South East Europe, liberalisation #12;2 Acknowledgements

  15. A cross country analysis of electricity market reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    econometric model based on Poisson regression with cross-section data covering 51 US states, 13 Canada states and 51 other countries. The results show that both the background of the chairperson of electricity market regulatory agency when reforms started...

  16. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  17. Evaluation of reformed methanol as an automotive engine fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, David M

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF REFORMED METHANOL AS AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE FUEL A Thesis by DAVID MICHAEL MCCALL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1903 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EVALUATION OF REFORMED METHANOL AS AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE FUEL A Thesis by DAVID MICHAEL MCCALL Approved as to style and content by: Dr. T. R. Lalk (Chairman o f Committee ) Dr. R. R. Davison (Member...

  18. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles [1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H{sub 2} has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2} [2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines [3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H{sub 2} from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H{sub 2} for large-scale manufacturing processes.

  19. LONG-TERM STABILITY TESTING RESULTS USING SURROGATES AND SORBENTS FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ORGANIC AND AQUEOUS WASTESTREAMS - 10016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  20. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

  1. Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using...

  2. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

  3. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  4. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  5. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  6. Improve syngas production using autothermal reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, T.S.; Primdahl, I.I. (Haldor Topsoe, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas or syngas, i.e., mixtures of CO and H[sub 2], is a major route from hydrocarbons to many important bulk chemicals ranging from acetic acid to ammonia. Syngas conversion uses hydrocarbon feedstocks, steam, O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2], either separately or in combinations. Autothermal reforming (ATR) is a low-investment process using a simple reactor design. The process is soot-free due to burner design and fixed-bed catalyst. Developed in the late '50s, ATR's main application was for ammonia and methanol syntheses. In ammonia plants, hydrogen production was maximized by operating at high H[sub 2]O/C ratios ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 mole/mole. In methanol units, CO[sub 2] recycle adjusted the syngas composition. ATR is also used to co-produce CO and H[sub 2] as separate streams at H[sub 2]O/C ratios of 1.4 to 2.0 mole/mole. recent developments and optimizations allow cost-effective operation at very low H[sub 2]O/C feed ratios to produce CO-rich syngas. The paper describes the process, including feedstocks and reactor design, the chemical reactions, development and improvements to the process, test results, soot formation, burner design, burner testing, applications, thermodynamic calculations, industrial application, noncatalytic and catalytic partial oxidation, and future uses.

  7. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Langton, C.A.; Harley, W.W.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply. 4 figures.

  8. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickett, John B. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Martin, Hollis L. (Rt. 1, Box 188KB, McCormick, SC 29835); Langton, Christine A. (455 Sumter St. SE., Aiken, SC 29801); Harley, Willie W. (110 Fairchild St., Batesburg, SC 29006)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

  9. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water may be extracted from aqueous calcium acetate or sodium acetate solutions using low miscibility, low molecular weight tertiary amines, e.g. triethylamine (TEA) and N,N- dietliylmethylaniine (DEMA). This novel extraction technology...

  10. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  11. Chemical Models for Aqueous Biodynamical Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

    1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proton inventory method was applied to the study of three processes: the viscous flow of water, the neutral hydrolysis of esters, and the exchange reaction between aqueous sodium ion and the carboxylic exchanger Amberlite ...

  12. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  13. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  14. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  15. The use of advanced steam reforming technology for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbishaw, J.B.; Cromarty, B.J. [ICI Katalco, Billingham (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demand for supplementary hydrogen production in refineries is growing significantly world-wide as environmental legislation concerning cleaner gasoline and diesel fuels is introduced. The main manufacturing method is by steam reforming. The process has been developed both to reduce the capital cost and increase efficiency, reliability and ease of operation. ICI Katalco`s Leading Concept Hydrogen or LCH process continues this process of improvement by replacing the conventional fired steam reformer with a type of heat exchange reformer known as the Gas Heated Reformer or GHR. The GHR was first used in the Leading Concept Ammonia process, LCA at ICI`s manufacturing site at Severnside, England and commissioned in 1988 and later in the Leading Concept Methanol (LCM) process for methanol at Melbourne, Australia and commissioned in 1994. The development of the LCH process follows on from both LCA and LCM processes. This paper describes the development and use of the GHR in steam reforming, and shows how the GHR can be used in LCH. A comparison between the LCH process and a conventional hydrogen plant is given, showing the benefits of the LCH process in certain circumstances.

  16. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  17. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    leg) 8 2004 DEER Conference September 2, 2004 Experimental Setup NOx Trap Engine Reformer Diesel Air Power NOx Trap NOx Trap Engine NOx Trap Diesel Diesel Fuel Reformer Setup...

  18. FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

  19. Bargaining in the Chinese Leviathan: An Examination on the Steel Industry after China's SOE Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zichao

    2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis centers on the competitions between enterprises in the steel industry in China after the SOE (state-owned enterprises) reform, which can be viewed as a case for mass economic reforms within Chinese Leviathan. To examine the effect...

  20. The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a...

  1. Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

  2. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. Abstract: Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared...

  3. Voluntary Disclosure and Information Asymmetry: Evidence from the 2005 Securities Offering Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHROFF, NEMIT

    In 2005, the Securities and Exchange Commission enacted the Securities Offering Reform (Reform), which relaxes “gun-jumping” restrictions, thereby allowing firms to more freely disclose information before equity offerings. ...

  4. Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of Copenhagen and RDRC ABSTRACT Globalization poses special challenges for economies in transition, particularly1 Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques undermine reform and structural adjustments efforts in this important emerging Asian economy. Key words

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - agricultural price reforms Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T Y J A N U A R Y 1 1 , 2 0 1 0 You Get What You Pay For: The Obama Approach to Health Care Reform 12... fundamental issues in health care reform 12;Coverage is actually quite...

  6. From negotiation to auction : Land-Conveyance Reform in China and its institutional and social impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhiyu (Zhiyu Jerry)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The land market and the associated land-development-control mechanism in China have been experiencing a series of reforms since the 1990s, of which Land Conveyance Reform (LCR) in 2004 is a very recent and an important ...

  7. Hydrocarbon autothermal reforming program. Final technical report, 28 September 1979-31 October 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, D.O.; Lewis, P.F.; Lord, G.W.; Yarrington, R.M.; Hwang, H.S.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the PSI program was to understand the mechanisms of the formation of carbon deposits under conditions relevant to authothermal reformers (ATR). The first year of this two year program was dedicated almost entirely to investigations of gas phase soot formation. It was speculated that soot could form in the gas phase and deposit downstream in the catalyst bed. A high temperature experimental test rig was constructed and comptuer models developed to aid in understanding this process. The conclusion of these studies is that soot does not form in the gas phase upstream of the catalyst bed, under ATR conditions, at least, not under well mixed conditions. In the second year, the program was redirected to study carbon formation processes on surfaces and to perform testing and analysis of Engelhard's six inch ATR rig. This work has resulted in an operational computer code for use in modeling the Engelhard ATR. This code requires rate constant information for performance prediction. The PSI laboratory experiments have shown that coke formation on surfaces of nickel catalysts is very rapid, particularly from olefins. Filamentary carbon was formed. Various relevant processes and their relative rates were studied on various nickel surfaces. Coke was not observed when precious metal catalysts were used. Testing on the Engelhard reactor was performed. These preliminary tests show that the Engelhard catalysts can be used to reform number two fuel oil with no problems associated with carbonaceous deposits. Some hydrocarbon breakthrough was observed, increasing at low oxygen to carbon ratio (0.355). These limited data clearly indicate a high potential for a useful ATR. Further testing and analysis are clearly necessary.

  8. Neutron diffraction studies of nickel-containing perovskite oxide catalysts exposed to autothermal reforming environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mawdsley, J. R.; Vaughey, J. T.; Krause, T. R.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Six nickel-containing perovskite oxides (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})M{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O{sub 3{+-}{delta}}, where x = 0 or 0.2 and M = Cr, Fe, or Mn were used to catalyze the autothermal reforming of isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) into a hydrogen-rich gas during short-term tests at 700 C. To determine the phase stability of the samples in the reducing environment of the reforming reactor, characterization studies of the as-prepared and tested perovskite samples were conducted using powder X-ray diffraction, powder neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. We determined that the reducing conditions of the microreactor caused metallic nickel to form in all six compositions. However, the extent of the nickel loss from the perovskite lattices varied: the chromium-containing compositions lost the least nickel, compared to the manganese- and iron-containing compositions, and the strontium-free compositions lost more nickel than their strontium-containing analogs. Five of the six perovskite compositions tested showed no breakdown of the perovskite lattice despite the loss of nickel from the B-sites, producing only the third example of a B-cation-deficient, 3d transition-metal-containing perovskite.

  9. Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

  10. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  11. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  12. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  13. Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

  14. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  15. DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Jill M.

    DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS* Zack Cooper, Stephen Gibbons, Simon Jones and Alistair McGuire Recent substantive reforms to the English with fixed prices. This study investigates whether these reforms led to improvements in hospital quality. We

  16. Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Grant J.

    Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform Brendan Daley Erik Snowberg Duke reform alleviates this phenomenon and improves voter welfare at the expense of politicians. Thus, we expect successful politicians to oppose true campaign finance reform. We also show our model

  17. Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of Education and Budapest Business School #12;Copyright reform on the EU level What can science and education expect from a copyright reform on the EU level? Rainer Kuhlen University of Konstanz, HumboldtUniversity Berlin, IPR

  18. BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    107 BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA OR THE SEARCH FOR A "MODERN" of the country. The dominant role of secularist elites paved the way for the "reform of Islam." This process in the organization and reform of official religious institutions. For example, it interfered in the organization

  19. WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 1 Department for Education: Reform of the National Curriculum in England CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 2

  20. Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical production from simultaneous steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane using an ac corona discharge production has been steam reforming, shown in reaction 4. It is very useful to use low-cost materials

  1. SOFC Long Term Operation in Pure Methane by Gradual Internal Reforming S. Georgesa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SOFC Long Term Operation in Pure Methane by Gradual Internal Reforming S. Georgesa , N. Baillya , M was designed to be operated in pure methane, without reforming or carrier gas. The fuel cell was built up from-CGO catalytic layer. The operation principle is based on Gradual Internal Reforming. After an initiation in H2

  2. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation -August 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation - August 2013 1 Ofqual: GCSE reform consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust August 2013 Key points and indirect practical assessment in its reform proposals. The total contribution of direct and indirect

  3. August 15, 2013 Bargaining Update 8: UC stresses fair compensation and reasonable pension reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    reform UC stressed with the California Nurses Association on Aug. 6-8, 2013 the need to reach a fair's market. UC's pension reform proposal calls for: · Employees hired before July 1, 2013: UC would in substantive negotiations over responsible and necessary pension reform. CNA has not accepted UC's pension

  4. Inequality and the Politics of Social Policy Implementation: Gender, Age and Chile's 2004 Health Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Reforms CHRISTINA EWIG and GASTO´ N A. PALMUCCI * University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Summary implementation. We examine the 2004 Chilean health reforms that sought to regulate private insurers, and measure their effects on gender and age inequality. We find that reforms intended to decrease these inequalities largely

  5. Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzdial, Mark

    1 Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1 Mark Guzdial1, Matthew educational reform efforts, but there are many challenges to face before achieving that vision. Two attempting to use this tool to leverage a particular kind of educational reform goal: Achieving integration

  6. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    process of a solar reformer of dry methane reforming was proposed to operate in a temperature range of 600SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 including lower melting point, thermal and chemical stability, acting simultaneously as heat transport

  7. THE CALIFORNIAN MODEL AS THE PARADIGM FOR SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN LATINAMERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    THE CALIFORNIAN MODEL AS THE PARADIGM FOR SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN LATINAMERIC Hugh Rudnick for a second stage of reform, establishing highly flexible mechanisms of decentralised exchanges, and achieving about the validity of this new paradigm for second stage reforms. They question themselves

  8. Method for improving catalyst function in auto-thermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  9. 2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogas reformation Shift reactorShift reactor Selective oxidation of COSelective oxidation of CO Fuel cellFuel cell2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S

  10. Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    situation: health care and retirement. First, Medicaid expenditures, already a substantial share of state1 Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State errors, are those of the authors alone. I.The Urgent Need for Reform Public pension reform is a national

  11. PHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    and describe two state-based reforms underway in Wisconsin's health care industry. Topics/Readings The Big Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Current State-Level Trends and Health Reforms The SyllabusPHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011 Course Overview

  12. Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health care reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law (P.L. 111-148). This major reform to health care certainly has had and will continue to have

  13. The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, �mer L.

    premixed combustion. When the reformate gas is added, the formation of NO is reduced in a near advantage of the reformate gas enriched lean premixed combustion is that it greatly reduces the formation combustion; Fuel enrichment; NOX; Extinction limit; Reformate gas 1. Introduction Lean premixed combustion

  14. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  15. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

  16. ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform on Consumers by Catherine Waddams Price ESRC, University of East Anglia CCP Working Paper 08-7 Abstract: We examine the effect of current electricity, where household expenditure surveys and electricity tariffs are available, we analyse the effects

  17. French public management reform: an evaluation Gilles Jeannot, Danile Guillemot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    shared opposition in principle to certain New Public Management precepts (especially benchmarking1 French public management reform: an evaluation Gilles Jeannot, Danièle Guillemot International journal of public sector management, vol 26, n° 4, 2013, p. 283-297 Comparative research depicts France

  18. Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate Xiaoping Wang, Theodore Krause, and Romesh Kumar Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2003 Merit Review Berkeley, CA May 19-22, 2003 #12;Argonne Electrochemical Technology

  19. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

  20. DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel-Cell/Reformer Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel-Cell/Reformer Systems at Low/Medium/High Production Rates Brian system · Direct hydrogen fuel cell system (with 5kpsi H2 storage) 2. Determine costs for system ·Fuel cell stacks ·Air supply and humidification ·Thermal management ·Water management ·Fuel Supply

  1. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  2. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia by Sandra Jednak Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Serbia have been started, and certain results were achieved. But, the electric power infrastructure decided whether the Serbian Electric Power Industry will be privatised, and if it is privatised which

  3. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania by Oana Diaconu Department of Economics and Management-11 Abstract: Romania is a net exporter of electricity to the SE Europe region. Its performance of this role for international transmission. Romania has committed itself to an electricity restructuring plan that includes

  4. The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regions include stimulating private sector financing, increasing operational and managerial efficiencies and lowering electricity tariffs #12;The CDM and renewable energy · Power sector reforms could potentially require higher investments for electricity generation than conventional fuel projects · Can also offer

  5. ISSN 1745-9648 Potential Impact of Electricity Reforms on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    reforming her energy sector in line with EU Energy Acquis since 2001. Introducing a cost reflective tariff Bagdadioglu Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University & Alparslan Basaran Department of Public for price changes, and consumption information from the 2003 Turkish Household Expenditure Survey. Turkey

  6. Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    #12;Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of methane #12-90-365-2985-3, DOI 10.3990/1.9789036529853 #12;INTEGRATED AUTOTHERMAL REACTOR CONCEPTS FOR OXIDATIVE COUPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.5 Dual function catalyst particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6 Autothermal

  7. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS Improving health care quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of health care (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives. Key Words: Informatics; health care. ª

  8. Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Will Impact Small Employer Health requirements, the function of health insurance exchanges and the future of employer-sponsored health insurance Shield of Texas Katrina Daniel Associate Commissioner, Life, Accident and Health Section Regulatory

  9. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su University INTRODUCTION Energy consumption continues to skyrocket worldwide. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel

  10. First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhala, Raj

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India's first generation external sector reforms are a fascinating case study of emergence from a post-Independence socialist-style economy to the world’s largest free market democracy. Part I of this article reviews the Indian license Raj system...

  11. Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous media treatment Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous heterogeneous porous media. Proceedings... . Dickenson, E. and Rashidi, M. 1996. Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media... in aqueous...

  13. Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to the NHS Future Forum inquiry into the NHS reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    into the NHS reforms October 2011 1 NHS Future Forum: Inquiry into the NHS reforms Response by the Wellcome focus primarily on the impact of the reforms on health research and innovation, which run throughout the Future Forum's four themes. 3. The reforms of the NHS and public health systems must bring about

  14. Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    : Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications December 2012 Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 science skills. 2. We are pleased to have the opportunity to respond to the consultation on reforms to Key consultations on the reform to curriculum and assessment at various stages of schooling. There is an opportunity

  15. Momentum, Heat, and Neutral Mass Transport in Convective Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Liquid Systems and Implications for Aqueous Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, Alexander; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 $\\mu$m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results fro...

  16. HH22 Reformer, Fuel Cell Power Plant,Reformer, Fuel Cell Power Plant, & Vehicle Refueling System& Vehicle Refueling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sufficient hydrogen demand develops. #12;4 Relevant DOE Program Objectives Reduce dependence on foreign oil Promote use of diverse, domestic energy resources ­ Natural gas reformation Develop and demonstrate on test fill tank, CNG/H2 ICE vehicles and H2 Fuel Cell vehicles. Fuel dispensing integrated with City

  17. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  18. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  19. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  20. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  1. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  2. Method for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMonbrun, James R. (Knoxville, TN); Schmitt, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous systems containing components composed of aluminum, copper, iron, or alloys thereof. The method comprises (a) incorporating in the aqueous medium 2-10 ppm by weight of tolyltriazole; an effective amount of a biodegradable organic biocide; 500-1000 ppm by weight of sodium metasilicate; 500-2000 ppm by weight of sodium nitrite; and 500-2000 ppm by weight of sodium tetraborate, all of these concentrations being based on the weight of water in the system; and (b) maintaining the pH of the resulting system in the range of 7.5 to 8.0. The method permits longterm operation with very low corrosion rates and bacteria counts. All of the additives to the system are biodegradable, permitting the treated aqueous medium to be discharged to the environment without violating current regulations. The method has special application to solar systems in which an aqueous medium is circulated through aluminum-alloy heat exchangers.

  3. Diesel-engine fumigation with aqueous ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, S.L.; Stephenson, K.Q.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three cylinder, two cycle diesel engine, rated at 22KW at 2300 rpm, was fumigated with ethanol of 140-to-200 proofs. P-T diagrams and engine performance were analyzed with particular emphasis on the detection and evaluation of the knock phenomenon. Satisfactory full load operation was obtained with thirty percent of the fuel energy supplied as aqueous ethanol.

  4. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  5. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  6. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  8. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  9. Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

    2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration.

  10. Ion acceleration processes at reforming collisionless shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. E. Lee; S. C. Chapman; R. O. Dendy

    2004-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The identification of pre-acceleration mechanisms for cosmic ray ions in supernova remnant shocks is an important problem in astrophysics. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) shock simulations have shown that inclusion of the full electron kinetics yields non-time-stationary solutions, in contrast to previous hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations. Here, by running a PIC code at high phase space resolution, ion acceleration mechanisms associated with the time dependence of a supercritical collisionless perpendicular shock are examined. In particular the components of $\\int \\mathbf{F} \\cdot \\mathbf{v} dt$ are analysed along trajectories for ions that reach both high and low energies. Selection mechanisms for the ions that reach high energies are also examined. In contrast to quasi-stationary shock solutions, the suprathermal protons are selected from the background population on the basis of the time at which they arrive at the shock, and thus are generated in bursts.

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous humor enhances Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aqueous Humor through Microporous... recently been shown that aqueous ... Source: Johnson, Mark - Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University Collection:...

  12. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  13. Voting Systems and Election Reform: What Do Election Officials Think?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jennifer; Gray, Marshall; Hodges, Joshua; Jewell, Jeff; Larson, Marcia; Mitchell, Ryan; Murello, Erin; Murello, Steve; Reeves, Alice; Siddique, Julie

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and systems, local election officials face different constraints and institutional arrangements depending on their state. The Election Reform Information Project?s research found a diverse set of ?power-sharing arrangements ranging from elections run... obscure but powerful group of administrators: election board officials at the state and local level. Second, Florida highlighted the role that existing voting technology plays in shaping the number of votes counted and, in particular, problems...

  14. National Development and Reform Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte3Informationof EnergyNapaInformationand Reform Commission

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  16. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  17. Autothermal reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas:reference: KBR paper #2031.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, David (KBR, Houston, TX); Rice, Steven, D.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sued-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO{sub 2} in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO{sub 2} in the oxidation chemistry.

  18. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  19. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, C?lin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  20. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  1. Reformer-pressure swing adsorption process for the production of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for the production of carbon monoxide by the steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described comprising: (a) catalytically reacting a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a steam reformer; (b) passing the reformer effluent containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the steam reformer, without scrubbing to remove the carbon dioxide content thereof, to a pressure swing adsorption system having at least four adsorbent beds, each bed of which, on a cyclic basis, undergoes a processing sequence; (c) recycling the carbon dioxide-rich stream to the steam reformer for reaction with additional quantities of the hydrocarbon feed stream being passed to the stream reformer to form additional quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with product recovery being enhanced and the need for employing a carbon dioxide wash system being obviated.

  2. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  3. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  4. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  5. A review of "Reformation and Religious Identity in Cambridge, 1590-1644" by David Hoyle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, Brad S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a deeply anti-Roman ?prevailing consensus? (69) among Reformed Protestant theologians of various stripes from the 1590s through the 1610s, centered around concerns such as predestination, election, assurance, and perseverance. Theologians... with and part of the pre-Reformation Catholic past? As Hoyle himself suggests (5), much of the material he covers will be familiar to scholars of the period. His treatment of a late Elizabethan church that was fundamentally Reformed Protestant in its...

  6. Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (75%) Char (13%) Gas (12%) Catalytic Auto-thermal Reforming of Bio-Oil at 650oC: 0.71 CH1.98O0.76 + 0 Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1 Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - autothermal steam reforming Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ITM) Reactor - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Autothermal Reforming (ATR) - Praxair Inc. 12... sequestration. 2005 2010 2013 2015 12;Barriers to Hydrogen Production...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - autothermal reformer catalyst Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ITM) Reactor - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Autothermal Reforming (ATR) - Praxair Inc. 12... 95% of the hydrogen used to supplement refinery and chemical industry...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - autothermal reformer processes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ITM) Reactor - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Autothermal Reforming (ATR) - Praxair Inc. 12... Hydrogen Coordination Meeting Arthur Hartstein Program Manager Natural...

  10. Corporate governance reform in a developing country : the case of Bangladesh 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobhan, Md. Abdus

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Bangladesh reformed its corporate governance by adopting Bangladesh Corporate Governance Guidelines-2006 (the BCGG-2006 hereafter) due to pressures from international financial institutions (IFIs). However, there is huge ...

  11. Regulatory Reform in the Wake of the Financial Crisis of 2007—2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Andrew W.

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse regulatory reform in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2008.

  12. Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    11 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China: Resources Population Rice Fruit #12;12 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics dominate domestic production

  13. Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

  14. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  15. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - agrarian reform process Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peace Agreement... and adopt entrenched positions in support of their interests. In Nepal, land reform is a constant source... groups. One of the main sources of conflict is...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - actinide reformer concept Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF PEANUT Summary: gasification -Storable inter. reforming: ethanol methanol methane Pyrolysis oil + + Figure 1. Overall concept... ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN...

  18. Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennings, Ulrich

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has… (more)

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - abortion law reform Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Hagen Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 30 Health Care Reform Law Challenged in Courts President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, signed into...

  20. At the Nexus of Social Policy and Capital Markets: Pension Reform and Enterprise Governance in Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, J. Nicholas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company Pension Schemes in Germany,” Monthly Report, March.2001. “Pension Reform in Germany,” draft chapter in R. Kentof Stakeholderism in Germany,”forthcoming, Industrielle

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - arc plasma-catalyst reformer Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: by reforming their political institutions. States such as Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Taiwan and East... systems and other key democratic...

  2. The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Tiffany Linton

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela. Bengelsdorf, Carollee.Crisis and Reform in Venezuela. ” Journal of Interamerican2):27-61. Datamonitor. (2004). “Venezuela Country Profile. ”

  3. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid...

  4. Mayors, Markets and Municipal Reform: The Politics of Water Delivery in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Veronica Maria Sol

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bank and Policy Reform in Mexico and Argentina. ” Latinand policies, such as Pinochet’s Chile, Menem’s Argentina, and

  5. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

  6. Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aldehydes solid phase Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for Summary: aldehyde 14 (50.1 mg, 0.200 mmol, 79% yield) as a white solid. Flash chromatographic purification (25... , and the aqueous phase was extracted with Et2O...

  8. High School Principals' Perceptions of Their Effectiveness in Leading District Initiated High School Reform: An Analysis of High School Principals Previously Engaged in High School Reform in an Urban Texas School District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rios, Carlos

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    school reform. However, to date, research has not provided examples of a successful relationship between campus principals as a collective group and the district (central office) leadership team attempting to implement district-wide high school reform...

  9. A study of land reform and its impact in the Greater Letaba Local Municipality of the Mopani District in the Limpopo Province.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malahlela, Tebogo.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Since the dawn of democracy in South Africa, numerous land reform projects have been approved by the Minister of Rural Development and Land Reform. This… (more)

  10. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00192

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czernik, S.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is for Chevron and NREL to collaborate in determining the effect of bio-oil composition variability on autothermal reforming performance including bio-oil volatilization, homogeneous oxidative cracking, and catalytic reforming.

  11. Land reform, regional planning and socioeconomic development in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, Saulo

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    baseline study of PCT settings 96 4.1 Introduction 96 4.2 Access to land under the Land Bill Programme 99 4.3 Agriculture and livestock production on PCT settlements 111 4.4 The standard of living of PCT beneficiaries 119 4.5 The surveyed sites vis... of governance for plan-led land reform 145 Figure 5.3: An illustrative diagram for the regional planning cycle 180 10 ABBREVIATIONS CONTAG National Confederation of Agricultural Workers FUNDEB Basic Education Fund HDI...

  12. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

  13. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle BatteryofDisabilityDistributed Bio-Oil Reforming

  14. HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change Health reform will touch all of oHsu's missions. the coming changes are about more than public policy and health insurance. We will see transformation in how care is delivered, how health professionals are trained and how we decide what health care to buy. oHsu's missions

  15. ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT SHELLS, and academic organizations is developing a steam reforming process to be demonstrated on the gaseous byproducts of this engineering demonstration project. After an initial problem with the heaters that required modification

  16. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform February 16, 2010 recommended formation of an ad hoc committee to evaluate opportunities for SFR and others in College. As a result, the Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform ad hoc Committee was established and given

  17. Development of a comprehensive reporting system for a school reform organization: The Accelerated Schools Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jennifer Anne

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    on the evaluation procedures of whole-school reform organizations. Because the ultimate goal is to improve school performance, it should also be a goal of each whole-school reform organization to design a comprehensive data collection system to evaluate each school...

  18. Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-069 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms? Catherine D;1 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?1 By Catherine D. Wolfram2 Britain was one of the first countries to liberalize its electricity industry when it restructured and privatized

  19. PHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    and Affordable Care Act Current State-Level Trends and Health Reforms The Syllabus includes a variety of readingPHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform Course Overview and Syllabus Description: Overview of the state initiatives in health care coverage, access, and costs, trends

  20. Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    1 Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform Joseph White Ph.D John G will not pretend to fully explain the politics of health care reform in the U.S.. I could make many other caveats is to give you some interesting ideas that you might use in thinking about American government. Health care

  1. Agenda Setting And The Role Of Leadership In National Health Care Reform During The Early 1990s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael S,

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Health care reform was the dominant issue on the political agenda during the early 1990s. Few issues

  2. A review of "Godly Reformers and their Opponents in Early Modern England: Religion in Norwich." by Matthew Reynolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Geoff

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relatively uncontested Reformation, Norwich became Protestant ?in a process that was far from quiet? (35). The religious divisions the Reformation created remained rife, providing Laudian reforms with a measure of lay support within the city, which in turn... part of James? reign. Religious division was widespread, evident amongst the higher clergy attached to the Cathedral, where relations were defined by a split between those who stood against further reform and evangelical Protestants. In civic politics...

  3. GOVERNMENT VERSUS GOVERNANCE AS A FRAMEWORK Government versus Governance as a Framework to analyze Mexico's Energy Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    branch, the oil company PEMEX' union, other critics of the reform among a part of the left party Partido

  4. Studies on multi-phase equilibrium separation of hydrocarbon/water systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chawla, Inderjit Singh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -phase equilibria for systems containing water, and simplify the programming technique. This scheme checks the existence of three-phase flash at given reservoir conditions, and if three-phase flash (vapor-oleic-aqueous) doesn't exist, it automatically switches...

  5. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS NaCl SOLUTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aqueous electrolyte solutions are required in the development and uti1 ization of geothermal energy, petroleum recovery, desalination of sea water, and other energy systems...

  6. acid aqueous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer radical polymerization technique ... Yao, Jia 3 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  7. acidic aqueous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer radical polymerization technique ... Yao, Jia 3 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  8. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks."Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 43(9):1999-2004. Authors: DC...

  9. MTR CONVERTER WITH AQUEOUS BLANKET | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Reactors employing two different arrangements of the aluminum-clad MTR- type fuel elements and an aqueous solution ''blanket'' are considered for...

  10. aqueous liquid waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Majda 2005-01-01 18 Momentum, Heat, and Neutral Mass Transport in Convective Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Liquid Systems and Implications for Aqueous Targets CERN Preprints...

  11. aqueous sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity, 771, for PDMDAAC fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light Dubin, Paul D. 32 Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous...

  12. aqueous solution route: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  13. aqueous solutions gamma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  14. aqueous benzene solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  15. aqueous libr solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  16. aqueous solutions experimental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  17. aqueous solution importance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  18. aqueous methanol solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  19. aqueous alkaline solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  20. aqueous solution investigations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  1. aqueous solution method: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  2. aqueous solution extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  3. aqueous solution extractions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  4. aqueous methanol solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  5. alkaline aqueous solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  6. aqueous alkaline solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  7. aqueous solutions decoration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrosoluble Polymers in Aqueous Solutions: Decoration Versus Bridging. a Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: In this paper we examine the...

  8. Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

  9. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  10. Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken with so little public debate or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken reform is unique neither in terms of its controversial substance nor in its lack of meaningful democratic processes. In the past, major immigration reform has typically been the result of parliamentary deliberation

  11. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

  12. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

  13. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  14. Fiftieth CCR reformer goes on stream in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The fiftieth continuous catalytic reformer built since this technology was introduced by UOP Process Division in 1971 has gone on stream in West Germany. The 21,300-b/sd unit is in Deutsche Shell AG's Godorf refinery. It is the sixth such unit put in service by Shell International. Others are in refineries at Harburg, West Germany; Shellhaven, England; Palau Bokum, Singapore; Pernis, Netherlands; and Geelong, Australia. CCR units operate at much higher severity than older reforming units. Severity is a function of higher octane, lower pressure, and feedstock. The operating severity or catalyst deactivation rate may be 20 times that of high pressure, low octane units. Continuous catalyst regeneration is then the key for maintaining long-term operations at steady state conditions. To facilitate continuous catalyst regeneration, the three reactors are stacked. This design permits the catalyst to move in essentially plug flow through the reactors at a rate determined by the rate of catalyst withdrawal to the regeneration section.

  15. [98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

  16. Synthesis And Characterization of Pt Clusters in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siani, A.; Wigal, K.R.; Alexeev, O.S.; Amiridis, M.D.

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to monitor the various steps involved in the synthesis of unprotected and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-protected aqueous colloidal Pt suspensions. The results indicate that on hydrolysis of the H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} precursor, the Cl{sup -} ligands were partially replaced by aquo ligands in the first coordination shell of Pt to form [PtCl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sup 2+}. Treatment of these species with NaBH{sub 4} under controlled pH conditions led to the formation of nearly uniform Pt{sub 4} and Pt{sub 6} clusters in the absence and presence of PVA, respectively. These highly dispersed colloidal Pt suspensions were stable for several months. The addition of 2-propanol (IPA) to both types of Pt suspensions led to some sintering of the Pt clusters, although both suspensions retained their colloidal nature. Less sintering was evident in the PVA-protected Pt suspension. Both the unprotected and the PVA-protected colloidal Pt suspensions were catalytically active for the liquid-phase selective oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone, with the unprotected suspension exhibiting the highest activity.

  17. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 �������°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

  18. Hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells: a study of carbon formation on autothermal reforming catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, J.G.; Sheridan, D.M.; Wise, H.; Wood, B.J.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of carbon formation on nickel autothermal steam reforming catalysts has been studied by temperature-programming, thermogravimetric and electron microscopic techniques. Temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of carbon deposited on nickel reforming catalysts by the decomposition of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ exhibit seven forms of carbon that are distinguished by their characteristic reactivity with H/sub 2/ and 3.0-vol % H/sub 2/O/He. The relative population of the different carbon states depends primarily on the temperature during deposition. C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ exposure populates the same carbon states as C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ exposure but at approximately 100/sup 0/K lower deposition temperature. Similar carbon states were found on all nickel catalysts studies including Ni/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ni/MgO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ leading to the conclusion that the support has little effect on carbon deposit formation and reactivity. The reactivity of the carbon states is not altered by exposure to steam in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O mixtures, but the amount of carbon deposited decreases to zero as H/sub 2/O/C increases past a critical ratio.

  19. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  20. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M capture using monoethanolamine (MEA). MEA is an appropriate choice for a baseline study since

  1. Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruett, D.J.; Howerton, W.B.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 10/sup 3/ (vs approx. 500 for the Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 4/, respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 10/sup 4/.

  2. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  3. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  4. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  5. How fuel composition affects on-board reforming for fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Applegate, D. V.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Different blends of gasoline range hydrocarbons were investigated to determine the effect of aromatic, naphthenic, and paraffinic content on performance in an autothermal reformer. In addition, we investigated the effects of detergent, antioxidant, and oxygenate additives. These tests indicate that composition effects are minimal at temperatures of 800C and above, but at lower temperatures or at high gas hourly space velocities (GHSV approaching 100,000 h{sup -1} ) composition can have a large effect on catalyst performance. Fuels high in aromatic and naphthenic components were more difficult to reform. In addition, additives, such as detergents and oxygenates were shown to decrease reformer performance at lower temperatures.

  6. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous wastes wet Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluid Wastes General Description Light hydrocarbons & non aqueous solvents Medium to heavy... -weight hydrocarbons etc. Low water content aqueous wastes Dirty solvents High...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions application Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    '-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI), is faster at the airaqueous interface than in bulk aqueous solution... susceptibility to be probed. Aqueous solutions of malachite green...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous effluent decontamination Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous effluents. This ratio... treatment, CrVI 1 Introduction Industrial aqueous pollution (heavy metals) accounts for 30 to 40% of all... of the environment 2. This...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous systems part Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Edgar... aqueous droplets from entering the trap, thereby preventing unwanted cross contamination by other nearby... controlled and facile fusion of two aqueous droplets. The...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solubility dispersibility Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: independent aqueous species in terms of which all aqueous speciation,...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous tio2 suspensions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    endocrine Summary: nanocatalyst (using doping concentrations up to 2 wt.% Bi3+ ) under UV-A light in aqueous suspension. The pre... in aqueous suspension. The degradation of...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced aqueous processing Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of how aqueous redox reactions occur and from misunderstandings of the assumptions that enter... ) the existence and representation of the aqueous electron, (2) the kinetics of...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous bulk sample Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that aqueous processing has shifted some samples to heavier compositions. A lower bulk solar... processes involving aqueous fluids, given the potential solubility of lithium...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions affected Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Aqueous Lithium... -ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to ... Source: Cui, Yi - Department of Materials Science and...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution-gel syntheses Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Aqueous Lithium... -ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to ... Source: Cui, Yi - Department of Materials Science and...

  17. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  18. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming product under hydraulically unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J [ORNL] [ORNL; Rod, Kenton A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Bowden, Mark E [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL; Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Williams, Benjamin D [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Brown, Christopher F [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several candidates for supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) immobilization at the Hanford site in Washington State, USA are being considered. One waste sequestering technology considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The granular product resulting from the FBSR process is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals with a 1:1:1 molar ratio of Na, Al and Si. To demonstrate the durability of the product, which can be disposed of at the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford, a series of tests has been performed using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system, which allows for the accelerated weathering of the solid materials. The system maintains hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that will be present at the IDF. Two materials were tested using the system: 1) the FBSR granular product and 2) the FBSR granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer to form a monolith. Results of the experiments show a trend of relatively constant effluent concentration of Na, Si, Al, and Cs as a function of time from both materials. The elements I and Re show a steady release throughout the yearlong test from the granular material but their concentrations seem to be increasing at one year from the monolith material. This result suggests that these two elements may be present in the sodalite cage structure rather than in the predominant nepheline phase because their release occurs at a different rate compared to nepheline phase. Also, these elements to not seem to reprecipitate when released from the starting material. Calculated one-year release rates for Si are on the order of 10 6 g/(m2 d) for the granular material and 10 5 g/(m2 d) for the monolith material while Re release is seen to be two orders of magnitude higher than Si release rates. SEM imaging and XRD analysis show how the alteration of the two materials is dependent on their depth in the column. This phenomenom is a result of depth-dependent solution concentrations giving rise chemical environments that may be supersaturated with respect to a number of mineral phases.

  19. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  20. The wholesale market for electricity in England and Wales : recent developments and future reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeting, Andrew

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The England and Wales wholesale electricity market is about to undergo major reform (NETA). I describe and analyse the proposed arrangements, contrasting them with those currently in operation. I argue that while NETA will ...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - auto thermal reforming Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    psig H2 PSA Natural Gas Syngas CMP HX CMP HX Thermal... ACR is more cost effective 12;Praxair BP 7 Reformer Design 150 kW thermal NG unit 0 10 20 30 40 50... GE Autothermal...

  2. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet to be achieved with dual-mode-Ramjet (Ramjet under Mach 6 and Scramjet beyond) because of its high specific

  3. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet, since even composite materials can't withstand the large heat load found in a Scramjet combustion

  4. Deregulating and regulatory reform in the U.S. electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the evolution of wholesale and retail competition in the U.S electricity sector and associated industry restructuring and regulatory reforms. It begins with a discussion of the industry structure and ...

  5. An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory alters the makeup and responsibilities of Maine's Land Use Regulation Commission (LURC). It took effect on August 29, 2012 and...

  6. The impact of Basel II reforms : a contraction in SME lending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charpentier, Apolline

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The implementation of Basel II reforms has been designed to protect the international financial system from major bank collapses through the enforcement of minimum capital adequacy ratios. This new set of rules has raised ...

  7. A time for reform: the woman suffrage campaign in rural Texas, 1914-1919

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motl, Kevin Conrad

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    , and Ferguson's own tabloid Ferguson Forum, rural voters found themselves constantly bombarded by messages about how they should view questions of reform in their state. The organizational culture that sustained suffrage organizations in urban Texas failed to do...

  8. Periodicities in societal systems behaviors: relationships of economies, generations, and technologies to reforms in medical education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinra, Reva Elaine

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , Marchetti). In seeking to discover how medical education responds to such societal changes, this research analyzes past educational reforms in the context of concurrent social environments. By discovering temporal connections between cyclical behaviors...

  9. The Li'an ("Docketing") Process: Barriers to Initiating Lawsuits in China and Possible Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk, Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supreme People's Court ("SPC") found it necessary to pro-note 10, at 88-9. The 1999 SPC Five Year Reform Program ("On May 29, 1997, the SPC issued the Li'an ("Docketing") Work

  10. Kill Fewer, Kill Carefully: An Analysis of the 2006 to 2007 Death Penalty Reforms in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minas, Stephen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supreme People's Court ("SPC") review of every death sen-view of each sentence by the SPC. These reforms are the mostdoubts about whether the SPC would effectively implement

  11. Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

  12. Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for on- board hydrogen production for fuel-cell poweredSteam-Reforming Hydrogen production Reactors, M.S. Thesis,at the UC Davis Hydrogen Production and Utilization

  13. Effects of operating conditions, compression ratio, and gasoline reformate on SI engine knock limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerty, Michael D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each condition the effect of spark ...

  14. The risk of reform : privatisation and liberalisation in the Brazilian electric power industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tankha, Sunil, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1996, when Brazil was well-underway to privatising and liberalising its electric power industry, few would have predicted that within five years the reforms would be a shambles. Like its neighbors Argentina and Chile, ...

  15. Healthcare reform in the United States and China: pharmaceutical market implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daemmrich, Arthur; Mohanty, Ansuman

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . This article analyzes the implications of health system reforms in the United States and China for national pharmaceutical markets. It follows a historical institutionalist approach that identifies path dependency in the design and operation of national health...

  16. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Zhang, Gong (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  17. The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    157 He invoked Amartya Sen’s notion of development asby access reform à la Amartya Sen” 166 (Winoto 2006:81, bolddengan reformasi akses ala Amartya Sen. to mention the NARP

  18. Organizational sense making : responsibilities to the MCAS reform in the Massachusetts public schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Janice J., 1953-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Educational reform has become a central concern of public policy debates at both the state and federal level. The policy trend both nationally and locally is towards uniform standards in education, with testing as the ...

  19. The rules of ruling : charter reform in Los Angeles, 1850-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, James Warren

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and officers face the charter as a constant constraint. If centralized purchasingand Purchasing Agent. The Mayor would appoint these officerspurchasing, campaign finance reform, strengthen the recall to cover appointed officials and create staggered elections for officers.

  20. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  1. Admonition and the academy : installation, video, and performance art in Reform Era China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oen, Karin Grace

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's Reform Era (1978-present) has seen the reinvigoration of academic, and artistic practice, and a rapprochement between the Chinese Communist Party and the intellectual elite. At its beginnings in the early- to ...

  2. The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirlkel, Thomas E.

    2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

  3. Building the Reformed Kirk: the cultural use of ecclesiastical buildings in Scotland, 1560–1645 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernoff, Graham Thomas

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the built environment and culture of Scotland between 1560 and 1645 by analysing church buildings erected during the period. The mid-sixteenth century ecclesiastical Reformation and mid-seventeenth-century ...

  4. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

  5. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  6. Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  7. Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

  8. Evaluating the Evidence on Electricity Reform: Lessons for the South East Europe (SEE) Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    at evaluating the impact of any given step (e.g. privatisation or the introduction of incentive regulation etc.) problematic. These observations immediately give rise to the suggestion that it is not clear that a proper evaluation of the impact of electricity... .g. with a single reform variable) or to distinguish all the elements of reform carefully (e.g. incentive regulation). Clearly the ability of the model to deliver efficient investment, especially in generation, has not been established by econometrics...

  9. Reforming Small Power Systems under Political Volatility: The Case of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    electricity systems in Nepal and other South Asian countries are inefficient and suffer from institutionalized corruption and persistent rent seeking behaviour together with poor economic governance of the power sector (Smith, 2004). 3. Major Reforms... electricity reforms initiatives was mooted after the creation of NEA by merging the Electricity Department, Electricity Boards and Nepal Electricity Corporation in 1985 in accordance with the provisions of NEA Act of 1984 (Thakur, 2002). The establishment...

  10. Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  11. Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta...

  12. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  13. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  14. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  15. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for to

  16. aqueous adonitol dulcitol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hedoux; Yannick Guinet; Marc Descamps 2010-05-28 48 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  17. aqueous tetraethylammonium bromide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hedoux; Yannick Guinet; Marc Descamps 2010-05-28 90 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  18. aqueous kava piper: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hedoux; Yannick Guinet; Marc Descamps 2010-05-28 73 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  19. aqueous methyldiethanolamine mdea: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hedoux; Yannick Guinet; Marc Descamps 2010-05-28 56 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  20. Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daubon, Jose C

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a medical ultrasonic scanning device was studied as a measuring tool for determining the physical characteristics of soft porous media in an turbid aqueous environment. Three different sponge types were used as the soft objects. A method...

  1. aqueous medium formacion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  2. aqueous medium viewing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  3. aqueous alkaline medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which is essential for the formation Sahai, Nita 2 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  4. aqueous nacl solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  5. aqueous solutions issledovanie: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  6. aqueous solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  7. aqueous solutions salicylic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  8. aqueous solution complexacao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  9. aqueous solutions korroziya: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  10. aqueous cyanide solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  11. aqueous ampicillin solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  12. aqueous nacl solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  13. aqueous organic solvents: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excel 15 16... Choi, Jihyun 2000-01-01 2 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  14. aqueous solutions selection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relation Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 5 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  15. Fractionation of suspended aqueous materials using centrifugal elutriation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginn, Jon Stephen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and waste load allocation operations. Principles controlling the association of chemicals with solids are not fuBy understood. Sorption of hydrophobic chemicals onto soils, sediments and suspended aqueous materials is a unique reaction affecting the fate... of solids and particulate material. Centrifugal Elutriation, a common technique in the medical field to kactionate cells, was applied to the fracdonation of a series of suspended aqueous materiah into discrete mnges based on size snd density. Pericles were...

  16. Electrochemical Characterization of Liquid Phase Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Layers of Molybdenum Disulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrochemical Characterization of Liquid Phase Exfoliated Two- Dimensional Layers of Molybdenum of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) obtained by liquid phase exfoliation of bulk MoS2 powder in 1-dodecyl-2-pyrrolidinone. The specific capacitances of the exfoliated flakes obtained using a 6 M KOH aqueous solution

  17. Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, D. [RWE NUKEM, Ltd, 424 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX 110GJ (United Kingdom); Fowler, J.; Frier, S. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

  18. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  19. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelker, G.E.; Steedman, W.G. [Thermochem, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the treatment and disposal of an inventory of approximately 160,000 tons of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). Most of this LLMW is stored in drums, barrels and steel boxes at 20 different sites throughout the DOE complex. The basic objective of low-level mixed waste treatment systems is to completely destroy the hazardous constituents and to simultaneously isolate and capture the radionuclides in a superior final waste form such as glass. The DOE is sponsoring the development of advanced technologies that meet this objective while achieving maximum volume reduction, low-life cycle costs and maximum operational safety. ThermoChem, Inc. is in the final stages of development of a steam-reforming system capable of treating a wide variety of DOE low-level mixed waste that meets these objectives. The design, construction, and testing of a nominal 1 ton/day Process Development Unit is described.

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  1. A novel technique for on-line coke gasification during propane steam reforming using forced CO2 cycling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alenazey, Feraih Sheradh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Steam reforming is an important source of synthesis gas production that is used by major petrochemical processes such as ammonia, methanol and the Fisher-Tropsch process.… (more)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A CO2 SEQUESTRATION MODULE BY INTEGRATING MINERAL ACTIVATION AND AQUEOUS CARBONATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; George Alexander

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mineral carbonation is a promising concept for permanent CO{sub 2} sequestration due to the vast natural abundance of the raw minerals, the permanent storage of CO{sub 2} in solid form as carbonates, and the overall reaction being exothermic. However, the primary drawback to mineral carbonation is the reaction kinetics. To accelerate the reaction, aqueous carbonation processes are preferred, where the minerals are firstly dissolved in solution. In aqueous carbonation, the key step is the dissolution rate of the mineral, where the mineral dissolution reaction is likely to be surface controlled. In order to accelerate the dissolution process, the serpentine can be ground to very fine particle size (<37 {micro}m), but this is a very energy intensive process. Alternatively, magnesium could be chemically extracted in aqueous solution. Phase I showed that chemical surface activation helps to dissolve the magnesium from the serpentine minerals (particle size {approx}100 {micro}m), and furthermore, the carbonation reaction can be conducted under mild conditions (20 C and 650 psig) compared to previous studies that required >185 C, >1850 psig and <37 {micro}m particle size. Phase I also showed that over 70% of the magnesium can be extracted at ambient temperature leaving amorphous SiO{sub 2} with surface areas {approx} 330m{sup 2}/g. The overall objective of Phase 2 of this research program is to optimize the active carbonation process developed in Phase I in order to design an integrated CO{sub 2} sequestration module. During the current reporting period, Task 1 ''Mineral activation'' was initiated and focused on a parametric study to optimize the operation conditions for the mineral activation, where serpentine and sulfuric acid were reacted, as following the results from Phase 1. Several experimental factors were outlined as having a potential influence on the mineral activation. This study has focused to date on the effects of varying the acid concentration, particle size, and the reaction time. The reaction yields and the characterization of the reaction products by ICP/AES, TGA, and BET analyses were used to describe the influence of each of the experimental variables. The reaction yield was as high as 48% with a 5M acid concentration, with lower values directly corresponding to lower acid concentrations. ICP/AES results are indicative of the selective dissolution of magnesium with reaction yields. Significant improvements in the removal of moisture, as observed from TGA studies, as well as in the dissolution can be realized with the comminution of particles to a D{sub 50} less than 125 {micro}m. A minimum threshold value of 3M concentration of sulfuric acid was determined to exist in terms of the removal of moisture from serpentine. Contrary to expected, the reaction time, within this design of experiments, has been shown to be insignificant. Potentially coupled with this unexpected result are low BET surface areas of the treated serpentine. These results are issues of further consideration to be addressed under the carbonation studies. The remaining results are as expected, including the dissolution of magnesium, which is to be utilized within the carbonation unit. Phase 1 studies have shown that carbonation reactions could be carried out under a milder regime through the implementation of NaOH titration with the magnesium solution. The optimization of acid concentration, particle size, and reaction temperature will ultimately be determined according to the carbonation efficiencies. Therefore and according to the planned project schedule, research efforts are moving into Task 2 ''Aqueous carbonation'' as the redesign of the reactor unit is nearly completed.

  3. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

  4. Aqueous Transition Metal Cations as Impurities in a Wide Gap Oxide: The Cu^2+/Cu^1+ and Ag^2+/Ag^1+ Redox Couples Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiandong; Cheng, Jun; Sprik, Michiel

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of 10ps. The longitudinal relaxation is more than a magnitude faster. Results and analysis Gas-phase Table 1 lists the calculated M-O bond lengths in the four gas-phase complexes we have investigated (see fig. 1). One can see that for the same number... containing a fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange. These calculations make use of recent progress in DFTMD technology enabling us to include sp core polarization and Hartree-Fock exchange in condensed phase model systems. Keywords Aqueous redox chemistry...

  5. Experimental and computational investigations of sulfur-resistant bimetallic catalysts for reforming of biomass gasification products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, Meghana; Yung, Matthew M.; Medlin, J. William (NREL); (Colorado)

    2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental studies of supported catalysts was used to identify H{sub 2}S-resistant biomass gasification product reforming catalysts. DFT calculations were used to search for bimetallic, nickel-based (1 1 1) surfaces with lower sulfur adsorption energies and enhanced ethylene adsorption energies. These metrics were used as predictors for H{sub 2}S resistance and activity toward steam reforming of ethylene, respectively. Relative to Ni, DFT studies found that the Ni/Sn surface alloy exhibited enhanced sulfur resistance and the Ni/Ru system exhibited an improved ethylene binding energy with a small increase in sulfur binding energy. A series of supported bimetallic nickel catalysts was prepared and screened under model ethylene reforming conditions and simulated biomass tar reforming conditions. The observed experimental trends in activity were consistent with theoretical predictions, with observed reforming activities in the order Ni/Ru > Ni > Ni/Sn. Interestingly, Ni/Ru showed a high level of resistance to sulfur poisoning compared with Ni. This sulfur resistance can be partly explained by trends in sulfur versus ethylene binding energy at different types of sites across the bimetallic surface.

  6. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  7. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  8. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  9. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability must not be compromised--binding agent should not react with the NAS product and binding agent should not create an unfavorable pH environment that may cause accelerated leaching. It is the goal of the present study to survey cementitious waste forms based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Ceramicrete, and hydroceramic binders by correlating waste loading, density and compressive strength and then determine if these binders affect the product performance in terms of the PCT response. This will be done by making a one-to-one comparison of the PCT response measured on granular NAS mineral product (mixed bed and fines products) with the PCT response of the monolithed NAS product in the different binders. Future studies may include, refining the above binders, and examining other binders. It is likely that binders formed from kaolin would be most compatible with the chemistry of the THOR{reg_sign} mineral waste form which is made by steam reforming of kaolin and sodium rich wastes. The economics of production on a large scale have yet to be investigated for any of the binders tested.

  10. Study of the dehydrochlorination of DDT in basic media in sulfobetaine aqueous micellar solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, A.; Mar Graciani, M. del; Guinda, A.; Munoz, M.; Moya, M.L.

    2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of dehydrochlorination of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, DDT, with hydroxide ions has been studied in aqueous micellar solutions of N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammino-1-propane-sulfonate, SB3-14, and N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, SB3-16. A simple expression for the observed rate constant, k{sub obs}, based on the pseudophase model, could explain the influence of changes in the surfactant concentration on k{sub obs}. The kinetic effects of added electrolytes (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, and NaNO{sub 3}) on the reaction rate in SB3-14 micellar media have also been studied. They were rationalized by considering the binding of the anions, which come from the added salt, to the sulfobetaine micelles and their competition with the reactive hydroxide ions for the micellar surface. Conductivity measurements have been a helpful tool in the discussion of the kinetic effects of added salts and permitted the estimation of equilibrium constants for the distribution of the anions between the zwitterionic micelles and the aqueous phase.

  11. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  12. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  13. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  14. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  15. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  16. Steam reforming on transition-metal carbides from density-functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction (CH_4 + H_2O -> CO + 3H_2) on early transition-metal carbides (TMC's) is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. The set of considered surfaces includes the alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, the low-index (111) and (100) surfaces of TiC, VC, and delta-MoC, and the oxygenated alpha-Mo_2C(100) and TMC(111) surfaces. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities towards the steam reforming reaction, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. The reactivity is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the clean surfaces. Two surfaces, the delta-MoC(100) and the oxygen passivated alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, are identified as promising steam reforming catalysts. These findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  17. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  18. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  19. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  20. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer