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1

Biosyngas Production in an Integrated Aqueous-Phase Glycerol Reforming/Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biosyngas Production in an Integrated Aqueous-Phase Glycerol Reforming/Chemical Looping Combustion Process ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2010), 49 (21), 10826-10835 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ...

Ion Iliuta; Maria C. Iliuta

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

2

Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

3

Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboartory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for {approx}50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R&D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant.

Jantzen, C

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Fluid Phase Equilibria 218 (2004) 221228 Phase equilibrium in aqueous two-phase systems containing ethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethylene oxide­propylene oxide block copolymers and dextran Eduardo dos Santos Tadaa, Watson Loha,1, Pedro equilibrium of aqueous two-phase systems containing the polysaccharide dextran and ethylene oxide (EO; Data; Dextran; Ethylene oxide­propylene oxide block copolymers; Gibbs energy; Thermodynamic modeling 1

Loh, Watson

6

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polymer two-phase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

observed for the aqueous two-phase systems. This view is in accordance... , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, each phase being rich...

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous two-phase poly Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

induced multiphase generation in waterorganic solvent mixtures. Summary: , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, each phase being rich...

8

Phase and self-assembly transition induced by glycerolborax interaction in an aqueous surfactant two-phase system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phase and self-assembly transition induced by glycerol­borax interaction in an aqueous surfactant 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b911564a We report that the phase and self-assembly transition in an aqueous in surfactant systems containing pH-sensitive components. Introduction The influence of glycerol on the self-assembly

Huang, Jianbin

9

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

Nicholas R. Soelberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous phase ph Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for at least 1 minute and spin as in step 4. 7. Remove the aqueous phase to a new tube. 8... . 10. Remove aqueous layer to new tube. 11. Add 110vol 3M NaOAc (pH 5.2) and 3...

12

Vibration-induced mobilization of trapped non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Acoustic wave stimulation, such as vibration-induced mobilization, is a promising enhancement approach to remove trapped NAPLs (Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids) usually encountered in multiphase flows through (more)

Li, Wenqing

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Abstract 3727: Phase 0 trials, obligation to research and ethical implications of health-care reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obligation to research and ethical implications of health-care reform Silvia Camporesi...are also at the core of the US Health Care reform. On the one hand...currently Special Advisor for Health Policy at the White House...

Silvia Camporesi and Matteo Mameli

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquidliquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquid­liquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions, 2002 We have studied the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the liquid­liquid phase separation. PEG ternary mixtures solubility partitioning Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic nonionic

Annunziata, Onofrio

15

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROGEN AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the US Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, the solubilities of hydrogen in n-hexane, carbon monoxide in cyclohexane, and nitrogen in phenanthrene and pyrene were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these new solubility measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The data were analyzed using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). In general, the PR EOS represents the experimental data well when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each isotherm. In addition, the predictive capability of the modified Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) was evaluated for selected carbon dioxide + normal paraffins, ethane + normal paraffins, and hydrogen + normal paraffins. A set of mixing rules was proposed for the modified EOS to extend its predictive capabilities to mixtures. The predicted bubble point pressures for the ethane + n-paraffin and carbon dioxide + n-paraffin binaries were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and original PGR equations. The predictive capability of the proposed equation is better or comparable to the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations of state for the ethane binaries (%AAD of 1.9) and carbon dioxide binaries (%AAD of 2.0). For the hydrogen binaries, the modified PGR EOS showed much better performance (%AAD of 1.7) than the original PGR equation and comparable to the PR equation.

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report-January through March 2003  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

4-TAC 4-TAC GJO-PIN 13.5.1-1 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project January through March 2003 Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report April 2003 Grand Junction Office U.S. Department of Energy Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy DE-AC13-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. N0060900 GJO-2003-434-TAC GJO-PIN 13.5.1-1 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report January through March 2003 April 2003 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-02GJ79491 Task Order Number ST03-107

19

Aqueous phase toxicity of West Texas crude oil as influenced by the Rhodococcus H13-A biosurfactant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Rhodococcus species HI 3-A were used to enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) solubility into the aqueous phase and promote bioavailability for degradation. This work builds on an ongoing initiative...

Lambert, Beatrice Lorraine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance-called "reformed" defence of the rationality of reli- gious belief. The starting-point for this reformed conception concern here. Instead, I will be outlining one way in which the reformed epistemological stance can

Edinburgh, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Managing the business of science. Physiology 24 :2-3. 7. Bush V . 1945. Science the endless frontier. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 8. Casadevall...FC Fang. 2012. Reforming science: Methodological and culture...

Ferric C. Fang; Arturo Casadevall

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

A swollen phase observed between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol in DPPC aqueous solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A swollen phase, in which the mean repeat distance of lipid bilayers is larger than the other phases, is found between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated gel phase in DPPC aqueous solution. Temperature, pressure and ethanol concentration dependences of the structure were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, and a bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was by neutron spin echo. The nature of the swollen phase is similar to the anomalous swelling reported previously. However, the temperature dependence of the mean repeat distance and the bending rigidity of lipid bilayers are different. This phase could be a precursor to the interdigitated gel phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol.

H. Seto; M. Hishida; H. Nobutou; N. L. Yamada; M. Nagao; T. Takeda

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

23

Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2002  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

700 700 GJO-2003-411-TAC GJO-PIN 13.5.1-1 Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress Report October through December 2002 January 2003 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-02GJ79491 Task Order Number ST03-107 Document Number N0057700 Contents DOE/Grand Junction Office Northeast Site NAPL Interim Measures Progress Report January 2003 Page ii Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ iii 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................1

24

Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions and Implications for Oceanic Sequestration of CO2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions and Implications for Oceanic Sequestration of CO 2 . G. Holder (holder@engrng.pitt.edu) 412-624-9809 L. Mokka (lakshmi.mokka@netl.doe.gov) 412-386-6019 Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 R. Warzinski* (robert.warzinski@netl.doe.gov) 412-386-5863 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 Introduction a Gas hydrates are crystalline solids formed from mixtures of water and low molecular weight compounds, referred to as hydrate formers, that typically are gases at ambient conditions (1). Generally, hydrates are formed in the laboratory from two-phase systems by contacting a hydrate former or formers in the gas or liquid phase with liquid water and increasing the pressure until

25

Reform in three phases: Judicial action and the German federal framework law for higher education of 1976  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Higher educational reforms undertaken in the Federal Republic between 1965 and 1979 bear witness to a growing proclivity among German citizens to engage in politicized legalism. Three verdicts issued by the Bun...

Joyce Marie Mushaben

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Aviation fuel synthesis by catalytic conversion of biomass hydrolysate in aqueous phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a new route for biomass derived aviation fuel synthesis by catalytic conversion in aqueous phase. Furfural with the yield of 71% was produced by acid hydrolysis of raw corncob, and hydrogenated to 2-methylfuran with obtaining the yield of 89% over Raney Ni catalyst, both of which were implemented under mild reaction conditions. The hydroxyalkylation/alkylation condensation of 2-methylfuran and furfural to C15 intermediate was conducted by using organic and inorganic acid as the catalyst under the reaction condition of 328K and atmospheric pressure. The maximal 95% of the C15 intermediate was gained when using sulfuric acid as the catalyst. 83% of liquid alkanes (C8C15) yield and more than 90% of C14/C15 selectivity were produced by hydrodeoxygenation of the C15 intermediate over 10wt%Ni/ZrO2SiO2 catalyst. During the hydrodeoxygenation process, the catalyst showed excellent stability depended on the 110h of time-on-stream test, due to its significantly decreased carbon deposition.

Tiejun Wang; Kai Li; Qiying Liu; Qing Zhang; Songbai Qiu; Jinxing Long; Lungang Chen; Longlong Ma; Qi Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Buffering the aqueous phase pH in water-in-CO{sub 2} microemulsions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions have been exploited for use in a wide range of applications, including chemical and enzymatic reactions, protein and metal extraction, and the production of nanoparticles. Microemulsions are attractive systems for studying such applications because they have the ability to function as a universal solvent medium by solubilizing high concentrations of both polar and apolar molecules within their dispersed aqueous and continuous oil phases, respectively. The addition of organic and inorganic buffers to nanometer size water-in-CO{sub 2} microemulsion droplets stabilized by ammonium perfluoropolyether (PFPE-NH{sub 4}) results in an increase in pH from 3 to values of 5--7. The effects of temperature, pressure, buffer type, buffer concentration, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} solubility on the pH inside water-in-CO{sub 2} microemulsions and on biphasic water-CO{sub 2} systems were measured by the hydrophilic indicator 4-nitrophenyl-2-sulfonate and were predicted accurately with thermodynamic models. In both systems, modest buffer loadings result in a steep pH jump from 2.5 pH units. Further increases in pH require large amounts of base to overcome buffering due to the carbonic acid-bicarbonate equilibrium. A pH approaching neutrality was obtained in w/c microemulsions with approximately 1.5 mol kg{sup {minus}1} NaOH. At high buffer loadings, the effects of temperature and pressure on pH values are negligible.

Holmes, J.D.; Ziegler, K.J.; Audriani, M.; Lee, C.T. Jr.; Bhargava, P.A.; Johnston, K.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Steytler, D.C. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Sciences] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Sciences

1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

28

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

29

Extraction equilibria between organic CMPO-n-dodecane and aqueous nitric acid phases for selected tank waste components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of the transuranium elements from tank-stored wastes is an important step in the cost effective treatment and preparation of these wastes for permanent disposal. One promising method of treatment involves dissolving the tank sludges in acid, followed by extraction of the transuranium species. The TRUEX process, which uses an extracting medium composed of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in an organic solvent such as n-dodecane, is being tested for this purpose. Although CMPO is a powerful extractant for all the actinides, concern arises that certain process chemicals present in the waste will compete for the CMPO. Data will be presented on the pure component equilibrium characteristics of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate and bismuth nitrate partitioned between a nitric acid aqueous phase and a CMPO-n-dodecane organic phase.

Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Counce, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Aqueous Phase Disinfection with Power Ultrasound:? Process Kinetics and Effect of Solid Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effectiveness of power ultrasound as a viable alternative for destroying pathogenic organisms in homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures of aqueous solutions was investigated. ... Chlorination, as the most cost-effective of all, has been noted in recent years for its adverse health effects originated by residual chlorine, which reacts with natural organic matter to form carcinogenic byproducts. ... Hence, this and the uncombined radicals are believed to act as chemical boicides in infected waters, and power ultrasound is capable of enhancing their effects by breaking up biological flocs and disrupting cell walls, leading to increased bacterial susceptibility and easier penetration of the biocide into the organism (10). ...

Nilsun H. Ince; Rana Belen

2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

31

Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of \\{ATPSs\\} composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete \\{ATPSs\\} could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides a cost, time and material effective approach for characterization of ATPS phase diagram on base on highly accurate and comprehensive data. By this means the derived data opens the door for a more detailed description of ATPS towards generating mechanistic based models, since molecular approaches such as MD simulations or molecular descriptions along the line of QSAR heavily rely on accurate and comprehensive data.

Sven Amrhein; Marie-Luise Schwab; Marc Hoffmann; Jrgen Hubbuch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hiring Reform | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hiring Reform Hiring Reform Hiring Reform President Obama's Memorandum dated May 11, 2010, Improving the Federal Recruitment and Hiring Process, is Phase I of the Administration's comprehensive initiative to address major, long-standing impediments to recruiting and hiring the best and the brightest into the Federal civilian workforce. The Memorandum is based on issues that DOE and others brought to the attention of OPM, and it is designed to help Agencies build the workforce you need to achieve your goals. The Presidential Memorandum launches the Obama Administration's flagship personnel policy reform initiative. It builds on a nearly year-long collaboration between OPM and Agencies aimed at streamlining the hiring process and recruiting top talent, especially for mission-critical jobs.

33

Phase equilibrium conditions for simulated landfill gas hydrate formation in aqueous solutions of tetrabutylammonium nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrate phase equilibrium conditions for the simulated landfill gas (LFG) of methane and carbon dioxide (50mol% methane, 50mol% carbon dioxide) were investigated with the pressure range of (1.90 to 13.83)MPa and temperature range of (280.0 to 288.3)K at (0.050, 0.170, 0.340, and 0.394) mass fraction (w) of tetrabutylammonium nitrate (TBANO3). The phase boundary between liquidvaporhydrate (LVH) phases and liquidvapor (LV) phases was determined by employing an isochoric pressure-search method. The phase equilibrium data measured showed that TBANO3 appeared a remarkable promotion effect at w TBANO 3 =0.394, corresponding to TBANO326H2O, but inhibition effect at w TBANO 3 =(0.050, or 0.170) on the semiclathrate hydrate formation. In addition, the application of TBANO3 at 0.340 mass fraction, corresponding to TBANO332H2O, displayed promotion effect at lower pressures (below 6.38MPa) and inhibition effect at higher pressures (above 6.38MPa).

Ling-Li Shi; De-Qing Liang; Dong-Liang Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Catalytic conversion of hemicellulosic biomass to lactic acid in pH neutral aqueous phase media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added chemicals using non-toxic heterogeneous catalysts and water as solvent is an attractive green process. Biomass-derived lactic acid is an important renewable chemical building block for synthesizing commodity chemicals, e.g. biodegradable plastics. This paper reports that hemicellulosic biomass, xylan and xylose, can be converted to lactic acid over a ZrO2 catalyst starting from pH neutral aqueous solutions. The effects of reaction conditions, including temperature, oxygen partial pressure, biomass loading, and catalyst loading, etc., on the conversions of hemicellulosic biomass and the corresponding yields of lactic acid have been investigated. Molar yields of lactic acid, up to 42% and 30% were produced from xylose and xylan, respectively, under the investigated reaction conditions and with the ZrO2 catalyst. The key intermediates such as glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde and pyruvaldehyde were used as the reactants to probe the reaction mechanism. The role of the ZrO2 catalyst in the retro-aldol condensation of xylose, as well as the catalyst stability, has been discussed.

Lisha Yang; Ji Su; Sarah Carl; Joan G. Lynam; Xiaokun Yang; Hongfei Lin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Intrinsically disordered proteins as crucial constituents of cellular aqueous two phase systems and coacervates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Here, we hypothesize that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) serve as important drivers of the intracellular liquidliquid phase separations that generate various membrane-less organelles. This hypothesis is supported by the overwhelming abundance of \\{IDPs\\} in these organelles. Assembly and disassembly of these organelles are controlled by changes in the concentrations of IDPs, their posttranslational modifications, binding of specific partners, and changes in the pH and/or temperature of the solution. Each resulting phase provides a distinct solvent environment for other solutes leading to their unequal distribution within phases. The specificity and efficiency of such partitioning is determined by the nature of the IDP(s) and defines targeted enrichment of specific molecules in the resulting membrane-less organelles that determines their specific activities.

Vladimir N. Uversky; Irina M. Kuznetsova; Konstantin K. Turoverov; Boris Zaslavsky

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

On Adsorption at the Oil/Water Interface and the Calculation of Electrical Potentials in the Aqueous Surface Phase I. Neutral Molecules and a Simplified Treatment for Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Potentials in the Aqueous Surface Phase I. Neutral Molecules and a Simplified Treatment for Ions D. A. Haydon...concentrations, and for all surface-active agents in high...size in the theoretical treatment. There is no evidence...with dehydration of the surface-active ions occur...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Spontaneous Enrichment of Organic Molecules from Aqueous and Gas Phases into a Stable Metallogel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-concentration hazardous organics, for example, chlorobenzene or toluene in water or poly- aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs or gas phases. Using nonpolar solvents to extract organic hazards from water is hardly practical since: bacteria (e.g., alkylotrophs) develop specialized cell walls that "dissolve" and accumulate hydrocarbons

Xing, Bengang

38

Quantitative Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Sulfonyl Urea Herbicides from Aqueous Matrices via Solid Phase Extraction Disks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Figure 4). The SFE extracts were diluted to mobile phase composition with water, if necessary, and filtered through 0.45-m...carbon dioxide. Anal. Chem. In press. 18. D. Johnson, Agrochemicals division, E.I. Dupont d e Nemours, Wilmington, D E......

Angela L. Howard; Larry T. Taylor

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper from aqueous solutions without reducing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper without a traditional reducing agent has been used for the first time to obtain conductive patterns on a dielectric surface having a reducing ability. It is shown that phenol-formaldehyde binder of the dielectric (glass fibre) can successfully play the role of a reducing agent in this process. The resulting copper sediments have low electrical resistance and good topology. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

Kochemirovsky, V A; Tumkin, I I; Logunov, L S; Safonov, S V; Menchikov, Leonid G

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Agency/Company /Organization: Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI), International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), World Bank Phase: Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Finance, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs References: Environmental fiscal reform - What should be done and how to achieve it[1] Reforming fiscal policies to close the gap between economic and ecological efficiencies[2] Overview "The term environmental fiscal reform (EFR) refers to: a range of taxation or pricing instruments that can raise revenue, while simultaneously furthering environmental goals. This is achieved by providing economic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature relating to the kinetics of methane-steam reforming involving integral and differential reactor data, porous nickel catalysts and nickel foil, and data over large ranges of temperature (500 to 1700/sup 0/F), pressure (0.01 to 50 atm), and intrinsic catalyst activities (200,000-fold) was reviewed. A simple reversible first-order kinetic expression for the steam-methane reaction appears to be applicable throughout the operable region of steam-to-carbon ratios. Internal pore diffusion limitation on the conversion rate, due to catalyst size and/or intrinsic catalyst activity and total operating pressure was underlined. S-shaped Arrhenium plots (changing activation energy) are obtained when steam reforming is conducted over a temperature range sufficient to produce intrinsic kinetics (low temperature, inactive catalyst, or small catalyst size), pore diffusional limitations, and reaction on the outside surface. Homogeneous gas-phase kinetics appear to contribute only at relatively high temperature (1400/sup 0/F). In steam reforming, the water-gas shift reaction departs from its equilibrium position, especially at low methane conversion level. A general correlation of approach to water-gas shift equilibration as a function of conversion level only was indicated. (DP) 18 figures, 6 tables.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A discussion covers steam reforming developments to the 1950's; the kinetics of methane-steam reforming, of the water-gas shift during methane-steam reforming, and of the carbon formation during methane-steam reforming, as approached by Akers and Camp.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Selective separation of some ecotoxic transition metal ions from aqueous solutions using immobilized macrocyclic material containing solid phase extraction system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple flow-based method was developed for the simultaneous separation of certain transition metal ions (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) from aqueous systems, which ions show ecotoxic effects when present at elevated ... (...

Ismail M. M. Rahman; Yoshiaki Furusho

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Aqueous Phase Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of water as a solvent for carrying out organic reactions was nonexistent till about the middle of the 20th century. In view of the environmental concerns caused by pollution of organic solvents, chemis...

V. K. Ahluwalia; M. Kidwai

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Process evaluation - steam reforming of diesel fuel oil. Final technical report 24 Apr-24 Dec 79 on phases 1-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is an evaluation of a proprietary catalyst as a means of steam-reforming diesel fuel oil (Fed. Spec. VV-F-800B, symbol DF-2). A system for testing the catalyst has been designed, built and successfully used to screen operating conditions of temperature, space velocity, and H2O/C ratio. A duration test has been conducted showing the catalyst capable of steam reforming diesel fuel, but with the production of naphthalene after 30 hours. Hydrogen production remained stable through the 86 hours of the test.

Jarvi, G.A.; Bowman, R.M.; Camara, E.H.; Lee, A.L.

1980-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

New data on gas-phase radical reactions in the steam reforming of methane in the presence of catalysts: I. Nickel catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methane pyrolysis and steam reforming were studied over a series of nickel...2O3, Ni/MgO, and Ni/LiAlO2) under the same conditions (650-750C, PCH4...= 0.001-0.03 MPa). Unlike heterogeneous reaction of pyrolysis,...

I. I. Bobrova; V. V. Chesnokov; N. N. Bobrov; V. I. Zaikovskii

47

Steam reforming analyzed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of a major portion of a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream in the reformer tubes of a primary reformer, or said effluent after secondary reforming thereof, is mixed with the hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of the remaining portion of the feed discharged from the reformer tubes of a primary reformer-exchanger. The combined gas steam is passed on the shell side of the reformer-exchanger countercurrently to the passage of feed in the reformer tubes thereof, thus supplying the heat for the reforming of the portion of the feed passed through the reformer tubes of the reformerexchanger. At least about 2/3 of the hydrocarbon feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said primary reformer, heated by radiant heat transfer and/or by contact with combustion gases, at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 2-4/1. The remainder of said feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said reformer -exchanger at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 3-6/1. The reformer shell of the reformer-exchanger is internally insulated by a refractory lining or by use of a double shell with passage of water or a portion of the feed material between the inner and outer shells. There is no significant difference between the pressure inside and outside of the reformer tubes of said primary reformer-exchanger.

Fuderer, A.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

49

Pillars of reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... misgivings seem to have reached crisis point. China today is full of new initiatives, reforms and an anti-corruption drive that together aim to set the nation on the right ... to be monumental if China follows it through. The nation is also right to reform how the Chinese Academy of Sciences supports promising research projects. And perhaps most boldly ...

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

50

Natural Gas Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This technology is an important pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

51

NIH Peer Review Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...EDITOR LETTER TO THE EDITOR NIH Peer Review Reform Marc C. Torjman Phone...Camden, NJ 08103 The editorial NIH Peer Review Reform-Change We Need, or Lipstick...better exposed the problems of grant peer review and, more importantly, the irreparable...

Marc C. Torjman

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Investigation of Gallium Partitioning Behavior in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gallium is assumed to be an indispensable rare metal mainly because of its fast growing demand as gallium arsenide (GaAs) in integrated circuits. ... Traditional extraction methods for gallium usually are organic?water two-phase systems, which involve volatile, flammable, and explosive organic solvents, such as n-hexane, toluene, xylene, benzene, nitrobenzene and kerosene. ... (17) A temperature increase reduces the mutual solubility of the two phases and results in an increase of PEG concentration in the upper phase and of volume in the lower phase, which all make ?w1 increase. ...

Yuhuan Chen; Xiaoli Liu; Yan Lu; Xiuying Zhang

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

54

NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

None

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

55

Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

56

Molecular Simulations of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility: 1. The Expanded-Ensemble Osmotic Molecular Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+, and Cl-); undissociated molecular units (HgCl2) are the predominant solution solute species.1 such as mercury(II) chloride (HgCl2), only a small fraction of the atoms dissociate into free ions (HgCl+, Hg2 Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase Martin Li´sal,*,, William R. Smith,§ and Jiri´ Kolafa| E. Ha

Lisal, Martin

57

FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet Social historians have broadly defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual to the 1920s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse or corruption

Boyer, Edmond

58

Reforming the Private Insurance Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION he prospects for national health care reform are more promising than at any time since 1994. President Obama and Members of Congress have made health care reform a top priority and legislation

Kammen, Daniel M.

59

Reduction of pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] by aqueous Fe(II) and the nature of solid phase redox products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subsurface behaviour of 99Tc, a contaminant resulting from nuclear fuels reprocessing, is dependent on its valence (e.g., IV or VII). Abiotic reduction of soluble Tc(VII) by Fe(II)(aq) in pH 68 solutions was investigated under strictly anoxic conditions using an oxygen trap (<7.5נ10?9atmO2). The reduction kinetics were strongly pH dependent. Complete and rapid reduction of Tc(VII) to a precipitated Fe/Tc(IV) form was observed when 11?mol/L of Tc(VII) was reacted with 0.4mmol/L Fe(II) at pH 7.0 and 8.0, while no significant reduction was observed over 1 month at pH 6.0. Experiments conducted at pH 7.0 with Fe(II)(aq)=0.050.8mmol/L further revealed that Tc(VII) reduction was a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction. Heterogeneous reduction predominated after approximately 0.01mmol/L of Fe(II) was oxidized. The heterogeneous reaction was more rapid, and was catalyzed by Fe(II) that adsorbed to the Fe/Tc(IV) redox product. Wet chemical and FeX-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy measurements (XANES) showed that Fe(II) and Fe(III) were present in the Fe/Tc(IV) redox products after reaction termination. 57Fe-Mssbauer, extended X-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed that the Fe/Tc(IV) solid phase was poorly ordered and dominated by Fe(II)-containing ferrihydrite with minor magnetite. Tc(IV) exhibited homogeneous spatial distribution within the precipitates. According to Tc-EXAFS measurements and structural modeling, its molecular environment was consistent with an octahedral Tc(IV) dimer bound in bidentate edge-sharing mode to octahedral Fe(III) associated with surface or vacancy sites in ferrihydrite. The precipitate maintained Tc(IV)aq concentrations that were slightly below those in equilibrium with amorphous Tc(IV)O2nH2O(s). The oxidation rate of sorbed Tc(IV) in the Fe/Tc precipitate was considerably slower than Tc(IV)O2nH2O(s) as a result of its intraparticle/intragrain residence. Precipitates of this nature may form in anoxic sediments or groundwaters, and the intraparticle residence of sorbed/precipitated Tc(IV) may limit 99Tc remobilization upon the return of oxidizing conditions.

John M. Zachara; Steve M. Heald; Byong-Hun Jeon; Ravi K. Kukkadapu; Chongxuan Liu; James P. McKinley; Alice C. Dohnalkova; Dean A. Moore

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

65

Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

66

Renewable Hydrogen from Ethanol by Autothermal Reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...soy oil limits its economics. Ethanol is now...desirability of autothermal reforming of ethanol (10...reaction with water in the steam-reforming reaction (1113...partial oxidation with steam reforming and the WGS...

G. A. Deluga; J. R. Salge; L. D. Schmidt; X. E. Verykios

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

What's right SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

&Health Reform What's right for you SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum: What's Right for You This session will help you: * demystify the healthcare reform changes * explore your options * learn how

Walker, Matthew P.

68

Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

New aqueous phase reforming process uses liquid feedstocks to produce energy from hydrogen with reduced costs.

69

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring NEPA process costs < NEPA contractor evaluation procedures < details on the DOE NEPA Web site U.S. Department of Energy, Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance, December 1996 NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane-containing gases are produced by the catalytic-stream reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks using a catalyst which includes a group VIII metal such as nickel and alumina, and which in its calcined but unreduced precursor form has a pore size distribution defined as follows: (I) at least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a pore radius between 12 and 120 angstrom units is in the range of 12-30 angstrom units, and (II) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 a to the pore volume contained in pores 50-300 a is at least 5:1.

Banks, R.G.; Williams, A.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

71

Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral Arterial Tree in CT Angiography1 Justus that cause artifacts in multipath curved planar reformations (MPCPRs) of the peripheral arterial tree in 10-oblique multiplanar reformations perpendicular to the ves- sel centerline (10), and curved planar reformations

72

Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults Department of Mathematics University of Texas is to reformalize part of the framework of the Guaranteed Coverage Theorem for QSIM. The intention is not to reformalize every detail of the proof but merely to mention some areas whose reformalization lends deeper

Kuipers, Benjamin

73

Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic Data Sets Acquired with 16­ Detector Row coronal reformations at vari- ous thicknesses were ranked qualitatively by three radiol- ogists. Effective reformations of data acquired in the custom phantom were compared, coronal reformations obtained with the 16

74

The effect of temperature induced phase transitions in aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers and Triton X-100 on the EPR, magnetic relaxation and luminescent characteristics of Gd(III) and Eu(III) ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present report is inspired by the idea to develop novel spectroscopy based techniques to detect the phase transitions in solutions of triblock copolymers with the use of Gd(III) and Eu(III) ions as probes. The choice of (PEO)13(PPO)30(PEO)13 (L64), (PPO)14(PEO)24(PPO)14 (17R4), (PPO)8(PEO)22(PPO)8 (10R5) and Triton X-100 is conditioned by their phase transitions occurring in mild conditions. The cloud point extraction (CPE) data reveal the conditions (pH and chelating agent) where the binding of lanthanides with surfactant rich phase of triblock copolymers and Triton X-100 occurs. The effect of phase transitions in solutions of triblock copolymers on the temperature resolved line widths in EPR spectra of Gd(III) aqua ions and transverse relaxation rates of Gd(III) inner-sphere water protons depends on the architecture of triblock copolymers and pH conditions. The steady state luminescence of Eu(III) complexes with phosphine oxide in aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers and TX-100 is influenced by the temperature induced aggregation and phase separation in solutions of reverse triblock copolymers 17R4 and 10R5, while the effect of the aggregation is insignificant for L64.

Julia Elistratova; Asiya Mustafina; Alexey Litvinov; Vladimir Burilov; Antonina Khisametdinova; Vladimir Morozov; Rustem Amirov; Yevgeniya Burilova; Dmitry Tatarinov; Marsil Kadirov; Vladimir Mironov; Alexander Konovalov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Applications of solar reforming technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Recover heat from steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam reforming is one of the most important chemical processes--it is used in the manufacture of ammonia, hydrogen, methanol, and many chemicals made from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Furthermore, many current trends will increase its importance. For example, methanol for addition to gasoline is likely to be produced by steam reforming. Because steam reforming occurs at high temperatures--typically 750 C--900 C--it generates a large amount of waste heat. Clearly, heat recovery is crucial to process economics. A typical 50,000 Nm[sup 3]/h hydrogen plant using natural gas feed has a radiant heat duty of about 50 MW. At a radiant efficiency of 50% and fuel cost of $3/GJ, this means that the reformer fires $9 million worth of fuel per year. Obviously, this amount of fuel justifies a close loot at ways to reduce costs. This article first provides a brief overview of steam reforming. It then outlines the available heat-recovery options and explains how to select the best method.

Fleshman, J.D. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Hydrogen Generation Via Fuel Reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reforming is the conversion of a hydrocarbon based fuel to a gas mixture that contains hydrogen. The H2 that is produced by reforming can then be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. The realization of H2?based power generation via reforming is facilitated by the existence of the liquid fuel and natural gas distribution infrastructures. Coupling these same infrastructures with more portable reforming technology facilitates the realization of fuel cell powered vehicles. The reformer is the first component in a fuel processor. Contaminants in the H2?enriched product stream such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can significantly degrade the performance of current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Removal of such contaminants requires extensive processing of the H2?rich product stream prior to utilization by the fuel cell to generate electricity. The remaining components of the fuel processor remove the contaminants in the H2 product stream. For transportation applications the entire fuel processing system must be as small and lightweight as possible to achieve desirable performance requirements. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory are focused on catalyst development and reactor engineering of the autothermal processing train for transportation applications.

John F. Krebs

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

Jantzen, C

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

79

Safety and Security Directives Reform  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Beginning with his confirmation hearings in January 2009, Energy Secretary Steven Chu challenged the Department of Energy to take a fresh look at how we conduct business. This challenge provided the opportunity for DOE to put in place the most effective and efficient strategies to accomplish the Department's missions safely and securely. In response to the Secretary's challenge and building on the results of Deputy Secretary Poneman's Safety and Security Reform studies, the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) broadened its directives review activities during 2009. By November 2009 HSS had initiated a disciplined review of all health, safety, and security directives, which included a systematic review of the Department's safety and security regulatory model.

80

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle ... At a meeting held at Battelle's Columbus, Ohio, laboratories, D. B. Roach told representatives of 24 firms involved in various aspects of steam reforming that, though production of hydrogen through steam reforming has been a highly successful process, "increased plant size and more severe operating conditions have given rise to serious problems." ...

1969-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Plasma catalytic reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This article describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius), and a high degree of dissociation and a substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (40% H2, 17% CO2 and 33% N2, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (23 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H2 with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content (?1.5%) with power densities of ?30 kW (H2 HHV)/l of reactor, or ?10m3/h H2 per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

L Bromberg; D.R Cohn; A Rabinovich; N Alexeev

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function of the Concentration of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function: December 3, 2003 The cloud point of the surfactant tetrabutylammonium dodecyl sulfate is shown surfactant dissociates 17% of its counterions to aqueous phase. Introduction Clouding is a phenomenon

Bales, Barney

83

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Contracting Reform Guidance Contracting Reform Guidance NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance This documents provides guidance on NEPA contracting strategy, including: defining the work of the contractor; establishing contracts ahead of time; minimizing cost while maintaining quality. Guidance also provides: model statements of work, direction on NEPA contract management by NEPA Document Manager; a system for measuring NEPA costs and for evaluating contractor procedures; details on the DOE NEPA website. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance More Documents & Publications NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996) Statement of Work-National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Support Services Acquisition: Preparation and Review of Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments, Environmental Reports, and other Environmental

84

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

85

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

86

Process for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is provided for the steam reforming of normally liquid hydrocarbons to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which does not promote the deposition of carbonacious materials upon catalytic surfaces. The catalyst consists of nickel promoted with the oxides of iron and manganese within a specific manganese to iron ratio, said metal and metal oxides being supported upon a refractory support. The support is preferably aluminum oxide in its alpha phase having a surface area of more than 0.5 m2/gm but no more than 10 m2/gm. The metallic constituents are impregnated onto said refractory low surface area support as salts and are calcined at sufficiently high temperature to convert the salts to the oxide but at a sufficiently low temperature that they do not chemically react with the support.

Broughton, D.R.; Russ, K.J.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hydrocarbon steam reforming using series steam superheaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for steam reforming of a hydrocarbon gas feedstream wherein: the hydrocarbon gas feedstream is partially reformed at elevated temperatures in indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in a direct fired primary reforming furnace provided with a convection section for recovery of excess heat from said combustion gases; and the partially reformed feedstream is then further reformed in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and steam in a secondary reformer to form a secondary reformer gaseous effluent; the improvement which comprises recovering waste heat from said secondary reformer effluent gas and from said primary reforming combustion products by heating a high pressure saturated steam in a first steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said secondary reformer effluent gas to form a first superheated steam stream; and further heating said first superheated steam in a second steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said primary reformer hot combustion gases for form a second superheated steam stream.

Osman, R. M.

1985-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

88

What Determines the Likelihood of Structural Reforms?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We use data for a panel of 60 countries over the period 1980-2005 to investigate the main drivers of the likelihood of structural reforms. We find that: (i) external debt crises are the main trigger of financial and banking reforms; (ii) inflation and banking crises are the key drivers of external capital account reforms; (iii) banking crises also hasten financial reforms; and (iv) economic recessions play an important role in promoting the necessary consensus for financial, capital, banking and trade reforms, especially in the group of OECD-countries. Additionally, we also observe that the degree of globalisation is relevant for financial reforms, in particular in the group of non-OECD countries. Moreover, an increase in the income gap accelerates the implementation of structural reforms, but increased political fragmentation does not seem to have a significant impact.

Luca Agnello; Vitor Castro; Joo Tovar Jalles; Ricardo M. Sousa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Final Stages in the Reform of RAO UES of Russia Future Developments in the Russian Energy Market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reform of Russia's RAO UES is in its final phase. The initial basis for it was the policy of shareholders' receiving assets pro rata. Changes to Russian law then also required full ownership unbundling by 1 Ju...

Anatoly Chubais

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Fuel processing for fuel cells: a model for fuel conversion and carbon formation in the adiabatic steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In present fuel cell power plants the fuel processor is a catalytic steam reformer which is limited to the use of fuels such as naphtha and natural gas. The sulfur content of these feeds must be reduced to low levels by hydrotreatment before contacting the nickel catalyst in the reformer. However, future fuel cell power plants may be required to ue coal-derived liquid fuel or heavy petroleum distillates which are more difficult to hydrotreat and reform. To meet this requirement, an adiabatic steam reformer is being developed by United Technologies Corporation with the support of the Electric Power Research Institute. In the adiabatic reformer, air is added to the process stream to provide, by combustion, the heat for endothermic reforming in a catalyst bed. In the inlet section of the reformer, air and fuel combust, and reforming is initiated on special catalysts whose primary functon is to prevent formation and accumulation of carbon. Following the inlet section, catalysts with high activity for steam reforming complete the conversion of the remaining fuel, principally methane. The objective of the present program is to establish a reactor model for the adiabatic reformer which would predict process stream compositions and temperatures and include carbon formation processes. Progress is reported on the four tasks: (1) determine rate expressions for catalytic reactions occurring in the adiabatic reformer; (2) establish a reactor model to predict process stream compositions in the adiabatic reformer using data from Task 1 for cataytic reactions and data from the literature for homogeneous gas-phase reactions; (3) determine critical conditions for carbon formation on selected catalysts using microbalance experiments; and (4) establish a model to predict carbon formation by combination of the model for process stream composition from Task 2 and data for carbon formation from Task 3. (WHK)

Bett, J.A.S.; Cutlip, M.C.; Foley, P.F.; Lesieur, R.R.; Meyer, A.P.; Sederquist, R.A.; Setzer, H.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Plasma catalytic reforming of methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor Agency/Company /Organization: Stephen Karekezi and John Kimani Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421502000484 Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa Language: English This article is based on a regional study by the authors reviewing the status, challenges and prospects of ongoing and planned power sector reform in eastern and southern Africa with special emphasis on the implications

93

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

94

Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

Setzer, H. J.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

95

Health system reform in rural China: Voices of healthworkers and service-users  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Like many other countries China is undergoing major health system reforms, with the aim of providing universal health coverage, and addressing problems of low efficiency and inequity. The first phase of the reforms has focused on strengthening primary care and improving health insurance coverage and benefits. The aim of the study was to explore the impacts of these reforms on healthworkers and service-users at township level, which has been the major target of the first phase of the reforms. From January to March 2013 we interviewed eight health officials, 80 township healthworkers and 80 service-users in eight counties in Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces, representing rich and poor provinces respectively. Thematic analysis identified key themes around the impacts of the health reforms. We found that some elements of the reforms may actually be undermining primary care. While the new health insurance system was popular among service-users, it was criticised for contributing to fast-growing medical costs, and for an imbalance of benefits between outpatient and inpatient services. Salary reform has guaranteed healthworkers' income, but greatly reduced their incentives. The essential drug list removed perverse incentives to overprescribe, but led to falls in income for healthworkers, and loss of autonomy for doctors. Serious problems with drug procurement also emerged. The unintended consequences have included a brain drain of experienced healthworkers from township hospitals, and patients have flowed to county hospitals at greater cost. In conclusion, in the short term resources must be found to ensure rural healthworkers feel appropriately remunerated and have more clinical autonomy, measures for containment of the medical costs must be taken, and drug procurement must show increased transparency and accountability. More importantly the study shows that all countries undergoing health reforms should elicit the views of stakeholders, including service-users, to avoid and address unintended consequences.

Xu Dong Zhou; Lu Li; Therese Hesketh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

97

Comparative case studies of health reform in England  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health........................................................................................14 1.1 Presenting the Health System Reform policy agenda...................................14 1 ..........................................................................................64 Demand Side Reform.........................................

Birmingham, University of

98

Prediction of solid-aqueous equilibria: Scheme to combine first-principles calculations of solids with experimental aqueous states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an efficient scheme for combining ab initio calculated solid states with experimental aqueous states through a framework of consistent reference energies. Our work enables accurate prediction of phase stability ...

Persson, Kristin A.

99

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous magnesium nitrate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in aqueous-phase atmospheric aerosols from... , a fundamental understanding of nitrate ions at the ... Source: Allen, Heather C.- Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University...

100

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous nitrate flowsheet Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in aqueous-phase atmospheric aerosols from... , a fundamental understanding of nitrate ions at the ... Source: Allen, Heather C.- Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aqueous droplets Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous-phase chemistry, droplet collision-coalescence and evaporation, and aerosol resuspension. Ghan et... , radiative heating and cooling, droplet nucleation with aerosol...

102

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution rationalizations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixtures of Water, Poly(ethylene oxide) and Electrolytes (Or Dextran) Summary: the formation of aqueous two-phase systems was investigated by calorimetry measuring...

103

How Not to Reform Medicare  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...private insurers would continue to compete primarily by trying to enroll the healthy and not the sick a practice called risk selection. The result would be increased administrative costs, not improved quality. The elderly and disabled would face ever heavier financial burdens and larger risks as the... Medicare reform has become a hot political issue. The program is wildly popular but expensive. It is the principal source of projected increases in budget deficits. With deficits increasingly seen as a mortal economic threat, many believe that now is the ...

Aaron H.J.

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

106

Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

107

DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting Meeting Date: August 13, 2010 HSS senior managers with lead responsibilities in DOE's safety and...

108

Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER...

109

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Reformate Cleanup: The Case for Microchannel Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformate Cleanup: The Case for Microchannel Architecture DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003 Annual for MicrochannelMicrochannel ArchitectureArchitecture DOE Hydrogen and Fuel CellsDOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003, controls Integrated reformer/fuel cell demonstration at ~2 kWeFY 2002 WGS/PROX catalyst studies

112

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

Jantzen, C

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH Cecilia TESTA London School of Economics are a reform and a compensating taxation. The main feature of the reform is that it creates gainers and losers on tax parameters. keywords: reform, lobbying, redistribution, economic welfare. 1 #12;Introduction

Royal Holloway, University of London

115

September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform; UC Implements Latest Bargaining working conditions and reasonable pension reform. However, AFSCME has rejected UC's proposals. From the start, AFSCME leadership has objected to UC's responsible pension reform -- the kind of reform that

Leistikow, Bruce N.

116

AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA Jeffrey Sachs ABSTRACT: The paper reviews the experience of Poland and Russia with economic reform, with occasional comparison to China's experience. The author argues that macroeconomic chaos in Poland and Russia preceded reform and was allayed by reform

117

Diesel Reforming for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the development of a diesel reforming catalyst and catalytic system development.

Liu, D-J.; Sheen, S-H.; Krumpelt, M.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

Kammen, Daniel M.

119

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives Written Statement By: Owen Barwell, Acting Chief Financial Officer, United States Department of Energy Subject: DOE Financial Information Systems Final_Testimony_for_Owen_Barwell.pdf More Documents & Publications AL2010-03.pdf Request for Information - Operations and Maintenance (O & M) Support

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanol termodinamicheskie Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous phase (top) to new eppi tube. 10. Add... L of aqueous (top) phase to new eppi tube. 13. Add 20 L of 3 M NaOAc pH 5.2; vortex briefly. 3 M... NaOAc pH 5.2: 14. Add...

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanolic leaf Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous phase (top) to new eppi tube. 10. Add... L of aqueous (top) phase to new eppi tube. 13. Add 20 L of 3 M NaOAc pH 5.2; vortex briefly. 3 M... NaOAc pH 5.2: 14. Add...

123

Effects of welfare reform on women's crime  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We investigate the effects of broad-based work incentives on female crime by exploiting the welfare reform legislation of the 1990s, which dramatically increased employment among women at risk for relying on cash assistance. We base the analyses on the supply of crime model in the human capital literature which emphasizes the importance of employment prospects in the legal and illegal labor markets. We find suggestive evidence that welfare reform decreased female arrests for property crimes (by 45%), but that it did not affect arrests for other types of crimes. The effects appear to be stronger in states with larger welfare caseload declines. As welfare reform policies are targeted to females, it is empirically validating that we do not find any substantively or statistically significant effects of welfare reform on crime among males. The findings point to broad-based work incentivesand, by inference, employmentas an important determinant of female property crime.

Hope Corman; Dhaval M. Dave; Nancy E. Reichman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Physician payments under health care reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senatethe period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition.

Abe Dunn; Adam Hale Shapiro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Multistage Steam Reformer Utilizing Solar Heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today a large amount of the required hydrogen or synthesis gas (mixture of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide) is won by steam reforming of low hydrocarbons, especially methane. Hereby the mixture of hydrocarbons and...

W. Jger; U. Leuchs; W. Siebert

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Improve reformer operation with trace sulfur removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern bimetallic reforming catalysts typically have feed specifications for sulfur of 0.5 to 1 wppm in the reformer naphtha carge. Sulfur in the raw naphtha is reduced to this level by naphtha hydrotreating. While most naphtha hydrotreating operations can usually obtain these levels without substantial problems. It is difficult to obtain levels much below 0.5 to 1 wppm with this process. Revamp of a constrained existing hydrotreater to reduce product sulfur slightly can be extremely costly typically entailing replacement or addition of a new reactor. At Engelhard the authors demonstrated that if the last traces of sulfur remaining from hydrotreating can be removed, the resulting ultra-low sulfur feed greatly improves the reformer operation and provides substantial economic benefit to the refiner. Removal of the remaining trace sulfur is accomplished in a simple manner with a special adsorbent bed, without adding complexity to the reforming operation.

McClung, R.G.; Novak, W.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Growth and welfare effects of environmental tax reform and public spending policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper considers the implications of environmental tax reform and public spending policy for growth and welfare. Using a two-sector endogenous growth model where the interactions between health, education, and the environment are taken into account, we show that revenue-positive tax reforms combined with a change in the public spending structure may improve long-run growth and welfare. However, this outcome incurs relatively high welfare cost during the transition phase. This is particularly the case when the spending policy favors education spending.

Walid Oueslati

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Phase-Transfer Catalysis: Fundamentals I  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Critical to the success of phase-transfer catalytic (PTC) processes are (1) the maximization of the rate of transfer of reactant anions from the aqueous or solid phase to the organic phase, (2) the maximizatio...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Biogas fuel reforming for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper strategies for biogas reforming and their ensuing effects on solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC) performance are explored. Synthesized biogas (65% CH4?+?35% CO2) fuel streams are reformed over a rhodium catalyst supported on a porous ?-alumina foam. Reforming approaches include steam reforming and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) utilizing either air or pure oxygen as the oxidant. A computational model is developed and utilized to guide the specification of reforming conditions that maximize both CH4 and CO2 conversions. Model predictions are validated with experimental measurements over a wide range of biogas-reforming conditions. Higher reforming temperatures are shown to activate the biogas-borne CO2 to enable significant methane dry-reforming chemistry. Dry reforming minimizes the oxidant-addition needs for effective biogas conversion potentially decreasing the thermal requirements for reactant heating and improving system efficiency. Such high-temperature reforming conditions are prevalent during CPOX with a pure-O2 oxidant. While CPOX-with-O2 reforming is highly exothermic the endothermicity of dry-reforming chemistry can be exploited to ensure that catalyst temperatures do not reach levels which cause catalyst sintering and degradation. SOFCelectrochemical performance under biogas reformate is shown to vary substantially with reforming approach. Cell operation under CPOX-with-O2 reformate is found to be comparable to that under humidified hydrogen.

Danielle M. Murphy; Amy E. Richards; Andrew Colclasure; Wade A. Rosensteel; Neal P. Sullivan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing welfare reform Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reventionscience.umn.edu Summary: , poverty, welfare reform, school reform, and health- care reform. An emphasis is given to large... , and dissemination of a variety of programs...

132

Catalytic performances of NiCaOmayenite in CO2 sorption enhanced steam methane reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract NiCaOmayenite (Ca12Al14O33) catalysts for the CO2 Sorption Enhanced Steam Methane Reforming (SE-SMR) have been developed using the microwave assisted self-combustion method of preparation. The sorption of CO2 by CaO shifts the steam reforming and the Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) towards H2 production and favors the heat balance of the global reaction. The CO2 sorption has been studied on materials with different CaO/Ca12Al14O33 ratios and for different types of preparation. The specific surface area of materials, the temperature of Ni phases' reducibility and CO2 sorption are all essential for material efficiency. The NiCA75MM catalyst was the most active and stable in methane steam reforming with CO2 sorption, even at an unusually low temperature (650C).

Moiss R. Cesrio; Bralio S. Barros; Claire Courson; Dulce M.A. Melo; Alain Kiennemann

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Experimental and modeling study of catalytic steam reforming of methane mixture with propylene in a packed bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Producer gas from biomass gasification contains mainly hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and some other low molecular hydrocarbons like propylene. This paper reports mathematical simulation and experimental study of steam reforming of methane mixture with propylene in a packed bed reactor filled with nickel based catalysts. Due to the high heat input through the reformer tube wall and the endothermic reforming reactions, a two-dimensional pseudo-heterogeneous model that takes into account the diffusion reaction phenomena in gas phase as well as inside the catalyst particles has been used to represent temperature distribution and species concentration within the reactor. Steam reforming of propylene is faster and more selective than methane and it is shown that addition of propylene to the methane steam mixture reduces the conversion of methane. The obtained results play a key role in optimization and design of a commercial reactor.

Parham Sadooghi; Reinhard Rauch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Comparison of several glycerol reforming methods for hydrogen and syngas production using Gibbs energy minimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper focuses on the comparison of different glycerol reforming technologies aimed to hydrogen and syngas production. The reactions of steam reforming, partial oxidation, autothermal reforming, dry reforming and supercritical water gasification were analyzed. For this, the Gibbs energy minimization approach was used in combination with the virial equation of state. The validation of the model was made between the simulations of the proposed model and both, simulated and experimental data obtained in the literature. The effects of modifications in the operational temperature, operational pressure and reactants composition were analyzed with regard to composition of the products. The effect of coke formation was discussed too. Generally, higher temperatures and lower pressures resulted in higher hydrogen and syngas production. All reforming technologies demonstrated to be feasible for use in hydrogen or synthesis gas production in respect of the products composition. The proposed model showed good predictive ability and low computational time (close to 1s) to perform the calculation of the combined chemical and phase equilibrium for all systems analyzed.

Antonio C.D. Freitas; Reginaldo Guirardello

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Continuous aqueous tritium monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

1987-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

137

Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both conservation and harvest goals. For each Columbia River Basin Environmentally Significant Unit

Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

139

Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Simulation of Steam Reformers for Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed. Keywords: Steam Reforming, Reactor modeling, Digital Simulation, effectiveness factor

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel LNT (Generates Ammonia) Exhaust Selective Catalytic DPF Valve Reduction Catalyst (SCR) 2 DEER 2007 Bypass V2 LNT V1 Reformer SCR Bypass V2 LNT V1 SCR Reformer * NOx storage...

142

Does health reform affect self-employment? Evidence from Massachusetts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper evaluates whether the implementation of the 2006 Massachusetts health reform law affected the decision of taxpayers to ... Though tenuous, our results suggest that the reform led to a decline in the ra...

Bradley T. Heim; Ithai Z. Lurie

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

Pakdeethai, Pimrak

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

145

SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION? David Watts Paulo Atienza to participate. Chile was the pioneer introducing this kind of reforms, through the application of a centralized

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

146

MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs #12;2 | MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM The Robert Wood Johnson?................................................................................... 8 Government Payment for Health Care -- Causes and Consequences....................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Health Care Is Different -- That's Why Expenditures Matter

Zalta, Edward N.

147

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Romain RESTOUT December, 2010 REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Universit´e Panth´eon-Assas ERMES Ecole Polytechnique Romain with traded and non traded goods to in- vestigate the sectoral effects of three tax reforms: i) two revenue

Boyer, Edmond

149

the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM Produced by OHSU Strategic Communications -- emphasizing shared decision-making and coordination between providers -- could influence reform in a big way care. health reform is about getting better health outcomes for our communities, improving access

Chapman, Michael S.

150

Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform International Columbia University #12;- 1 - - 1 - #12;- 2 - A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform Bruce are fundamental aspects of the present system and that, without reform, they will continue to plague the global

Grishok, Alla

151

WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS? Susie LEE Ingmar SCHUMACHER (in)stability induce financial reforms? Susie Lee1 Ingmar Schumacher2 October 26, 2011 Abstract The article studies whether financial sector (in)stability had an effect on reforms in the fi- nancial sector

Boyer, Edmond

152

health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com On March 23, President Obama signed is tracking the myriad other developments of the new health reform law. You can find a wide range of related material, including enacting language, implementing documents, and analysis through the Health Reform

Chapman, Michael S.

153

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation September 2012 1 Ofqual: A Level Reform Consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust September 2012 Key Points National Subject to university. We are therefore pleased to respond to this consultation on reforming A levels. Our comments

Rambaut, Andrew

154

Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high cases. #12;1 Introduction The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function

Skogestad, Sigurd

155

Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor Jagat Basnet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of effective land management, land administration and all land reform processes interrelated, by land reform, it is widely understood to be a process of confiscating someone's land and award or with the land reform because of historical reasons of a power nexus. 6.2 The Historical Process of Land

Richner, Heinz

156

Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Carbon deposition in steam reforming and methanation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this review is to survey recent studies of carbon deposition on metals used as catalysts in steam reforming and methanation, emphasizing research where significant progress has been made. Where possible, an attempt is made to treat the fundamental nature of carbon formation and deactivation by carbon and the relationships between these two phenomena. Steam reforming and methanation are emphasized in this review because (1) deactivation of catalysts by carbon deposits is a serious concern in both processes, (2) much of the previous research with carbon formation on metals involved one or the other of these two reactions, and (3) there are interesting differences and similarities between these two reactions; for example, methanation is typically carried out at moderate reaction temperatures (200-450/sup 0/C) while steam reforming is typically carried out at significantly higher reaction temperatures (600-900/sup 0/C). Yet the two reactions are very closely related, since methane steam reforming is the reverse of methanation of CO. Moreover, there is evidence that some of the carbons formed in these two different processes are similar in their morphology.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Low severity hydrocarbon steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ammonia which comprises: (a) primary catalytically reforming at super atmospheric pressure in a direct-fired primary reforming zone, a hydrocarbon feedstock with steam to produce a gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen and methane; (b) secondary catalytically reforming the gas from step (a) by introducing air and bringing the mixture towards equilibrium thereby producing a secondary reformer effluent gas containing nitrogen, carbon oxides, hydrogen and a decreased quantity of methane; (c) converting carbon monoxide catalytically with steam to carbon dioxide and hydrogen; (d) removing carbon oxides to give an ammonia synthesis gas comprising nitrogen and hydrogen and compressing the gas to ammonia synthesis pressure; (e) reacting the synthesis gas in an ammonia synthesis zone to produce ammonia and recovering ammonia from the reacted gas to produce an ammonia-depleted gas stream; (f) recycling at least a portion of the ammonia-depleted gas stream to the ammonia synthesis zone; and (g) treating a sidestream of the ammonia-depleted gas to separate a stream enriched in hydrogen and an inerts-enriched gas stream, and returning the enriched hydrogen stream to the ammonia synthesis zone.

Osman, R.M.; Byington, R.G.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Affordable Care Act & Medicaid Reform in Wisconsin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Affordable Care Act & Medicaid Reform in Wisconsin Enrollment Trends Chartpack 2013-2014 ACA Open,731 Wisconsinites Living in Poverty Access Health Care Through Medicaid," Press Release, May 19, 2014. http://walker.wi.gov/newsroom/press-release/81731-wisconsinites-living-poverty-access-health-care-through- Medicaid Medicaid & CHIP: April 2014

Sheridan, Jennifer

160

Evaluation of the economic and environmental impact of combining dry reforming with steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lately, there has been considerable interest in the development of more efficient processes to generate syngas, an intermediate in the production of fuels and chemicals, including methanol, dimethyl ether, ethylene, propylene and FischerTropsch fuels. Steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most widely applied method of producing syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a process that uses waste carbon dioxide to produce syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming alone has not yet been implemented commercially; however, a combination of steam methane reforming and dry reforming of methane (SMR+DRM) has been used in industry for several years. The aim of this work was to simulate both the SMR and SMR+DRM processes and to conduct an economic and environmental analysis to determine whether the SMR+DRM process is competitive with the more popular SMR process. The results indicate that the SMR+DRM process has a lower carbon footprint. Further research on DRM catalysts could make this process economically competitive with steam methane reforming.

Preeti Gangadharan; Krishna C. Kanchi; Helen H. Lou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

162

March 16, 2010, Safety and Security Reform Roundtable - Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safety and Security Reform Roundtable Safety and Security Reform Roundtable Forrestal Building, Washington, DC March 16 th , 2010 1:00 PM (EST) AGENDA * Introduction of Union Leaders Glenn Podonsky, Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer * Welcome/Introductory Remarks on Reform Goals Dan Poneman, Deputy Secretary * Reform Status and Approach - Oversight, Directives, Mission Support Glenn Podonsky, Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer * Discussion Forum - Union Feedback - Feedback on oversight reform initiatives - Priority safety issues - Experience in collaborative focus group efforts - Recommendations for a path forward * Operating Organization Perspectives 1. Tom D'Agostino Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration 2. Steven Koonin Under Secretary for Science

163

Experimental and Numerical Observations of Hydrate Reformation during Depressurization in a Core-Scale Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas hydrate has been predicted to reform around a wellbore during depressurization-based gas production from gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. This process has an adverse effect on gas production rates and it requires time and sometimes special measures to resume gas flow to producing wells. Due to lack of applicable field data, laboratory scale experiments remain a valuable source of information to study hydrate reformation. In this work, we report laboratory experiments and complementary numerical simulations executed to investigate the hydrate reformation phenomenon. Gas production from a pressure vessel filled with hydrate-bearing sand was induced by depressurization with and without heat flux through the boundaries. Hydrate decomposition was monitored with a medical X-ray CT scanner and pressure and temperature measurements. CT images of the hydrate-bearing sample were processed to provide 3-dimensional data of heterogeneous porosity and phase saturations suitable for numerical simulations. In the experiments, gas hydrate reformation was observed only in the case of no-heat supply from surroundings, a finding consistent with numerical simulation. By allowing gas production on either side of the core, numerical simulations showed that initial hydrate distribution patterns affect gas distribution and flow inside the sample. This is a direct consequence of the heterogeneous pore network resulting in varying hydraulic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediment.

Seol, Yongkoo; Myshakin, Evgeniy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Kinetic study of hydrogen sulfide absorption in aqueous chlorine solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This technique involves H2S mass transfer in an aqueous phase using a gas-liquid contactor. Since H2S is poorly. This scrubbing liquid is just drained when the salt accumulation due to H2S oxidation into sulfate anions becomes Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently removed from gaseous effluents by chemical scrubbing using water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions gels Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science ; Chemistry 2 Feature Article Effect of the Volume Phase Transition on Diffusion and Summary: that in an aqueous solution for 3% NIPA and NIPA-AA gels...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous single metal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

phase... for the selective separation of chromium(III), cobalt(II), and gold(III) ions from an aqueous metallic broth... chelating agents have been highly suc- cessful in the...

168

Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous leaves extract Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for at least 1 minute and spin as in step 4. 7. Remove the aqueous phase to a new tube. 8... Total RNA extraction from Arabidopsis and tobacco Allison C. Mallory, Bartel Lab...

170

Simulation of steam reformers for methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed.

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution. 7 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

The Cost Implications of Health Care Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...health insurance coverage. But there is concern about its implications for health care costs. These concerns have been heightened by a recent report from the actuary at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), which shows that health care reform will cause an expansion of national health... Jonathan Gruber argues that by the second decade, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will have reduced national health care spending.

Gruber J.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

173

Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

175

Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

Aqueous Solutions and Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of neutron diffraction techniques to aqueous solutions is described, and a framework involving the use of isotopic substitution is set up to illustrate the scope of the method. Specific applications described include a study of glassy ...

G. W. Neilson; J. E. Enderby

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

177

Non-Aqueous Battery Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0 V. Practical non-aqueous batteries have energies extending from 100...electric watches to 20 kWh secondary batteries being developed for vehicle traction...10 years, to a military lithium thermal battery delivering all of its energy in...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the technology "Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention discloses a method to reform hydrocarbon fuels using hexa- aluminate catalysts. In general, the method successfully disrupts the forma- tion of carbon that leads to the deactivation of the catalyst, a key element in the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. When researchers are designing catalysts to reform hydrocarbon fuels, one

180

Structural and regulatory reform in Turkey: Lessons form public utilities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Turkey is one of the countries that recently initiated regulatory reform in public utilities. Although Turkey tried to introduce competition to many industries through a liberalization movement that started in the 1980s, utilities remained as monopolies until the early 2000s. In the beginning of the 2000s, reforms restructured the utilities through deregulation and competition policies and established independent regulatory agencies. Whereas the reforms have been successful in some aspects, they remain insufficient in others. This paper anecdotally investigates the effects of (de)regulation on selected public utility industries and analyzes the pros and cons of the reform process. Also, it presents a comparative analysis to better understand the current institutional and governmental issues in the reform process. The findings suggest that the recently changing stance of government towards the (de)regulatory process could thwart the success of reform.

Tamer etin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

182

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Damodara Poojary, Jacques Nicole,...

183

Solar Steam Reforming of Methane (SSRM) Program Proposals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the intended development work to supply solar HT process heat to industrial processes, especially chemical processes, the steam reforming process is considered suitable in particular.

A. Kalt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and...

185

Review of Trajectories of Chemistry Education Innovation and Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Trajectories of Chemistry Education Innovation and Reform ... Trajectories of Chemistry Education Innovation and Reform began as a symposium at an American Chemical Society (ACS) meeting, honoring the efforts of Susan Hixon on the occasion of her retirement from the position of program officer in the Division of Undergraduate Education at the National Science Foundation (NSF). ... In addition to providing the reader with an overview of the history of chemical education as a research field, this book summarizes reform efforts in areas of curriculum design, pedagogical tools, and institutional reform. ...

Brittland K. DeKorver

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

186

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

187

FUEL CELLS SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Internal and External Reformation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three basic concepts of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems operating on hydrocarbon fuels, with external, internal, and partial prereforming, respectively, are presented and discussed. Internal reforming of methane is advantageously used for additional cooling of the SOFC stack, thus increasing system efficiency. Basic thermodynamics, catalysis, and kinetics of the methane steam reforming process are presented. Examples of SOFC stacks operating on internal reforming of methane and simulated partial prereforming of mine gas and natural gas are discussed. The latter is used to illustrate the effect of internal methane reforming on heat management in SOFC stacks.

L.G.J. de Haart; R. Peters

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

189

Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type or Print)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type Care Structural Reform: What's Happening in Albany and Washington? Changing the Social Determinants of Health Reform in the Pharmaceutical Industry Sustaining Community Health Workers Comparative

Brown, Lucy L.

190

Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of infrastructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of their reform. Since infrastructures are characterized by strong technical complementarities, we explore the alignment between organization and technology and should be taken explicitly into account when reforming

Boyer, Edmond

191

Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries, Vickerstaff, S & Loretto, W 2012, 'Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries: Re University Press. Lain, D., Vickerstaff, S. & Loretto, W. 2012, "Reforming State Pension provision

Millar, Andrew J.

192

Reforming the EU: The Future of European Law and Policy IV CONFERENCE PROGRAMME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reforming the EU: The Future of European Law and Policy IV CONFERENCE session "Reforming the EU" Chair: Dr Luca Rubini, Deputy Director Institute Rubini Reforming European competition law: should the European Commission have

Birmingham, University of

193

Experimental Research on Low-Temperature Methane Steam Reforming Technology in a Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Under the operating parameters of a chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT), the low-temperature methane steam reforming test bench is designed and built; systematic experimental studies about fuel steam reforming are conducted. Four different reforming ...

Qian Liu; Hongtao Zheng

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

defining early what contractors should accomplish defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring NEPA process costs < NEPA contractor evaluation procedures < details on the DOE NEPA Web site U.S. Department of Energy, Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance, December 1996 NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - act contracting reform Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

US Pricing Basics and What to Expect from Healthcare Reform By Jack Mycka... health care reform and pricing 12;3 MME LLC 2010 Applied Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes...

196

Effects of Current upon Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming of Anisole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reforming of anisole (as model compound of bio-oil) was performed over the NiCuZn-Al2O3 catalyst, using a recently-developed electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR). The influence of the current on the anisole reforming in the ECR process has been investigated. It was observed that anisole reforming was significantly enhanced by the current approached over the catalyst in the electrochemical catalytic process, which was due to the non-uniform temperature distribution in the catalytic bed and the role of the thermal electrons originating from the electrified wire. The maximum hydrogen yield of 88.7% with a carbon conversion of 98.3% was obtained through the ECR reforming of anisole at 700C and 4 A. X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize catalyst features and their alterations in the anisole reforming. The apparent activation energy for the anisole reforming is calculated as 99.54 kJ/mol, which is higher than ethanol, acetic acid, and light fraction of bio-oil. It should owe to different physical and chemical properties and reforming mechanism for different hydrocarbons.

Jia-xing Xiong; Tao Kan; Xing-long Li; Tong-qi Ye; Quan-xin Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

ISSN 1745-9648 Potential Impact of Electricity Reforms on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Potential Impact of Electricity Reforms on Turkish Households by Necmiddin Finance, Hacettepe University & Catherine Waddams Price ESRC Centre for Competition Policy and Norwich the potential effect of electricity reform on different households, using a series of potential scenarios

Feigon, Brooke

198

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel cell is claimed capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, A.V.; Young, J.E.

1984-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

199

Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has a important function

Skogestad, Sigurd

200

Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System Tom Simmer, MD Chief;The Challenge of Reform: Accountable Care Organizations (ACO) · ACO's are provider organizations health care delivery Organized Systems of Care Population focus for primary care physicians, hospitals

Finley Jr., Russell L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

Feigon, Brooke

202

University of Glasgow -1-Reform of Peer Review: Response to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Glasgow -1- Reform of Peer Review: Response to Consultation Introduction & Summary The University of Glasgow welcomes the opportunity to comment on these proposals for the reform of peer review and the introduction of processes to scrutinise the economic impact of research within the peer review process and we

Glasgow, University of

203

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

205

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Renewable Energy Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website: siteresources.worldbank.org/INTENERGY/Resources/Energy19.pdf References: Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries [1] Summary "This paper complements the World Bank's Operational Guidance Note by compiling lessons of this experience that help in applying the Note's guidance. These lessons are taken from the rapidly growing literature on power market reform in developing countries. They cover the range of issues

207

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

208

Telecommunications reform and efficiency performance: Do good institutions matter?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Until recently, most studies investigating telecommunication reforms performance have failed to incorporate the importance of institutions into the empirical analysis. This study highlights the importance of institutional governance on telecommunications efficiency and provides empirical results for the impact of institutions on reform outcomes. It provides significant evidence that the institutional environment in which reform progress takes place is an important determinant for successful reform. This study uses the stochastic distance function approach to capture the role of institutions in explaining efficiency differences across 70 countries. The empirical analysis reveals that policy stability in the form of substantive checks and balances on executive power is the most important aspect for successful reform. Independently, legal integrity improves telecommunications efficiency through privatization, while greater freedom from corruption influences the effectiveness of a regulatory body.

Noorihsan Mohamad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Steam reformers heated by helium from high temperature reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The manifold possibilities of the application of helium-heated steam reformers combined with high temperature nuclear reactors are elucidated in this article. It is shown that the thermodynamic interpretation of the processes does not cause difficulties because of the good heat transfer in helium at high pressure and that helium peak temperatures of 950C are sufficient for carrying out the process. The mechanical design of the reformer tube does not lead to problems because the helium and process pressures are so chosen as to be approximately equal. The problems of hydrogen and tritium permeation as well as the contamination of the reformer tube with solid fission products seem to be solvable using the knowledge available at present. Furthermore, the various possibilities for the design arrangements of helium-heated reformer tube furnaces are shown. The status of development attained to date is outlined and in conclusion there is a survey regarding the next steps to be taken in steam reformer technology.

K. Kugeler; M. Kugeler; H.F. Niessen; K.H. Hammelmann

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Produce synthesis gas by steam reforming natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For production of synthesis gas from natural gas the steam reforming process is still the most economical. It generates synthesis gas for ammonia and methanol production as well as hydrogen, oxo gas and town gas. After desulfurization, the natural gas is mixed with steam and fed to the reforming furnace where decomposition of hydrocarbons takes place in the presence of a nickel-containing catalyst. Synthesis gas that must be free of CO and CO/sub 2/ is further treated in a CO shift conversion, a CO/sub 2/ scrubbing unit and a methanation unit. The discussion covers the following topics - reforming furnace; the outlet manifold system; secondary reformer; reformed gas cooling. Many design details of equipment used are given.

Marsch, H.D.; Herbort, H.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research universities' ability to carry out their missions without requiring a significant financial investment by the Federal government. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations

212

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 December 17, 2008 This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year. In response to significant, continuing security clearance timeliness concerns, Congress called for improvements and established specific timeliness goals as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA). Since the enactment of IRTPA, average timeliness for 90 percent of all clearance determinations reported has been substantially improved, from 265 days (in 2005) to 82 days (4th Quarter,

213

Studies of potassium-promoted nickel catalysts for methane steam reforming: Effect of surface potassium location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of potassium addition to the Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst has been investigated on several model systems, including K/Al2O3 with various amounts of alkali promoters (14wt% of K2O), a model catalyst 90%NiO-10%Al2O3 promoted with potassium and a commercial catalyst. The potassium surface state and stability were investigated by means of the Species Resolved Thermal Alkali Desorption method (SR-TAD). The activity of the catalysts in the steam reforming of methane and their coking-resistance were also evaluated. The results reveal that the beneficial effect of potassium addition is strongly related to its location in the catalysts. The catalyst surface should be promoted with potassium in order to obtain high coking-resistant catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst preparation procedure should ensure a direct interaction of potassium with the Al2O3 support surface. Due to the low stability of potassium on ?-Al2O3 this phase is undesirable during the preparation of a stable steam reforming catalyst.

Tadeusz Borowiecki; Andrzej Denis; Micha? Rawski; Andrzej Go??biowski; Kazimierz Sto?ecki; Jaromir Dmytrzyk; Andrzej Kotarba

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0585 0585 October 7, 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF ALL DEPARTMENTAL ELEMEI\lTS HUMAI\l RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: MICHAELC. KANE~~~ CHIEF HUMAN CAPITAL ~ c· SUBJECT: IMPROVING DOE RECRUITMENT AND HIRING PROCESSES This is a follow-up to the Deputy Secretary's Memorandum dated October 6, 2010 where he communicated the need to implement the Action Plan developed to improve the recruitment and hiring processes throughout the Department. One of the central tenets of the President's reform efforts and the Department's Action Plan is management's commitment and attention to an efficient and effective hiring process that yields quality employees. This was clearly articulated in the President's Memorandum dated May 11, 2010 where he directed that management be held accountable through the performance evaluation system for their role

215

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described of providing a continuous supply of hydrogen fuel to a fuel cell system. The system comprises a heat exchanger, a burner, a catalytic reactor containing a catalyst bed for catalyzing the production of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture of water and methanol and a fuel cell comprised of a fuel electrode, an oxygen electrode and an electrolyte disposed therebetween. The process comprises: passing a gaseous mixture consisting essentially of water and methanol to the heat exchanger to heat the mixture to a superheated state, the temperature and composition of the superheated mixture being sufficient to supply at least about 90% of the heat required for reforming the methanol contained in the mixture by condensation.

Beshty, B.S.; Whelan, J.A.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

216

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A catalyst's resistance to deactivation by polymer formation is vital to the successful gasification of heavy feedstocks such as kerosene and gas oil. The improved polymer-resistance performance of this steam-reforming catalyst is directly relate to the distribution of the pore sizes in its calcined (but unreduced) precursor form and to a certain pore-size ratio: 1) At least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a radius of between 12 and 120 A(2000A) is in the range of 12-30 A(2000A) and 2) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 A(2000A) to the volume contained in pores of 50-300 A(2000A) is at least 5:1. The catalyst-preparation method involves coprecipitation with a minimum of heat treatment (at temperatures not greater than 140/sup 0/F or 60/sup 0/C).

Banks, R.G.S.; Williams, A.

1980-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Performance tests for steam methane reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

219

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling of extraction of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by chelation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disadvantages. First, the solvent/metal solution must be subsequently purified. Second, since the solvent may be miscible in the aqueous phase, the residual solvent must be removed from the water stream. These disadvantages can be eliminated by substituting...

Uyansoy, Hakki

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

220

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Department for Education's reformed GCSE subject content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's reformed GCSE subject content consultation - August 2013 Department for Education: Reformed GCSE subject's reformed GCSE subject content consultation. The proposed changes to science qualifications promote reform and have enclosed a copy for information. 1 ` Direct assessment' is based on the direct assessment

Rambaut, Andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

MOVIE "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, transportation, and health care. 8. Investigate how many of the reform proposals were in place twenty years afterMOVIE ­ "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color) SYNOPSIS Following the death of Mayor Harold Washington, residents and reformers of Chicago still hoped for continued reform in Chicago

Illinois at Chicago, University of

222

The nuclear heated steam reformer Design and semitechnical operating experiences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Good operating experiences of the EVA I- and EVA II-plant have been described. Therin the comparison of the different catalyst concepts has been given. Further the behaviour of the bundle of EVA II plant by isolation of individual reformer tubes as well as the performance of the bundle under transient conditions have been explained. Different design concepts for a nuclear heated steam reformer based on the concentric tubes and baffles have been given. Main points of studies are constructional details, thermohydraulic of the bundle and stress analysis. It can be shown that the present standard of knowledge allows the application of the steam reformer for coal refinement with nuclear heat.

J. Singh; H.F. Niessen; R. Harth; H. Fedders; H. Reutler; W. Panknin; W.D. Mller; H.G. Harms

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process November 19, 2010 - 10:10am Addthis Rita Franklin Rita Franklin Deputy Chief Human Capital Officer What does this mean for me? In the video, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." The Department reduced the end-to-end time-to-hire from 174 calendar days for Fiscal Year FY 2009 to 100 days for FY 2010. Wednesday, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and I met with leaders from across the Federal government to share our progress in the our Department's hiring reform efforts. Six months ago, President Obama called on all executive departments and federal agencies to overhaul the way we recruit and hire. As the President

225

Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 December 17, 2004 To reform the intelligence community and the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, and for other purposes. SEC. 102. (a) DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-(1) There is a Director of National Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Any individual nominated for appointment as Director of National Intelligence shall have extensive national security expertise. ''(2) The Director of National Intelligence shall not be located within the Executive Office of the President. ''(b) PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITY.-Subject to the authority, direction,

226

Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process November 19, 2010 - 10:10am Addthis Rita Franklin Rita Franklin Deputy Chief Human Capital Officer What does this mean for me? In the video, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." The Department reduced the end-to-end time-to-hire from 174 calendar days for Fiscal Year FY 2009 to 100 days for FY 2010. Wednesday, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and I met with leaders from across the Federal government to share our progress in the our Department's hiring reform efforts. Six months ago, President Obama called on all executive departments and federal agencies to overhaul the way we recruit and hire. As the President

227

A Compact and Efficient Steam Methane Reformer for Hydrogen Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A small-scale steam-methane reforming system for localized, distributed production of hydrogen offers improved performance and lower cost by integrating the following technologies developed at the (more)

Quon, Willard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

229

Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization E. DANIAU* , M. BOUCHEZ in a Scramjet combustion chamber. Another critical point is that mixing and combustion should be sufficiently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Experiences of niobium-containing alloys for steam reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Destructive testing of niobium alloys was made in steam reformer as well as the study of the effects of the chemical compositions on the creep rupture and tensile properties.

Shibasaki, T.; Takemura, K.; Kawai, T.; Mohri, T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Deregulation, tax reform, and the use of consumer credit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article analyzes the probable effects of recent deregulation of consumer credit markets and tax reform on household credit-use decisions. The results of the analysis ... that deregulation of rates of charge ...

A. Charlene Sullivan; Debra Drecnik Worden

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

ISSN 1745-9648 Organisation and Reforms of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of liberalisation of the Slovenian electricity market to a large extent resembles what other EU countries were: electricity reform, restructuring, competition, South East Europe, liberalisation #12;2 Acknowledgements

Feigon, Brooke

233

ECONOMIC REFORM AND COMMUNIST REGIME SURVIVABILTY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of their respective Politburos and may be described as not only surviving but thriving, experiencing economic stability and enjoying high rates of growth. This study examines the ramifications of economic and political reform policies implemented by four collapsed...

Nelson, John

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

234

A cross country analysis of electricity market reforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

econometric model based on Poisson regression with cross-section data covering 51 US states, 13 Canada states and 51 other countries. The results show that both the background of the chairperson of electricity market regulatory agency when reforms started...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

235

Highly Active Steam Reforming Catalyst for Hydrogen and Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toyo Engineering Corporation developed a steam reforming catalyst, which is four times as active as conventional catalysts, for hydrogen and syngas production from light natural gas. The catalyst has...3 plant. B...

Toru Numaguchi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Distributed Ethanol Reforming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Bio-derived liquid fuels can be produced from renewable agricultural products, such as wood chips. Background Bio-derived renewable fuels are attractive for their high energy density and ease of transport. One scenario for a sustainable hydrogen economy considers that these bio-derived liquid fuels will be produced at plants close to the biomass resource, and then transported to distributed hydrogen production centers (e.g., hydrogen refueling stations), where the fuels will be reformed via the steam reforming process, similar to the current centralized production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of natural gas. Hydrogen produced by reforming these fuels must first be purified and compressed to appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing

237

Electrical Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) Electrical Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Fees Provider Montana Department of Revenue This Act reforms taxes paid by electricity generators to reduce tax rates and imposes replacement taxes in response to the 1997 restructuring of the

238

Integrated process and apparatus for the primary and secondary catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for the essentially autothermal, integrated primary and secondary reforming of hydrocarbons comprising: (a) an internally insulated outer reactor shell adapted for the positioning of primary and secondary reforming zones therein; (b) means defining a primary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell and having catalyst-containing reformer tubes positioned therein, the primary reforming zone not requiring an external fuel fired source of heat for the endothermic primary reforming reaction occurring therein; (c) means for introducing a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream and steam to the outer reactor shell for passage through the reformer tubes in the primary reforming zone; (d) means defining a secondary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell comprising a secondary reforming catalyst bed, a catalyst-free reaction space defining a feed end adjacent to the catalyst bed and a discharge end at the opposite side of the secondary reforming catalyst bed to the feed end; and (e) conduit means positioned entirely within the outer reactor shell and extending through the secondary reforming catalyst bed for passing partly reformed product effluent from the primary reforming zone to the catalyst-free reaction space in the secondary reforming zone.

Fuderer, A.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Experimental Study on Gasoline Reforming Assisted by Nonthermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasoline conversion efficiency decreased when the electric discharge regime was changing from continuous to gliding arc and from gliding to streamer. ... Compared with catalytic reformers, plasma devices have so far lower performances, which is explained by the early stage of research on nonthermal plasma reforming and the need of an external energy input (electricity). ... and design of the plasma reactor, composed of two gliding arc discharges in series, were detailed. ...

Jean-Damien Rollier; Jos Gonzalez-Aguilar; Guillaume Petitpas; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri; Rudolf Metkemeijer

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

240

Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP IN URBAN SCHOOL REFORM A Dissertation by RODNEY PRESCOTT McCLENDON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2007 Major Subject: Agricultural Education FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP IN URBAN SCHOOL REFORM A Dissertation by RODNEY PRESCOTT McCLENDON Submitted...

McClendon, Rodney Prescott

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

Dumont, P.J.

1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

243

Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hydrogen plant expansion using oxygen secondary reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As crude oil feedstocks become heavier and more sour, the H/sub 2/ demands of a refinery increase. Heavier sour crudes require more H/sub 2/ for hydrodesulfurization, hydrocracking and hydrotreating to produce the lighter, high quality products currently in demand. In most cases, this additional H/sub 2/ requirement is satisfied by the generation of on purpose H/sub 2/. The on purpose H/sub 2/ demand is typically satisfied by steam methane reforming (SMR). The conventional SMR process, utilizing shift, CO/sub 2/ removal, and methanation for H/sub 2/ purification, can produce 90 to 98% pure H/sub 2/ at 150 to 400 psig at an energy efficiency of 410 Btu (HHV)/SCF H/sub 2/. An SMR process employing shift and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) for H/sub 2/ purification can produce H/sub 2/ at a purity up to 99.999% and an energy efficiency of 390 Btu (HHV)/SCF H/sub 2/. Two options available for satisfying an increased on purpose H/sub 2/ demand are the addition of a new SMR plant and the debottlenecking of an existing SMR. A new SMR plant is the most capital-intensive means of expanding H/sub 2/ capacity.

Snyder, G.D.; Wang, S.I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

Spencer Pack

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Renewable Chemical Commodity Feedstocks from Integrated Catalytic Processing of Pyrolysis Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrogen is from large steam reformers and...amounts of undesired methane are produced, which...such as by the reforming of biomass-derived...aqueous-phase reforming of biomass-derived...Survey of the Economics of Hydrogen Technologies...Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived...

Tushar P. Vispute; Huiyan Zhang; Aimaro Sanna; Rui Xiao; George W. Huber

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

249

Aqueous and pyrochemical reprocessing of actinide fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processing of the nuclear fuel actinides has developed in two independent directionsaqueous processing and pyroprocessing. Similarities in the two processes, their...

L. Mac Toth Ph.D.; Walter D. Bond Ph.D.; Larry R. Avens Ph.D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Of Wheat Germ Oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this study is to investigate the aqueous enzymatic extraction of wheat germ oil. Four enzymes (Viscozyme L, Multifect CX 13l, Multifect CX (more)

Xie, Meizhen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous processing material Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous humor. Collection and Processing of Aqueous Humor Aqueous humor... ... Source: Johnson, Mark - Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University Collection:...

252

Walk the line: Conflict, state capacity and the political dynamics of reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper develops a dynamic framework to analyze the political sustainability of economic reforms in developing countries. First, we demonstrate that economic reforms that are proceeding successfully may run into a political impasse, with the reform's initial success having a negative impact on its political sustainability. Second, we demonstrate that greater state capacity, to make compensatory transfers to those adversely affected by reform, need not always help the political sustainability of reform, but can also hinder it. Finally, we argue that in ethnically divided societies, economic reform may be completed not despite ethnic conflict, but because of it.

Sanjay Jain; Sumon Majumdar; Sharun W Mukand

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

cis-1,2- DCE (mgkg) Methylene Chloride (mgkg) Toluene (mgkg) TCE (mgkg) Florida Petroleum Range Organics (mgkg) NAPL Remediation Goals 71,000 227,000 15,000 20,400 2,500,000...

254

Nematic droplets in aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aqueous dispersions of exfoliated, bile-salt stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit a first order transition to a nematic liquid-crystalline phase. The nematic phase presents itself in the form of micron-sized nematic droplets also known as tactoids, freely floating in the isotropic host dispersion. The nematic droplets are spindle shaped and have an aspect ratio of about four, irrespective of their size. We attribute this to a director field that is uniform rather than bipolar, which is confirmed by polarization microscopy. It follows that the ratio of the anchoring strength and the surface tension must be about four, which is quite larger than predicted theoretically but in line with earlier observations of bipolar tactoids. From the scatter in the data we deduce that the surface tension of the coexisting isotropic and nematic phases must be extremely low, that is, of the order of nN/m.

Nicolas Puech; Eric Grelet; Philippe Poulin; Christophe Blanc; Paul van der Schoot

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

255

The use of advanced steam reforming technology for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for supplementary hydrogen production in refineries is growing significantly world-wide as environmental legislation concerning cleaner gasoline and diesel fuels is introduced. The main manufacturing method is by steam reforming. The process has been developed both to reduce the capital cost and increase efficiency, reliability and ease of operation. ICI Katalco`s Leading Concept Hydrogen or LCH process continues this process of improvement by replacing the conventional fired steam reformer with a type of heat exchange reformer known as the Gas Heated Reformer or GHR. The GHR was first used in the Leading Concept Ammonia process, LCA at ICI`s manufacturing site at Severnside, England and commissioned in 1988 and later in the Leading Concept Methanol (LCM) process for methanol at Melbourne, Australia and commissioned in 1994. The development of the LCH process follows on from both LCA and LCM processes. This paper describes the development and use of the GHR in steam reforming, and shows how the GHR can be used in LCH. A comparison between the LCH process and a conventional hydrogen plant is given, showing the benefits of the LCH process in certain circumstances.

Abbishaw, J.B.; Cromarty, B.J. [ICI Katalco, Billingham (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution ... At each simulation step, we calculate the contribution to the dipole moment from the first n counterions in the list, constituting the net charge (?x(n), ?y(n), ?z(n)) as follows, where e is the elementary charge and xi, yi, zi are the coordinates of the ith counterion in the list. ... Manning32 has already explained this effect in his two-phase model of polarizability, as reflecting the decreased resistance to distortion of the condensation layer. ...

Hitoshi Washizu; Kazuo Kikuchi

2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

257

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities January 21, 2011 Introduction At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research universities' ability to carry out their missions without requiring a significant financial investment by the Federal government. We firmly believe that compliance and regulatory oversight are essential to the conduct of federally-supported research. Rationalizing the Federal regulatory infrastructure is essential to

258

Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). I have reviewed the Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). In the Department of Energy"s (DOE) attempt to meet its obligation to implement Executive Order 13563, ""Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,"" issued by the President on January 18, 2011, I recommend DOE make a bold move to change

259

Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in Vietnam in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Name Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam Agency/Company /Organization Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices Website http://recoftc.org/site/filead Country Vietnam UN Region South-Eastern Asia References Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam[1] Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam Screenshot Summary "This report presents a synthesis of findings from the two surveys undertaken in Dak Lak (by Dak Lak Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD)) and Hoa Binh by VFU (See Annex A. for a list of members in the two research teams). It was prepared by Nguyen Quang Tan, Nguyen Ba

260

Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

Erickson, D.C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

262

High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Ghana-REDD Readiness Requires Radical Reform | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Readiness Requires Radical Reform Readiness Requires Radical Reform Jump to: navigation, search Name Ghana-REDD Readiness Requires Radical Reform Agency/Company /Organization UN-REDD Programme Sector Land Focus Area Forestry, Agriculture Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Maps, Guide/manual, Training materials Website http://environment.yale.edu/tf Country Ghana UN Region Western Africa References Ghana-REDD Readiness[1] Summary "The fundamental changes needed for sustainable forest management in Ghana have been known for years, and many large projects have been instigated accordingly. Yet real change has proved elusive. The key challenge now is to get REDD-plus right so that it makes a difference. Dialogue participants

264

GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13 APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13 GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 This memorandum provides guidance on the application of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of1998 to vacancies in Senate-confirmed offices within the executive branch. March 22, 1999 MEMORANDUM FOR AGENCY GENERAL COUNSELS On October 21, 1998, the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 ("Vacancies Reform Act" or "Act") was signed into law. ( ) The Vacancies Reform Act replaces the old Vacancies Act and alters the way in which vacancies in presidentially appointed, Senate- confirmed offices within the executive branch may be filled on a temporary basis. The following Q&As are intended to provide general guidance on the Vacancies Reform Act. If

265

A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. Abstract: Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared...

266

Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

267

The Fate of Obamacare: Racial Resentment, Ethnocentrism and Attitudes about Healthcare Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Health care has been a contentious issue in American ... public support for, and opposition to, healthcare reform. Using national survey data, we measure ... and Ethnocentrism, on white support for healthcare reform

Angie Maxwell; Todd Shields

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions APPROACH On-board diesel fuel reformation is being evaluated as an alternative to urea SCR to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions...

269

Its About Time for Autism Reform Legislation in Utah  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On 3 April 2014, Governor Gary Herbert signed into law a health insurance reform bill that requires private insurers to cover ... and the District of Columbia have enacted insurance reform laws. Ensuring that chi...

Brian J. Shiozawa

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

271

Internal tar/CH4 reforming in a biomass dual fluidised bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An internal reformer is developed for in situ catalytic reforming of tar and methane (CH4) in allothermal gasifiers. The study has been performed in the ... 150kW dual fluidised bed (DFB) biomass gasifier at Mid...

Kristina Gransson; Ulf Sderlind; Till Henschel

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications.

Phanicha Tippawan; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - agricultural price reforms Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

T Y J A N U A R Y 1 1 , 2 0 1 0 You Get What You Pay For: The Obama Approach to Health Care Reform 12... fundamental issues in health care reform 12;Coverage is actually quite...

274

Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

Charles Vesely

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

275

Steam reforming of carbo-metallic oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to liquid fuel products by bringing a converter feed containing 650/sup 0/ F. + material characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and by containing at least about 4 ppm of nickel equivalents of heavy metals, including nickel, into contact with a particulate cracking catalyst in a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated conversion zone. The suspension of catalyst and feed in the reactor has a vapor residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, a temperature of about 900/sup 0/ F. to about 1400/sup 0/ F. and a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 50 to about 90 percent while depositing nickel on the catalyst and coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.3 to about 3 percent by weight. The coke-laden catalyst is separated from the resulting stream of hydrocarbons and regenerated by combustion of the coke with oxygen, the regenerated catalyst being characterized by deposited nickel in at least a partially oxidized state and a level of carbon on catalyst of about 0.25 percent by weight or less. The regenerated catalyst is contacted with a reducing gas under reducing conditions sufficient to reduce at least a portion of the oxidized nickel deposits to a reduced state and the regenerated catalyst with reduced nickel deposits is recycled to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed. Water is also introduced into the reactor conversion zone and the amount of water and the amount of reduced nickel on the recycled catalyst are sufficient to provide a steam reforming reaction so that hydrogen deficient components of the feed are converted to products having higher hydrogen to carbon ratios and the amount of feed converted to coke is reduced. The amount of deposited nickel on catalyst is preferably in the range from about 2,000 to about 20,000 ppm.

Myers, G.D.; Hettinger, W.P. Jr.; Kovach, S.M.; Zandona, O.J.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

Health Insurance Reform and the Tensions of Federalism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...government will be able to navigate the political and policy-related shoals, but clearly, federalstate tensions are about to be seriously tested. Insurance-Market Reforms and Market-Stabilization Initiatives in the Health Care Reform Law.. Creation of high-risk pools effective June 21, 2010 (90... Christopher Jennings and Katherine Hayes write that our ability to achieve a workable federalstate balance will be seriously tested as the Obama administration and the states define and apply their roles in implementing the myriad new policies for ...

Jennings C.C.; Hayes K.J.

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

277

Medicare's Chronic Care Management Payment Payment Reform for Primary Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efforts to reform U.S. health care delivery focus on creating a high-performing primary care system that improves value through increased emphasis on access, prevention, and care coordination. Reformers recognize that the fee-for-service system, which restricts payments for primary care to office-based... In 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services will introduce a nonvisit-based payment for chronic care management. The new policy reflects an investment in primary care that may contribute to the development of a value-oriented health system.

Edwards S.T.; Landon B.E.

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

278

High temperature gas cooled reactor steam-methane reformer design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of the long distance transportation of process heat energy from a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) heat source, based on the steam-methane reforming reaction, is being evaluated by the Department of Energy as an energy source/application for use early in the 21st century. This paper summaries the design of a helium heated steam reformer utilized in conjunction with an intermediate loop, 850/degree/C reactor outlet temperature, HTGR process heat plant concept. This paper also discusses various design considerations leading to the mechanical design features, the thermochemical performance, the materials selection and the structural design analysis. 12 refs.

Impellezzeri, J.R.; Drendel, D.B.; Odegaard, T.K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

The Political Economy of Indias Fiscal Federal System and its Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for state governments capital expenditure. Tax Reform Taxborrow to finance capital expenditure, without underminingfinancing states capital expenditure through new borrowing

Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrogen Production by Noncatalytic Autothermal Reformation of Aviation Fuel Using Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production by Noncatalytic Autothermal Reformation of Aviation Fuel Using Supercritical Water ... Energy Fuels, 2009, 23 (12), ...

Jason W. Picou; Jonathan E. Wenzel; H. Brian Lanterman; Sunggyu Lee

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

Inequality and the Politics of Social Policy Implementation: Gender, Age and Chile's 2004 Health Reforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reforms CHRISTINA EWIG and GASTO´ N A. PALMUCCI * University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Summary implementation. We examine the 2004 Chilean health reforms that sought to regulate private insurers, and measure their effects on gender and age inequality. We find that reforms intended to decrease these inequalities largely

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

283

WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 1 Department for Education: Reform of the National Curriculum in England CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 2

Rambaut, Andrew

284

DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS* Zack Cooper, Stephen Gibbons, Simon Jones and Alistair McGuire Recent substantive reforms to the English with fixed prices. This study investigates whether these reforms led to improvements in hospital quality. We

Mateo, Jill M.

285

Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform Brendan Daley Erik Snowberg Duke reform alleviates this phenomenon and improves voter welfare at the expense of politicians. Thus, we expect successful politicians to oppose true campaign finance reform. We also show our model

Jensen, Grant J.

286

BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

107 BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA OR THE SEARCH FOR A "MODERN" of the country. The dominant role of secularist elites paved the way for the "reform of Islam." This process in the organization and reform of official religious institutions. For example, it interfered in the organization

Boyer, Edmond

287

August 15, 2013 Bargaining Update 8: UC stresses fair compensation and reasonable pension reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reform UC stressed with the California Nurses Association on Aug. 6-8, 2013 the need to reach a fair's market. UC's pension reform proposal calls for: · Employees hired before July 1, 2013: UC would in substantive negotiations over responsible and necessary pension reform. CNA has not accepted UC's pension

Leistikow, Bruce N.

288

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation -August 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation - August 2013 1 Ofqual: GCSE reform consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust August 2013 Key points and indirect practical assessment in its reform proposals. The total contribution of direct and indirect

Rambaut, Andrew

289

Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1 Mark Guzdial1, Matthew educational reform efforts, but there are many challenges to face before achieving that vision. Two attempting to use this tool to leverage a particular kind of educational reform goal: Achieving integration

Guzdial, Mark

290

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming Abdul of certain metals with steam, called metal- steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not gen- erate any: hydrogen generation; metal-steam reform- ing; mill-scale; nanoscale iron; electron microscopy Hydrogen

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

291

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE outcomes. #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/3 INTRODUCTION The Personal Responsibility and Work

Shyy, Wei

292

THE CALIFORNIAN MODEL AS THE PARADIGM FOR SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN LATINAMERIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CALIFORNIAN MODEL AS THE PARADIGM FOR SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN LATINAMERIC Hugh Rudnick for a second stage of reform, establishing highly flexible mechanisms of decentralised exchanges, and achieving about the validity of this new paradigm for second stage reforms. They question themselves

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

293

the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states the economics of social insurance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

126 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 127 the economics of social insurance: 4 the great InvIsIble PensIon reForm In the unIted states Krzysztof Ostaszewski Is the US bankrupt failure around the world 128 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 129 · every working

Ostaszewski, Krzysztof M.

294

Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

situation: health care and retirement. First, Medicaid expenditures, already a substantial share of state1 Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State errors, are those of the authors alone. I.The Urgent Need for Reform Public pension reform is a national

Illinois at Chicago, University of

295

PHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and describe two state-based reforms underway in Wisconsin's health care industry. Topics/Readings The Big Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Current State-Level Trends and Health Reforms The SyllabusPHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011 Course Overview

Sheridan, Jennifer

296

Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health care reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law (P.L. 111-148). This major reform to health care certainly has had and will continue to have

Weber, David J.

297

Direct Synthesis of Nanoceria in Aqueous Polyhydroxyl Solutions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Synthesis of Nanoceria in Aqueous Polyhydroxyl Solutions. Direct Synthesis of Nanoceria in Aqueous Polyhydroxyl Solutions. Abstract: Nanoceria has been shown to possess biomedical...

298

Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using...

299

Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

300

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

Sun Yanpeng (???); Nie Yong (??); Wu Angshan (???); Ji Dengxiang (???); Yu Fengwen (???); Ji Jianbing (???)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sulfur-deactivated steam reforming of gasified biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of hydrogen sulfide on the stream reforming of methane has been studied. Methane is the most difficult component to convert by steam reforming in the mixture of hydrocarbons, which is produced in biomass gasification. Two catalysts were subjected to hydrogen sulfide levels up to 300 ppm so as to study the effect of sulfur on their deactivation. These catalysts were the C11-9-061, from United Catalyst Inc., and the HTSR1, from Haldor Topsoee. The activation energy of the sulfur-deactivated steam-reforming reaction was calculated to be 280 and 260 kJ/mol, for each catalyst, respectively. The high values most probably originate from the fact that the degree of sulfur coverage of the nickel surface is close to 1 for these experiments. Even under these severe conditions, steam reforming of methane is possible without any carbon formation. The HTSR1 catalyst exhibits a very high sulfur-free activity, resulting in a performance in the presence of hydrogen sulfide higher than that for the C11-9-061 catalyst. By using the HTSR1 catalyst, the reactor temperature can be lowered by 60 C in order to reach comparable levels of conversion.

Koningen, J.; Sjoestroem, K. [Kungl Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Kungl Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 1999 OECD purchasing power parities, the U.S. rate remains well-above those of France, Canada, Germany and welfare reform mandated increased labor supply from single mothers. As a result, the labor force 1999 constant dollars) in private industry were $13.57 in December 1999, 6.4 percent above the December

Shyy, Wei

304

ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform on Consumers by Catherine Waddams Price ESRC, University of East Anglia CCP Working Paper 08-7 Abstract: We examine the effect of current electricity, where household expenditure surveys and electricity tariffs are available, we analyse the effects

Feigon, Brooke

305

Static and Dynamic Simulation of Steam Methane Reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The steam-methane reaction is an essential step for many processing plants. Hydrogen, ammonia and methanol are mostly produced by means of methane steam reforming. Since hydrogen is essential for any refinery employing hydrotreating, the performance monitoring of the hydrogen plant is highly desirable. The use of models or simulation is now a standard practice in most chemical plants and refineries. However, reliable models are still lacking for speciality reactors like the methane steam reformer. This paper describes steady-state and dynamic models for the reactions involved in reforming methane and higher hydrocarbon gases. The performance of the reformer is then illustrated by sensitivity analysis to various input disturbances like inlet pressure, temperature, feed concentration and rate, fuel rate and density and steam to carbon ratio. The effect of these disturbances on exit temperature and conversion is studied and analyzed. Catalyst deactivation effects are also discussed and it is shown by sample calculations that the simulator can give insight into catalyst performance and assist in monitoring catalyst deactivation. The transient effects are also reported and dynamic elements like gains and response time are discussed. Such information should give insight into controller design and effects of various parameters.

I.M. Alatiqi; A.M. Meziou; G.A. Gasmelseed

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

307

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia by Sandra Jednak Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Serbia have been started, and certain results were achieved. But, the electric power infrastructure decided whether the Serbian Electric Power Industry will be privatised, and if it is privatised which

Feigon, Brooke

309

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania by Oana Diaconu Department of Economics and Management-11 Abstract: Romania is a net exporter of electricity to the SE Europe region. Its performance of this role for international transmission. Romania has committed itself to an electricity restructuring plan that includes

Feigon, Brooke

310

The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regions include stimulating private sector financing, increasing operational and managerial efficiencies and lowering electricity tariffs #12;The CDM and renewable energy · Power sector reforms could potentially require higher investments for electricity generation than conventional fuel projects · Can also offer

311

Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Catalysts for autothermal reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Krause Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure2, CO, CO2, and CH4) as a function of: catalyst composition fuel composition and sulfur content,110,861) awarded Oct 2000: CRADA w/H2Fuel to commercialize reformer Aug 2001: Began work on perovskite catalysts

312

The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS Improving health care quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of health care (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives. Key Words: Informatics; health care. ª

Rubin, Daniel L.

313

Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Will Impact Small Employer Health requirements, the function of health insurance exchanges and the future of employer-sponsored health insurance Shield of Texas Katrina Daniel Associate Commissioner, Life, Accident and Health Section Regulatory

O'Toole, Alice J.

314

First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

India's first generation external sector reforms are a fascinating case study of emergence from a post-Independence socialist-style economy to the worlds largest free market democracy. Part I of this article reviews the Indian license Raj system...

Bhala, Raj

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons and process of preparing the catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A catalyst is provided for the steam reforming of normally liquid hydrocarbons to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which does not promote the deposition of carbonaceous materials upon the catalytic surfaces. The catalyst consists of nickel promoted with the oxides of iron and manganese within a specific manganese to iron ratio, said metal and metal oxides being supported upon a refractory support. The support is preferably aluminum oxide in its alpha phase having a surface area of less than 15 m2/gm. The metallic constituents are impregnated onto said refractory low surface area support as salts and are calcined at sufficiently high temperature to convert the salts to the oxide but at a sufficiently low temperature that they do not chemically react with the support.

Broughton, D.R.; Russ, K.J.

1980-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

Method for processing aqueous wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

Pickett, John B. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Martin, Hollis L. (Rt. 1, Box 188KB, McCormick, SC 29835); Langton, Christine A. (455 Sumter St. SE., Aiken, SC 29801); Harley, Willie W. (110 Fairchild St., Batesburg, SC 29006)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Syngas production in a novel methane dry reformer by utilizing of tri-reforming process for energy supplying: Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, tri-reforming process has been utilized as an energy source for driving highly endothermic process of methane dry reforming process in a multi-tubular recuperative thermally coupled reactor (TCTDR). 184 two-concentric-tubes have been proposed for this configuration. Outer tube sides of the two-concentric-tubes have been considered for the tri-reforming reactions while dry reforming process takes place in inner tube sides. Simulation results of co-current mode have been compared with corresponding predictions of thermally coupled tri- and steam reformer (TCTSR); in which the tri-reforming process has been coupled with steam reforming of methane in same conditions. A mathematical heterogeneous model has been applied to simulate both dry and tri-reforming sides of the TCTDR. Results showed that methane conversion at the output of dry and tri-reforming sides reached to 63% and 93%, respectively. Also, molar flow rate of syngas at the output of DR side of TCTDR reached to 7464kmolh?1 in comparison to 3912kmolh?1 for SR side of TCTSR.

Mehdi Farniaei; Mohsen Abbasi; Hamid Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Rahimpour; Alireza Shariati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

HH22 Reformer, Fuel Cell Power Plant,Reformer, Fuel Cell Power Plant, & Vehicle Refueling System& Vehicle Refueling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sufficient hydrogen demand develops. #12;4 Relevant DOE Program Objectives Reduce dependence on foreign oil Promote use of diverse, domestic energy resources ­ Natural gas reformation Develop and demonstrate on test fill tank, CNG/H2 ICE vehicles and H2 Fuel Cell vehicles. Fuel dispensing integrated with City

319

Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water may be extracted from aqueous calcium acetate or sodium acetate solutions using low miscibility, low molecular weight tertiary amines, e.g. triethylamine (TEA) and N,N- dietliylmethylaniine (DEMA). This novel extraction technology...

Lee, Champion

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Mechanisms of Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanisms of Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil ... showed also that the inertial turbulent regime is inappropriate for emulsification of oils with viscosity ?500 mPa s, if drops of micrometer size are to be obtained. ...

K. A. Campbell; C. E. Glatz

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chemical Models for Aqueous Biodynamical Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The proton inventory method was applied to the study of three processes: the viscous flow of water, the neutral hydrolysis of esters, and the exchange reaction between aqueous sodium ion and the carboxylic exchanger Amberlite ...

Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to the NHS Future Forum inquiry into the NHS reforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the NHS reforms October 2011 1 NHS Future Forum: Inquiry into the NHS reforms Response by the Wellcome focus primarily on the impact of the reforms on health research and innovation, which run throughout the Future Forum's four themes. 3. The reforms of the NHS and public health systems must bring about

Rambaut, Andrew

323

Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications December 2012 Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 science skills. 2. We are pleased to have the opportunity to respond to the consultation on reforms to Key consultations on the reform to curriculum and assessment at various stages of schooling. There is an opportunity

Rambaut, Andrew

324

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual Consultation: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform -July 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 1 Ofqual: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform Response core content in partnership does not deter exam boards from reforming worthwhile qualifications. 5: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 2 6. Under the new proposals, exam boards will be required

Rambaut, Andrew

325

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

326

Sonoelectrochemical (20 khz) production of hydrogen from aqueous solutions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There are various methods of producing Hydrogen. These include electrolysis, which this work is based upon, and steam reforming; currently the most commercially viable method. (more)

Symes, Daniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrogen From MillHydrogen From Mill--Scale Waste Via MetalScale Waste Via Metal--Steam ReformingSteam Reforming INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrogen From MillHydrogen From Mill--Scale Waste Via MetalScale Waste Via Metal--Steam ReformingSteam Reforming INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Hydrogen is considered to be the ideal energy carrying medium for fuel and supplying hydrogen to the end user in more reversible, much simpler and far safer ways. Metal-steam

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

328

Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration.

Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

Long term savings decisions: Financial reform, peer effects and ethnicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In 2005, a drastic reform in the Israeli capital market shifted the power to choose savings vehicles from employers to individuals. Using a unique dataset from a large employer, this event provides us a rare window into individuals savings decisions and the effect of their social environment. In the first year following the reform's implementation, 7% of the employees switched out of the fund in which they all previously saved. Choice of fund was not associated with observable measures of fund performance, but was strongly affected by the employees social environment. Exploiting within-department variation in peer groups, we find that savings decisions were strongly influenced by the choices of co-workers from the same ethnic group. Interviews also point to the influence of non-professional colleagues.

Yevgeny Mugerman; Orly Sade; Moses Shayo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Addiction treatment centers' progress in preparing for health care reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is expected to significantly alter addiction treatment service delivery. Researchers designed the Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) for addiction treatment organizations to assess their readiness for the PPACA. Four-hundred twenty-seven organizations completed the HRRI throughout a 3-year period, using a four-point scale to rank their readiness on 13 conditions. HRRI results completed during two different time periods (between 10/1/20106/30/2011 and 9/1/20119/30/2012) were analyzed and compared. Most respondents self-assessed as being in the early stages of preparation for 9 of the 13 conditions. Survey results showed that organizations with annual budgets$5 million (n=132). The HRRI results suggest that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, is not preparing adequately for health care reform; organizations that are making preparations are making only modest gains.

Todd D. Molfenter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

Modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of steam-methane reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model to calculate temperature, conversion and pressure profiles for static operations in steam-methane reformers was simulated. A rigorous kinetic model describing steam-methane reactions was compared to a first order one and an empirical heat distribution model was fitted to describe heat absorbed along the reactor length. A control interface was simulated to allow sensitivity analysis with different control schemes. The kinetic models were tested with data from industrial steam-gas reformers. Simulation results agreed with actual plant data for conversion, temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, the first order kinetic model gave unrealistic sensitivity results to pressure and steam-to-carbon ratio variations. The rigorous model could confidently be used for design analysis, control, and economic evaluation purposes.

I.M. Alatiqi; A.M. Meziou; G.A. Gasmelseed

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Modeling a set of heavy oil aqueous pyrolysis experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous pyrolysis experiments, aimed at mild upgrading of heavy oil, were analyzed using various computer models. The primary focus of the analysis was the pressure history of the closed autoclave reactors obtained during the heating of the autoclave to desired reaction temperatures. The models used included a means of estimating nonideal behavior of primary components with regard to vapor liquid equilibrium. The modeling indicated that to match measured autoclave pressures, which often were well below the vapor pressure of water at a given temperature, it was necessary to incorporate water solubility in the oil phase and an activity model for the water in the oil phase which reduced its fugacity below that of pure water. Analysis also indicated that the mild to moderate upgrading of the oil which occurred in experiments that reached 400{degrees}C or more using a FE(III) 2-ethylhexanoate could be reasonably well characterized by a simple first order rate constant of 1.7xl0{sup 8} exp(-20000/T)s{sup {minus}l}. Both gas production and API gravity increase were characterized by this rate constant. Models were able to match the complete pressure history of the autoclave experiments fairly well with relatively simple equilibria models. However, a consistent lower than measured buildup in pressure at peak temperatures was noted in the model calculations. This phenomena was tentatively attributed to an increase in the amount of water entering the vapor phase caused by a change in its activity in the oil phase.

Thorsness, C.B.; Reynolds, J.G.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Catalyst and process for steam-reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved catalyst and an improved process for use of the catalyst in the steam-hydrocarbon reforming reaction are disclosed. The catalyst comprises a group VIII metal on a cylindrical ceramic support consisting essentially of alpha alumina and having a plurality of gas passages extending axially therethrough. These supported catalysts display a higher geometric surface area and a lower pressure drop than do standard rings.

Atwood, K.; Merriam, J.S.; Wright, J.H.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Tax reform would renew R&D tax credit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tax reform would renew R&D tax credit ... And among all the business tax incentives that are repealed or curtailed in the most recent Administration tax plan, the credit for R&D expenditures, which expires this year, is somewhat exceptional in that it would be renewed at least until Dec. 31,1988. ... However, as detailed in the Treasury Department's 460-page explanation of the tax proposal, the definition of qualifying research would be tightened. ...

1985-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

337

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanfords tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanfords WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

Payment reform and changes in health care in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper is intended to assess the primary effects on cost, utilization and quality of care from payment reform of capitation and open enrollment in Changde city, Hunan Province of China. Open enrollment policy was introduced to deal with possible cream skimming associated with capitation. Based on the longitudinal Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) Household Survey, this study analyses the URBMI data through a set of regression models. The original data included over five thousand inpatient admissions during the study period between 2008 and 2010. The study finds the payment reform to reduce its inpatient out-of-pocket cost by 19.7%, out-of-pocket ratio by 9.5%, and length of stay by 17.7%. However, the total inpatient cost, drug cost ratio, treatment effect, and patient satisfaction showed little difference between Fee-For-Service and capitation models. We conclude that the payment reform in Changde did not reduce overall inpatient expenditure, but it decreased the financial risk and length of stay of inpatient patients without compromising quality of care. The findings would contribute to the health care payment literatures from developing countries and open further research tracks on the ability of open enrollment to compensate for capitation drawbacks.

Chen Gao; Fei Xu; Gordon G. Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-oil, Naphtha  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of the bio-oil, naphtha, and CH4 was investigated over a novel metal-doped catalyst of (Ca24Al28O64)4+4O?/Mg (C12A7-Mg). The catalytic steam reforming was investigated from 250 to 850C in the fixed-bed continuous flow reactor. For the reforming of bio-oil, the yield of hydrogen of 80% was obtained at 750C, and the maximum carbon conversion is nearly close to 95% under the optimum steam reforming condition. For the reforming of naphtha and CH4, the hydrogen yield and carbon conversion are lower than that of bio-oil at the same temperature. The characteristics of catalyst were also investigated by XPS. The catalyst deactivation was mainly caused by the deposition of carbon in the catalytic steam reforming process.

Yue Pan; Zhao-xiang Wang; Tao Kan; Xi-feng Zhu; Quan-xin Li

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reformer-pressure swing adsorption process for the production of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved process for the production of carbon monoxide by the steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described comprising: (a) catalytically reacting a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a steam reformer; (b) passing the reformer effluent containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the steam reformer, without scrubbing to remove the carbon dioxide content thereof, to a pressure swing adsorption system having at least four adsorbent beds, each bed of which, on a cyclic basis, undergoes a processing sequence; (c) recycling the carbon dioxide-rich stream to the steam reformer for reaction with additional quantities of the hydrocarbon feed stream being passed to the stream reformer to form additional quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with product recovery being enhanced and the need for employing a carbon dioxide wash system being obviated.

Fuderer, A.

1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

344

PROCS-VERBAL DE DPOUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROC?S-VERBAL DE D?POUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD SCRUTIN DU 6 MAI 2009 TALAMOND, Catherine BONTE #12;PROC?S-VERBAL DE D?POUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L BONTE #12;PROC?S-VERBAL DE D?POUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD SCRUTIN DU 6 MAI

345

Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(75%) Char (13%) Gas (12%) Catalytic Auto-thermal Reforming of Bio-Oil at 650oC: 0.71 CH1.98O0.76 + 0 Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1 Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6

346

Idle catalytic reformer can be converted to isomerization unit or jet-fuel treater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses the economic advantages in conversion of catalytic reformers idled by reduced demand or rendered obsolete by replacement with modern technology. An older semi-regenerative reformer can be converted to a modern C4 or C5/C6 isomerization unit or to a kerosene hydrotreater to meet jet fuel specifications. Reactor design parameters operating conditions, and equipment sizing required for the highly endothermic reforming process are discussed.

Cobb, D.D.; Chapel, D.G.

1985-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

347

Malpractice Reform Opportunities for Leadership by Health Care Institutions and Liability Insurers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...care systems or states implement innovative reforms. Second, institutional reforms can be led by physician champions and other insiders, promoting buy-in from clinical and risk-management staff. Third, because most private approaches do not abridge legal remedies, they may be more palatable to consumer... Innovative malpractice reforms can be implemented by health care institutions and liability insurers without requiring changes in the law. Michelle Mello and Dr. Thomas Gallagher focus on emerging models of disclosure of medical injuries and early ...

Mello M.M.; Gallagher T.H.

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous media treatment Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous heterogeneous porous media. Proceedings... . Dickenson, E. and Rashidi, M. 1996. Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media... in aqueous...

349

Retail restructuring in urban China in the reform era: the case of Beijing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation examines the radical economic restructuring and urban transformation in urban China in the reform era through a detailed investigation into the retail sector (more)

Wang, Enru

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The evolution of the Weapon System Reform Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-23) .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In evaluating the implications of the Weapon System Acquisition Reform Act of 2009 (WSARA), we compare the position of prior acquisition acts and DoD acquisition (more)

McWhorter, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Modeling of membrane reactor for steam methane reforming: From granular to structured catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different types and operating modes of a tubular membrane reactor for steam methane reforming with a production rate of 0.6...

A. B. Shigarov; V. A. Kirillov

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications (more)

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Methane Steam Reforming in Hydrogen-permeable Membrane Reactor for Pure Hydrogen Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam reforming of methane over a ruthenium catalyst has been carried ... hydrogen separation from the reaction mixture, the methane conversion significantly exceeds the equilibrium value, which ... an important ...

Yasuyuki Matsumura; Jianhua Tong

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Health Care 2009: The Burden of Health Care Costs for Working Families Implications for Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On June 2, 2009, President Barack Obama's Council of Economic Advisers released a report examining the economic case for health care reform, in which they underscored the importance of cost containment to the long-term sustainability of any reform. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of... On June 2, 2009, President Barack Obama's Council of Economic Advisers released a report examining the economic case for health care reform, in which they underscored the importance of cost containment to the long-term sustainability of any reform.1 ...

Polsky D.; Grande D.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment...

356

The Tablighi Jamaat in Bangladesh and the UK: an ethnographic study of an Islamic reform movement.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Jamaat, a transnational Islamic reform movement, which originated in India in the 1920s. The movement claims to reinforce faith by preaching among Muslims. Tablighi Jamaat (more)

Siddiqi, Mohammad

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

From plan to practice: implementing SB 617, California's regulatory review reform.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??SB 617 (Calderon & Pavley, 2011) is an ambitious experiment to improve state regulations and increase government transparency. The statute reforms Californias regulatory review process (more)

Marin, Angela K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the above premise. The application of vortex stabilized high intensity burners for reformer furnaces in the petrochemical industry is then reviewed and emphasized....

Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China: Resources Population Rice Fruit #12;12 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics dominate domestic production

Kammen, Daniel M.

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc plasma-catalyst reformer Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: by reforming their political institutions. States such as Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Taiwan and East... systems and other key democratic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela. Bengelsdorf, Carollee.Crisis and Reform in Venezuela. Journal of Interamerican2):27-61. Datamonitor. (2004). Venezuela Country Profile.

Page, Tiffany Linton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Regulatory Reform in the Wake of the Financial Crisis of 20072008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse regulatory reform in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2008.

Lo, Andrew W.

363

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

364

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

365

Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

366

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has (more)

Hennings, Ulrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - abortion law reform Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Hagen Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 30 Health Care Reform Law Challenged in Courts President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, signed into...

370

Efficiency impacts of the Chinese industrial transition: a quantitative evaluation of reforms in the coal industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explains the variation in technical efficiency across firms due to transitional reforms. A translog stochastic frontier production method incorporating regional heterogeneity and technical change is ap...

Xunpeng Shi; R. Quentin Grafton

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Production of high-octane gasoline on a semi-industrial catalytic reforming plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been carried out on the catalytic reforming at a pressure of 20 atm of a wide, straight-run gasoline fraction on an experimental industrial plant.

A. P. Fedorov; G. N. Maslyanskii

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

At the Nexus of Social Policy and Capital Markets: Pension Reform and Enterprise Governance in Germany  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company Pension Schemes in Germany, Monthly Report, March.2001. Pension Reform in Germany, draft chapter in R. Kentof Stakeholderism in Germany,forthcoming, Industrielle

Ziegler, J. Nicholas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A study of the deactivation of low loading Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst by tetrahydrothiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The steam reforming (SR) of ethanol/phenol mixture (168gTOT/Nm3, ethanol:phenol 2:1mol, GHSV=54,000h?1), assumed as a model for tar mixtures, has been studied over a 5% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst (155m2/g), in the presence and in the absence of 210ppm tetrahydrothiophene (THT) as a sulphur containing contaminant. The sulphidation of the catalyst by THT has been studied by IR spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of CO adsorbed at low temperature over the oxidized, the reduced and the sulphurized catalyst have also been recorded. The catalyst acts as a bifunctional one, with the behaviour attributed to the uncovered support (alumina modified by nickel ions) at 773K (dehydration of ethanol to ethylene, dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and alkylation of phenol with ethanol) that fully disappears at 973K when steam reforming occurs very selectively. By lowering back the reaction temperature, the support behaviour reappears. THT poisons selectively the Ni component, thus causing the appearance of the support behaviour also at 973K. IR experiments show that THT deposes sulphur at the catalyst surface with the production of gas-phase 1,3-butadiene, thus converting the catalyst into a sulphided SR-inactive state. The steam reforming activity of the poisoned catalyst progressively reappears upon feeding back S-free feed at 973K. IR study suggests that steam cleans the catalyst surface by sulphur, generating a disordered surface with dispersed Ni2+ and Ni0 species, that could slowly re-approach the initial active state.

Gabriella Garbarino; Alvaro Romero Perez; Elisabetta Finocchio; Guido Busca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

376

Diesel-engine fumigation with aqueous ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three cylinder, two cycle diesel engine, rated at 22KW at 2300 rpm, was fumigated with ethanol of 140-to-200 proofs. P-T diagrams and engine performance were analyzed with particular emphasis on the detection and evaluation of the knock phenomenon. Satisfactory full load operation was obtained with thirty percent of the fuel energy supplied as aqueous ethanol.

McLaughlin, S.L.; Stephenson, K.Q.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

379

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

380

AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

K. Osseo-Asare

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The Effect of Malpractice Reform on Emergency Department Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...factors, not explicitly modeled, that are stable over time, such as teaching status or certain features of state tort law. In sensitivity analyses, we tested the effect of omitting the diagnosis covariates, since diagnosis might be affected by the physician's decision regarding admission, and the effect... One aim of malpractice reform has been to reduce the practice of defensive medicine. Laws in three states that changed the malpractice standard for emergency care to gross negligence did not substantially influence practice intensity in emergency departments.

Waxman D.A.Greenberg M.D.Ridgely M.S.Kellermann A.L.Heaton P.

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

382

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Report of the Committee on Legislation and Regulatory Reform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report of the Committee on Legislation and Regulatory Reform covers legislative developments in the first session and early second session of the 102nd Congress. This Congress has been especially active on energy matters. The Persian Gulf War, the release of the President's National Energy Strategy (NES), and other factors created the impetus for consideration of comprehensive energy legislation. The report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the comprehensive energy legislation pending before the Congress. The second part describes pending environmental legislation. The third part of the report describes miscellaneous Congressional activity that should be of interest.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6 November 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objective * Assess cost of H 2 from bio-derived liquids * Looking at forecourt scale systems: 100-1500kg/day * Emphasis on Ethanol * Looking at both "conventional" and "advanced" systems * Interaction with the Researchers is bi-directional * Researchers help me with catalysts, performance, configurations * I can assist Researchers with system studies, configurations, and system performance estimates * Output of my work will be: * System/Configuration Definition * Performance specification & optimization * Capital cost estimation

385

A study of land reform and its impact in the Greater Letaba Local Municipality of the Mopani District in the Limpopo Province.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Since the dawn of democracy in South Africa, numerous land reform projects have been approved by the Minister of Rural Development and Land Reform. This (more)

Malahlela, Tebogo.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a Multi-Faceted Nickel Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using ... on the Ni(100) surface. The primary reforming pathway is predicted to be through C* ... reactions are predicted to be ...

D. Wayne Blaylock; Yi-An Zhu; William H. Green

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00192  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is for Chevron and NREL to collaborate in determining the effect of bio-oil composition variability on autothermal reforming performance including bio-oil volatilization, homogeneous oxidative cracking, and catalytic reforming.

Czernik, S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous humor enhances Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Aqueous Humor through Microporous... recently been shown that aqueous ... Source: Johnson, Mark - Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University Collection:...

389

Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297773K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed.

Xuming Zhang; Min Suk Cha

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a copyright reform on the EU level? Rainer Kuhlen University of Konstanz, HumboldtUniversity Berlin, IPR;Copyright reform on the EU level Extension of IPR in time Extension of IPR to living objects and other objects in nature Extension of IPR to software (still controversial, at least in the EU) Introduction

Kuhlen, Rainer

391

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform February 16, 2010 recommended formation of an ad hoc committee to evaluate opportunities for SFR and others in College. As a result, the Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform ad hoc Committee was established and given

Borenstein, Elhanan

392

Sir John Tomes FRS, Fellows of the Royal Society, and Dental Reform in the nineteenth Century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...637-639 (1991). 57 I. Loudon, Medical care and the general practitioner 1750-1850...Fellows of the Royal Society, and dental reform in the nineteenth century. | In this paper...profession of dentistry shared in the process of reform and scientific progress that engaged the...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT SHELLS, and academic organizations is developing a steam reforming process to be demonstrated on the gaseous byproducts of this engineering demonstration project. After an initial problem with the heaters that required modification

394

Do R&D and IT tax credits work? Evaluation of the Japanese tax reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our intention is to verify whether or not the tax reform plan can demonstrate benefits of which an impact can be felt in macroeconomic terms. We identify the significant effects of the tax reform plan and the difference in effects between R&D tax credit and IT investment tax credit.

Ichiro Sakata; Kenzo Fujisue; Hirokazu Okumura

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change Health reform will touch all of oHsu's missions. the coming changes are about more than public policy and health insurance. We will see transformation in how care is delivered, how health professionals are trained and how we decide what health care to buy. oHsu's missions

Chapman, Michael S.

396

Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PWP-069 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms? Catherine D;1 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?1 By Catherine D. Wolfram2 Britain was one of the first countries to liberalize its electricity industry when it restructured and privatized

California at Berkeley. University of

397

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Sivagaminathan Balasubramanian, Charles E. Holland,* and John W. Weidner*,z Center in reformate hydrogen. In this design, the potential and gas flow are switched between the two filter cells so

Weidner, John W.

398

PHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Affordable Care Act Current State-Level Trends and Health Reforms The Syllabus includes a variety of readingPHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform Course Overview and Syllabus Description: Overview of the state initiatives in health care coverage, access, and costs, trends

Sheridan, Jennifer

399

Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform Joseph White Ph.D John G will not pretend to fully explain the politics of health care reform in the U.S.. I could make many other caveats is to give you some interesting ideas that you might use in thinking about American government. Health care

Oxford, University of

400

Extraction of aromatics from petroleum naphtha reformate by a 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone/ethylene carbonate mixed solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phase equilibria for the extraction of aromatics from petroleum naphtha reformate (with a boiling range of 338--403 K) using a mixed solvent of 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) and ethylene carbonate (EC) have been correlated using the universal function-group activity coefficients model (UNIFAC). The interaction parameters of CHP and EC with different hydrocarbon groups present in the reformate such as CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), ACH (aromatic CH), ACCH{sub 2} (aromatic CCH{sub 2}), and each of the two solvents have been fitted to experimental concentrations of three ternary systems that contain these groups. The extraction runs have been carried out at different temperatures, solvent compositions, and solvent-to-feed ratios. Experimental results compared favorably with those predicted from the UNIFAC method. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by calculation of the minimum energy of separation. In this study these conditions were found to be at a mixed solvent composition of 65% EC (by weight) and 35% CHP. The solvent-to-feed ratio was 1.8 on a volume basis, and the extraction temperature was 329 K.

Radwan, G.M.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A.; Dowaidar, A.M.; Fahim, M.A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Techno-economic assessment of CO2 capture at steam methane reforming facilities using commercially available technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aimed to identify the optimal techno-economic configuration of CO2 capture at steam methane reforming facilities using currently available technologies by means of process simulations. Results indicate that the optimal system is CO2 capture with ADIP-X located between the watergas shift and pressure swing adsorption units. Process simulations of this system configuration showed a CO2 emission reduction of 60% at 41/t CO2 avoidance. This is at the lower end of the range reported in open literature for CO2 capture at refineries (2682/t CO2) and below the avoidance costs for CO2 capture at natural gas-fired power plants (4493/t CO2). CO2 avoidance costs are dominated by the natural gas consumption, responsible for up to 66% of total costs. Using imported steam and electricity can reduce CO2 avoidance costs by 45%. Addition of small amounts of piperazine to aqueous MDEA solutions results in up to 70% smaller absorbers or 10% lower reboiler heat duty. Optimising the whole capture process instead of individual units resulted in lower piperazine concentrations than the common industrial practice (3mass% vs. 5mass%). Finally, keeping the solvent rate constant when operating the capture unit below its design load resulted in a lower specific energy for CO2 capture than when the solvent rate was downscaled with the syngas flow.

J.C. Meerman; E.S. Hamborg; T. van Keulen; A. Ramrez; W.C. Turkenburg; A.P.C. Faaij

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

GOVERNMENT VERSUS GOVERNANCE AS A FRAMEWORK Government versus Governance as a Framework to analyze Mexico's Energy Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

branch, the oil company PEMEX' union, other critics of the reform among a part of the left party Partido

Texas at Austin, University of

403

Fiftieth CCR reformer goes on stream in Germany  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fiftieth continuous catalytic reformer built since this technology was introduced by UOP Process Division in 1971 has gone on stream in West Germany. The 21,300-b/sd unit is in Deutsche Shell AG's Godorf refinery. It is the sixth such unit put in service by Shell International. Others are in refineries at Harburg, West Germany; Shellhaven, England; Palau Bokum, Singapore; Pernis, Netherlands; and Geelong, Australia. CCR units operate at much higher severity than older reforming units. Severity is a function of higher octane, lower pressure, and feedstock. The operating severity or catalyst deactivation rate may be 20 times that of high pressure, low octane units. Continuous catalyst regeneration is then the key for maintaining long-term operations at steady state conditions. To facilitate continuous catalyst regeneration, the three reactors are stacked. This design permits the catalyst to move in essentially plug flow through the reactors at a rate determined by the rate of catalyst withdrawal to the regeneration section.

Not Available

1985-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

404

Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 2,563 2,667 2,739 2,807 2,705 2,609 2010-2013 PADD 1 176 178 180 173 156 167 2010-2013 East Coast 166 164 163 161 140 153 2010-2013 Appalachian No. 1 9 14 16 12 15 14 2010-2013 PADD 2 642 638 668 695 677 615 2010-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 426 411 426 460 450 399 2010-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 67 62 70 72 72 57 2010-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo.

406

Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Year 1987 Url FederalOnshore1987.jpg Description Another amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act, The Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 granted the USDA Forest Service the authority to make decisions and implement regulations concerning the leasing of public domain minerals on National Forest System lands containing oil and gas. References Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA)[1] Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) (30 U.S.C. § 181 et seq.) - Another amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act, The Federal

407

Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy June 4, 2012 - 2:14pm Addthis The last 18 months have seen great improvements in the Department of Energy's (DOE) information technology and cybersecurity. A major factor in our success is our alignment with the 25 Point Implementation Plan To Reform Federal Information Technology Management to move to a "Cloud First" environment and maximize the use of shared services to reduce costs and improve IT delivery. Cloud-First/Shared Services: In August 2011, we revamped our online presence by launching Energy.gov and delivering a single platform solution through an open-source content management system and cloud hosting environment. Ultimately, the website reform effort aims to save taxpayers more than $10 million per

408

The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/bali_2_copenhagen_dom_policy_lessons.pdf The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Screenshot References: The Lessons of Practice[1] Summary "The objectives of this paper are threefold: to review experience to date with policy reforms that can help mitigate climate change, to review work

409

Hydrogen production in Multi-Channel Membrane Reactor via Steam Methane Reforming and Methane Catalytic Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel Multi-Channel Membrane Reactor (MCMR) was designed and built for the small-scale production of hydrogen via Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). The prototype alternates an SMR gas channel to produce hydrogen catalytically, with a Methane Catalytic Combustion (MCC) gas channel to provide the heat of reaction needed by the endothermic reforming. A palladiumsilver membrane inside the reforming gas channel shifts the reaction equilibrium, allowing lower operating temperatures, and producing pure hydrogen in a single vessel. Using an innovative air-spray coating technique, channels were coated with RuMgOLa2O3/?-Al2O3 and Pd/?-Al2O3 catalyst particles for the SMR and MCC reactions, respectively. Results for the proof-of-concept MCMR showed that methane conversion in the reformer of 91% and a hydrogen purity in excess of 99.99% were possible with the reformer operating at 570C and 15bar.

Alexandre Vigneault; John R. Grace

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Forging growth by governing the market in reform-era urban China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chinas accelerating urban growth over the past decade has been examined from the perspectives of state devolution or place-making initiatives. Relatively little has been written to contextualize the burgeoning urbanism in Chinas reform and the resultant changing relationship between state and market. Through an investigation of fiscal and land use reforms since the mid-1990s, this paper argues that Chinas gradual and partial reform has fundamentally re-engineered local states from inward-looking market actors running business to entrepreneurial market governors controlling land supply. Though this transition has triggered urban growth by levering manufacturing and real estate capital, it has also introduced constraints for future urban development by generating inter-regional tensions and making further reforms politically difficult. This paper concludes that sustainable urbanism requires a more clearly oriented and more holistic reform framework.

Lei Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Tung, Lisa A. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Steam reforming of methane using double-walled reformer tubes containing high-temperature thermal storage Na2CO3/MgO composites for solar fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Double-walled reactor tubes containing thermal storage materials based on the molten carbonate salts100wt% Na2CO3 molten salt, 90wt% Na2CO3/10wt% MgO and 80wt% Na2CO3/20wt% MgO composite materialswere studied for the performances of the reactor during the heat charging mode, while those of methane reforming with steam during heat discharging mode for solar steam reforming. The variations in the temperatures of the catalyst and storage material, methane conversion, duration of reforming for obtaining high levels of methane conversion (>90%), higher heating value (HHV) power of reformed gas and efficiency of the reactor tubes were evaluated for the double-walled reactor tubes and a single-wall reactor tube without the thermal storage. The results for the heat charging mode indicated that the composite thermal storage could successfully store the heat transferred from the exterior wall of the reactor in comparison to the pure molten-salt. The double-walled reactor tubes with the 90wt% Na2CO3/10wt% MgO composite material was the most desirable for steam reforming of methane to realize large HHV amounts of reformed gas and higher efficiencies during heat-discharging mode.

Nobuyuki Gokon; Shohei Nakamura; Tsuyoshi Hatamachi; Tatsuya Kodama

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

Boyer, Edmond

416

Comedy, Science, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance: Arcimboldo, Vincenzo Campi, and Bartolomeo Passerotti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comedy, Science, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance: Arcimboldo, Vincenzo Campi, as part of an aesthetic "reform" of description and its critical reputation. Considering that all three

Salzman, Daniel

417

Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken with so little public debate or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken reform is unique neither in terms of its controversial substance nor in its lack of meaningful democratic processes. In the past, major immigration reform has typically been the result of parliamentary deliberation

Handy, Todd C.

418

Phase 6.X Process | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Phase 6.X Process | National Nuclear Security Administration Phase 6.X Process | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Phase 6.X Process Home > Our Mission > Managing the Stockpile > Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle > Phase 6.X Process Phase 6.X Process The Phase 6.x Process is based on the original Joint Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Process, which includes Phases 1 through 7 and covers all phases of a

419

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous NiLaAl2O3 aerogel catalysts: Effect of La content  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous NiLaAl2O3 aerogel catalysts (denoted as (40-x)NixLa) with different lanthanum content (x) were prepared by a single-step sol-gel method and a subsequent CO2 supercritical drying method. The effect of lanthanum content on the physicochemical properties and catalytic performance of mesoporous (40-x)NixLa catalysts in the steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was investigated. Physicochemical properties of (40-x)NixLa catalysts were strongly influenced by lanthanum content. Dispersion and reducibility of nickel aluminate phase in the (40-x)NixLa catalysts increased with increasing lanthanum content. Small amount of lanthanum addition was effective for dispersion of metallic nickel in the (40-x)NixLa catalysts, but large amount of lanthanum addition was not favorable for nickel dispersion due to the blocking of active sites. In the steam reforming of LNG, both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield showed volcano-shaped curves with respect to lanthanum content. Average nickel diameter of (40-x)NixLa catalysts was well correlated with LNG conversion and hydrogen yield over the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, 36Ni4La (36wt% Ni and 4wt% La) catalyst with the smallest average nickel diameter exhibited the best catalytic performance and the strongest resistance toward carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG.

Yongju Bang; Jeong Gil Seo; In Kyu Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Phase five  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phase five Phase five 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Phase five Los Alamos physicists have conclusively demonstrated the existence of a new phase of matter. November 25, 2013 Phase five Scientists still have more to learn about the exotic physics of specialty materials. What makes the cuprates special? How about a new phase of matter. Ceramic metals known as cuprates have mystified physicists for decades. They exhibit a variety of distinct phases of matter, each with its own specific properties, including a phase bearing an exotic type of magnetism, a high-temperature superconducting phase, an ordinary metal phase, a poorly understood and weird metallic phase simply called a strange metal, and an equally poorly understood metallic phase known as the pseudogap. The

422

Has Massachusetts health care reform worked for the working poor? Results from an analysis of opportunity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose Health care reform was introduced in Massachusetts (MA) in 2006 and serves as a model for what was subsequently introduced nationally as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The Boston Area Community Health survey collected data before (20022005) and after (20062010) introduction of the MA health insurance mandate, providing a unique opportunity to assess its effects in a large, epidemiologic cohort. Methods We report on the apparent effects of the mandate on the same participants over time, focusing specifically on the vulnerable working poor (WP). We evaluated differences in subpopulations of interest at pre- and post-reform periods to explore whether MA health care reform resulted in an overall gain in insurance coverage. Results MA health care reform was associated with net gains in health insurance coverage overall and among the subgroups studied. Our findings suggest that despite being targeted by health care reform legislation, the WP in MA continue to report lower rates of insurance coverage compared with both the nonworking poor and the not poor. Conclusions MA health care reform legislation, including the expansion of Medicaid, resulted in substantial overall gains in coverage. Disparities in insurance coverage persist among some subgroups following health care reform implementation in MA. These results have important implications for health services researchers and policy makers, particularly in light of the ongoing implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

Liane J. Tinsley; Susan A. Hall; John B. McKinlay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vehicle type choice under the influence of a tax reform and rising fuel prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered by many a useful tool for promoting environmentally friendly vehicles. Various structures have been implemented in several countries, e.g. Ireland, France, The Czech Republic, and Denmark. In many countries the tax reforms have been followed by a steep change in new vehicle purchases toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. The paper analyses to what extent a vehicle tax reform similar to the Danish 2007 reform may explain changes in purchasing behaviour. The paper investigates the effects of a tax reform, fuel price changes, and technological development on vehicle type choice using a mixed logit model. The model allows a simulation of the effect of car price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. This effect is compared to the effects of fuel price changes and technology improvements. The simulations show that the effect of the tax reform on fuel efficiency is similar to the effect of rising fuel prices while the effect of technological development is much larger. The conclusion is that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it seems likely that it only explains a small part of the shift in fuel efficiency that occurred and that the main driver was the technological development.

Stefan L. Mabit

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

In silico search for novel methane steam reforming catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates a method for screening transition metal and metal alloy catalysts based on their predicted rates and stabilities for a given catalytic reaction. This method involves combining reaction and activation energies (available to the public via a web-based application 'CatApp') with a microkinetic modeling technique to predict the rates and selectivities of a prospective material. This paper illustrates this screening technique using the steam reforming of methane to carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a test reaction. While catalysts are already commercially available for this process, the method demonstrated in this paper is very general and could be applied to a wide range of catalytic reactions. Following the steps outlined herein, such an analysis could potentially enable researchers to understand reaction mechanisms on a fundamental level and, on this basis, develop leads for new metal alloy catalysts.

Yue Xu; Adam C Lausche; Shengguang Wang; Tuhin S Khan; Frank Abild-Pedersen; Felix Studt; Jens K Nrskov; Thomas Bligaard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Catalytic deactivation on methane steam reforming catalysts. 2. Kinetic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming reaction over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst was investigated at a temperature range of 640-740/sup 0/C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were performed varying the inlet concentration of methane, hydrogen, and water. A kinetic scheme of the Houghen-Watson type was satisfactorily proposed assuming the dissociative adsorption of CH/sub 4/ as the rate-limiting step, but this kinetic scheme can be easily replaced by a first-order kinetics (r/sub CH/4/sub / = kapparho/sub CH/4/sub /) for engineering purposes. Catalyst activation with H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ mixtures or with the reactant mixture results in the same extent of reaction.

Agnelli, M.E.; Ponzi, E.N.; Yeramian, A.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Steam reforming of gasification-derived tar for syngas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, the steam reforming of tar was catalyzed by dolomite, Ni/dolomite, and Ni/CeO2 for syngas production under different reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h?1). The tar was the major side product from the biomass gasification. Current results revealed that the nickel doped catalyst on dolomite with CO2 in the feed stream yielded the highest H2 and syngas production among all reaction conditions.Comparing to the use of dolomite, when Nidolomites was used as catalyst, the yield of H2 increased by 33%, the yield of syngas increased by 7%, and the yield of CH4 decreased by 59%. It was also found that the yield of syngas, H2, or CO under the Ni/dolomite catalyst were significant higher (pCO2 concentration in the feed stream>reaction temperature>weight hourly space velocity.

Alex C.-C. Chang; Lung-Shiang Chang; Cheng-You Tsai; Yu-Chun Chan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Phase equilibrium studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A phase equilibrium model has been developed for the SRC-I process, as well as the other coal liquefaction processes. It is applicable to both vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid equilibria; it also provides an approximate but adequate description of aqueous mixtures where the volatile electrolyte components dissociate to form ionic species. This report completes the description of the model presented in an earlier report (Mathias and Stein, 1983a). Comparisons of the model to previously published data on coal-fluid mixtures are presented. Further, a preliminary analysis of new data on SRC-I coal fluids is presented. Finally, the current capabilities and deficiencies of the model are discussed. 25 references, 17 figures, 30 tables.

Mathias, P.M.; Stein, F.P.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Chemical Looping Reforming for H2, CO and Syngas Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the extension of CLC onto oxidants beyond air opens new, highly efficient pathways for production of ultra-pure hydrogen, activation of CO{sub 2} via reduction to CO, and are currently working on production of syngas using nanocomposite Fe-BHA. CLR hold great potential due to fuel flexibility and CO{sub 2} capture. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a novel clean combustion technology which offers an elegant and highly efficient route for fossil fuel combustion. In CLC, combustion of a fuel is broken down into two spatially separated steps. In the reducer, the oxygen carrier (typically a metal) supplies the stoichiometric oxygen required for fuel combustion. In the oxidizer, the oxygen-depleted carrier is then re-oxidized with air. After condensation of steam from the effluent of the reducer, a high-pressure, high-purity sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is obtained. In the present study, we apply the CLC principle to the production of high-purity H{sub 2}, CO, and syngas streams by replacing air with steam and/or CO{sub 2} as oxidant, respectively. Using H{sub 2}O as oxidant, pure hydrogen streams can be obtained. Similarly, using CO{sub 2} as oxidant, CO is obtained, thus opening an efficient route for CO{sub 2} utilization. Using steam and CO{sub 2} mixtures for carrier oxidation should thus allow production of syngas with adjustable CO:H{sub 2} ratios. Overall, these processes result in Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR), i.e. the net overall reaction is the steam and/or dry reforming of the respective fuel.

Bhavsar,Saurabh; Najera,Michelle; Solunke,Rahul; Veser,Gtz

2001-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

429

Online quality control methods for steam-gas reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a classification of online quality control (QC) methods from the view of process control. The QC can be applied on the control loops from each of its three sides: the input (manipulative variable) side, the output (controlled variable) side and from the disturbance side. It was found that online QC can be direct or indirect, depending on the measures taken for quality. This classification can lead to interesting and new options for the control variables that otherwise would have been obscure. Once the proper control variable is selected (in terms of adequate representation of quality) it can be used for control systems analysis and design. Process application is presented for an industrial Steam Gas Reformer. The input is the fuel gas quality for which various options were presented. A correlation was obtained to relate heat input to simple measurements. The output hydrogen quality control options were discussed. Coil outlet temperature is adequate for a crude estimate of conversion, provided that S/C ratio is controlled. S/C ratio correlation was obtained to enable its estimation and control from simple measurements. A precise quality control of hydrogen can be achieved provided that COT is also controlled to protect reformer catalyst. An improved strategy can be implemented where both COT and conversion are controlled in a multivariable sense. This strategy is economically attractive, since it allows continuous manipulation of S/C ratio to the minimum required for COT control. Savings in fuel gas can be achieved accordingly. The feasibility of multivariable control was established via interaction analysis.

I.M. Alatiqi

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

CHARACTERISTICS OF VERY CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solution Composition Solid Phases msa 4 Halite + 'Sylvite +Glaserite + Schoenite Halite + Leonite +Sylvite + Schoenite Halite Sylvite Leonite Kainite Halite +

Pitzer, Kenneth S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Efficient Utilization of Greenhouse Gases in a Gas-to-Liquids Process Combined with CO2/Steam-Mixed Reforming and Fe-Based FischerTropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. ... In the burner-type reformer, NG is used as a heating fuel, in order to reduce the consumption of NG, the vent gas can be applied to the burner to replace some part of NG as fuel. ...

Chundong Zhang; Ki-Won Jun; Kyoung-Su Ha; Yun-Jo Lee; Seok Chang Kang

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous nickelMalumina (M=Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) aerogel catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous nickelMalumina aerogel catalysts (denoted as NiMAE) with different second metal (M=Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) were prepared by a single-step solgel method and a subsequent CO2 supercritical drying method. The effect of second metal of mesoporous nickelMalumina aerogel catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activity for steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) was investigated. Textural and chemical properties of NiMAE catalysts were strongly influenced by the identity of second metal. Nickel species were highly dispersed on the surface of NiMAE catalysts through the formation of nickel aluminate phase. In the steam reforming of LNG, both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield decreased in the order of NiLaAE>NiCeAE>NiYAE>NiCsAE>NiNiAE>NiFeAE>NiCoAE>NiMgAE. Average nickel diameter of NiMAE catalysts was well correlated with LNG conversion and hydrogen yield over the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited the best catalytic performance due to its smallest average nickel diameter. Furthermore, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited a strong capability of facilitating heat and mass transfer of reactant and product during the steam reforming of LNG. Watergas shift reaction governed the steam reforming reaction over NiLaAE catalyst under the steam-rich reaction condition (steam/carbon>2).

Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; Yongju Bang; In Kyu Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S. Ozkan* November 6 th , 2007 Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Group Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 *Ozkan.1@osu.edu Biomass to Hydrogen (Environmentally Friendly) Plant cultivation Plant cultivation Saccharification Saccharification / / Fermentation Fermentation Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Residues of Residues of agroindustries agroindustries and cultivations and cultivations Municipal Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (organic fraction) (organic fraction) Distillation Distillation Reformation of ethanol

434

,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

435

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy held a kick-off meeting for the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and hydrogen recovery and purification steps. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with each other and with members of the DOE Hydrogen Production Technical Team.

436

How fuel composition affects on-board reforming for fuel cell vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different blends of gasoline range hydrocarbons were investigated to determine the effect of aromatic, naphthenic, and paraffinic content on performance in an autothermal reformer. In addition, we investigated the effects of detergent, antioxidant, and oxygenate additives. These tests indicate that composition effects are minimal at temperatures of 800C and above, but at lower temperatures or at high gas hourly space velocities (GHSV approaching 100,000 h{sup -1} ) composition can have a large effect on catalyst performance. Fuels high in aromatic and naphthenic components were more difficult to reform. In addition, additives, such as detergents and oxygenates were shown to decrease reformer performance at lower temperatures.

Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Applegate, D. V.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fiscal consolidation in the euro area: How much pain can structural reforms ease?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The IMF's Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF) is used to examine the scope for structural reforms in the euro area to offset the negative impact of fiscal consolidation required to put public debt back on a sustainable path. The results suggest that structural reforms in core countries could be expected to offset the near-term negative impact on activity arising from the required fiscal consolidation. However, for the periphery, the results suggest that it would take several years before structural reforms could return the level of output back to its pre-consolidation path.

Derek Anderson; Benjamin Hunt; Stephen Snudden

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The role of civil society in health care reforms: An arena for hegemonic struggles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present paper argues that current mainstream understandings of civil society as ontologically different from the state and essentially positive (either normative or functionally) are problematic in order to understand the development of health care reforms. The paper proposes to ground an explanation of the role of civil society in health care reforms in a Gramscian understanding of civil society as analytically different from the state, and as an arena for hegemonic struggles. The study of health care reform in Israel serves as a case study for this claim.

Dani Filc

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Tar Reforming in Model Gasifier Effluents: Transition Metal/Rare Earth Oxide Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tar Reforming in Model Gasifier Effluents: Transition Metal/Rare Earth Oxide Catalysts ... So in this work we investigated the action of transition metal oxides (TMOs) other than Ni (e.g., Fe, Mn) mixed with REOs for tar reforming, at a medium temperature range (9231073 K) and under conditions where direct reforming would dominate. ... The heated gas mixture passed through a 1/2 stainless steel tube containing 0.21 g of catalyst (4060 mesh size) diluted with mullite and positioned between beds of ?-Al2O3. ...

Rui Li; Amitava Roy; Joseph Bridges; Kerry M. Dooley

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

440

HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol

442

Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Concentrated aqueous alumina nanoparticle suspensions with additions of saccharides such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, and others were studied by rheometry and low temperature differential scanning (more)

Lawler, Katherine Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS NaCl SOLUTIONS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

aqueous electrolyte solutions are required in the development and uti1 ization of geothermal energy, petroleum recovery, desalination of sea water, and other energy systems...

444

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks."Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 43(9):1999-2004. Authors: DC...

445

MTR CONVERTER WITH AQUEOUS BLANKET | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Reactors employing two different arrangements of the aluminum-clad MTR- type fuel elements and an aqueous solution ''blanket'' are considered for...

446

An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine) An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Conservation An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory alters the makeup and responsibilities of Maine's Land Use Regulation Commission (LURC). It took effect on August 29, 2012 and changed the Commission's name to the Land Use Planning Commission. Under the Act, permitting review for significant projects, such as

447

Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use, Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use, Production and Poverty in the Yellow River Basin Speaker(s): Jinixia Wang Date: May 22, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The purpose of this presentation is to better understand water management reform in China's rural communities, focusing on the effect of incentives to water managers on the nation's water resources and the welfare of the rural population. Based on a survey study in the Yellow River Basin, our findings show that Water User Associations and contracting have begun to systematically replace traditional forms of collective management. The analysis demonstrates, however, that it is not a nominal implementation of the reform that matters, but rather it is a creation of new management

448

Numerical simulation of micro/mini-channel based methane-steam reformer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Numerical modeling of methane-steam reforming is performed in a micro/mini-channel with heat input through catalytic channel walls. The low-Mach number, variable density Navier-Stokes equations together (more)

Peterson, Daniel Alan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Hydrogen production through CO2 sorption-enhanced methane steam reforming: Comparison between different adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional transient model has been developed to describe the catalytic methane reforming (MSR) coupled with simultaneous CO2...removal by different absorbents under non-isothermal, non-isobaric and non-ad...

YuMing Chen; YongChun Zhao; JunYing Zhang

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Steam Reforming of Methane Over Nickel: Development of a Multi-Step Surface Reaction Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed multi-step reaction mechanism is developed for modeling steam reforming of methane over nickel-based catalysts. The mechanism also ... tested by simulating experimental investigations of SR of methane ...

L. Maier; B. Schdel; K. Herrera Delgado; S. Tischer; O. Deutschmann

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming were studied on a Ni/Mg/K/...2O3...catalyst that was developed for conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Reactions were conducted in a packed-bed reactor while the concen...

Allison M. Robinson; Megan E. Gin; Matthew M. Yung

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Use of Pd membranes in catalytic reactors for steam methane reforming for pure hydrogen production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review analyzes publications on experimental studies and mathematical modeling in the field of development of a catalytic reformer (mainly, steam methane conversion) with a fixed catalytic bed. The specif...

A. B. Shigarov; V. D. Meshcheryakov

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Thermally Coupled Catalytic Reactor for Steam Reforming of Methane and Liquid Hydrocarbons: Experiment and Mathematical Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An energy-efficient catalytic reactor for producing synthesis gas from methane and liquid hydrocarbons is proposed that is ... on the coupling of an endothermic reaction (steam reforming of methane, hexane, or is...

V. A. Kirillov; N. A. Kuzin; A. V. Kulikov

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Kinetic studies of methane steam reforming on ceria-supported Pd  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steady-state, steam-reforming rates for methane were measured on model and high-surface-...5...and were higher even than rates reported in the literature for Ni catalysts. Model catalysts prepared with Pt or Rh o...

R. Craciun; B. Shereck; R.J. Gorte

455

Outcomes of a Freedom of Choice Reform in Community Mental Health Day Center Services  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organizational reforms often take place in social and health care services, and in the western world free ... been implemented in various welfare sectors such as health care, disability services, work rehabilitat...

Mona Eklund; Urban Markstrm

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Reform of Public Hospitals and the Main Role of Medical Staffs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of reforms to the public hospital system in China ... factors are known to influence the motivation of health workers, including remuneration, acquisition of power and reputation, the ability to care ...

Peiying Zhang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Technical paper on the development of a hydrogen reformer, vehicle refueling facility, and PEM fuel cell for Las Vegas, NV presented at the 2002 Annual Hydrogen Review held May 6-8, 2002 in Golden, CO.

458

Chemical Looping Autothermal Reforming at a 120 kW Pilot Rig  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping with selective oxygen transport allows two step combustion or autothermal reforming without mixing of fuel...4...conversion is achieved. Air/fuel ratio is varied at three different fuel reactor t...

Johannes Bofhr-Nordenkampf; Tobias Prll

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The risk of reform : privatisation and liberalisation in the Brazilian electric power industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1996, when Brazil was well-underway to privatising and liberalising its electric power industry, few would have predicted that within five years the reforms would be a shambles. Like its neighbors Argentina and Chile, ...

Tankha, Sunil, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ethanol and E85 Reforming Assisted by a Non-thermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ethanol and E85 Reforming Assisted by a Non-thermal Arc Discharge ... The input electric power is expressed in terms of the percentage of QfuelLHVfuel, and is noted as %LHV. ... for electricity prodn. ...

Guillaume Petitpas; Jos Gonzalez-Aguilar; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri

2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet, since even composite materials can't withstand the large heat load found in a Scramjet combustion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Demonstration of a high-efficiency steam reformer for fuel cell power plant applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Full-scale tests of a new modular steam reformer confirm its suitability for a wide range of fuel cell power plant applications. This new fuel processor offers interested utilities excellent performance, operating flexibility, reliability, and maintainability.

Udengaard, N.R.; Christiansen, L.J.; Summers, W.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Steam-Methane Reformer Kinetic Computer Model with Heat Transfer and Geometry Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic computer model of a steam/methane reformer has been developed as a design and analytical tool for a fuel cell system's fuel conditioner. This model has reaction, geometry, flow arrangement, and heat transfer options. Model predictions have been compared to previous experimental data, and close agreement was obtained. Initially, the Leva-type, packed-bed, heat transfer correlations were used. However, calculations based upon the reacting, reformer gases indicate a considerably higher heat transfer coefficient for this reforme design. Data analysis from similar designs in the literature also shows this phenomenon. This is thought to be reaction-induced effect, brought about by the changing of gas composition, the increased gas velocity, the lower catalyst temperature during reaction, and the higher thermal and reaction gradients involved in compact fuel cell reformer designs. Future experimental work is planned to verify the model's predictions further.

Murray, A.P.; Snyder, T.S.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

The Working Families Tax Credit and Some European Tax Reforms in A Collective Setting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A framework for simplified implementation of the collective model of labor supply decisions is presented in the context of fiscal reforms in the UK. Through its collective form the model accounts for the well kno...

Michal Myck; Olivier Bargain; Miriam Beblo

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Healthcare reform in the United States and China: pharmaceutical market implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This article analyzes the implications of health system reforms in the United States and China for national pharmaceutical markets. It follows a historical institutionalist approach that identifies path dependency in the design and operation of national health...

Daemmrich, Arthur; Mohanty, Ansuman

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

467

How Educational Data Mining Empowers State Policies to Reform Education: The Mexican Case Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, Mexico is living a full transformation in strategic areas such as: education, energy, finances, fiscal, and labor. This ... , the Federal Government has ordered an educational reform. A briefing of the ...

Alejandro Pea-Ayala; Leonor Crdenas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

157 He invoked Amartya Sens notion of development asby access reform la Amartya Sen 166 (Winoto 2006:81, bolddengan reformasi akses ala Amartya Sen. to mention the NARP

Rachman, Noer Fauzi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

470

The rules of ruling : charter reform in Los Angeles, 1850-2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and officers face the charter as a constant constraint. If centralized purchasingand Purchasing Agent. The Mayor would appoint these officerspurchasing, campaign finance reform, strengthen the recall to cover appointed officials and create staggered elections for officers.

Ingram, James Warren

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

472

Admonition and the academy : installation, video, and performance art in Reform Era China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China's Reform Era (1978-present) has seen the reinvigoration of academic, and artistic practice, and a rapprochement between the Chinese Communist Party and the intellectual elite. At its beginnings in the early- to ...

Oen, Karin Grace

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

474

Combined isomerization of overhead cuts of straight-run naphtha and reformate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technology was developed for combined isomerization of IBP-85C overhead cuts of straight-run naphtha and reformate to reduce the benzene content in automotive gasolines. In comparison to the traditional technolo...

Nguen Van Ty

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Three Stages Modeling of n-Octane Reforming Assisted by a Nonthermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Stages Modeling of n-Octane Reforming Assisted by a Nonthermal Arc Discharge ... After a description of the model and its main assumptions, a parametric analysis of plasma reformer performance addressing the influence of plasma volume, H2O/C ratio, O/C ratio, and input electric power is presented. ... Most of them were particularly dealt with technologies based on arc discharges. ...

Jos Gonzalez-Aguilar; Guillaume Petitpas; Alexandre Lebouvier; Jean-Damien Rollier; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

476

Why PUHCA reform is likely in the 102nd Congress. [Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines the reasons that it is likely that the 102nd Congress will pass legislation that will reform the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935. The impetus provided by the Persian Gulf War, public opinion, the National Energy Plan and the National Independent Energy Producers (NIEP) is examined. Several proposals of the NIEP to guard against market abuses in the reforms are presented.

Welford, W.H. (Olwine, Connelly, Chase, O'Donnell and Weyher, Washington, DC (United States)); Elston, P.J. (Long Lake Energy Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

Reaction Profiles during Exhaust-Assisted Reforming of Diesel Engine Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reaction Profiles during Exhaust-Assisted Reforming of Diesel Engine Fuels ... The reforming efficiency was dependent on the fuel type and followed the general trend of bioethanol > rapeseed methyl ester > low-sulfur diesel fuel. ... The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions but results in an increased release of smoke and particulate matter (PM), as well as higher fuel consumption. ...

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; S. E. Golunski

2005-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

478

Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

479

Synthesis And Characterization of Pt Clusters in Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to monitor the various steps involved in the synthesis of unprotected and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-protected aqueous colloidal Pt suspensions. The results indicate that on hydrolysis of the H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} precursor, the Cl{sup -} ligands were partially replaced by aquo ligands in the first coordination shell of Pt to form [PtCl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sup 2+}. Treatment of these species with NaBH{sub 4} under controlled pH conditions led to the formation of nearly uniform Pt{sub 4} and Pt{sub 6} clusters in the absence and presence of PVA, respectively. These highly dispersed colloidal Pt suspensions were stable for several months. The addition of 2-propanol (IPA) to both types of Pt suspensions led to some sintering of the Pt clusters, although both suspensions retained their colloidal nature. Less sintering was evident in the PVA-protected Pt suspension. Both the unprotected and the PVA-protected colloidal Pt suspensions were catalytically active for the liquid-phase selective oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone, with the unprotected suspension exhibiting the highest activity.

Siani, A.; Wigal, K.R.; Alexeev, O.S.; Amiridis, M.D.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

480

phase coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The state in which two signals, such as electronic or optical signals, maintain (a) a fixed phase relationship with each other or (b) a fixed phase relationship with a third signal that can serve as a referenc...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous phase reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

BANNING DL

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

482

Numerical analysis of hydrogen production via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor using concentrated solar irradiation as heat source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The calorific value of syngas can be greatly upgraded during the methane steam reforming process by using concentrated solar energy as heat source. In this study, the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupling method is developed to investigate the hydrogen production performance via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor which includes the mass, momentum, energy and irradiative transfer equations as well as chemical reaction kinetics. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model is used to provide more temperature information. The modified P1 approximation is adopted for solving the irradiative heat transfer equation. The MCRT method is used to calculate the sunlight concentration and transmission problems. The fluid phase energy equation and transport equations are solved by Fluent software. The solid phase energy equation, irradiative transfer equation and chemical reaction kinetics are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that concentrated solar irradiation on the fluid entrance surface of solar chemical reactor is highly uneven, and temperature distribution has significant influence on hydrogen production.

Fuqiang Wang; Jianyu Tan; Yong Shuai; Liang Gong; Heping Tan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M capture using monoethanolamine (MEA). MEA is an appropriate choice for a baseline study since

Rochelle, Gary T.

485

Aqueous Cathode for Next-Generation Alkali-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aqueous cathode in the flow-through mode can be individually stored in a fuel tank, which reduces the volume of the battery and increases the design flexibility of the battery structure, as shown in Figure 1. ... Unlike previous lithium?water batteries, the aqueous cathode is not plagued by H2 evolution from the solution, and the battery is efficiently rechargeable. ...

Yuhao Lu; John B. Goodenough; Youngsik Kim

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

486

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the treatment and disposal of an inventory of approximately 160,000 tons of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). Most of this LLMW is stored in drums, barrels and steel boxes at 20 different sites throughout the DOE complex. The basic objective of low-level mixed waste treatment systems is to completely destroy the hazardous constituents and to simultaneously isolate and capture the radionuclides in a superior final waste form such as glass. The DOE is sponsoring the development of advanced technologies that meet this objective while achieving maximum volume reduction, low-life cycle costs and maximum operational safety. ThermoChem, Inc. is in the final stages of development of a steam-reforming system capable of treating a wide variety of DOE low-level mixed waste that meets these objectives. The design, construction, and testing of a nominal 1 ton/day Process Development Unit is described.

Voelker, G.E.; Steedman, W.G. [Thermochem, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

487

Second Law Analysis of a Solar Methane Reforming System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we present the results of a Second Law analysis of a highly efficient, solar thermochemical reaction system for the production of syngas using micro- and meso-channel process technology. The evaluation includes the initial conversion of solar energy/exergy into physical energy/exergy and its subsequent conversion into chemical energy/exergy through the catalytic, endothermic reforming reaction, including quantifications of exergy destruction for components and the overall system. Possible applications include the combustion of the product syngas in a hybrid, solar/natural gas power plant, providing an efficient solar augment to the natural gas fuel; the thermochemical storage of solar energy, as part of an open or closed-cycle storage process; the production of hydrogen for use in fuel cells and for other purposes; and the production of synthetic fuels such as methanol or long-chain hydrocarbons. The analyses show that the overall process is exergetically-efficient and consistent with First Law and economic analyses. Finally, opportunities for improving the exergetic efficiency of the process are identified and discussed

Robert Wegeng; Richard Diver; Paul Humble

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

Gardner, Todd H. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

489

Reform towards National Health Insurance in Malaysia: The equity implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective This paper assesses the potential equity impact of Malaysia's projected reform of its current tax financed system towards National Health Insurance (NHI). Methods The Kakwani's progressivity index was used to assess the equity consequences of the new NHI system (with flat rate NHI scheme) compared to the current tax financed system. It was also used to model a proposed system (with a progressive NHI scheme) that can generate the same amount of funding more equitably. Results The new NHI system would be less equitable than the current tax financed system, as evident from the reduction of Kakwani's index to 0.168 from 0.217. The new flat rate NHI scheme, if implemented, would reduce the progressivity of the health finance system because it is a less progressive finance source than that of general government revenue. We proposed a system with a progressive NHI scheme that generates the same amount of funding whilst preserving the equity at the Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.213. Conclusions A NHI system with a progressive NHI scheme is proposed to be implemented to raise health funding whilst preserving the equity in health care financing.

Chai Ping Yu; David K. Whynes; Tracey H. Sach

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Thermodynamics of an Aqueous-Alkaline/Carbonate Carbon Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab in London, these recent results suggest the potential use of aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cells for vehicular transportation. ... Thus, biocarbons can be a sustainable, environmentally friendly fuel for carbon fuel cell applications, whose production complements the production of bioethanol and biodiesel fuels in a biomass refinery. ... Our interest in the aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell is stimulated by the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial London Black Cab.29-31 Thus, the development of a functional aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cell could facilitate the replacement of non-renewable, liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels by renewable, solid biocarbons. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Grard C. Nihous

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

491

A resource recycling technique of hydrogen production from the catalytic degradation of organics in wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A resource recycling technique of hydrogen production from the catalytic degradation of organics in wastewater by aqueous phase reforming (APR) has...N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and cyclohexanol) in water could b...

XiaoNian Li; LingNiao Kong; YiZhi Xiang; YaoMing Ju

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Method for the operation of internal combustion engines. [gasification reactor for reforming gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a method for the operation of internal combustion engines which is designed to decontaminate the exhaust gases. The method includes: feeding a gasification air stream into a gasification reactor; feeding fuel into the same gasification reactor; combining the fuel with the gasification air into a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the gasification reactor; and converting the fuel-air mixture by partial combustion into a soot -free reformed gas. Then, the reformed gas is fed from the gasification reactor to a mixer where the reformed gas is mixed with combustion air and the reformed gas-air mixture is fed to the internal combustion engine for further combustion with the result that there is intensive decontamination of the exhaust gases which thereby reduces air pollution. The reformed gas temperature is adjusted low for maximum engine output, and is adjusted higher for lower engine temperatures in order to obtain a reformed gas which is richer in hydrogen and thereby produce exhaust gases which are lower in harmful substances. In reference to the exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine, this method achieves the highest possible degree of decontamination, not only of the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons , but also of the nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases. Using this method, the internal combustion engine can be operated not only with high-test, no-knock gasoline, but also with cheap, lead-free low octane, straight-run gasoline which is low in aromatics and olefins, which normally do not have no-knock properties, and the internal combustion engine can be operated with the lowest possible fuel consumption. The gasification reactor operates through chemical reaction in the presence of a catalyst. Optionally, this method may include a return of part of the reformed gas to the input of the gasification reactor.

Muhlberg, E.

1980-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

493

Lineage and land reforms in Malawi: Do matrilineal and patrilineal landholding systems represent a problem for land reforms in Malawi?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Based on government statistics and interviews with villagers across Malawi this article argues that customary matrilineal and patrilineal land tenure systems serve to weaken security of land tenure for some family members as well as obstructing the creation of gender-neutral inheritance of lands. Data from the National Census of Agriculture and Livestock 2007and the 2008 Population and Housing Census are used to characterize marriage systems and landholding patterns of local communities. Marriage systems correspond to customary land-tenure patterns of matrilineal or patrilineal cultures. The differences between the two ways of land holding represent a challenge for land reforms aimed at unifying rules for land tenure and land devolution. Drawing on an analogy of the resilience of the patrilineal land holding system in Norway, we argue that it will be difficult to remove the preferential rights of lineage members directly. We recommend that, instead of creating a unified national system, existing land rights should be formally recognized and circumscribed by fair procedures. A well-designed landholding system should aim to ease the transitions of diverse customary tenure systems towards the requirements of a modern large-scale society.

Erling Berge; Daimon Kambewa; Alister Munthali; Henrik Wiig

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Effect of the metal-semiconductor phase transition on the rate of hydrogen penetration into vanadium dioxide thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rates of hydrogen penetration from an aqueous solution of glycerin into ... compared. It has been found that the rate of hydrogen penetration into the metal phase of vanadium dioxide ... order of magnitude hi...

V. N. Andreev; V. A. Klimov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Re-formation of the channel of the enisei river in the lower pool of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. At first the main re-formation of the channel occurred in the immediate vicinity of the structures, with its ...

T. F. Avrova; A. I. Kuznetsov

1968-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Zur Bedeutung der Diskussion zur Reform der Eingliederungshilfe fr die Wohnungslosenhilfe Verlagerung der Steuerungsverantwortung und verstrkte Wirksamkeitskontrollen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seit 2003 wird ber die Weiterentwicklung der Eingliederungshilfe fr behinderte Menschen diskutiert. Der grundlegende Ansatz der unter dem Begriff Reform der Eingliederungshilfe gefhrten fachpolitischen Disku...

Johannes Lippert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Hydrogen production from methane steam reforming: parametric and gradient based optimization ofaPd-based membrane reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work three mathematical models for methane steam reforming in membrane reactors were developed. The first ... , the influence of five important parameters on methane conversion (X ...

Leandro C. Silva; Valria V. Murata; Carla E. Hori

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Effect of nickel loading on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 for methane steam reforming at low temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of Ni loading on the catalytic activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalyst for methane steam reforming was investigated. The sample containing 15 wt...

Long Q. Nguyen; Leonila C. Abella

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Simultaneous carbon dioxide and steam reforming of methane to syngas over NiO-CaO catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam reforming, Co{sub 2} reforming, and simultaneous steam and CO{sub 2} reforming of methane to CO and H{sub 2} over NiO-CaO catalyst (without any prereduction treatment) at different temperatures (700--850 C) and space velocities (5000--70,000 cm{sup 3}/g{center_dot}h) are investigated. The catalyst is characterized by XRD, XPS, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The catalyst showed high activity/selectivity in both the steam and CO{sub 2} reforming reactions and the simultaneous steam and CO{sub 2} reforming. In the CO{sup 2} reforming, the coke deposition on the catalyst is found to be very fast. However, when the CO{sub 2} reforming is carried out simultaneously with the steam reforming, the coke deposition on the catalyst is drastically reduced. By the simultaneous CO{sub 2} and steam reforming (at {ge} 800 C and space velocity of about 20,000--30,000 cm{sup 3}/g{center_dot}h)m methane can be converted almost completely to syngas with 100% selectivity for both CO and H{sub 2}. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in products can be varied between 1.5 and 2.5 quite conveniently by manipulating the relative concentration of steam and CO{sub 2} in the feed.

Choudhary, V.R.; Rajput, A.M. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India). Chemical Engineering Div.] [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India). Chemical Engineering Div.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Synthesis Gas Generation by Chemical-Looping Reforming of Biomass with Natural Copper Ore as Oxygen Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping reforming (CLR) of biomass is a ... However, at the cost of synthesis gas combustion for heat, the gas lower heating value...

Lei Guo; Haibo Zhao; Chuguang Zheng

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z