Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity Philippe Leroy 74, 19 (2010) p. 5427-5442" DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.012 #12;2 ABSTRACT The surface tension to predict, under isothermal and isobaric conditions, the surface tension of 1:1 electrolytes at high

Boyer, Edmond

2

Interactions between Two Surfaces with Adsorbed Nonionic Surfactants in Aqueous Electrolyte and in a Free Polymer Solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interactions between Two Surfaces with Adsorbed Nonionic Surfactants in Aqueous Electrolyte surfacesbearing adsorbed layersofnonionic surfactantTriton X-405was measuredin 0.1 M KNO3.The forcecommencedat D. ©1987AcademicPress,Inc. I. INTRODUCTION Polymer molecules adsorbed at the solid- liquid interface

Klein, Jacob

3

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS NaCl SOLUTIONS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

aqueous electrolyte solutions are required in the development and uti1 ization of geothermal energy, petroleum recovery, desalination of sea water, and other energy systems...

4

Molecular Simulations of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility: 1. The Expanded-Ensemble Osmotic Molecular Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+, and Cl-); undissociated molecular units (HgCl2) are the predominant solution solute species.1 such as mercury(II) chloride (HgCl2), only a small fraction of the atoms dissociate into free ions (HgCl+, Hg2 Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase Martin Li´sal,*,, William R. Smith,§ and Jiri´ Kolafa| E. Ha

Lisal, Martin

5

High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Flow-Through High-Pressure Electrical Conductance Cell for Determining of Ion Association of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect

A flow-through high-pressure electrical conductance cell was designed and constructed to measure limiting molar conductances and ion association constants of dilute aqueous solutions with high precision at high temperatures and pressures. The basic concept of the cell employs the principle developed at the University of Delaware in 1995, but overall targets higher temperatures (to 600 C) and pressures (to 300 MPa). At present the cell has been tested by measuring aqueous NaCl and LiOH solutions (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} mol.kg{sup {minus}1}) to 405 C and 33 MPa with good results.

Bianchi, H.; Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.; Wood, R.H.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

8

Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

9

Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Sun, Xuehui (Middle Island, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Aqueous Solutions and Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of neutron diffraction techniques to aqueous solutions is described, and a framework involving the use of isotopic substitution is set up to illustrate the scope of the method. Specific applications described include a study of glassy ...

G. W. Neilson; J. E. Enderby

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E Bloomingburg (1)(3), J. M. Simonson (2), R C. Moore (2), I€ D. Cochran (3), and R. E. Mesmer (2) (1) Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (2) Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (3) Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 Presented at the 12th International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam Orlando, Florida September 14, 1994 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor o f the US. Government under contract No. DE-ACOS-84OR21400. Accordingly, the US. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty free license to

12

2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

Dor Ben-Amotz

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

13

Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Functionalized Polymers For Binding To Solutes In Aqueous Solutions A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol

14

Direct Synthesis of Nanoceria in Aqueous Polyhydroxyl Solutions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis of Nanoceria in Aqueous Polyhydroxyl Solutions. Direct Synthesis of Nanoceria in Aqueous Polyhydroxyl Solutions. Abstract: Nanoceria has been shown to possess biomedical...

15

Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using...

16

Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water may be extracted from aqueous calcium acetate or sodium acetate solutions using low miscibility, low molecular weight tertiary amines, e.g. triethylamine (TEA) and N,N- dietliylmethylaniine (DEMA). This novel extraction technology...

Lee, Champion

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

371-411. Debye, P. and Huckel, E., (1923) PhysikZ., 24, 185 Pitzer, K.S. (1973) Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. I. Theoretical Basis and General Equations, J. Phys. Chem., 77,...

18

Charge and Electric Field Fluctuations in Aqueous NaCl Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom concerning crystallization assumes that when NaCl crystallizes from a supersaturated solution, the solvated ions retain their ionic character and simply relocate from their hydration spheres to their most stable positions in the crystal lattice. However, this conventional picture is at odds with observations over 200 years ago reporting the emission of long-lived light resulting from the crystallization of certain salts appropriately referred to as crystalloluminescence. This suggests that electronic structure plays an essential role in crystallization. Strong electric field fluctuations in the gas or condensed phases can drive changes in electronic structure. We have calculated the fluctuation of charge, scalar electric potentials, and vector electric fields for concentrated aqueous NaCl electrolytes. The H2O molecules in the 1st solvation shell of the ions serve as a sink for electron density originating on Cl-. Our analysis reveals that the electric fields inside aqueous electrolytes are extremely large (up to several V/) and thus may alter the ground and excited electronic states in the condensed phase. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the potential and field distributions are largely independent of concentration. We find that the field component distributions to be Gaussian for the ions and non-Gaussian for the O and H sites (computed in the lab frame of reference), however, these non-Gaussian distributions are readily modeled via an orientationally averaged non-zero mean Gaussian plus a zero mean Gaussian. These calculations and analyses provide the first steps toward understanding the magnitude and fluctuations of charge, electric potentials and fields in aqueous electrolytes and what role these fields may play in driving charge redistribution/transfer during crystalloluminescence. We would like to gratefully acknowledge helpful discussions with Gregory K. Schenter. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences program and used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Sellner, Bernhard; Valiev, Marat; Kathmann, Shawn M.

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

19

Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Equilibria in aqueous iodine solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the determination of pH and. 1odide concentration. This instrument, reads pH to 0. 001 pH units and millivolts to F 1 mv. An Orion Specific Ion Electrode, Iodide Model 94-53, was used in the iodide determination. A Corning Triple Purpose pH glass elect- rode... with such electrodes fully confirms this statement. The optimum concentration of Solution I was found to be between 5 x 10 and 10 H iodide. Error in ZIIF Although short-term reproducibility to within 0. 001 26 pH unit can in principle be achieved. with the glass...

Burger, Joanne Denise

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Final Report for Grant DE-FG05-94ER14421 Period 11/1/2001-10/31/2002 Molecular Modeling and Simulation of Aqueous Electrolyte Systems  

SciTech Connect

Our proposal focused on the following research areas: (1) Development of intermolecular potentials for water and aqueous solutions; (2) Molecular-based study of polymorphic phase transitions and growth of nanocrystalline aggregates in hydrothermal solutions; (3) Molecular simulation of ion-pairing in high-temperature high-pressure electrolyte solutions; and (4) SAFT equation of state modeling of supercritical aqueous solutions - (a) Solubility of alkanes in supercritical water, and (b) Ion speciation in ambient and supercritical aqueous solutions We have made progress in all four areas, details of which are described in the paper. Before doing so, however, we reflect on some of the significant changes impacting the research program during the past year.

Peter T. Cummings; Clare McCabe

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution rationalizations Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixtures of Water, Poly(ethylene oxide) and Electrolytes (Or Dextran) Summary: the formation of aqueous two-phase systems was investigated by calorimetry measuring...

23

Direct Gas Chromatographic Method for Nonvolatile Organics in Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Aqueous Solutions Ihor Lysyj Kurt H. Nelson Research Division, Rocketdyne, a Division of North American Rockwell Corp., Canoga Park...Solutions by !hor Lysyj and Kurt H. Nelson, Research Division, Rocketdyne, a Division of North American Rockwell Corp., Canoga Park......

Ihor Lysyj; Kurt H. Nelson

1968-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanol solution Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solution Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aqueous ethanol solution...

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanol solutions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solutions Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aqueous ethanol solutions...

26

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous nonelectrolyte solutions Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: on the channel conductance in 1 M KCl aqueous solutions at their symmetrical addition on both sides... , rubidium, cesium, and ammonium ions in aqueous solution. Bull....

27

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous urea solutions Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

interaction of both moieties, EO and PO, with urea in aqueous solution (14... of Additives on the Cloud Points of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene...

28

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions application Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI), is faster at the airaqueous interface than in bulk aqueous solution... susceptibility to be probed. Aqueous solutions of malachite green...

29

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Solutions: A Self-consistent Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the surface tension of electrolyte solutions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Employing field-theoretical methods and considering short-range interactions of anions with the surface, we expand the Helmholtz free energy to first-order in a loop expansion and calculate the excess surface tension. Our approach is self-consistent and yields an analytical prediction that reunites the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We obtain analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of concentrations for different salts using one fit parameter, reproducing the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.10.1029

Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudi Podgornik

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

30

CHARACTERISTICS OF VERY CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solution Composition Solid Phases msa 4 Halite + 'Sylvite +Glaserite + Schoenite Halite + Leonite +Sylvite + Schoenite Halite Sylvite Leonite Kainite Halite +

Pitzer, Kenneth S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution mineral Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solutions and fluids... for corrosion and conductivity measurements in high temperature subcritical solutions High temperature... aqueous and supercritical fluids ...

32

Thermodynamic Investigation of Electrolytes of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (III): Volumetric Properties of Aqueous VOSO4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Investigation of Electrolytes of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (III): Volumetric Properties of Aqueous VOSO4 ... The all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) as an effective energy-storage system proposed by Skyllas-Kazacos et al. has been investigated extensively. ... Oriji, G.; Katayama, Y.; Miura, T.Investigation on V(IV)/V(V) species in a vanadium redox flow battery Electrochim. ...

Ye Qin; Jian-Guo Liu; Chuan-Wei Yan

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution promoted Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

All rights reserved. PII S1388-2481(99)00038-7 Summary: generate zones of high and low surface tension, promoting the motion of the aqueous electrolyte. q 1999... as the...

34

Interactions of Cl? and OH Radical in Aqueous Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a considerable controversy surrounding the nature of the Cl?/OH complex in aqueous solution, which appears as a byproduct of the irradiation of salt solutions in nuclear reactor operation, radioactive waste storage, medicine, and environmental problems. ... A similar process in the interfacial environment has been implicated in the production of molecular chlorine from sea salt aerosol, which ultimately could lead to enhanced ozone levels in the marine boundary layer. ... (2, 3) A detailed understanding of this reaction is hindered by uncertainty regarding the nature of the complex between OH and Cl? in aqueous environments. ...

Marat Valiev; Raffaella DAuria; Douglas J. Tobias; Bruce C. Garrett

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

35

Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z}  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder. 1 fig.

Boyle, T.J.; Voigt, J.A.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150oC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. , Fabuss, B.M. , "Viscosities of Binary Aqueous Solutionsof Pressure on the Viscosity of Aqueous NaCl Solutions inF.A. , Kestin, J. , "The Viscosity of NaCl and KCl Solutions

Ozbek, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Polyaniline: characterization as a cathode active material in rechargeable batteries in aqueous electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytically pure form of chemically synthesized polyaniline having the emeraldine oxidation state has been used as a cathode active material together with a Zn anode in the...2 electrolyte (pH?4). The experim...

N. L. D. Somasiri; A. G. Macdiarmid

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Hierarchically Ordered Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires Dispersed in Aqueous Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports on the preparation, characterization, and dispersion of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires using ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, as a template. A homogeneous and stable dispersion of hierarchically ordered CdS nanowires in water ...This work demonstrates the formation of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires. These nanowires are templated by mesoporous SBA-15 and their connectivity is tuned by the number of nanoconnectors (templated by micropores). They form stable dispersions in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions.

Rajagopalan Thiruvengadathan; Oren Regev

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hydrogen Production via Photolytic Oxidation of Aqueous Sodium Sulfite Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. ... Compounding its impacts on the environment, there are multiple sources of SO2 emissions, fossil fuel combustion being a primary contributor. ... Figure 2. Effect of initial solution pH on H2 formation via photolytic oxidation of 0.025 M Na2SO3 aqueous solutions (initial solution pH: (a) 7.53 (SO32? + HCl); (b) 8.88 (SO32? + HCl); (c) 9.92 (original Na2SO3 solution); (d) 10.96 (SO32?:CO32? = 1:0.05); ...

Cunping Huang; Clovis A. Linkous; Olawale Adebiyi; Ali T-Raissi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the nature of the limited cycle life and poor energy efficiency associated with the secondary Li-O2 batteries the discharge products of primary Li-O2 cells at different depth of discharge (DOD) are systematically analyzed in this work. It is revealed that if discharged to 2.0 V a small amount of Li2O2 coexist with Li2CO3 and RO-(C=O)-OLi) in alkyl carbonate-based electrolyte. Further discharging the air electrodes to below 2.0 V the amount of Li2CO3 and LiRCO3 increases significantly due to the severe electrolyte decomposition. There is no Li2O detected in this alkyl carbonate electrolyte regardless of DOD. It is also found that the alkyl carbonate based electrolyte begins to decompose at 4.0 V during charging under the combined influences from the high surface area carbon, the nickel metal current collector and the oxygen atmosphere. Accordingly the impedance of the Li-O2 cell continues to increase after each discharge and recharge process indicating a repeated plating of insoluble lithium salts on the carbon surface. Therefore the whole carbon electrode becomes completely insulated only after a few cycles and loses the function of providing active tri-phase regions for the Li-oxygen batteries.

Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Deyu; Hu, Dehong; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution ... At each simulation step, we calculate the contribution to the dipole moment from the first n counterions in the list, constituting the net charge (?x(n), ?y(n), ?z(n)) as follows, where e is the elementary charge and xi, yi, zi are the coordinates of the ith counterion in the list. ... Manning32 has already explained this effect in his two-phase model of polarizability, as reflecting the decreased resistance to distortion of the condensation layer. ...

Hitoshi Washizu; Kazuo Kikuchi

2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution effect Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

, and solvent effects on solute structure and reactivity in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents and at complex... .g., as atomic par tial char ges. The SM8T model per mits...

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions effect Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

, and solvent effects on solute structure and reactivity in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents and at complex... .g., as atomic par tial char ges. The SM8T model per mits...

46

Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function of the Concentration of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function: December 3, 2003 The cloud point of the surfactant tetrabutylammonium dodecyl sulfate is shown surfactant dissociates 17% of its counterions to aqueous phase. Introduction Clouding is a phenomenon

Bales, Barney

47

Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

Copper(III) Pyrophosphate Complexes in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper(III) Pyrophosphate Complexes in Aqueous Solution. A Pulse Radiolysis Copper(III) Pyrophosphate Complexes in Aqueous Solution. A Pulse Radiolysis Study at Ambient and High Pressure Diane E. Cabelli, James F. Wishart, Jerzy Holcman, Martin Meier, and Rudi van Eldik J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 5131-5136 (1997) [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The reaction between OH radicals and [CuII(P2O7)2(H2O) 2]6- results in the formation of a Cu(III) complex. No reaction is observed with N3· or Br2·-, whereas SO4·- initiates the same steps as seen with ·OH. This suggests that the mechanism probably involves a ligand interchange or H · atom abstraction process. The Cu(III) complex undergoes a rapid first-order reaction, probably loss of a P2O74- chelate, followed by addition of OH- (pKOH ~ 10) to yield a Cu(III) complex that is predominantly hydroxylated

49

Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions: Temperature dependence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature dependence of the excited state intramolecular charge transferreaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) in ethyl acetate (EA) acetonitrile (ACN) and ethanol at several concentrations of lithium perchlorate ( LiClO 4 ) has been investigated by using the steady state and time resolved fluorescencespectroscopic techniques. The temperature range considered is 267343 K. The temperature dependent spectral peak shifts and reaction driving force ( ? ? G r ) in electrolytesolutions of these solvents can be explained qualitatively in terms of interaction between the reactant molecule and ion-atmosphere. Time resolved studies indicate that the decay kinetics of P4C is biexponential regardless of solvents LiClO 4 concentrations and temperatures considered. Except at higher electrolyte concentrations in EA reaction rates in solutions follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence where the estimated activation energy exhibits substantial electrolyte concentration dependence. The average of the experimentally measured activation energies in these three neat solvents is found to be in very good agreement with the predicted value based on data in room temperature solvents. While the rate constant in EA shows a electrolyte concentration induced parabolic dependence on reaction driving force ( ? ? G r ) the former in ethanol and ACN increases only linearly with the increase in driving force ( ? ? G r ) . The data presented here also indicate that the step-wise increase in solvent reorganization energy via sequential addition of electrolyte induces the ICT reaction in weakly polar solvents to crossover from the Marcus inverted region to the normal region.

Tuhin Pradhan; Harun Al Rasid Gazi; Ranjit Biswas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields. The high temperature values for {sigma} at 1.0 N NaCl concentration suggest an expansion of the migration field to smaller inclusion sizes, which for a single halite crystal at these conditions, approach a dimension of one micron. The corresponding fluid inclusion size for the polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries retard the migration, is approximately 10 microns. Although the Soret results obtained in the present study provide additional data for high temperature applications in nuclear waste isolation, more experimentation and new equipment design are required in order to obtain data at temperatures above 80{degree}C. The experimental approach utilized in this study is limited in that respect. The almost immeasurable nature of the thermal diffusion process for the brines as examined in the laboratory, suggests that this effect will be insignificant (outside of fluid inclusion migration) in most rock-water interactions associated with a rocksalt nuclear waste repository. Other effects, such as convective fluid transport, pressure solution, and groundwater flow, will be orders-of-magnitude more important in evaluating the critical nature of brine migration, waste canister corrosion, and the potential for leaching radioisotopes from waste repositories.

Cygan, R.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarrell, G.D. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

51

Photoelectrochemical Processes at n-GaAs(100)/Aqueous HCl Electrolyte Interface: A Synchrotron Photoemission Spectroscopy Study of Emersed Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processes occurring at the semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces are very complex and include interrelated ion adsorption, surface bond breaking (corrosion), as well as charge transfer from semiconductor conduction and valence bands to species in the solution for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. ... As the processing is ultraclean and has been integrated to the UHV system, even differences in the electronic structures could be derived. ... The processes of gallium chlorides and elemental arsenic formation are accelerated under irradiation with visible light, which clearly illustrates the participation of photo holes in the photoelectrochemical etching process. ...

Mikhail V. Lebedev; Wolfram Calvet; Thomas Mayer; Wolfram Jaegermann

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous thiocyanate solutions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 202, 385390 (1998) ARTICLE NO. CS985456 Summary: of Additives on the Cloud Points of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene...

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous homogeneous solution Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Liquids 6. Invited Contributions (a)Gordon Research... Salts Molten Salts Solid State :Ceramics Molten Salts Phys.Chem. Glasses Water & Aqueous Solutions... Liquids Solids...

54

Multi-basin dynamics of a protein in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

A molecular dynamics simulation of crambin in aqueous solution shows that motions are characteristic of non-linear systems. The authors describe typical non-linear excitations, such as intermittency, for various representations of the protein dynamics and structure. The protein backbone dihedral angles show fast correlated transitions from one minimum well to another. Each transition is followed by small overdamped oscillations. Equal-time cross correlations of all ({phi},{psi}) angles show that correlations are extended along the backbone chain. An analysis based on a generalized least squares fitting of the protein fluctuations along vectors show that a small set of molecule optimal dynamic coordinates (MODC) describe most of the protein fluctuations. In addition, the MODC describe a trajectory where the protein conformation jumps from one minimum well to another. An extension of the MODC describing 2- and 3-dimensional cuts of the protein configurational space clearly shows a trajectory around multiple basins of attraction.

Garcia, A.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution. 7 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution properties Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solution Stephen E. Schwartz and Warren H. White 2... . Reactions of Sulfur(IV) with Transition-Metal Ions in Aqueous Solutions Robert E. Huie and Norman C... TRACE ATMOSPHERIC...

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions affected Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solution Stephen E. Schwartz and Warren H. White 2... . Reactions of Sulfur(IV) with Transition-Metal Ions in Aqueous Solutions Robert E. Huie and Norman C... . Peterson 3....

58

Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols In Aqueous Solution By Ultraviolet Excilamps  

SciTech Connect

The direct photolysis of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in model aqueous solution was studied using UV XeBr (282 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excilamps. The highest pseudo-first order rate constants and quantum yields were found for molecular form of 4-CP (at pH 2 and 5.7) and anionic forms of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP (at pH 11) when irradiated by XeBr excilamp. The maximum removal efficiency of molecular form of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP with the lowest UV dose of absorbed energy was observed using KrCl excilamp. On the contrary, the XeBr excilamp required the lowest dose ({approx}2 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2}) for complete degradation of molecular 4-CP and anionic 2-CP. The highest removal efficiency of anionic form of 4-CP (65%) was achieved when using KrCl excilamp.

Matafonova, Galina; Philippova, Natalya; Batoev, Valeriy [Baikal Institute of Nature Management SB RAS, 6 Sakhyanova St., Ulan-Ude, 670047 (Russian Federation)

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

59

Structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions  

SciTech Connect

The present work describes a molecular dynamics simulation study of structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions in water. Structural properties of the system in terms of radial distribution functions and dynamical characteristics as obtained through velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacements have been analyzed. The results for radial distribution functions show the oxygen of water to form the first solvation shell at 2.4 around the uranium atom, whereas the hydrogen atoms of water are distributed around the uranium atom with the major peak at around 3.0 . Analyses of transport behaviors of ions and water through MSD indicates that the diffusion of the uranyl ion is much less as compared to that of the water molecules. It is also observed that the dynamical behavior of water molecules gets modified due to the presence of uranyl ion. The effect of increase in concentration of uranyl ions on the structure and dynamics of water molecules is also studied.

Chopra, Manish [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Choudhury, Niharendu, E-mail: nihcho@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

60

Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution cation Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

au no 4, Tome 40, Avril 1979,page C3-438 THE EFFECT OF AMPHIPHILIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE SOLVENTS Summary: media. The organization of amphiphilic molecules in aqueous solution...

62

Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Treatment with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes Using Response Surface Methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Treatment with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes Using Response Surface Methodology ... In the past few years, various researchers have used different materials as electrodes in the electrochemical reactors and filters. ...

Parul Rana-Madaria; Mohan Nagarajan; Chitra Rajagopal; Bhagwan S. Garg

2005-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

63

Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation ...

Bathe, Mark

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions gels Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science ; Chemistry 2 Feature Article Effect of the Volume Phase Transition on Diffusion and Summary: that in an aqueous solution for 3% NIPA and NIPA-AA gels...

65

Aqueous solution synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-germanium nanoparticles and their electrical property testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aqueous solution synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-germanium nanoparticles (RGO-GeNPs) was developed using graphene oxide (GO) as stabilizer, which could ... . The as-synthesized RGO-GeNPs showed excellent battery

Huabin Yin; Jinmei Luo; Peihui Yang; Pinghe Yin

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution studied Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Society 2002 Macromolecules 2010, 43, 20022008 Summary: )-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAA-g-PEO) in aqueous solutions shows one fast and one slow relaxation mode in dynamic...

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution based Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Society 2002 Macromolecules 2010, 43, 20022008 Summary: )-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAA-g-PEO) in aqueous solutions shows one fast and one slow relaxation mode in dynamic...

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions studied Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Society 2002 Macromolecules 2010, 43, 20022008 Summary: )-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAA-g-PEO) in aqueous solutions shows one fast and one slow relaxation mode in dynamic...

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution importance Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Society 2002 Macromolecules 2010, 43, 20022008 Summary: )-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAA-g-PEO) in aqueous solutions shows one fast and one slow relaxation mode in dynamic...

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution method Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Society 2002 Macromolecules 2010, 43, 20022008 Summary: )-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAA-g-PEO) in aqueous solutions shows one fast and one slow relaxation mode in dynamic...

71

Batch sorption of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using natural kaolinite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential to remove lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions using natural kaolinite was investigated. The effects of several parameters including solution pH, adsorbent dose, ionic strength and solution temperature on adsorption were examined. The sorption data followed the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Dynamics of the sorption process were studied and the values of rate constant of adsorption were calculated. The kaolinite can be used to remove lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

Xue-Song Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Kinetic study of hydrogen sulfide absorption in aqueous chlorine solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). This technique involves H2S mass transfer in an aqueous phase using a gas-liquid contactor. Since H2S is poorly. This scrubbing liquid is just drained when the salt accumulation due to H2S oxidation into sulfate anions becomes Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently removed from gaseous effluents by chemical scrubbing using water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Labradorite dissolution in aqueous organic acid solutions: an experimental study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in significant Al (up to 4 mmolal) in solution. Calculated activation energies of dissolution was different for different fluids and ranged between 18 KJ/mol for the acetate-oxalate solution to 42 KJ/mol for the acetate-citrate solution. Although, these values...

Ahmed, MD. Raquib Uddin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

Estimation of tracer diffusion coefficients of ions in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Equations are given for estimating tracer diffusion coefficients D/sub i//sup 0/ of ions at infinite dilution in terms of limiting ionic conductances ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/. Also given are generalized Nernst-Hartley equations for binary and multicomponent diffusion coefficients D/sup 0/ and D/sub ij//sup 0/, respectively, at infinite dilution. Data, estimates, and correlations for ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/ at 25/sup 0/C and other temperatures are discussed. Estimated values of ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/ are tabulated from 0-300/sup 0/C for ions of waste isolation interest and for ions of economic interest in geothermal brines. Estimates of their tracer diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution are tabulated. A rule of thumb, good to a factor of 2, is presented. Very limited data (available only at 25/sup 0/C) indicate that D/sub i//D/sub i//sup 0/ generally declines as the concentration of salt or supporting electrolyte increases. 6 figures, 2 tables.

Miller, D.G.

1982-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

75

Loading of emulsions stacks with aqueous solutions of lithium acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown that thick pellicles can be loaded with lithium acetate solutions still maintaining all the desirable geometrical ... purpose of the method, that of introducing lithium atoms in the emulsion, th...

D. H. Davis; R. Levi Setti; M. Raymund; G. Tomasini

1962-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A method of cobalt ion concentration from dilute aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

The liquid membrane technique is very useful for metal ions recovery from dilute solutions. Co{sup 2+} ions can be removed and concentrated from wastewaters with an emulsion liquid membrane. The paper describes the permeation of Co{sup 2+} using naphthenic acids as the carrier and kerosene as the membrane material. The inner phase is a HCl 3.162 x 10{sup -4} solution. The extraction yield is more than 96%.

Amanatidou, E. [Technological Education Inst., Kila Kozanis (Greece); Stefanut, M.N.; Grozav, A. [Institute for Chemical and Technological Sciences, Timisoara (Romania)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Mechanism of Pyrene Photochemical Oxidation in Aqueous and Surfactant Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous studies have shown that soil washing with surfactant solutions can remove significant amounts of PAH from weathered soil collected from a manufactured gas plant site in upstate New York (3, 4). ... After the vials were vigorously shaken to dissolve all of the Brij 35, the solutions were wrapped in aluminum foil and left to sit for at least 48 h to allow the surfactants to fully equilibrate. ...

Michael E. Sigman; Peter F. Schuler; Mriganka M. Ghosh; R. T. Dabestani

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Behaviour of Electrolytes in Mixed Solvents. Part I. The Free Energies and Heat Contents of Hydrogen Chloride in Water-Ethyl Alcohol Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 November 1929 research-article The Behaviour of Electrolytes in Mixed Solvents. Part I. The Free Energies and Heat Contents of Hydrogen Chloride in Water-Ethyl Alcohol Solutions J. A. V. Butler C. M. Robertson The Royal Society...

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Synthesis And Characterization of Pt Clusters in Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to monitor the various steps involved in the synthesis of unprotected and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-protected aqueous colloidal Pt suspensions. The results indicate that on hydrolysis of the H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} precursor, the Cl{sup -} ligands were partially replaced by aquo ligands in the first coordination shell of Pt to form [PtCl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sup 2+}. Treatment of these species with NaBH{sub 4} under controlled pH conditions led to the formation of nearly uniform Pt{sub 4} and Pt{sub 6} clusters in the absence and presence of PVA, respectively. These highly dispersed colloidal Pt suspensions were stable for several months. The addition of 2-propanol (IPA) to both types of Pt suspensions led to some sintering of the Pt clusters, although both suspensions retained their colloidal nature. Less sintering was evident in the PVA-protected Pt suspension. Both the unprotected and the PVA-protected colloidal Pt suspensions were catalytically active for the liquid-phase selective oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone, with the unprotected suspension exhibiting the highest activity.

Siani, A.; Wigal, K.R.; Alexeev, O.S.; Amiridis, M.D.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

80

Isothermal and isochoric crystallization of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide of aqueous solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An oil-like aqueous solution of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide (PNO) has been compressed in a diamond-anvil cell and single crystals of PNO have been grown under isothermal and isochoric conditions. The PNO anhydrate ambient-pressure structure is stabilized by CHO contacts up to 2 GPa at least.

Patyk, E.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquidliquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquid­liquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions, 2002 We have studied the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the liquid­liquid phase separation. PEG ternary mixtures solubility partitioning Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic nonionic

Annunziata, Onofrio

82

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

Stadtherr, Mark A.

83

Probing the Interface of Microscopic Clay Particles in Aqueous Solution by Second Harmonic Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of catechol (OHC6H4- OH), adsorbed onto the surface of titanium dioxide micropar- ticles in aqueous solution adsorption and the electrostatic properties of clay particles. 1. Introduction The abundance in nature and the unique adsorptive and catalytic properties of clay particles make them a subject of fundamental

Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

84

Millimeter-scale contact printing of aqueous solutions using a stamp made out of paper and tape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

three-dimensional, microfluidic, paper-based analyt- ical devices (3D-mPADs) as ``stamps'' (eMillimeter-scale contact printing of aqueous solutions using a stamp made out of paper and tape This communication describes a simple method for printing aqueous solutions with millimeter-scale patterns

Prentiss, Mara

85

Computational Study of Copper(II) Complexation and Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solutions Using Mixed Cluster/Continuum Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Study of Copper(II) Complexation and Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solutions Using Mixed and thermodynamic properties of Cu(II) species in aqueous solution. 1. Introduction Copper is a key component evidence that copper may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's diseases

Goddard III, William A.

86

Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Salt Effect Model for Aqueous Solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-Dodecane-Nitric Acid-Water Biphasic System at 298.2 K  

SciTech Connect

The solubilities of nonelectrolytes in aqueous electrolyte solutions have traditionally been modeled by using the Setschenow equation for salt effect. The aqueous solubility of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) during operating conditions of the Purex process is an important parameter for safety considerations. Use of the Setschenow equation for aqueous solubility of TBP under limited conditions has been reported in the literature. However, there is no general model available to account for the presence of the diluent and for the case of multicomponent electrolyte solutions in which only some electrolytes are solvated and extracted by TBP. An extended salt effect model is proposed for predicting the aqueous solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-dodecane-nitric acid-water biphasic system at 298.2 K. The literature data on TBP solubility were correlated to aqueous acid concentration, diluent concentration in the solvents, and an interaction parameter for electrolytic solutes (extracted or not extracted by TBP)

Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, Sudhir Babu [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (India)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Study, by neutron small angle scattering, of addition of an electrolyte to reversed micellar solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L-455 Study, by neutron small angle scattering, of addition of an electrolyte to reversed micellar the size of reversed micelles of the ternary system Aerosol OT-n-heptane-water by small angle neutron, highly soluble in hydro- carbon substances, which may give reversed micelles in the presence of water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Thermocharge of a hot spot in an electrolyte solution Arghya Majee and Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was realized through a thermal barrier in a microchannel [1] and the droplet size of a thermocapillary valve-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobil- ity. The Seebeck coefficient S depends on the electrolyte and may take either sign reported non-uniform variation of the Soret coefficient with the ionic strength [23] is characteristic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of glucose with imidazole in aqueous solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of glucose with imidazole in Molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of glucose with imidazole in aqueous solution Mo Chen, Yannick J. Bomble, Michael E. Himmel, John W. Brady PII: S0008-6215(11)00592-1 DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2011.12.008 Reference: CAR 6026 To appear in: Carbohydrate Research Received Date: 15 June 2011 Revised Date: 22 November 2011 Accepted Date: 8 December 2011 Please cite this article as: Chen, M., Bomble, Y.J., Himmel, M.E., Brady, J.W., Molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of glucose with imidazole in aqueous solution, Carbohydrate Research (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.carres. 2011.12.008 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and

91

High dose radiolysis of aqueous solutions of chloromethanes: Importance in the storage of radioactive organic wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiolysis of aqueous solutions of chloromethanes (dichloromethane, CH2Cl2; chloroform, CHCl3; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) was performed with ?-rays to doses sufficient to completely decompose the solute in order to estimate the effects of radiation on the long-term storage of mixed waste in enclosed containers. One of the main relevant products was the inorganic chloride anion, which increased in concentration with increasing radiation dose due to the reactions of radiolytic decomposition products of water with the chloromethane. The pH of the solutions was observed to decrease with irradiation due to the formation of H3O+ as the counter ion to Cl?, i.e. the main radiolytic decomposition product is hydrochloric acid. Polymer formation was observed in aerated solutions as a precipitate while deaerated solutions exhibited a slight turbidity.

P. Rajesh; J.A. LaVerne; S.M. Pimblott

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Intermediate-range order and collective dynamics in an aqueous solution of trivalent cations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a concentrated aqueous solution of high-valence cations M3+ demonstrate the occurrence of intermediate-range order (IRO) by a pronounced prepeak at k?1.0?1 in the static structure factor. The IRO effect on the high-frequency collective dynamics of acoustic modes is investigated in a model system which mimics a 2.8M EuCl3 aqueous solution. A single branch in the dispersion relation of longitudinal acoustic (LA) modes in solution is obtained up to k?0.5?1, and then it splits into two branches for higher wave vectors. The low-frequency branch of LA modes in solution is not the well-known transverselike branch seen in MD simulation of pure water. It is assigned instead to a subsystem of M3+ cations plus water molecules belonging to the cations first hydration shell. The excitation energy of the low-frequency branch reaches a maximum in a k range half of the prepeak value, so that IRO plays the role of a pseudoBrillouin zone for the cation subsystem. The high-frequency branch of the LA modes in solution follows the corresponding one in pure water, and in fact a subsystem of bulk water molecules is identified in solution showing high-frequency short-range structural relaxation similar to that of pure water.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Removal of Vanadium(IV) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Process with Aluminum-Pillared Bentonite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this research work is to investigate the possibility of using a natural bentonite clay as a precursor to produce aluminum-pillared clay (Al?PILC) for the removal of vanadium(IV) from aqueous solutions. ... The original bentonite and Al?PILC were characterized with the help of surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titration. ... The adsorption of vanadium(IV) onto Al?PILC has been dynamically and thermodynamically investigated. ...

D. M. Manohar; B. F. Noeline; T. S. Anirudhan

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

94

Remediation of Methyl Iodide in Aqueous Solution and Soils Amended with Thiourea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remediation of Methyl Iodide in Aqueous Solution and Soils Amended with Thiourea ... Therefore, spraying thiourea on the soil surface to form a reactive surface barrier may be an effective and innovative strategy for controlling fumigant emissions to the atmosphere and for improving environmental protection. ... Currently, new and innovative remediation technologies including bioremediation, phytoremediation, and chemical remediation have been proposed for use in cleaning polluted soil and groundwater. ...

Wei Zheng; Sharon K. Papiernik; Mingxin Guo; Scott R. Yates

2004-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Radioluminescence of curium(III) and the lanthanoids in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been made on the radioluminescence produced in trivalent Cm, Tb, Eu, Dy, and Sm by the a radiation from curium-244 in aqueous solution. The emission range for the f-element ions is the same as that for the photoluminescence. The radioluminescence yields for 10/sup -2/ M solutions of Cm, Tb, Eu, Dy, and Sm nitrates in quanta per 100 eV of absorbed energy are (5.0 +/- 0.60) x 10/sup -4/, (3.75 +/- 0.76) x 10/sup -4/, (0.90 +/- 0.08) x 10/sup -4/, (0.030 +/- 0.013) x 10/sup -4/ (t = 25/sup 0/C). These figures can be compared with the photoluminescence quantum yields for the corresponding ions in aqueous solution. There is a clear-cut correlation for the two for the lanthanoids, whereas the radioluminescence from curium is much more intense than would be expected from the quantum yield in photoluminescence, because the excitation of Cm/sup 3 +/ is more effective than that of the Ln/sup 3 +/. The most likely reasons for certain discrepancies between the radioluminescence and photoluminescence yields are that radiolysis gives products that quench the excited states for the f elements and that the radioluminescence excitation efficiency is dependent on the electronic proportion of the ion in solution (i.e., on the atomic number of the element). The results agree with the hypothesis that radioluminescence is excited in these elements in solution directly.

Yusov, A.B.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

97

Removal of selected heavy metals from aqueous solutions using a solid by-product from the Jordanian oil shale refining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?The potential use of treated solid by-product of oil shale to treat aqueous solutions containing several heavy ... Results indicate that the solid by-product of oil shale removes Cd(II), Cu(II),...

W. Y. Abu-El-Sha'r; S. H. Gharaibeh; M. M. Al-Kofahi

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Peroxynitrite: A Re-examination of the Chemical Properties of Non-thermal Discharges Burning in Air Over Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main compounds of non-thermal plasmas generated by a discharge in humid air at atmospheric pressure are re-examined to explain the twin chemical properties of discharges over aqueous waste solutions, i.e. ...

Jean-Louis Brisset; Eugen Hnatiuc

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling of extraction of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by chelation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disadvantages. First, the solvent/metal solution must be subsequently purified. Second, since the solvent may be miscible in the aqueous phase, the residual solvent must be removed from the water stream. These disadvantages can be eliminated by substituting...

Uyansoy, Hakki

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

100

Impact of particle size on interaction forces between ettringite and dispersing comb-polymers in various electrolyte solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The inter-particle forces play a fundamental role for the flow properties of a particle suspension in response to shear stresses. In concrete applications, cement admixtures based on comb-polymers like polycarboxylate-ether-based superplasticizer (PCE) are used to control the rheological behavior of the fresh mixtures, as it is negatively impacted by certain early hydration products, like the mineral ettringite. In this work, dispersion forces due to PCE were measured directly at the surface of ettringite crystals in different electrolyte solutions by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying spherical and sharp silicon dioxide tips. Results show an effective repulsion between ettringite surface and AFM tips for solutions above the IEP of ettringite (pH?12) and significant attraction in solution at lower pH. The addition of polyelectrolytes in solution provides dispersion forces exclusively between the sharp tips (radius?10nm) and the ettringite surface, whereas the polymer layer at the ettringite surface results to be unable to disperse large colloidal probes (radius?10?m). A simple modeling of the inter-particle forces explains that, for large particles, the steric hindrance of the studied PCE molecules is not high enough to compensate for the Van der Waals and the attractive electrostatic contributions. Therefore, in cement suspensions the impact of ettringite on rheology is probably not only related to the particle charge, but also related to the involved particle sizes.

Lucia Ferrari; Josef Kaufmann; Frank Winnefeld; Johann Plank

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions via reversible reaction with aldehydes  

SciTech Connect

A means is proposed for separating propylene glycol and other compounds bearing multiple hydroxyl groups by reversible chemical reaction. Glycols react with aldehydes in cyclic acetalization reactions to form substituted dioxolanes. Propylene glycol reacts with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane and 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane. The reaction is catalyzed homogeneously by strong mineral acids or heterogeneously by cation exchange resins in the acid form. Separation processes utilizing this reaction would include an acetalization step, several distillative separation steps and finally a hydrolysis step in which the reaction is reversed. Both reaction steps must be forced to completion by removing the reaction product simultaneously. The equilibrium and kinetics of the reaction with formaldehyde were studied experimentally in systems catalyzed by Amberlite IR-120 ion exchange resin. A number of solvents were screened for their ability to extract 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane from aqueous solution. Aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited the highest distribution into the organic phase. To achieve an effective separation of propylene glycol from aqueous solution by combined reaction with formaldehyde and distillation, formaldehyde would have to be present in excess and would be difficult and costly to separate from the aqueous solution. In reactive distillation using acetaldehyde as a reactant this is not a problem. A large flow of acetaldehyde would be necessary to recover the propylene glycol sufficiently in a distillative process. In a process combining reaction and extraction into an organic solvent this problem is avoided. Process simulation indicates the energy input of such a process is less than half of the energy required in a triple-effect evaporation process. This benefit is offset by higher capital costs and increased complexity in the reaction/extraction process.

Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Uptake of heavy metals from aqueous solution by non-conventional adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study investigates the removal of chromium and copper metal ions from aqueous solution using non-conventional adsorbents such as modified tree barks of acacia arabica (babul) and hardwickia binnata (aajan). In this study the influence of pH, initial sorbate concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and particle size was investigated. Maximum adsorption for both the metals was found to occur at pH 5. The process of uptake followed first-order adsorption rate expression and obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The Langmuir isotherms are best fitted as compared to Freundlich isotherms for the adsorbents studied.

S.J. Patil; A.G. Bhole; G.S. Natarajan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Specific Ion Adsorption and Short-Range Interactions at the Air Aqueous Solution Interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the surface composition of alkali-halide aqueous solutions using grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence. Using mixtures of salts as a means to enhance the short-range effects, small differences in concentration over a few angstrom could be resolved, with, for example I- or Br->Cl-. In order to explain our data, we need to include an effective potential accounting for the short-range () solvent mediated couplings, responsible for specific effects together with dispersion forces. This attractive potential (few kBT for halides) leads to concentration profiles which are in good agreement with recent numerical simulations.

Viswanath Padmanabhan; Jean Daillant; Luc Belloni; Serge Mora; Michel Alba; Oleg Konovalov

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

104

Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in...

106

The Transference Numbers of Potassium Bromide in Aqueous Solution at 25C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transference numbers for aqueous solutions of potassium bromide at 25C have been determined by the moving boundary method. Cells with cadmium bromide and lithium bromide as cation indicators and with potassium iodate as anion indicator were employed. The measurements are more difficult than with potassium and sodium chlorides; with sheared junctions a thorough investigation of the effect of indicator concentration is necessary for each solution studied and the same is true with both sheared and autogenic boundaries of the effect of current density. The results differ slightly from those previously reported by Longsworth but are consistent with the known value of t + 0. Potassium bromide also differs from the alkali chlorides and acetates in that the Longsworth function t + 0? is not linear in the concentration thus precluding an independent extrapolation of the transference data.

A. G. Keenan; A. R. Gordon

1943-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Critical Droplet Theory Explains the Glass Formability of Aqueous Solutions Matthew Warkentin,* James P. Sethna, and Robert E. Thorne*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[or ``critical cooling rates'' (CCRs)] required to prevent ice formation in aqueous solutions during. The effects of these solutes on ice nucleation were evaluated by measuring the critical cooling rate above which no ice was observed. Below the critical rate, a sample turns opaque on cooling, indicating

Sethna, James P.

108

Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

109

Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate  

SciTech Connect

The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

Chow, Tina Kuo Fung

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions via reversible reaction with aldehydes  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions via reaction with formaldehyde to form 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane or with acetaldehyde to form 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane was studied experimentally. The equilibrium and kinetics of the reaction with formaldehyde were studied in systems catalyzed by Amberlite IR-120 ion exchange resin. The equilibrium constant ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 in the temperature range from 25 to 85 C, with no obvious trend with respect to temperature. The kinetics was found to be first-order in the concentrations of propylene glycol, formaldehyde, and Amberlite IR-120, with an activation energy of 102 kJ/mol. In the reaction with acetaldehyde, the equilibrium constant decreased from 18.1 at 40 C to 8.5 at 83 C. The kinetics was faster than with formaldehyde. The volatilities of 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane and 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane relative to water were 100 and 33, respectively. Of several solvents screened, aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited the highest distribution of 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane from the aqueous into the organic phase. Recovery of propylene glycol by reactive distillation with formaldehyde or acetaldehyde is hampered by unfavorable chemical and phase equilibria. A process combining reaction and extraction into an organic solvent appears to be more attractive and substantially reduces the energy requirement, in comparison with a triple-effect evaporation process.

Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Static light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering study on aggregated recombinant gelatin in aqueous solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Static Light Scattering and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study on Aggregated Recombinant Gelatin in Aqueous Solution A. Ramzi 1, M. Sutter 2, W.E. Hennink 1, W. Jiskoot 1,2 1 Department of Pharmaceutics, UIPS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands...-angle neutron scattering (SANS) for detecting aggregation of recombinant gelatin in aqueous solution and to obtain structural information about the aggregates. Recombinant Gelatin: RG-15-His 5.6Ser 25.2Pro 1.9Lys 3.7His 34.2Gly 15.5Gln 5.2Glu 11.8Asn 1.2Ala...

Sutter, Marc

2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

112

Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Removal of copper and lead ions from aqueous solutions by adsorbent derived from sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorbent prepared from sewage sludge has been used for the adsorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. It was noted that an increase in removal efficiency achieved 72% and 56% when agitation time achieved 120 min, and a decrease in the removal efficiency from 81% and 70% to 36% and 40% when the heavy metals initial concentration from 10 mg L?1 to 80 mg L?1 for Cu2+ and Pb2+ concentration, the removal efficiency increased with the adsorbent concentration increased. The Langmuir model fitted the experimental data reasonably well. The adsorption capacities achieved 9.737 mg g?1 and 7.386 mg g?1 for the Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively. Desorption studies were performed by using dilute hydrochloric acid. Quantitative recovery of the metal ion is possible. The mechanism of adsorption seems to be ion exchange.

YunBo Zhai; GuangMing Zeng; LaFang Wang; XianXun Wei; CaiTing Li; ShanHong Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A new electrochemical approach for evaluation of corrosion inhibitors in neutral aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

A new comprehensive electrochemical approach to corrosion inhibitor evaluation in neutral aqueous solutions has been developed. It consists of using concurrently three different but complementary electrochemical methods. Linear polarization resistance (LPR), concentration-step potentiostatic (CSP) and constant-concentration potentiostatic (CCP) methods are used to determine the overall corrosion rates, corrosion inhibition mechanism, and stability of the passive oxide film in the presence of corrosion inhibitors. This approach has been used successfully to evaluate corrosion inhibition of three organic inhibitor systems: a phosphonate-based corrosion inhibitor (hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid, HPA), a polymeric corrosion inhibitor (polyacrylic acid, PAA) and a non-phosphorus containing corrosion inhibitor (L-tartaric acid). Short-term CSP/CCP test results for these three inhibitors are in good agreement with long-term weight loss measurements.

Jovancicevic, V. [W.R. Grace and Co., Columbia, MD (United States). Research Div.; Hartwick, D. [BetzDearborn, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salts enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Rapid removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by low cost adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present investigation, different agricultural solid wastes namely: eggplant hull (EH), almond green hull (AGH), and walnut shell (WS), that are introduced as low cost adsorbents, were used for the removal of heavy metals (cobalt, strontium and mercury ions) from aqueous solutions. Activation process and/or chemical treatments using H2O2 and NH3 were performed on these raw materials to increase their adsorption performances. The effectiveness of these adsorbents was studied in batch adsorption mode under a variety of experimental conditions such as: different chemical treatments, various amounts of adsorbents, initial metal-ion concentrations, pH of solutions, contact times, and solution temperatures. High metal adsorption efficiencies were achieved for all cases only in the first two to three minutes of adsorbents' contact time. Maximum adsorption capacity of AGH sorbent for cobalt and EH for mercury were found to be 45.5 mg/g and 147.06 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption capacity of mercury for WS was also obtained as 151.5 and 100.9 mg/g for two different treated sorbents.

Ali Ahmadpour; Tahereh Rohani Bastami; Masumeh Tahmasbi; Mohammad Zabihi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter in aqueous solutions of capped PEO chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence on volume fraction $\\varphi$ of the Flory-Huggins $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ describing the free energy of mixing of polymers in water is obtained by exploiting the connection of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ to the chemical potential of the water, for which quasi-chemical theory is satisfactory. We test this theoretical approach with simulation data for aqueous solutions of capped PEO oligomers. For CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ ($m$=11), $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ depends strongly on $\\varphi$, consistent with experiment. These results identify coexisting water-rich and water-poor solutions at $T$ = 300K and $p$ = 1atm. Direct observation of the coexistence of these two solutions on simulation time scales supports that prediction for the system studied. This approach directly provides the osmotic pressures. The osmotic second virial coefficient for these chains is positive, reflecting repulsive interactions between the chains in the water, a good sol...

Chaudhari, M I; Paulaitis, M E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter in aqueous solutions of capped PEO chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence on volume fraction $\\varphi$ of the Flory-Huggins $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ describing the free energy of mixing of polymers in water is obtained by exploiting the connection of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ to the chemical potential of the water, for which quasi-chemical theory is satisfactory. We test this theoretical approach with simulation data for aqueous solutions of capped PEO oligomers. For CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ ($m$=11), $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ depends strongly on $\\varphi$, consistent with experiment. These results identify coexisting water-rich and water-poor solutions at $T$ = 300K and $p$ = 1atm. Direct observation of the coexistence of these two solutions on simulation time scales supports that prediction for the system studied. This approach directly provides the osmotic pressures. The osmotic second virial coefficient for these chains is positive, reflecting repulsive interactions between the chains in the water, a good solvent for these chains.

M. I. Chaudhari; L. R. Pratt; M. E. Paulaitis

2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

119

Nanofiltration of Electrolyte Solutions by Sub-2nm Carbon Nanotube Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Both MD simulations and experimental studies have shown that liquid and gas flow through carbon nanotubes with nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast. For applications in separation technology, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In this work, we use pressure-driven filtration experiments to study ion exclusion in silicon nitride/sub-2-nm CNT composite membranes as a function of solution ionic strength, pH, and ion valence. We show that carbon nanotube membranes exhibit significant ion exclusion at low salt concentration. Our results support a rejection mechanism dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.

Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Kim, S; In, J B; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hydrogen Bond Dynamics of Histamine Monocation in Aqueous Solution: CarParrinello Molecular Dynamics and Vibrational Spectroscopy Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Bond Dynamics of Histamine Monocation in Aqueous Solution: CarParrinello Molecular Dynamics and Vibrational Spectroscopy Study ... Our focus was on the part of vibrational spectra that corresponds to histamine NH stretching, since these degrees of freedom are essential for its interactions with either water molecules or transporters and receptors. ... The resulting vibrational power spectrum is presented in Figure 9. ...

Jernej Stare; Janez Mavri; Joe Grdadolnik; Jernej Zidar; Zvonimir B. Maksi?; Robert Vianello

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Solvation of Magnesium Dication: Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Magnesium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvation of Magnesium Dication: Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Magnesium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions Karen M. Callahan, Nadia N. Casillas-Ituarte, Martina Roeselova 26, 2010 Magnesium dication plays many significant roles in biochemistry. While it is available

122

Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease ABSTRACT The sorption and desorption of acetonitrile on K, Na, Ca, and Mg determined by x-ray diffraction. It was found that the sorption and desorption of acetonitrile on the four

Sparks, Donald L.

123

Ion Association in AlCl3 Aqueous Solutions from Constrained First-Principles Molecular Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Ab initio molecular dynamics was used to investigate the ion pairing behavior between Cl- and the Al3+ ion in an aqueous AlCl3 solution containing 63 water molecules. A series of constrained simulations was carried out at 300 K for up to 16 ps each, by fixing the inter-nuclear separation (rAl-Cl) between the Al3+ ion and one of the Cl- ions. The calculated potential of mean force of the Al3+-Cl- ion pair shows a pronounced minimum at rAl-Cl = 2.3 corresponding to a contact ion pair (CIP). Two local minima assigned to solvent separated ion pairs (SSIP) are identified at rAl-Cl= 4.4 and 6.0 . The positions of the free energy minima coincide with the hydration shell intervals of the Al3+ cation suggesting that the Cl- ion is inclined to reside in regions of low concentration of waters, i.e. between the 1st and 2nd shells of Al3+ and between the 2nd shell and bulk. A detailed analysis of solvent structure around the Al3+ and Cl- ions as a function of rAl-Cl is presented. The results are compared to structure data from X-ray measurements and unconstrained AIMD simulations of single ions Al3+ and Cl- and AlCl3 solutions. The dipole moment of the water molecules inside the 1st and 2nd hydration shells of Al3+ and in the bulk region and those of the Clion were calculated as a function of rAl-Cl. Major changes in the electronic structure of the system result from the removal of Cl- from the 1st hydration shell of the Al3+ cation. Finally, two unconstrained AIMD simulations of aqueous AlCl3 solutions corresponding to CIP and SSIP configurations were performed (17 ps, 300 K). Only minor structural changes are observed in these systems, confirming their stability.

Cauet, Emilie L.; Bogatko, Stuart A.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Preliminary investigation of mixed adsorbents for the removal of copper and methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract With most recent studies being focused on the development of advanced chemical adsorbents, this paper investigates the possibility of using two natural low-cost materials for selective adsorption. Multi-adsorbent systems containing tea waste (TW) and dolomite (DO) have been tested for their effectiveness in the removal of copper and methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, solution pH and adsorption isotherms on the sorption behaviour were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms adequately described the adsorption of copper ions and methylene blue by both materials in different systems. The highest adsorption capacities for Cu and MB were calculated as 237.7mg/g at pH 4.5 and 150.4mg/g at pH 7 for DO and TW:DO respectively. Tea waste and dolomite were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The removal of Cu and MB by dolomite was mainly via surface complexation while physisorption was responsible for most of the Cu and MB adsorption onto tea waste. Identifying the fundamental mechanisms and behaviour is a key to the development of practical multi-adsorbent packed columns.

Ahmad B. Albadarin; Jiabin Mo; Yoann Glocheux; Stephen Allen; Gavin Walker; Chirangano Mangwandi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The effect of magnesium ions on dielectric relaxation in semidilute DNA aqueous solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of magnesium ion Mg2+ on the dielectric relaxation of semidilute DNA aqueous solutions has been studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. Two dielectric relaxations in the 100 Hz - 100 MHz frequency range, originating in the motion of DNA counterions, were probed as a function of DNA and Mg2+ ion concentration in added MgCl2 salt. The high-frequency mode in the MHz range, stemming from the structural organization of the DNA network, reveals de Gennes-Pfeuty-Dobrynin correlation length as the pertinent fundamental length scale for sufficiently low concentration of added salt. No relaxation fingerprint of DNA denaturation bubbles, leading to exposed hydrophobic core scaling, was detected at low DNA concentrations, thus indicating an increased stability of the double-stranded conformation as compared to the case of DNA solutions with univalent counterions. The presence of Mg2+ does not change qualitatively the low frequency mode in the kHz range correlated with single DNA conformational properties....

Grgi?in, Danijel; Ivek, Tomislav; Tomi?, Silvia; Podgornik, Rudi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a dosimetry method, based on liquid scintillation (LS) counting of the tritium that is produced in aqueous solutions of lithium acetate, for the determination of the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses in-phantom in BNCT. The dosimeter is passive, integrating, approximately tissue equivalent, and insensitive to gamma rays and the elastic scattering of fast neutrons. The dosimetry method exhibits a response which is proportional to the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses and which can be calibrated to NIST standard solutions of water spiked with tritium. For 0.2g of lithium acetate dissolved in a milliliter of water, the measured sensitivity is (1.730.04)10?9cpm per unit of thermal neutron fluence (in neutrons/cm2). For the LS analyzer that was used, the background signal was 12.840.02cpm, yielding a thermal neutron fluence threshold for this detection method of approximately 7109neutrons/cm2.

L.J. Rakovan; T.E. Blue; A.L. Vest

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Faradaic reactions and their effects on dissolution of the natural oxide film on pure aluminum during cathodic polarization in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Faradaic reactions and their effects on dissolution of the natural oxide film on pure aluminum during cathodic polarization were investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) solutions using the potentiodynamic polarization, rotating disk electrode (RDE), open-circuit potential (OCP) transient, and potentiostatic current transient methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves for natural oxide-covered pure aluminum showed two Tafel slopes arising from the change in the faradaic reaction from oxygen reduction to water reduction with decreasing applied potential. The bare surface of pure aluminum was scarcely exposed to the electrolyte despite dissolution of the natural oxide film as a result of chemical attack by hydroxide ions during cathodic polarization. Chemical dissolution of the natural oxide film decreased the instantaneous value of OCP and was enhanced more by hydroxide ions resulting from water reduction than by hydroxide ions from oxygen reduction.

Moon, S.M.; Pyun, S.I. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Definition: Electrolyte | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrolyte Electrolyte Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Electrolyte A substance that conducts charged ions from one electrode to the other in a fuel cell, battery, or electrolyzer.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An electrolyte is a compound that ionizes when dissolved in suitable ionizing solvents such as water. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological and synthetic polymers, termed polyelectrolytes, which contain charged functional groups. Electrolyte solutions are normally formed when a salt is placed into a solvent such as water and the individual components

129

Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

130

Electrical Phenomena Occurring during the Freezing of Dilute Aqueous Solutions and Their Possible Relationship to Thunderstorm Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The discovery of an electrical effect accompanying the orderly freezing of dilute aqueous solutions is reported. Potential differences as great as 230 volts are measured across the water-ice interface during the the freezing process. At a freezing rate of about 1 cc per min., a current of 1 ?amp. is measured. The character of the effect is a function of the nature and concentration of the solute. The dependence of the effect on the structure of the ions of the solute and the molecular structure of water is shown.Possible application of this effect to chemical detection and to the formation of thunderstorm electricity is discussed.

E. J. Workman and S. E. Reynolds

1950-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Experimental studies on hydrophobic flocculation of coal fines in aqueous solutions and flotation of flocculated coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrophobic flocculation of fine bituminous coal particles in aqueous solutions under mechanical conditioning and without any surfactants has been experimentally studied through the measurements of aggregative efficiency, zeta potential and contact angle in this work. The results have shown that the hydrophobic coal fines strongly aggregated in a wide pH range (3.5??9.5), even though the particle surfaces were highly charged. This hydrophobic flocculation closely correlated with particle hydrophobicity, having a stronger aggregation for more hydrophobic coal fines. It reaches the maximum degree only if a sufficient kinetic energy is applied to the coal slurry. Also, it has been found that the hydrophobic flocculation could be greatly enhanced by adding a little amount of nonpolar oil. In addition, the flotation of flocculated coal fines was tested on the fine Prince coal for the deep elimination of ash and pyrite from coals in this work. An ultraclean coal with 1.3% ash remaining was produced with 87% combustible recovery. The ash rejection and pyritic sulfur rejection were about 93% and 66%, respectively.

Shaoxian Song

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

133

Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals in the development of new battery technologies is to find new electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability. In-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using an electrochemical fluid cell provides the ability to rapidly and directly characterize electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions under battery relevant electrochemical conditions. Furthermore, as the electron beam itself causes a localized electrochemical reaction when it interacts with the electrolyte, the breakdown products that occur during the first stages of battery operation can potentially be simulated and characterized using a straightforward in-situ liquid stage (without electrochemical biasing capabilities). In this paper, we have studied the breakdown of a range of inorganic/salt complexes that are used in state-of-the-art Li-ion battery systems. The results of the in-situ (S)TEM experiments matches with previous stability tests performed during battery operation and the breakdown products and mechanisms are also consistent with known mechanisms. This analysis indicates that in-situ liquid stage (S)TEM observations can be used to directly test new electrolyte designs and provide structural insights into the origin of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation mechanism.

Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Mehdi, Beata L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Gu, Meng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Yaohui; Arslan, Ilke; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

134

Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions and Implications for Oceanic Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions and Implications for Oceanic Sequestration of CO 2 . G. Holder (holder@engrng.pitt.edu) 412-624-9809 L. Mokka (lakshmi.mokka@netl.doe.gov) 412-386-6019 Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 R. Warzinski* (robert.warzinski@netl.doe.gov) 412-386-5863 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 Introduction a Gas hydrates are crystalline solids formed from mixtures of water and low molecular weight compounds, referred to as hydrate formers, that typically are gases at ambient conditions (1). Generally, hydrates are formed in the laboratory from two-phase systems by contacting a hydrate former or formers in the gas or liquid phase with liquid water and increasing the pressure until

135

Adsorption of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Roots of Eichhornia Crassipes: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution using dried roots of Eichhornia crassipes was studied. Batch experiments were carried out for sorption kinetics and isotherms. Experimental results obtained showed that adsorption process was highly dependent on contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and particle size. The sorption equilibrium for Congo red dye by E. crassipes (roots) was reached within 90minutes and adsorption efficiency of up to 96% achieved. The sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model while Freundlich isotherm model was best applicable for obtaining the equilibrium parameters. These results demonstrate that roots of E. crassipes are effective, environmentally friendly and low-cost biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents.

Wycliffe Chisutia Wanyonyi; John Mmari Onyari; Paul Mwanza Shiundu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution complexacao Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genomic DNA Prep protocol Johnston Lab, November 2003 Summary: and PrecipitationResuspension Wash with 150mL Phenol (tris-buffered) Transfer aqueous (top) layer to new...

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions korroziya Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genomic DNA Prep protocol Johnston Lab, November 2003 Summary: and PrecipitationResuspension Wash with 150mL Phenol (tris-buffered) Transfer aqueous (top) layer to new...

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genomic DNA Prep protocol Johnston Lab, November 2003 Summary: and PrecipitationResuspension Wash with 150mL Phenol (tris-buffered) Transfer aqueous (top) layer to new...

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solutions issledovanie Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genomic DNA Prep protocol Johnston Lab, November 2003 Summary: and PrecipitationResuspension Wash with 150mL Phenol (tris-buffered) Transfer aqueous (top) layer to new...

140

On the Origin of Proton Mobility Suppression in Aqueous Solutions of Amphiphiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

proton channels or fuel cell membranes.6,9,12 Aqueous mixtures with amphiphilic molecules of controversial history,32-41 is currently being debated.42-46 For example, Laage et al.43 claim that reduced

Agmon, Noam

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Comparative study on kinetic adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated sludge and dried sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions by activated sludge and dried sludge was investigated under laboratory conditions to assess ... The adsorption behavior of metal ions onto a...

Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Coefficients of interphase distribution and Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coefficients of the interphase distribution of nicotinic acid are determined in aqueous solution systems of ethanol-hexane and DMSO-hexane at 25.0 ... . They are used to calculate the Gibbs energy of the transfer...

K. V. Grazhdan; G. A. Gamov; S. V. Dushina

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Glutathione Complex Formation With Mercury(Ii) in Aqueous Solution at Physiological Ph  

SciTech Connect

The mercury(II) complexes formed in neutral aqueous solution with glutathione (GSH, here denoted AH{sub 3} in its triprotonated form) were studied using Hg L{sub III}-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and {sup 199}Hg NMR spectroscopy, complemented with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analyses. The [Hg(AH){sub 2}]{sup 2-} complex, with the Hg-S bond distances at 2.325 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} in linear S-Hg-S coordination, and the {sup 199}Hg NMR chemical shift at -984 ppm, dominates except at high excess of glutathione. In a series of solutions with C{sub Hg(II)} {approx} 17 mM and GSH/Hg(II) mole ratios rising from 2.4 to 11.8, the gradually increasing mean Hg-S bond distance corresponds to an increasing amount of the [Hg(AH){sub 3}]{sup 4-} complex. ESI-MS peaks appear at -m/z values of 1208 and 1230 corresponding to the [Na{sub 4}Hg(AH){sub 2}(A)]{sup -} and [Na{sub 5}Hg(AH)(A){sub 2}]{sup -} species, respectively. In another series of solutions at pH 7.0 with CHg(II) 50 mM and GSH/Hg(II) ratios from 2.0 to 10.0, the Hg L{sub III}-edge EXAFS and {sup 199}Hg NMR spectra show that at high excess of glutathione (0.35 M) about 70% of the total mercury(II) concentration is present as the [Hg(AH){sub 3}]4- complex, with the average Hg-S bond distance 2.42 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} in trigonal HgS{sub 3} coordination. The proportions of HgSn species, n = 2, 3, and 4, quantified by fitting linear combinations of model EXAFS oscillations to the experimental EXAFS data in our present and previous studies were used to obtain stability constants for the [Hg(AH){sub 3}]{sup 4-} complex and also for the [Hg(A){sub 4}]{sup 10-} complex that is present at high pH. For Hg(II) in low concentration at physiological conditions (pH 7.4, C{sub GSH} = 2.2 mM), the relative amounts of the HgS{sub 2} species [Hg(AH){sub 2}]{sup 2-}, [Hg(AH)(A)]{sup 3-}, and the HgS{sub 3} complex [Hg(AH){sub 3}]{sup 4-} were calculated to be 95:2:3. Our results are not consistent with the formation of dimeric Hg(II)-GSH complexes proposed in a recent EXAFS study.

Mah, V.; Jalilehvand, F.; /SLAC

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

144

Chemical analysis and aqueous solution properties of Charged Amphiphilic Block Copolymers PBA-b-PAA synthesized by MADIX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have linked the structural and dynamic properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic charged diblock copolymers poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA, synthesized by controlled radical polymerization, with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples. Despite product imperfections, the samples self-assemble in melt and aqueous solutions as predicted by monodisperse microphase separation theory. However, the PBA core are abnormally large; the swelling of PBA cores is not due to AA (the Flory parameter chiPBA/PAA, determined at 0.25, means strong segregation), but to h-PBA homopolymers (content determined by Liquid Chromatography at the Point of Exclusion and Adsorption Transition LC-PEAT). Beside the dominant population of micelles detected by scattering experiments, capillary electrophoresis CE analysis permitted detection of two other populations, one of h-PAA, and the other of free PBA-b-PAA chains, that have very short PBA blocks and never self-assemble. Despite the presence of these free unimers, the self-assembly in solution was found out of equilibrium: the aggregation state is history dependant and no unimer exchange between micelles occurs over months (time-evolution SANS). The high PBA/water interfacial tension, measured at 20 mN/m, prohibits unimer exchange between micelles. PBA-b-PAA solution systems are neither at thermal equilibrium nor completely frozen systems: internal fractionation of individual aggregates can occur.

M. Jacquin; P. Muller; R. Talingting-Pabalan; H. Cottet; J. -F. Berret; T. Futterer; O. Theodoly

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

Chemical Analysis and Aqueous Solution Properties of Charged Amphiphilic Block Copolymers PBA-b-PAA Synthesized by MADIX  

SciTech Connect

We have linked the structural and dynamic properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic charged diblock copolymers poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA, synthesized by controlled radical polymerization, with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples. Despite product imperfections, the samples self-assemble in melt and aqueous solutions as predicted by monodisperse microphase separation theory. However, the PBA core are abnormally large; the swelling of PBA cores is not due to AA (the Flory parameter ?PBA/PAA, determined at 0.25, means strong segregation), but to h-PBA homopolymers (content determined by liquid chromatography at the point of exclusion and adsorption transition, LC-PEAT). Beside the dominant population of micelles detected by scattering experiments, capillary electrophoresis CE analysis permitted detection of two other populations, one of h-PAA, and the other of free PBA-b-PAA chains, that have very short PBA blocks and never self-assemble. Despite the presence of these free unimers, the self-assembly in solution was found out of equilibrium: the aggregation state is history dependant and no unimer exchange between micelles occurs over months (time-evolution SANS). The high PBA/water interfacial tension, measured at 20 mN/m, prohibits unimer exchange between micelles. PBA-b-PAA solution systems are neither at thermal equilibrium nor completely frozen systems: internal fractionation of individual aggregates can occur.

Jacquin,M.; Muller, P.; Talingting-Pabalan, R.; Cottet, H.; Berret, J.; Futterer, T.; Theodoly, O.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Molecular diffusion in natural volcanic liquids discriminates between isotopes of major ions (e.g., Fe, Mg, Ca, and Li). Although isotope separation by diffusion is expected on theoretical grounds, the dependence on mass is highly variable for different elements and in different media. Silicate liquid diffusion experiments using simple liquid compositions were carried out to further probe the compositional dependence of diffusive isotopic discrimination and its relationship to liquid structure. Two diffusion couples consisting of the mineral constituents anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}; denoted AN), albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}; denoted AB), and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; denoted DI) were held at 1450C for 2 h and then quenched to ambient pressure and temperature. Major-element as well as Ca and Mg isotope profiles were measured on the recovered quenched glasses. In both experiments, Ca diffuses rapidly with respect to Si. In the ABAN experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 20 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Ca is much greater than in natural liquid experiments where D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 1. In the ABDI experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 6 and the efficiency of isotope separation is between that of the natural liquid experiments and the ABAN experiment. In the ABDI experiment, D{sub Mg}/D{sub Si} ~ 1 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Mg is smaller than it is for Ca yet similar to that observed for Mg in natural liquids. The results from the experiments reported here, in combination with results from natural volcanic liquids, show clearly that the efficiency of diffusive separation of Ca isotopes is systematically related to the solvent-normalized diffusivitythe ratio of the diffusivity of the cation (D{sub Ca}) to the diffusivity of silicon (D{sub Si}). The results on Ca isotopes are consistent with available data on Fe, Li, and Mg isotopes in silicate liquids, when considered in terms of the parameter D{sub cation}/D{sub Si}. Cations diffusing in aqueous solutions display a similar relationship between isotopic separation efficiency and D{sub cation} =D{sub H 2 O} , although the efficiencies are smaller than in silicate liquids. Our empirical relationship provides a tool for predicting the magnitude of diffusive isotopic effects in many geologic environments and a basis for a more comprehensive theory of isotope separation in liquid solutions. We present a conceptual model for the relationship between diffusivity and liquid structure that is consistent with available data.

Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Sorption kinetics for phenol and nitro-substituted toxic phenols from aqueous solution using clay as sorbent material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examined the effectiveness of less-expensive sorbent clay in removing phenols from wastewater by sorption. Batch kinetic experiment showed that phenol and nitro-substituted phenols (o-, m- and p-) sorption on clay was rapid and equilibrium was achieved within 2 h. The kinetics of sorption was found to be of pseudo-second order reaction. The influences of various factors, such as particle size, pH, concentration and temperature on the sorption capacity have been studied. This study showed that clay could be used as an efficient sorbent material for the sorption of phenols from aqueous solution.

Preeti Sagar Nayak; B.K. Singh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution electron Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fluid... was able to distinguish between the control solution and the ... Source: Johnson, Mark - Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University Collection:...

150

Excitation of sensitized fluorescence of europium and curium in an aqueous solution of thenoyltrifluoroacetone by a nitrogen laser  

SciTech Connect

The fluorescence spectrum of trivalent europium in aqueous solutions of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, excited by a nitrogen laser with emission wavelength 337 nm, exhibits bands at 582, 593, 616, 650, and 695 nm. Two bands appear in the fluorescence spectrum of trivalent curium under the same conditions - at 598 and 607 nm. The times of quenching of the fluorescence of the ions of these elements were measured, both in H/sub 2/O medium and in D/sub 2/O. A linear relationship was found between the fluorescence intensity of europium and curium and their concentration in TTA solution. The limit of determination of europium and curium by the fluorescent method with laser excitation using the bands at 615 and 607 nm proved equal to 0.3 and 0.07 ng/ml, respectively.

Dem'yanova, T.A.; Stepanov, A.V.; Babaev, A.S.; Aleksandruk, V.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Stabilization of Lead Sulfide Nanoparticles by Polyamines in Aqueous Solutions. A Structural Study of the Dispersions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. ... (1, 42-45) Excluding some older aqueous procedures, based on sulfur sources such as hydrogen sulfide gas or thioacetamide,(23, 24) optimal size and polydispersity control is currently provided in organic solvents either at high temperatures, using variants of the TOP/TOPO method,(21) or closer to room temperature with oleylamine as a coordinating solvent. ... The pH was equal to 6 in the cases of PAH and PDDA and equal to 10 in the case of PEI, these being the natural pH values of the dispersions, obtained immediately upon mixing their components. ...

Elena Koupanou; Silvia Ahualli; Otto Glatter; Angel Delgado; Frank Krumeich; Epameinondas Leontidis

2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - antibiotic aqueous solution Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alone. We note that the solution of the ordinary differential equation (29... to Penetration of Antibiotics L. Demaret1 , H.J. Eberl3 , ... Source: Demaret, Laurent -...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous nitrate solutions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 23 Evaluation for Biological Reduction of Nitrate and Perchlorate in Brine Water Using Summary: in high salt solution. One culture was capable of reducing up...

154

Aqueous germanate ion solution promoted synthesis of worm-like crystallized Ge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work demonstrates that it is possible to synthesize crystallized Ge nanostructures directly in an aqueous medium under ambient conditions by using widely available GeO2 (in the form of germanate ions) as a precursor. The reaction of germanate ions with NaBH4 in an aqueous medium resulted in highly hydrogenated Ge that could be transformed into crystallized Ge after an air-drying treatment. The NaBH4/GeO2 molar ratio, reaction time and drying temperature were optimized for the synthesis of crystallized Ge products. Furthermore, the reaction time has an influence on the size and shape of the final crystallized Ge products. A reaction time of 12h could result in crystallized Ge powder samples that contain ultra-small (520nm) particles and larger (50100nm) particles. By controlling the reaction time to 24h, a Ge powder product consisting of worm-like crystallized Ge nanostructures with diameters of 1080nm and lengths up to 1000nm was obtained. The possible reaction and growth mechanisms involved in this method were investigated. This new synthetic route may be a good candidate for synthesizing a wide variety of crystallized Ge nanomaterials and devices due to its low cost, low safety risk, facileness, high yield (above 70% and in gram scale) and convenience for adding other chemicals (i.e.dopants or morphology modifying agents) into the reaction system.

Chengbin Jing; Xiaodan Zang; Wei Bai; Junhao Chu; Aiyun Liu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Structure Study of Cellulose Fibers Wet-Spun from Environmentally Friendly NaOH/Urea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

In this study, structure changes of regenerated cellulose fibers wet-spun from a cotton linter pulp (degree of polymerization {approx}620) solution in an NaOH/urea solvent under different conditions were investigated by simultaneous synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). WAXD results indicated that the increase in flow rate during spinning produced a better crystal orientation and a higher degree of crystallinity, whereas a 2-fold increase in draw ratio only affected the crystal orientation. When coagulated in a H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution at 15 {sup o}C, the regenerated fibers exhibited the highest crystallinity and a crystal orientation comparable to that of commercial rayon fibers by the viscose method. SAXS patterns exhibited a pair of meridional maxima in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the existence of a lamellar structure. A fibrillar superstructure was observed only at higher flow rates (>20 m/min). The conformation of cellulose molecules in NaOH/urea aqueous solution was also investigated by static and dynamic light scattering. It was found that cellulose chains formed aggregates with a radius of gyration, R{sub g}, of about 232 nm and an apparent hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, of about 172 nm. The NaOH/urea solvent system is low-cost and environmentally friendly, which may offer an alternative route to replace more hazardous existing methods for the production of regenerated cellulose fibers.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Wan, F.; Zhang, J.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.; Cai, J.; Zhang, L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate. [1,2-propanediol  

SciTech Connect

The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

Chow, Tina Kuo Fung.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Redox Energetics and Kinetics of Uranyl Coordination Complexes in Aqueous Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The redox chemistry of uranium is remarkably rich and diverse as a consequence of the number of readily accessible oxidation states (III?VI) and the sensitivity of the redox potentials to the coordination environment around the metal. ... 1-3 In aqueous environments, the most stable oxidation state for uranium is the hexavalent state for which the dominant species is the uranyl ion, UO22+.1-3 The redox chemistry of uranyl has been extensively investigated and manipulated, particularly for separations and process chemistry relating to the nuclear fuel cycle and other defense-related applications. ... The aquo, carbonato, acetato, and chloro complexes of uranyl are all known or potentially relevant species in environmental groundwaters, and the hydroxo and carbonato complexes are relevant species in alkaline high-level radioactive waste storage tanks associated with nuclear fuel processing. ...

David E. Morris

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Removing arsenic from aqueous solution and long-term product storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The removal of arsenic from hydrometallurgical solutions, waste waters, and acid drainage mine waters has ... and co-precipitation processes; and, on the long-term outdoor storage of the arsenic bearing products.

L. G. Twidwell; J. W. McCloskey

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes Alexandre P. dos Santos and Yan Levin to account quantitatively for the surface and interfacial tensions of different electrolyte solutions can also be used to calculate the surface and the interfacial tensions of acid solutions, predicting

Levin, Yan

160

Adsorption of model textile dyes from aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes as adsorbents: equilibrium, kinetics and fixed bed column study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gram husk and groundnut shell are cheap and abundantly available agricultural waste materials in India. A systematic study on the adsorption of some model dyes from aqueous solution on these low-cost adsorbents has been attempted. Model dyes used were Methylene Blue, Rhodamine B, Congo Red, Eosine Y and Metanil Yellow. Equilibrium, kinetics and column experiments were performed. Effects of different process variables have been studied. Equilibrium data fitted well in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. A model using Freundlich equation has been developed for interpretation of kinetic data. Other models such as Lagergren equation and pseudo second order equation were also used. Of these models, pseudo second order equation was found to be the most satisfactory. Column experiments were carried out with gram-husk and Rhodamine B. The data could be correlated well with BDST model.

Sampa Chakrabarti; Basab Chaudhuri; Binay K. Dutta

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of solubilization of tributyl phosphate in aqueous solutions of L64 Pluronic triblock copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the solubilization behaviour of tributylphosphate (TBP) in aqueous solutions of L64-Pluronics, using light and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Varying the temperature and the oil-content, the system presents a non trivial phase behaviour. In particular, at 308K, a first solubilization followed by an emulsification failure and a resolubilization is found. We have measured the microstructure by SANS and characterized the microemulsion droplet core-size, corona-thickness, polydispersity, and interactions. It is shown that at low oil content, the system is made of small swollen micelles. After the phase separation, the resolubilization is carried by larger oil droplets decorated by copolymer. From specific surface measurements at large angles, a surprising change in surfactant conformation is found to accompany this morphological evolution which is also supported by previous results obtained from 1H NMR experiments. In independent measurements, our structural modelling is confirmed using contrast-variation SANS.

Jeremy Causse; Julian Oberdisse; Jacques Jestin; Serge Lagerge

2010-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters  

SciTech Connect

Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Solubility Measurements of Crystalline Cu2O in Aqueous Solution as a Function of Temperature and pH  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium solubility of crystalline cuprous oxide, cuprite, was measured in liquid water and steam using two flow-through reactors and a conventional batch autoclave. These measurements were carried out from 20 to 400 C. Different batches of pretreated cuprite were thoroughly characterized prior to and following each set of experiments. Metallic copper beads were added to the inlet end of the reactors and to the solid charge in the autoclave to preserve the Cu(I) oxidation state, although one series of experiments produced some results which were only compatible with CuO(cr) as the solubility limiting phase. Comparison of the solubility data for Cu2O(cr) in aqueous solution with those from the only available high-temperature dataset (Var yash, Geochem. Int. 26:80 90, 1989) showed that in near-neutral solutions the new data are lower by about four orders of magnitude at 350 C. Moreover, the dominant species in solution at temperatures 100 C were found to be only Cu+ and Cu(OH) 2 with Cu(OH)0 occurring over a narrow pH range at 75 C rather than the reverse trend reported previously. Solubility equations were developed as a function of temperature and pH, based on these new results, which showed increased solubility with temperature in acidic and basic solutions. The solubility of Cu2O(cr) in steam decreased slightly with temperature and as expected increased with increasing pressure to supercritical conditions where limited, compatible data were available in the literature. The solubility at subcritical conditions was on the order of one to several parts per billion, ppb. A simple empirical fit was derived for the solubility in steam as a function of temperature and pressure.

Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Cesium cobaltdicarbollide-solubility, precipitation, and reactivity in basic aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, Cs{sup +}[Co((3)-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}]{sup {minus}}(CsCDC), was precipitated with a NaCDC solution from solutions containing CsCl. The reaction was followed by measuring loss of light intensity as the precipitate formed. The [Cs{sup +}] and [CDC{sup {minus}}] at the point of precipitation were estimated and approximate values of the K{sub sp} for CsCDC determined at room temperature: 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (water), 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (1 M NaOH), and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (5M NaCl/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH). In some cases, NaCDC precipitated from solution when added to the latter salt solution. For the medium, 5 M NaNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH a four-fold excess of NaCDC was added to a 10mM Cs{sup +} solution at 40{degrees}C and the [CDC{sup {minus}}] measured spectrophotometrically. Only CsCDC precipitated, and a K{sub sp} of 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} was determined. The solubilities of CsCDC were measured in NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl solutions at 30{sub C} as a function of the Na salt concentration. Reaction of the CDC{sup {minus}} with OH{sup {minus}} slowly produces B(OH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}, and CoO(OH). Reaction of 22 {mu}M CsCDC with 1M NaOH has a first order rate constant at 56{degrees}C of 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1}, while that for 14 mM NaCDC is 7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s {sup {minus}1}. Activation energy for the reaction is 110 kJ.

McCabe, D.J.; Fanning, J.C.; Hugg, L.A.; Smith, W.A.; Terrell, A.S.; Yasinsac, L.; Todd, L.J.; Jasper, S.A. Jr.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and that reaction is difficult to reverse (Streitwieser and Heathcock, 1976; King and Poole, 1994). Tertiary amines (R, N) do not form amides but generally give lower K, values than secondary amines. For the extraction of undissociated carboxylic acids, aliphatic... by acidifying with carbon dioxide under pressure in the presence of a suitable solvent (Busche, 1988). Gregor has used electrodialysis to recover acetic acid from dilute (1-5 wt%) acetate solutions. With newer membranes, acid concentrations up to 30% were...

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the design and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates, and electrolyte ...

Ranga S. Jayashree; Michael Mitchell; Dilip Natarajan; Larry J. Markoski; Paul J. A. Kenis

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

167

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

169

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

Corrosion Mechanisms of Mild Steel in Aqueous CO2 SolutionsThu Tran Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology, Ohio University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion Mechanisms of Mild Steel in Aqueous CO2 SolutionsThu Tran Institute for Corrosion," Corrosion Science 41, (1999): pp. 117-139. [2] E. Remita, B. Tribollet, E. Sutter, V. Vivier, F. Ropital contribution of the buffering effect," Corrosion Science 50, (2008): pp. 1433-1440. [3] C. DeWaard and D

Botte, Gerardine G.

173

Nanoparticle Doped Water -NeowaterTM The effects of the rf-treatments of water and aqueous solutions can be amplified and stabilized by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticle Doped Water - NeowaterTM The effects of the rf-treatments of water and aqueous solutions can be amplified and stabilized by doping the water with low density of insoluble nanoparticles [1 is separated. In Fig A. we compare between the source powder and the nanoparticles at the clear doped water

Jacob, Eshel Ben

174

Energetics of the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution Interface: Approximate Conduction Band Edge Variations between H0 ) -10 and H-) +26  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energetics of the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution Interface: Approximate). Here we report on the dependence of the conduction band edge energy of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide the reversible uptake of protons at near band edge trap sites,6 even under conditions where surface adsorption

175

A study of production of {alpha}-form plaster from FGD sludge in an aqueous solution at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

A process for directly converting FGD sludge solid into {alpha}-form plaster in an aqueous solution at atmospheric pressure with simultaneous collection of SO{sub 2} evolved has been studied. The reactant suspension comprises FGD sludge solid in a ratio of solid to liquid from 1:1.25 to 1:10, sulfuric acid from 5% to 30%, alkali earth metal chloride salts no more than 8% which serves as the catalyst for crystallization. Experiments are proceeded in pH values from acidic range to near neutral range in a temperature range from 80 C to the near boiling point of suspension. It has been found that the concentrations of acid in liquid and the reaction temperature are the most sensitive factors to the rate of dehydration of FGD gypsum. Increasing the ratio of solid to liquid is disadvantageous for growth of crystals even though it does not effect obviously on the rate of dehydration of FGD gypsum. Addition of glycerol less than 3% plays a role in stabilizing {alpha}-form calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals occurring in solution long enough so that crystals grow big. On the other hand, the pH range is the most important to modify crystal habit in presence of succinic acid. The more closed to the neutral range of pH value the liquid is adjusted, the better stability of the crystals appears, the more favorable for producing big squat crystals in high quality the process is believed.

Tong, S. [Wuhan Yejin Univ. of Technology and Science, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Dept.of Chemical Engineering; Kirk, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

TiO2-assisted degradation of a perfluorinated surfactant in aqueous solutions treated by gliding arc discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The plasmachemical degradation of Forafac 1110, a perfluorinated non-ionic surfactant, in aqueous solutions was investigated using TiO2 catalysts. The considered plasma was the gliding arc in humid air, which results from an electric discharge at atmospheric pressure and quasi-ambient temperature. Two titanium dioxide powders were used and their synergistic effects on the Forafac degradation were compared. The results were discussed through the evolution of the pH, the conductivity, the fluoride ions concentration released in solutions, the surfactant concentration remaining after treatment and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement. The combination of the plasmachemical treatment with heterogeneous catalysis through the use of TiO2 accelerated the Forafac degradation, since only 60min was sufficient to remove 96% instead of 360min needed in the absence of TiO2. The use of anatase and rutile under the trade-name of Rhodia TiO2 and Merck TiO2, respectively, led to different results, because Rhodia TiO2 has proven to be more efficient. It would seem that the crystalline phase as well as the crystallite size, explain the efficiency of anatase. The advantage of the plasma-catalysis is due to the fact that there is a significant production of the OH radicals not only generated by the gliding arc discharge but also by TiO2.

Kheira Marouf-Khelifa; Fatiha Abdelmalek; Amine Khelifa; Ahmed Addou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Oxygen-17 NMR Shifts Caused by Cr{Sup ++} in Aqueous Solutions  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Cr{sup ++} in solution produces a paramagnetic shift in the NMR absorption of O{sup 17} in ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, as well as the expected paramagnetic shift for O{sup 17} in H{sub 2}O. As the concentration of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} increases, the shift in the H{sub 2}O{sup 17} absorption is diminished, and eventually changes sign. The effects are ascribed to preferential replacement by ClO{sub 4}{sup -} of water molecules from the axial positions in the first coordination sphere about Cr{sup ++}.

Jackson, J. A.; Lemons, J. F.; Taube, H.

1962-00-00T23:59:59.000Z

178

CarParrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulations of CaCl2 Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(24, 25) Such ab initio molecular orbital calculations, performed at the restricted HartreeFock (HF) and second-order M?llerPlesset perturbation (MP2) levels of theory and followed by natural energy decomposition analysis, emphasized the importance of polarization effects in the binding energies of M2+(H2O)n clusters. ... It shows a maximum at 3.35 D, due to the electron polarization caused by the strong electric field of the ion. ... Solution Structure of Energy Stored System I: Aqua-B(OH)4: A DFT, CarParrinello Molecular Dynamics, and Raman Study ...

Teodora Todorova; Philippe H. Hnenberger; Jrg Hutter

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Equilibrium and thermodynamics of dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption using rubber wood saw dust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Batch equilibrium experiments were carried out for the sorption of Bismarck brown onto rubber wood saw dust particles. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, particle diameter and solution temperature. A linearised Langmuir isotherm was found to well represent the equilibrium uptake for the range of operating conditions studied. The monolayer sorption capacity of rubber wood saw dust for the sorption of Bismarck brown was estimated to be 35 mg g?1. The sorption capacity was found to increase with decreasing particle size. The negative value of ?G and ?H suggests the spontaneity and exothermic nature of the process.

K. Vasanth Kumar; K. Porkodi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Simulation of Electric Double Layers around Charged Colloids in Aqueous Solution of Variable Permittivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ion distribution around charged colloids in solution has been investigated intensely during the last decade. However, few theoretical approaches have included the influence of variation in the dielectric permittivity within the system, let alone in the surrounding solvent. In this article, we introduce two relatively new methods that can solve the Poisson equation for systems with varying permittivity. The harmonic interpolation method (HIM) approximately solves the Green's function in terms of a spherical harmonics series, and thus provides analytical ion-ion potentials for the Hamiltonian of charged systems. The Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics (MEMD) algorithm features a local approach to electrostatics, allowing for arbitrary local changes of the dielectric constant. We show that the results of both methods are in very good agreement. We also found that the renormalized charge of the colloid, and with it the effective far field interaction, significantly changes if the dielectric properties within the vicinity of the colloid are changed.

Florian Fahrenberger; Zhenli Xu; Christian Holm

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Degradation of Cellulose to Organic Acids in its Homogeneous Alkaline Aqueous Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, P.R. ... Malonic acid (MA), lactic acid (LA), formic acid (FA), and acetic acid (AA) are the major valuable products, among them MA and LA are the top valuable platform molecules for synthesis of bulk chemicals and fuels. ... (21-24) Plenty of research has been reported using ionic liquid as solvent to convert cellulose in its homogeneous solution over solid or liquid catalysts, such as conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) or lactic acid, etc.(25-27) However, the high-cost of ionic liquids and the difficult in recovery and the difficult in reutilization of ionic liquid limit their application in large scale by now. ...

Lifeng Yan; Xiaoya Qi

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

182

Rates of water exchange for two cobalt(II) heteropoly-oxotungstate compounds in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Polyoxometalate ions are used as ligands in water-oxidation processes related to solar energy production. An important step in these reactions is the association and dissociation of water from the catalytic sites, the rates of which are unknown. Here we report the exchange rates of water ligated to Co{sup II} atoms in two polyoxotungstate sandwich molecules using the {sup 17}O-NMR-based SwiftConnick method. The compounds were the [Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(B-{alpha}-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 10?} and the larger {alpha}??{alpha}-[Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(P{sub 2}W{sub 15}O{sub 56}){sub 2}]{sup 16?} ions, each with two water molecules bound trans to one another in a Co{sup II} sandwich between the tungstate ligands. The clusters, in both solid and solution state, were characterized by a range of methods, including NMR, EPR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and EXAFS spectroscopy, ESI-MS, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and potentiometry. For [Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(B-{alpha}-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 10?} at pH?5.4, we estimate: k{sup 298}=1.5(5)0.310{sup 6}?s{sup ?1}, ?H{sup ?}=39.80.4?kJ?mol{sup ?1}, ?S{sup ?}=+7.11.2?J?mol{sup ?1}?K{sup ?1} and ?V{sup ?}=5.6 1.6?cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}. For the WellsDawson sandwich cluster ({alpha}??{alpha}-[Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(P{sub 2}W{sub 15}O{sub 56}){sub 2}]{sup 16?}) at pH?5.54, we find: k{sup 298}=1.6(2)0.310{sup 6}?s{sup ?1}, ?H{sup ?}=27.60.4?kJ?mol{sup ?1} ?S{sup ?}=?331.3?J?mol{sup ?1}?K{sup ?1} and ?V{sup ?}=2.21.4?cm{sup 3}mol{sup ?1} at pH?5.2. The molecules are clearly stable and monospecific in slightly acidic solutions, but dissociate in strongly acidic solutions. This dissociation is detectable by EPR spectroscopy as S=3/2 Co{sup II} species (such as the [Co(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} monomer ion) and by the significant reduction of the CoCo vector in the XAS spectra.

Ohlin, C. A.; Harley, S. J.; McAlpin, J. G.; Hocking, R. K.; Mercado, B. Q.; Johnson, Rene L.; Villa, Eric M.; Fidler, M. K.; Olmstead, M. M.; Spiccia, L.; Britt, R. D.; Casey, William H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

An electrochemical model for prediction of corrosion of mild steel in aqueous carbon dioxide solutions  

SciTech Connect

A predictive model was developed for uniform carbon dioxide corrosion, based on modeling of individual electrochemical reactions in a water-CO{sub 2} system. The model takes into account the electrochemical reactions of hydrogen ion reduction, carbonic acid reduction, direct water reduction, oxygen reduction, and anodic dissolution of iron. The required electrochemical parameters (e.g., exchange current densities and Tafel slopes) for different reactions were determined from experiments conducted in glass cells. The corrosion process was monitored using polarization resistance, potentiodynamic sweep, electrochemical impedance, and weight-loss measurements. The model was calibrated for two mild steels over a range of parameters: temperature (t) = 20 C to 80 C, pH = 3 to 6, partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) = 0 bar to 1 bar (0 kPa to 100 kPa), and {omega} = 0 rpm to 5,000 rpm (v{sub p} = 0 m/s to 2.5 m/s). The model was applicable for uniform corrosion with no protective films present. Performance of the model was validated by comparing predictions to results from independent loop experiments. Predictions also were compared to those of other CO{sub 2} corrosion prediction models. Compared to the previous largely empirical models, the model gave a clearer picture of the corrosion mechanisms by considering the effects of pH, temperature, and solution flow rate on the participating anodic and cathodic reactions.

Nesic, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway); Postlethwaite, J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Olsen, S. [Statoil, Trondheim (Norway)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions by reversible chemical complexation with organoboronates  

SciTech Connect

Extractants consisting of an ion-pair of Aliquat 336 with phenylboronate or 3-nitrophenylboronate were prepared in various diluents (2-ethylhexanol, toluene, o-xylene or diisobutylketone). In batch experiments propyleneglycol (1,2-PD) was effectively extracted even at low concentrations. Heterogeneous complexation constants {beta}{sub 11} calculated at 25 C were 45-120 (mol/1){sup {minus}1} in 2-ethylhexanol, 34.8 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in toluene, 37.6 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in o-xylene and 14.4 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in diisobutylketone. In 2-ethythexanol, there was no significant effect of extractant concentration on the complexation constant. Equilibrium water concentration in the extractants was 8-12 wt %, decreasing with 1,2-PD uptake. Nearly all extractant/diluent systems exhibited overloading (more than stoichiometric uptake of 1,2-PD). Evidence for aggregation of the ion-pair extractant in organic phase was found from water solubilization studies (molar solubilization ratios up to 10) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy studies. Solubilization of 1,2-PD within hydrophilic aggregate interiors may explain the observed overloading. The complexation constant decreased with increasing temperature, but not enough to make back extraction after a temperature change attractive. Back extraction may be achieved after acidification with carbon dioxide to convert the organoboronate anion to the corresponding organoboronic acid. Up to 80% of the extracted 1,2-PD was backextracted in a batch extraction using C0{sub 2}. The extractant could then be regenerated by stripping carbon dioxide from solution at temperatures exceeding 110 C. However, at these temperatures the extractant appears to undergo a transformation in which color changes and extraction capacity is reduced to about 60% of original value.

Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

Prakash, Jai (3849 NW. 65th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32653); Thackeray, Michael M. (1763 Cliffside Ct., Naperville, IL 60565); Dees, Dennis W. (6224 Middaugh Ave., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Myles, Kevin M. (1231 60th Pl., Downers Grove, IL 60516-1856)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

187

Experimental Study of Solubility of Natural Gas Components in Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol at Low-Temperature and High-Pressure Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility of natural gas components, for example, methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, was measured in aqueous solutions of (40 and 60) mass % of ethylene glycol at (15.00 and 20.00) MPa and at temperatures of (?10.0, ... This eliminates the presence of air or other gases in the gasometer. ... The solubilities of CH4 in the diethylene glycol, water, and diethylene glycol-water solns. ...

Majid Abedinzadegan Abdi; Arshad Hussain; Kelly Hawboldt; Erika Beronich

2007-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

188

Selective separation of some ecotoxic transition metal ions from aqueous solutions using immobilized macrocyclic material containing solid phase extraction system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple flow-based method was developed for the simultaneous separation of certain transition metal ions (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) from aqueous systems, which ions show ecotoxic effects when present at elevated ... (...

Ismail M. M. Rahman; Yoshiaki Furusho

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Micelle-Like Architecture of the Monomer Ensemble of Alzheimer's Amyloid-Peptide in Aqueous Solution and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, intrinsically disordered protein; CHC, central hydrophobic core; REMC, replica-exchange Monte Carlo; PMFMicelle-Like Architecture of the Monomer Ensemble of Alzheimer's Amyloid- Peptide in Aqueous. Case Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Monte Carlo simulations; conformational equilibria; disorder

Caflisch, Amedeo

190

Mineral formation from aqueous solution. Part III. The stability of aurichalcite, (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6, and rosasite (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stabilities of rosasite, (Cu, Zn)2 (CO3)(OH)2, and aurichalcite, (Zn, Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6, have been determined by solution experiments with computer calculations of aqueous species in equilibrium with the solid ...

Alwan K. Alwan; J. H. Thomas; Peter A. Williams

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The electroreduction of CO/sub 2/ in aqueous solutions. reaction orders, and the role of adsorption in the electroreduction process  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that depending on the electrode metal and potential, values between 0.6 and 1 are found for the reaction order of CO/sub 2/ electroreduction from the dependence of the reduction current on CO/sub 2/ partial pressure (between 1 kPa and 2.5 MPa). The effects of base-electrolyte type and concentration indicate that the slow step of the process involves radical-anions CO/sub 2/ in the first Tafel section and an uncharged species in the second Tafel section. The rates of oxidation and reduction of the radical-anions CO/sub 2/ are reduced when tetrabutylammonium ions are added to the solution.

Maiorova, N.A.; Khazova, O.A.; Mikhailova, A.A.; Vasil'ev, Y.B.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Me-3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Efficient Sensitization of Yb(III) and Nd(III) in Aqueous Solution  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis, X-ray structure, solution stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes of Yb(III) and Nd(III) using both tetradentate and octadentate ligand design strategies and incorporating the 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (Me-3,2-HOPO) chelate group are reported. Both the Yb(III) and Nd(III) complexes have emission bands in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region, and this luminescence is retained in aqueous solution ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Yb} {approx} 0.09-0.22%). Furthermore, the complexes demonstrate very high stability (pYb {approx} 18.8-21.9) in aqueous solution, making them good candidates for further development as probes for NIR imaging. Analysis of the low temperature (77 K) photophysical measurements for a model Gd(III) complex were used to gain an insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree well with corresponding TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G{sup ++}(d,p) level of theory for a simplified model monovalent sodium complex.

Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Dodani, Sheel; Jocher, Christoph; D'Aleo, Anthony; Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

193

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrochemical setup has been developed for soft x-ray absorption studies of the electronic structure of electrode materials during electrochemical cycling. In this communication we illustrate the operation of the cell with a study of the corrosion behavior of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution via the electrochemically induced changes of its electronic structure. This development opens the way for in situ investigations of electrochemical processes, photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells, water splitting, corrosion, electrodeposition, and a variety of important biological processes.

Jiang, Peng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Borondics, Ferenc; Glans, Per-Anders; West, Mark W.; Chang, Ching-Lin; Salmeron, Miquel; Guo, Jinghua

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Kinetic and Equilibrium Profiles of Adsorptive Recovery of Thorium(IV) from Aqueous Solutions Using Poly(methacrylic acid) Grafted Cellulose/Bentonite Superabsorbent Composite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Materials Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Trivandrum 695 019, India ... Technologies employed for the removal and recovery of Th(IV) ions from aqueous solutions include liquidliquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, chromatography, ion exchange, functionalized resins, coprecipitation, electrode deposition, and adsorption. ... GBC Avanta (A5450) atomic absorption sphectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the concentration of Fe(III), Ce(III), Sr(II), Al(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, and Ba. ...

T. S. Anirudhan; P. S. Suchithra; P. Senan; A. R. Tharun

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

196

Nanoporous polymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the components composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of its characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

200

Accelerated alpha-decay of 232U isotope achieved by exposure of its aqueous solution with gold nanoparticles to laser radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented on laser-induced accelerated alpha-decay of Uranium-232 nuclei under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of its salt. It is demonstrated that the decrease of alpha-activity strongly depends on the peak intensity of the laser radiation in the liquid and is highest at several terawatt per square centimeter. The decrease of alpha-activity of the exposed solutions is accompanied by the deviation of gamma-activities of daughter nuclides of Uranium-232 from their equilibrium values. Possible mechanisms of the laser influence on the alpha-activity are discussed on the basis of the amplification of the electric field of laser wave on metallic nanoparticles.

A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Preparation of water-soluble ?-cyclodextrin/poly(acrylic acid)/graphene oxide nanocomposites as new adsorbents to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Novel nanocomposites of ?-cyclodextrin/poly(acrylic acid) grafted onto graphene oxide (?-CD/PAA/GO) were successfully synthesized for the first time using an esterification reaction, and they were used to remove the cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and safranine T (ST) from aqueous solutions. The as-prepared ?-CD/PAA/GO nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The ?-CD/PAA/GO nanocomposites showed excellent water dispersibility because of the hydrophilicity of the polymer. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 247.99mgg?1 for MB and 175.49mgg?1 for ST, and these are much higher than those of other carbon-based adsorbents that have been described in the literature. This was attributed to the high concentration of functional groups in the nanocomposites. Repeated MB and ST adsorption and desorption cycles showed that the ?-CD/PAA/GO nanocomposites could be used repeatedly, and their adsorption capacities did not change significantly after five cycles. The fast and efficient adsorption of MB and ST by the ?-CD/PAA/GO nanocomposites from aqueous solutions suggested that these novel nanocomposites may be ideal candidates for removing dyes during water treatment.

Jinshui Liu; Guoning Liu; Wenxiu Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Preprint Author Copy -Vancostenoble, A., C. Duret-Thual, C. Bosch, and D. Delafosse. 2014. "Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Drawn Ferrito-Pearlitic Steels in Confined Aqueous Solutions Containing Dissolved CO2." In NACE Corrosion Conference 2014,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion Cracking of Cold Drawn Ferrito-Pearlitic Steels in Confined Aqueous Solutions Containing Dissolved CO2." In NACE Corrosion Conference 2014, 51314­4321­SG. Houston, Tx: NACE International. http://www.nace.org/cstm/Store/Product.aspx?id=762f2a5c-a5ba-e311-a396- 0050569a007e. Stress Corrosion Cracking of ferrito-pearlitic steel in aqueous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl2 and RbBr solutions: simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data  

SciTech Connect

We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Structural Refinement,XADSR), to study hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR analysis includes the XAFS spectra analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an XRD spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0 m aqueous CaCl2 reveals that there are an insignificant number of Ca2+-Cl- CIPs, but there are approximately 3.4 SSIPs separated by about 4.99 . In contrast XADSR analysis of aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length 3.51 . The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

Pham, Thai V.; Fulton, John L.

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Novel Electrolytes and Additives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Objectives - Relevance Performance, calendar-life, and safety characteristics of Li-ion cells are dictated by the nature and stability of the electrolyte and the...

209

The removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution by graphene oxidecarbon nanotubes hybrid aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel graphene oxidecarbon nanotubes (GOCNTs) hybrid aerogels were fabricated via a freeze-drying method ... solutions of GO and CNTs. The resulting aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, ...

Zexing Gu; Yun Wang; Jun Tang; Jijun Yang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A swollen phase observed between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol in DPPC aqueous solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A swollen phase, in which the mean repeat distance of lipid bilayers is larger than the other phases, is found between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated gel phase in DPPC aqueous solution. Temperature, pressure and ethanol concentration dependences of the structure were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, and a bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was by neutron spin echo. The nature of the swollen phase is similar to the anomalous swelling reported previously. However, the temperature dependence of the mean repeat distance and the bending rigidity of lipid bilayers are different. This phase could be a precursor to the interdigitated gel phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol.

H. Seto; M. Hishida; H. Nobutou; N. L. Yamada; M. Nagao; T. Takeda

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

211

Supporting Information Surface Electric Fields of Aqueous Solutions of NH4NO3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S1 Supporting Information Surface Electric Fields of Aqueous Solutions of NH4NO3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3 interfaces of (a) 1.0 M and 2.0 M LiNO3, (b) 1.0 M and 1.7 M NaNO3, (c) 1.0 M and 1.6 M NH4NO3, and (d) 1.0 M water 1.0 M NaNO3 1.7 M NaNO3 c water 1.0 M NH4 NO3 1.6 M NH4 NO3 | (2) | 2 (10 3 arb.units) Wavenumber

212

Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 02182008 "This...

213

Interaction modes between heavy metal ions and water-soluble polymers. 2. Spectroscopic and magnetic reexamination of the aqueous solutions of cupric ions and poly(acrylic acid)  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between cupric ions and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions has been reexamined by EPR, magnetic susceptibility, and optical absorption. Cupric ions exist in solutions at pH < 3 as ordinary hydrated ions, and in the pH range 3-8, two mononuclear complexes with carboxyl groups of PAA are formed in equilibrium with other complex species; the two complexes have the same coordination structures as Cu(OAc)/sup +/ and Cu(OAc)/sub 2/, where OAc/sup -/ denotes acetate anion. Around pH 4, two slightly different binuclear copper(II) complexes of the cupric acetate type are formed in high yields; at (PAA polymer residue)/(Cu/sup 2 +/) less than or equal to 10, about 90% of the cupric ions form such binuclear complexes. At pH > 6, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ is gradually formed and complex species other than Cu(OH)/sub 2/ finally disappear at pH > 9. Cu(OH)/sub 2/ does not deposit but remains in solution by hydrophobic interaction with PAA, as in the case with poly(vinyl alcohol).

Yokoi, H.; Kawata, S.; Iwaizumi, M.

1986-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

214

Polymer Electrolyte and Polymer Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Generally the polymer electrolyte of the polymer battery is classified into two kinds of the electrolyte: One is a dry-type electrolyte composed of a polymer matrix and...21.1. Fig....

Toshiyuki Osawa; Michiyuki Kono

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Application of the perturbed chain-SAFT equation of state for modeling CO2 solubility in aqueous monoethanolamine solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CO2 removal by treatment of acid gases by aqueous alkanolamines is a very significant operation from industrial and environmental point of view. To attain a comprehensive thermodynamic model of the CO2MEAH2O in a wide range of temperature and CO2 partial pressures, Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) EOS is applied to predict the absorption of carbon dioxide by MEA (MonoEthanolAmine). In order to find the best association scheme for MEA in PC-SAFT EOS, three pure parameter sets for MEA in the 2B, 3B and 4C association schemes are determined in temperature range 303.15443.15K. Temperature independent binary interaction parameters have been adjusted in the VLE calculation for three schemes of MEA and two schemes of water. Binary VLE calculations show the 3B scheme for MEA and the 4C scheme for water indicate the best prediction in the MEAH2O system. Excess enthalpy data for aqueous MEA are predicted by kij, which has been adjusted in VLE calculations. The 3B scheme for MEA and the 4C scheme for water also are used to find CO2 solubility in the ternary system of CO2MEAH2O system. Ideal SmithMissen algorithm has been applied to find the concentration of all species in chemical equilibrium. Results show the 3B association scheme for MEA and the 4C association scheme for water in PC-SAFT EOS have better agreement with binary and ternary experimental data. PC-SAFT EOS is able to anticipate the CO2 solubility in the CO2MEAH2O system without any regression in the ternary system. The CO2 solubility in ternary system is compared to e-NRTL as a common thermodynamics model. The average absolute partial pressure deviations for PC-SAFT and e-NRTL are calculated around 36% and 42%, respectively.

Sadjad Fakouri Baygi; Hassan Pahlavanzadeh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis of Gallium Oxide Hydroxide Crystals in Aqueous Solutions with or without Urea and Their Calcination Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solution of gallium(III) nitrate and stirring at 90°C for 10 h, followed by calcination of the recovered of solid electro- lytes of superior (as compared with Y-stabilized zirconia) ionic conductivity, i.e., La0-chemical synthesis of powders of doped LaGaO3 fuel cell ceramics.24,25 The first experimental study

Tas, A. Cuneyt

218

Interfacial energetics of globularblood protein adsorption to a hydrophobic interface from aqueous-buffer solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with SL and LV interfaces. Thus, solute...instrumental methods of measuring adsorption for...for surfactant standards. Likewise...adsorption to the SL interface has been discussed...three and two dimensional representations...the surfactant standard Tween-20...to LV and SL interfaces relative to...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Characteristics of olive mill solid residue and its application in remediation of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solution: Mechanistic study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated the use of untreated olive mill solid residues (OMSR) as a solid extractant for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solution. It was shown that the solution initial pH value affected the metal adsorption capacity and behavior. However, over the pH range of 3.05.0, pH-related effects were not significant. Meanwhile, at lower pH values the uptake capacity decreased. It was found that the qmax values are (0.54, 0.59 and 0.63), (0.46, 0.63, and 0.69) and (0.31, 0.42, and 0.47) meq/g for Pb2+ Cu2+ and Ni2+ at 298, 308, and 328K; respectively. The uptake capacity order is: Pb2+>Cu2+>Ni2+. It was also concluded that the RP and Langmuir models clearly described the metals adsorption onto OMSR more than that of Freundlich and DR models. The thermodynamics constants ?H0, ?S0 and ?G0 of the adsorption process showed that the adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ was endothermic and spontaneous in nature and an opposite finding was observed for Ni2+ ions. In conclusion, the mode of interaction between Pb2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions and OMSR was investigated by comparing the changes in the position and intensity of the surface functional groups using FTIR technique.

Alaa Hawari; Majeda Khraisheh; Mohammad A. Al-Ghouti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Origin of the Difference in Structural Behavior of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(methacrylic acid) in Aqueous Solution Discerned by Explicit-Solvent Explicit-Ion MD Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Origin of the Difference in Structural Behavior of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(methacrylic acid) in Aqueous Solution Discerned by Explicit-Solvent Explicit-Ion MD Simulations ... Polyelectrolytes such as sodium polyacrylate (Na-PAA) are widely used as adhesives, dispersants, wetting agents, and additives in coatings. ... Levitt, M.; Hirshberg, M.; Sharon, R.; Daggett, V.Potential energy function and parameters for simulations of the molecular dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids in solution Comput. ...

Muralidharan S. Sulatha; Upendra Natarajan

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

222

Electrochemically stable electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes. 16 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electrochemically stable electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effects of additives on 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal and its mineralization in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of additives (i.e., methanol, EDTA, mannitol, thiourea, nitrous oxide, oxygen and ozone) on gamma irradiation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were investigated to elucidate the initial reaction mechanism of TNT degradation and suggest an practical method for complete by-product removal. All additives, except thiourea, significantly increased the TNT removal efficiency by gamma irradiation. The overall results of the additive experiments implied that the TNT decomposition would be initiated by OH, eaq?, and HO2/O2?, and also implied that H did not have any direct effect on the TNT decomposition. Additions of methanol and nitrous oxide were more effective in TNT removal than the other additives, achieving complete removal of TNT at doses below 20kGy. Total organic carbon (TOC) of the irradiated solution was analyzed to evaluate the degree of TNT mineralization under the additive conditions. TOC under the nitrous oxide addition was removed rapidly, and complete TNT mineralization was thus achieved at 50kGy. Methanol addition was very effective in the TNT removal, but it was not effective in reduction in TOC. Trinitrobenzene (TNB), oxalic acid and glyoxalic acid were detected as radiolytic organic by-products, while ammonia and nitrate were detected as radiolytic inorganic by-products. The most efficient TNT removal and its mineralization by gamma irradiation would be achieved by supersaturating the solution with nitrous oxide before irradiation.

Byungjin Lee; Seung-Woo Jeong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Condensation of Self-assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene glycol and Doped with Salt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering, to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of inter-aggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates, and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

Heung-Shik Park; Shin-Woong Kang; Luana Tortora; Satyendra Kumar; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, H.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution by visible light sensitive N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for the visible light photocatalytic process of N and F codoped TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: ? Visible light sensitive N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2}. ? Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol. ? Effect of oxidants on photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol. ? PMS is a more efficient oxidant for the photodegradation of PCP. - Abstract: In this present study, N-F-codoped titanium dioxide nanocatalyst (NFTO) has been synthesized by simple solgel assisted solvothermal method for the effective utilization of visible light in photocatalytic reactions. Structural characterization of the photocatalyst is analyzed by XRD, UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), SEM and TEM. Moreover the chemical statuses of NFTO are gathered by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that a high surface area with photoactive anatase phase crystalline is obtained. In addition, nitrogen and fluorine atoms are doped into TiO{sub 2} crystal lattice to extend the visible light absorption and higher photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution is examined under visible light irradiation, the addition of oxidants such as PMS, PDS and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is analyzed in detail. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol is obtained in the following order: PMS > PDS > H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Govindan, Kadarkarai, E-mail: govindanmu@gmail.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Water Chemistry Lab, Water Institute, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India); Murugesan, Sepperumal [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Maruthamuthu, Pitchai [Department of Energy (Chemistry-Interdisciplinary), University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

229

Novel Electrolytes and Additives | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Novel Electrolytes and Additives...

230

Electrolytes at Solid-Water Interfaces: Theoretical Studies for Practical Applications  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to determine how a solid substrate affects structure and dynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions. From fundamental observations, we seek to improve practical applications. Of particular interest at the project inset were carbon nanotube separation, electric double layer capacitors, and water desalination. As time progresses, we became interested in sub-surface water transport and fate, and in hydraulic fracturing. We employed an arsenal of techniques based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We validated our methods using experimental data, to propose practical improvements. Some experiments were conducted in house. We established valuable collaborations with experienced scientists at National Laboratories to provide information not attainable with our in-house resources.

Striolo, Alberto

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

231

Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

Broderick, Thomas F [Forest Concepts, LLC; Dooley, James H [Forest Concepts, LLC

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Charge-Dependent Cavity Radii for an Accurate Dielectric Continuum Model of Solvation with Emphasis on Ions: Aqueous Solutes with Oxo, Hydroxo, Amino, Methyl, Chloro, Bromo and Fluoro Functionalities  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric continuum solvation models are widely used because they are a computationally efficacious way to simulate equilibrium properties of solutes. With advances that allow for molecular-shaped cavities, they have reached a high level of accuracy, in particular for neutral solutes. However, benchmark tests show that existing schemes for defining cavities are unable to consistently predict accurately the effects of solvation on ions, especially anions. This work involves the further development of a protocol put forth earlier for defining the cavities of aqueous solutes, with resulting advances that are most striking for anions. Molecular cavities are defined as interlocked spheres around atoms or groups of atoms in the solute, but the sphere radii are determined by simple empirically-based expressions involving the effective atomic charges of the solute atoms (derived from molecular electrostatic potential) and base radii. Both of these terms are optimized for the different types of atoms or functional groups in a training set of neutral and charged solutes. Parameters in these expressions for radii were fitted by minimizing residuals between calculated and measured standard free energies of solvation (?Gs*), weighted by the uncertainty in the measured value. The calculations were performed using density functional theory with the B3LYP functional and the 6-311+G** basis set and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel (COSMO). The optimized radii definitions reproduce ?Gs* of neutral solutes and singly-charged ions in the training set to within experimental uncertainty and, more importantly, accurately predict ?Gs* of compounds outside the training set, in particular anions. Inherent to this approach, the cavity definitions reflect the strength of specific solute-water interactions. We surmise that this feature underlies the success of the model, referred to as the CD-COSMO model for Charge-Dependent (also Camaioni-Dupuis) COSMO model. These findings offer encouragement that we can keep extending this scheme to other functional groups and obtain better accuracy in using continuum solvation models to predict equilibrium properties of aqueous ionic solutes. The approach is illustrated for a number of test cases, including the determination of acidities of an amine base and a study of the tautomerization equilibrium of a zwitterionic molecule (glycine). The approach is also extended to calculating solvation energies of transition states toward a full characterization of reaction pathways in aqueous phase, here in SN2 exchange reactions. The calculated reactions barriers in aqueous solution are in excellent agreement with experimental values. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel; Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Gilcrease, Quinn

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

Spin coating of electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

238

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

Fish, R.H.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+,Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

Fish, R.H.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes...

243

Continuous aqueous tritium monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

1987-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

245

Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Tung, Lisa A. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Synthesis and Characterization of Cross?linked Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Supercapacitor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cross?linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrolyte membranes have been synthesized by using a solution casting method. In this study PVA was blended with oxidative cross?linked agent (zinc acetate) and nano?sized silica as filler to stabilize PVA matrix and enhance conductivity. The cross?linked membranes were immersed into lithium hydroxide (LiOH) aqueous solution to increase their ionic conductivity. Two techniques were used to characterize the resulted membranes including Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and AC impedance spectroscopies. The results showed that absorption peaks of C?O?C group and Si?O?Si are presence in the FTIR spectra attributed to the cross?linking process. Impedance spectra indicated that the contribution of ionic dopant (LiOH) to enhance conductivity is insignificant. The highest conductivity of the studied cross?linked PVA membrane is 1.3410 ?3 ? S ? cm ?1 corresponding to 5% LiOH dopant concentration of cross?linked PVA?zinc acetate?nano silica membrane. The present study also suggested that the solution casting is appropriate for cross?linked membrane synthesis.

Memoria Rosi; Muhamad Prama Ekaputra; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Khairurrijal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion...

249

Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of...

250

Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotligh...

251

Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance....

252

Hybrid Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Study of the SN2 Reaction of CCl4 + OH? in Aqueous Solution: The Potential of Mean Force, Reaction Energetics, and Rate Constants  

SciTech Connect

The bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction of CCl{sub 4} and OH{sup -} in aqueous solution was investigated on the basis of a combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics method. A multilayered representation approach is employed to achieve high accuracy results at the CCSD(T) level of theory. The potential of mean force calculations at the DFT level and CCSD(T) level of theory yield reaction barrier heights of 22.7 and 27.9 kcal/mol, respectively. Both the solvation effects and the solvent-induced polarization effect have significant contributions to the reaction energetics, for example, the solvation effect raises the saddle point by 10.6 kcal/mol. The calculated rate constant coefficient is 8.6 x 10{sup -28} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} at the standard state condition, which is about 17 orders magnitude smaller than that in the gas phase. Among the four chloromethanes (CH{sub 3}Cl, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CHCl{sub 3}, and CCl{sub 4}), CCl{sub 4} has the lowest free energy activation barrier for the reaction with OH{sup -1} in aqueous solution, confirming the trend that substitution of Cl by H in chloromethanes diminishes the reactivity.

Wang, Ting; Yin, Hongyun; Wang, Dunyou; Valiev, Marat

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

253

Proton Conductivity Studies on Biopolymer Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of methyl cellulose (MC) and different wt.% of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) were prepared by solution cast technique. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out to study electrical characteristics of bulk materials. The ionic conductivity of the prepared samples was calculated using the bulk resistance (R{sub b}) obtained from impedance spectroscopy plot. The highest ionic conductivity obtained was 1.17x10{sup -4} Scm{sup -1} for the sample with composition ratio of MC(50): NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(50). To enhance the ionic conductivity, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) plasticizers were introduced. It was found that the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes increased with the increase in plasticizers concentration. The ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes based on MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-PC was enhanced up to 4.91x10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1} while for the MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-EC system, the highest conductivity was 1.74x10{sup -2} Scm{sup -1}. The addition of more plasticizer however decreases in mechanical stability of the membranes.

Harun, N. I.; Sabri, N. S.; Rosli, N. H. A.; Taib, M. F. M.; Saaid, S. I. Y.; Kudin, T. I. T. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ali, A. M. M.; Yahya, M. Z. A. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibre membrane gel electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) based on electrospun nanofibre membrane electrolytes offer several advantages over liquid electrolyte based solar cells. Nanofibre membranes having different thicknesses were prepared by electrospinning on platinum electrodes from a 11 wt% solution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at an applied voltage of 8kV. The membranes were then activated by immersing in a solution containing potassium iodide (KI) (0.06g), propylene carbonate (PC) (0.8g) and iodine (I2) (0.0092g) for 30minutes to obtain gel type membrane electrolytes with different thicknesses. These nanofibre membrane electrolytes were used to fabricate quasi-solid state (gel) \\{DSSCs\\} and the performance of these solar cells were compared with \\{DSSCs\\} fabricated with liquid electrolyte (KI:PC:I2) and conventional PAN based gel electrolyte (PAN:KI:PC:I2). DSSC with nanofibre membrane electrolyte of thickness 9.14?m showed the highest light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.2% whereas an identical cell based on corresponding liquid electrolyte showed an efficiency of 5.3%. The open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (JSc) and fill factor for the solar cell based on this electrolyte was 0.67V, 13.31mAcm?2 and 59% respectively at an incident light intensity of 1000Wm?2 with a 1.5 AM filter.

M.A.K.L. Dissanayake; H.K.D.W.M.N.R. Divarathne; C.A. Thotawatthage; C.B. Dissanayake; G.K.R. Senadeera; B.M.R. Bandara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE DEPENDENCE OF AC ELECTROOSMOTIC PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE DEPENDENCE OF AC ELECTROOSMOTIC PUMPS Kapil Subramanian1 , John Abstract: Recent studies indicate increased efficiency of microfluidic ac electro-osmotic pumps of ac electroosmosis in microchannels on solution chemistry for the new fast aceo stepped pumps

Bazant, Martin Z.

257

The effect of temperature induced phase transitions in aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers and Triton X-100 on the EPR, magnetic relaxation and luminescent characteristics of Gd(III) and Eu(III) ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present report is inspired by the idea to develop novel spectroscopy based techniques to detect the phase transitions in solutions of triblock copolymers with the use of Gd(III) and Eu(III) ions as probes. The choice of (PEO)13(PPO)30(PEO)13 (L64), (PPO)14(PEO)24(PPO)14 (17R4), (PPO)8(PEO)22(PPO)8 (10R5) and Triton X-100 is conditioned by their phase transitions occurring in mild conditions. The cloud point extraction (CPE) data reveal the conditions (pH and chelating agent) where the binding of lanthanides with surfactant rich phase of triblock copolymers and Triton X-100 occurs. The effect of phase transitions in solutions of triblock copolymers on the temperature resolved line widths in EPR spectra of Gd(III) aqua ions and transverse relaxation rates of Gd(III) inner-sphere water protons depends on the architecture of triblock copolymers and pH conditions. The steady state luminescence of Eu(III) complexes with phosphine oxide in aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers and TX-100 is influenced by the temperature induced aggregation and phase separation in solutions of reverse triblock copolymers 17R4 and 10R5, while the effect of the aggregation is insignificant for L64.

Julia Elistratova; Asiya Mustafina; Alexey Litvinov; Vladimir Burilov; Antonina Khisametdinova; Vladimir Morozov; Rustem Amirov; Yevgeniya Burilova; Dmitry Tatarinov; Marsil Kadirov; Vladimir Mironov; Alexander Konovalov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

MTR CONVERTER WITH AQUEOUS BLANKET | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Reactors employing two different arrangements of the aluminum-clad MTR- type fuel elements and an aqueous solution ''blanket'' are considered for...

259

Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Prediction of equilibrium Li isotope fractionation between minerals and aqueous solutions at high P and T: an efficient ab initio approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mass-dependent equilibrium stable isotope fractionation between different materials is an important geochemical process. Here we present an efficient method to compute the isotope fractionation between complex minerals and fluids at high pressure, P, and temperature, T, representative for the Earth's crust and mantle. The method is tested by computation of the equilibrium fractionation of lithium isotopes between aqueous fluids and various Li bearing minerals such as staurolite, spodumene and mica. We are able to correctly predict the direction of the isotope fractionation as observed in the experiments. On the quantitative level the computed fractionation factors agree within 1.0 permil with the experimental values indicating predictive power of ab initio methods. We show that with ab initio methods we are able to investigate the underlying mechanisms driving the equilibrium isotope fractionation process, such as coordination of the fractionating elements, their bond strengths to the neighboring atoms, c...

Kowalski, Piotr M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

High cation transport polymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

263

Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties  

SciTech Connect

The research objective of this proposal was to provide a detailed analysis of how solvent and anion structure govern the solvation state of Li+ cations in solvent-LiX mixtures and how this, in turn, dictates the electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties which govern (in part) battery performance. Lithium battery electrolytes remain a poorly understood and hardly studied topic relative to the research devoted to battery electrodes. This is due to the fact that it is the electrodes which determine the energy (capacity) of the battery. The electrolyte, however, plays a crucial role in the practical energy density, power, low and/or high temperature performance, lifetime, safety, etc. which is achievable. The development within this project of a "looking glass" into the molecular interactions (i.e., solution structure) in bulk electrolytes through a synergistic experimental approach involving three research thrusts complements work by other researchers to optimize multi-solvent electrolytes and efforts to understand/control the electrode-electrolyte interfaces, thereby enabling the rational design of electrolytes for a wide variety of battery chemistries and applications (electrolytes-on-demand). The three research thrusts pursued include: (1) conduction of an in-depth analysis of the thermal phase behavior of diverse solvent-LiX mixtures, (2) exploration of the ionic association/solvate formation behavior of select LiX salts with a wide variety of solvents, and (3) linking structure to properties?determination of electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties for comparison with the ionic association and phase behavior.

Henderson, Wesley

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

264

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

266

Reorientation of the free OH group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called free O-H group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the free O-H group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the free O-H changes from about 35.3 degrees 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

267

Extensional rheology of shear-thickening fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

polyethylene oxide solution Sunilkumar Khandavalli and Jonathan P. Rothsteina) Mechanical and Industrial rheology of fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solution

Rothstein, Jonathan

268

Efficiency of Amine-Modified Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-Grafted Cellulose in the Removal and Recovery of Vanadium(V) from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several technologies have been proposed for the purification of water contaminated with heavy metals. ... (12) The production of ion-exchange beads is a technology that relies on the chemical interaction between reactive entities to form stable covalent bonds between a water-insoluble support and a water-soluble functional group having a positive or negative charge. ... The concentrations of V(V) in solution were determined using a GBC Avanta A5450 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). ...

T. S. Anirudhan; S. Jalajamony; L. Divya

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

269

Complexation study of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} ions with several organic ligands in aqueous solutions of high ionic strength  

SciTech Connect

The acid dissociation constants, pK{sub a}, and the stability constants for NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} have been measured for certain organic ligands [acetate, {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactate, ascorbate, oxalate, citrate, EDTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1, 10-phenanthroline, and thenoyltrifluoroacetone] in 5 m (NaCl) ionic strength solution. The pK{sub a} values were determined by potentiometry or spectrometry. These methods, as well as solvent extraction with {sup 233}U and {sup 237}Np radiotracers, were used to measure the stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of dioxo cations. These constants were used to estimate the concentrations required to result in 10 % competition with hydrolysis in the 5 m NaCl solution. Such estimates are of value in assessing the solubility from radioactive waste of AnO{sub 2}{sup +} and AnO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in brine solutions in contact with nuclear waste in a salt-bed repository.

Borkowski, M.; Lis, S.; Choppin, G.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

271

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

272

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interface in the Li-ion battery. Electrochimica Acta 50,K. The role of Li-ion battery electrolyte reactivity inK. The role of Li-ion battery electrolyte reactivity in

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Molecular dynamics simulations: Properties of bulk electrolytes (structure, thermodynamics, transport), interfacial properties of electrolyte at electroactive interfaces,...

274

LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

Keqin Huang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$/tonne (the DOE's centralized plant #12;Page 8 Electrolytic Hydrogen · Focus on low-cost electrolysis - 300 US Americas DOE Hydrogen Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop Boulder, Colorado 2004 September 22 & 23Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic Hydrogen Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic

276

Photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol aqueous solution under visible-light using Cu/STiO2 prepared by electroless plating method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cu was loaded on the S-doped TiO2 by electroless plating method. The prepared Cu/STiO2 exhibited high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation, and the yield is up to 7.5mmolh?1g?1cat in methanol solution. Their physical structure and chemical properties were characterized by UVVis, XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The copper species were CuO and Cu2O, and the sample showed excellent visible light absorption ability. Comparing with the sample prepared by chemical reducing method, the electroless plated copper on STiO2 was highly dispersed, which could facilitate photo-generated charges capture, transfer and separation.

Wenyu Zhang; Shengjun Wang; Jingguo Li; Xiaoyong Yang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer  

SciTech Connect

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

279

Dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} thin films deposited by mist plasma evaporation using aqueous solution precursor  

SciTech Connect

Mist plasma evaporation (MPE) technique has been developed to deposit Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at atmospheric pressure using metal nitrate aqueous solution as precursor. MPE is characterized by the injection of liquid reactants into thermal plasma where the source materials in the droplets are evaporated by the high temperature of the thermal plasma. Nanometer-scale clusters are formed in the tail flame of the plasma, and then deposited and rearranged on the substrate at a lower temperature. Due to the high temperature annealing process of the thermal plasma before deposition, well-crystallized BST films were deposited at substrate temperature of 630 deg. C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the film at 100 kHz are 715 and 0.24, respectively. Due to the good crystallinity of the BST films deposited by MPE, high dielectric tunability up to 39.3% is achieved at low applied electric field of 100 kV cm{sup -1}.

Huang Hui; Shi Peng; Wang Minqiang; Yao Xi; Tan, O.K. [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Microelectronics Center, School of EEE, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Effect of zinc salt on transport, structural, and thermal properties of PEG-based polymer electrolytes for battery application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based electrolytes composed with zinc acetate Zn(CH3COO)2...have been prepared by using solution blending. We proposed a scheme of PEGzinc acetate for battery application....

Anji Reddy Polu; Ranveer Kumar; Girish M. Joshi

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

282

Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

Lucht, Brett L

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

283

Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Lithium Batteries Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

285

Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July-09 Improve cathode utilization in dry full cells. Accomplished by technology transfer to Seeo, Inc. Objectives *Synthesis of dry block copolymer electrolytes for...

286

Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

287

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolytes and high-energy electrode materials. 1 Over theinstability between high-energy electrode materials, such assystems. With new high-energy electrode materials Ni-based

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Advanced Electrolyte Model - Energy Innovation Portal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Electrolyte Model Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document...

289

Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Develop composites of electrolyte materials with requisite electrochemical and mechanical properties - Fabricate thin membranes to provide good power performance and long...

290

Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Makarewicz, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Meredith, Paul F. (Knoxville, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described.

Nash, K.L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method of recovering uranium from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Anion exchange resin derived from insoluble crosslinked polymers of vinyl benzyl chloride which are prepared by polymerizing vinyl benzyl chloride and a crosslinking monomer are particularly suitable in the treatment of uranium bearing leach liquors.

Albright, R.L.

1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

293

Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

294

Aqueous Cathode for Next-Generation Alkali-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aqueous cathode in the flow-through mode can be individually stored in a fuel tank, which reduces the volume of the battery and increases the design flexibility of the battery structure, as shown in Figure 1. ... Unlike previous lithium?water batteries, the aqueous cathode is not plagued by H2 evolution from the solution, and the battery is efficiently rechargeable. ...

Yuhao Lu; John B. Goodenough; Youngsik Kim

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

High performance electrolytes for MCFC  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Roche, Michael F. (Downers Gorve, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

298

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

299

Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

15eswise2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

300

Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

15eswise2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

302

Title: Pore formation in Polymer Electrolytes Abstract: Much of our ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficient conversion of energy from one form to another, particularly solar, ... The polymer electrolytes in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells...

303

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Presentation given by Argonne...

304

Amorphous LLZO sol gel solid electrolyte  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Li Conducting Solid State Novel Li Conducting Solid State Electrolyte by Sol Gel Technique Davorin Babic, Ph. D. Excellatron Solid State LLC 263 Decatur St Atlanta, GA 30312 (404) 584-2475 dbabic@excellatron.com Objective Develop novel inorganic solid state lithium ion conductor: a) high Li ion conductivity b) transport number of ~1 c) stable with Li metal d) thermally stable e) adequate electrochemical window of stability Construct and test a battery that contains the novel electrolyte Novel sol gel solid electrolyte (NSGSE) In contact with Li metal: Organic electrolytes (liquid/polymer) get reduced: HAZARDS Most oxide solid electrolytes become mixed conductor: SHORTS NSGSE by sol gel process, spin coated: an oxide & stable with Li !! -100000 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 -400000

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sulfuric acid Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRACE ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS Summary: . Reactions of Sulfur(IV) with Transition-Metal Ions in Aqueous Solutions Robert E. Huie and Norman C... . Peterson 3. Catalytic...

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous organic sulfur Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRACE ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS Summary: . Reactions of Sulfur(IV) with Transition-Metal Ions in Aqueous Solutions Robert E. Huie and Norman C... . Peterson 3. Catalytic...

307

Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C{sub KOH}) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ?10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C{sub KOH} from ?0.05?M to ?0.60?M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO{sub 2} substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C{sub KOH} was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H{sub 2} bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H{sub 2} supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t{sub d} on C{sub KOH} was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

Fisichella, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 95121 Catania (Italy); Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria, 6 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F., E-mail: filippo.giannazzo@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 95121 Catania (Italy); Ravesi, S. [STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50 95121 Catania (Italy)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Precision measurements of binary and multicomponent diffusion coefficients in protein solutions relevant to crystal growth: Lysozyme chloride in water and aqueous NaCl at pH 4.5 and 25{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

Accurate models of protein diffusion are important in a number of applications, including liquid-liquid phase separation and growth of protein crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. In concentrated multicomponent protein systems, significant deviations from pseudobinary behavior can be expected. Rayleigh interferometry is used to measure the four elements (D{sub if}){sub v} of the ternary diffusion coefficient matrix for the extensively investigated protein, hen egg-white lysozyme (component 1) in aqueous NaCl (component 2) at pH 4.5 and 25 C. These are the first multicomponent diffusion coefficients measured for any protein system at concentrations high enough to be relevant to modeling and prediction of crystal growth or other phase transitions, and the first for a system involving lysozyme at any concentration. The four ternary diffusion coefficients for the system lysozyme chloride/NaCl/water are reported for lysozyme chloride at 0.60 mM (8.6 mg/mL) and NaCl at concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 0.65, 0.90, and 1.30 M (1.4, 2.8, 3.7, 5.1, and 7.2 wt %), with the latter two compositions being supersaturated. One cross-term, (D{sub 21}){sub v}, is 80--259 times larger than the main term (D{sub 11}){sub v} and 7--18 times larger than (D{sub 22}){sub v}. Standard interferometric diagnostic tests indicate that aggregation is unimportant in the experiments. The authors also present binary diffusion coefficients D{sub v} for lysozyme chloride/water at concentrations from 0.43 to 3.08 mM (6.2--44.1 mg/mL), at the same pH and temperature. The precision of the results is about 0.1% for the binary diffusion coefficients and diagonal ternary diffusion coefficients, and about 1--2% for the cross-terms. For the ternary systems investigated, they show that a single pseudobinary diffusion coefficient does not accurately describe diffusive transport, and predictions by simple models such as the Nernst-Hartley equations are inaccurate at the higher concentrations considered here. Finally, dynamic light-scattering diffusion coefficients, differing form both the interferometrically measured (D{sub ij}){sub v} and a theoretical prediction of light-scattering diffusion coefficients in multicomponent systems, are reported for the same solutions used for the ternary experiments at 1.30 M.

Albright, J.G.; Annunziata, O. [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Miller, D.G. [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Chemistry Dept.; [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Paduano, L. [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Chemistry Dept.; [Univ. di Napoli, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Pearlstein, A.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1999-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

Harlan U. Anderson

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nucleation of solid solutions crystallizing from aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...001) with atomic force microscopy. Chem...studied with atomic force microscopy. Colloids...Sarig, S. 1993 Fundamentals of crystal growth. In Handbook of crystal growth...planetary science. In Handbook of crystal growth...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 386397 Polymer electrolyte membrane resistance model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that is sandwiched between the catalyst layers. The PEM con- ducts protons from the anode to the cathode pressure at the anode and the cathode on the membrane resistance. The accuracy of the solution is verified applications [1,2]. These polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) consist of the membrane elec- trode

Sethuraman, Vijay A.

313

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach Tomer, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Dated: November 19, 2014) We study the surface tension of ionic solutions expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical

Andelman, David

314

Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors Iddo-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene can function as highly sensitive nanoscale (bio)sensors in solution. Here, we compare experimentally how SWNT and graphene transistors respond to changes in the composition

Dekker, Cees

315

Experimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as low viscosity solution and Frederik Krebs Polymer Solar Cell Initiative, The Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National Laboratory, PO Box solar cell power extraction solving the problem of high current densities. LCs realized reach 1

316

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Electrochemical cell studies on fluorinated natural graphite in propylene carbonate electrolyte with difluoromethyl acetate (MFA) additive for low temperature lithium battery application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrochemical cell performances of fluorinated natural graphite (abbreviated as FNG) electrode material was studied by using 1M of LiClO4? EC: DEC: PC (1: 1: 1 v%) electrolyte solution with and without 015% v/...

R. Chandrasekaran; M. Koh; Y. Ozhawa; H. Aoyoma

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

319

Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bruce, Richard Catlow and Peter Edwards Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel...durability in fuel cells is to discover catalyst supports that do not corrode, or corrode...black support. fuel cells|oxides|catalyst supports|nanoparticles|conductivity...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

A disposable, self-administered electrolyte test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis demonstrates the novel concept that it is possible to make a disposable, self-administered electrolyte test to be introduced to the general consumer market. Although ion specific electrodes have been used to ...

Prince, Ryan, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

322

Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

1993-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

324

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous organic systems Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solution Stephen E. Schwartz and Warren H. White 2... . Reactions of Sulfur(IV) with Transition-Metal Ions in Aqueous Solutions Robert E. Huie ... Source: Schwartz, Stephen E. -...

325

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

327

Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H.sub.2 O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H[sub 2]O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg. 1 fig.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Wear-resistant coatings formed on Zircaloy-2 by plasma electrolytic oxidation in sodium aluminate electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Zircaloy-2 has been investigated in dilute and concentrated aluminate electrolytes, under a pulsed-bipolar current regime, in order to develop coatings of high wear resistance. Coating growth kinetics, cell potential-time responses and discharging behaviours depend significantly on the electrolyte concentration. The coatings formed in dilute aluminate electrolyte reveal a three-layered structure, with pancake structures at the coating surfaces. Soft sparks occur during PEO in dilute aluminate electrolyte, causing a relatively fast growth of the inner layer and resulting in a large amount of alumina-enriched material beneath the pancake structures, and hence an increased wear resistance of the coating. In contrast, more homogenous coatings, free of pancakes, result with the concentrated electrolyte. The main phase in the coatings is t-ZrO2, with ?-Al2O3 also present in coatings formed in the latter electrolyte. The coatings formed in the concentrated electrolyte display a high wear resistance, even for thin coatings formed for short times, which is attributed to the relatively high alumina content of the coatings.

Yingliang Cheng; Jinhui Cao; Zhaomei Peng; Qun Wang; E. Matykina; P. Skeldon; G.E. Thompson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

E-Print Network 3.0 - additive-free sulphamate-based electrolyte...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrolytes reinforced by non... Composite electrolytes composed of a blend of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), poly... , the composite electrolyte has good integrity...

331

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Solvation Phenomena in Dilute Solutions: Formal, Experimental Evidence, and Modeling Implications  

SciTech Connect

We review the fundamentals underlying a general molecular-based formalism for the microscopic interpretation of the solvation phenomena involving sparingly soluble solutes in compressible media, an approach that hinges around the unambiguous splitting of the species correlation function integrals into short-(finite) and long-ranged (diverging) contributions at infinite dilution, where this condition is taken as the reference system for the derivation of composition expansions. Then, we invoke the formalism (a) to illustrate the well-behaved nature of the solvation contributions to the mechanical partial molecular properties of solutes at infinite dilution, (b) to guide the development of, and provide molecular-based support to, the macroscopic modeling of high-temperature dilute aqueous-electrolyte solutions, (c) to study solvation effects on the kinetic rate constants of reactions in near-critical solvents in an attempt to understand from a microscopic perspective the macroscopic evidence regarding the thermodynamic pressure effects, and (d) to interpret the microscopic mechanism behind synergistic solvation effects involving either co-solutes or co-solvents, and provide a molecular argument on the unsuitability of the van der Waals one-fluid (vdW-1f) mixing rules for the 2 description of weakly attractive solutes in compressible solvents. Finally, we develop thermodynamically consistent perturbation expansions, around the infinite dilution reference, for the species residual properties in binary and ternary mixtures, and discuss the theoretical and modeling implications behind ad hoc first-order truncated expansions.

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Kinetics of O{sub 2} reduction on a Pt electrode covered with a thin film of solid polymer electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of O{sub 2} reduction on both oxidized and reduced Pt rotating disk surfaces covered with thin films (1 to 15 {micro}m) of recast polybenzimidazole (PBI) or Nafion have been examined in 0.1 M aqueous solutions of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and HClO{sub 4} at 25.0 C. Polymer films were deposited on a Pt disk electrode by a spin-coating technique. Experiments were performed at different rotation rates and potential scan rates. This investigation was undertaken to establish to what extent the solid polymer electrolyte influences the mechanism and kinetics of O{sub 2} reduction. The number of electrons exchanged per O{sub 2} molecule and kinetic parameters for O{sub 2} reduction (reaction order with respect to O{sub 2}, Tafel slope/transfer coefficient, and exchange current density) are not changed in the presence of the polymer films, indicating that the reaction path and kinetics are not altered in the presence of recast PBI and Nafion films. The diffusion coefficient (D) and concentration (C) of O{sub 2} in recast films were determined by means of linear sweep voltammetry measurements in quiescent solution. The D and C values in polymer films immersed in acidic solutions were found to have different values than those in the solutions. D(O{sub 2}) is about 2.5 times lower in the recast films than in the solutions, whereas C(O{sub 2}) is slightly higher in the film. The largest concentration increase, by a factor of two, was found in PBI film in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4}. Cyclic voltammetric measurements under argon atmosphere have shown that PBI and Nafion recast films are electrochemically stable in the potential range between the onsets of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} evolution. A decrease in the effective electrocatalyst surface area due to deposition of solid polymer films was 15 to 20%.

Zecevic, S.K.; Wainright, J.S.; Litt, M.H.; Gojkovic, S.L.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

1981-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

335

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boundary conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 PolymerElectrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Sandia National Laboratories: New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyNew Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries Sandia Tool...

338

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and...

339

Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

340

In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. Abstract: A portable vacuum...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries...

342

Behavior of copper in acidic sulfate solution: Comparison with acidic chloride  

SciTech Connect

The anodic polarization behavior of copper in a 0.1 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) + 1 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) solution (pH = 2.0) was studied at room temperature under quiescent and stirred conditions. The behavior was compared with aqueous equilibria via construction of a potential-vs-pH (E-pH) diagram for the copper-sulfate-water (Cu-SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-H{sub 2}O) system. Interpretation of the behavior was aided by comparison with aqueous equilibria and polarization studies of copper in a 0.2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) + 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution(pH = 0.8). The initial anodic dissolution region in the acidic sulfate solution exhibited Tafel behavior with a slope consistent with formation of cupric ions (Cu{sup 2+}) whose rate of formation was charge-transfer controlled. At higher potentials, limiting current density (i{sub L}) behavior was observed under E-pH conditions that were consistent with formation of a film of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO{sub 4} {degree} 5H{sub 2}O). Comparison of experimental i{sub L} values with those predicted by mass transport-controlled processes, using estimates of the diffusion layer thickness obtained from the mass transfer-influenced region of apparent Tafel behavior in the acidic chloride solution, were in sufficient agreement to indicate i{sub L} was controlled by the rate of dissolution of the CuSO{sub 4} {degree} 5H{sub 2}O film via transport of Cu{sup 2+} from the film-electrolyte interface into the bulk solution.

Tromans, D.; Silva, J.C. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Polymer Electrolytes Global Significance While progress of sustainable energy- harvesting techniques is promising, tandem advancements in energy storage are required to maintain a stable energy supply be a valuable contribution to the emerging sustainable energy landscape. This project applies polymer physics

349

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

350

Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Effects of dispersants and soluble counter-ions on aqueous dispersibility of nano-sized zirconia powder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of different dispersants and water leaching on aqueous dispersibility of zirconia powder was studied. Zeta potentials of aqueous solutions containing nano-sized zirconia powder and different dispersants, such as ammonium polyacrylic acid (PAA-NH4) and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and water leaching were characterized. Better dispersion of nano-sized zirconia powder in aqueous solutions was achieved with the addition of dispersant and water leaching.

Zhipeng Xie; Jingtao Ma; Qing Xu; Yong Huang; Yi-Bing Cheng

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of {sup 237} NpO{sub 2}{sup +} {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25{degrees}C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined.

Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Small-angle neutron scattering study of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) and poly(sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate) triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Small-angle neutron scattering experiments were made on poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) [p(MMA-b-NaA-b-MMA)] and p(NaA-b-MMA-b...-NaA) solutions by varying the compositi...

Szabolcs Vass; Kristina Haimer; Gerhard Meier

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Supporting Information Surface Organization of Aqueous MgCl2 and Application to Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Supporting Information Surface Organization of Aqueous MgCl2 and Application to Atmospheric generation (SFG) spectra of aqueous MgCl2 solutions of 4.7 M at 295 K and 285 K and spectral fits are shown is a dangling OH bond that is not involved in hydrogen bonding with neighboring water molecules (1). Studies

355

Mediating gel formation from structurally controlled poly(electrolytes) through multiple "head-to-body" electrostatic interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tuning the chain-end functionality of a short-chain cationic homopolymer, owing to the nature of the initiator used in the ATRP polymerisation step, can be used to mediate the formation of a gel of this poly(electrolyte) in water. While a neutral end group gives a solution of low viscosity, a highly homogeneous gel is obtained with a phosphonate anionic moiety, as characterized by rheometry and diffusion NMR. This novel type of supramolecular control over poly(electrolytic) gel formation could find potential use in a variety of applications in the field of electroactive materials.

Hassan Srour; Olivier Ratel; Mathieu Leocmach; Emma A. Adams; Sandrine Denis-Quanquin; Vinukrishnan Appukuttan; Nicolas Taberlet; Sbastien Manneville; Jean-Charles Majest; Christian Carrot; Chantal Andraud; Cyrille Monnereau

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

Resistance and polarization losses in aqueous buffermembrane electrolytes for water-splitting photoelectrochemical cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuels.1 Renewable, carbon-neutral energy sources will be needed on the scale of terawatts to minimize be powered by several carbon-neutral energy sources including photovoltaic (PV)- coupled electrolyzers.2 that efficient photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) might be constructed from terrestrially abundant materials

357

Mixed reactant single chamber fuel cell, using products generated from the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A Mixed Reactant Single Chamber (MRSC) Fuel Cell is a relatively recent concept in the field of fuel cell engineering originally developed in the late (more)

Jost, William C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrodeposition of Crystalline GaAs on Liquid Gallium Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystalline gallium arsenide (c-GaAs) possesses many desirable optoelectronic properties suited for solar energy conversion,(1) light and radiation detection,(2) chemical sensing,(3) lighting,(4) and high speed electronics. ... In contrast to conflicting previous reports on the electrodeposition of GaAs,(17, 18) we posit that c-GaAs(s) can be synthesized predictably through the electrodeposition of As from dissolved As2O3 specifically on a Ga(l) electrode at modest temperatures in water. ... Specifically, for any binary system composed of a solid dissolving into a liquid, the rate of dissolution of the solid into the liquid phase is given by eq 5:(60)(5)where kdiss is the dissolution rate constant, s is the surface area of the solid in contact with the liquid, V is the volume of the liquid, Csat is the solubility of the solid in the liquid, and Cdiss is the concentration of the dissolved solid in the bulk of the liquid phase. ...

Eli Fahrenkrug; Junsi Gu; Stephen Maldonado

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Water-Hydrophobic Interface: Neutral and Charged Solute Adsorption at Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption of small molecular solutes in an aqueous solution to a soft hydrophobic surface is a topic relevant to many fields. In biological and industrial systems, the interfacial...

Hopkins, Adam J; Richmond, Geraldine L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Neutron activation analysis applied to perspiration electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Member) (Eieisber) (Hie isbn r ) (Nc, . ib": ) J iniar ! Vl R P 3STR-'. CT Neutron ';ctivatior. Imalysis iipplied to Perspiration Electrolytes. (January 1969) Robert C. N Andrew:, B. S. , Norcester Poly' echnic Institut Directed by: Dr. James B... dlX II1 last Neutron Act ivsticn Cross-Eec!iona - - - 73 J Igf 0F TABL? S TABLE 1 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 TABLE 6! Nuclear Properties of Pertinent Elec!eats - - 6 Sodium Reactions Interfering Reactions - - - - - - ~ - - - - 13 Sodium Concentrations...

McAndrew, Robert Gavin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Correlation of Soil and Sediment Organic Matter Polarity to Aqueous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution of the measured partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC to their organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and 1

362

SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties  

SciTech Connect

The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-????salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

Trulove, Paul C; Foley, Matthew P

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

363

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

364

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

Reiser, Carl A. (Glastonbury, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT)

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

365

Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

Elaboration and Characterization of a Free Standing LiSICON Membrane for Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Metal-air battery, Lithium anode, Li2O - Al2O3 - TiO2 - P2O5 system, LiPON, Solid electrolyte 1. Introduction Metal-air batteries are based on the use of a metal negative electrode in combination-sur-Loing, France Abstract In order to develop a LISICON separator for an aqueous lithium-air battery, a thin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

370

Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm 3 + and Nd 3 + were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancydiffusion thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of Sm x Nd x Ce 1 ? 2 x O 2 ? ? solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm 0.075 Nd 0.075 Ce 0.85 O 2 ? ? the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0 10 ? 3 S cm ? 1 at 550 C which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Shobit Omar; Eric D. Wachsman; Juan C. Nino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on Giner and Proton Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

372

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

373

Long-Living Polymer Electrolytes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

374

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

377

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

378

NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems Analysis Publications Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development-This key technology focuses on improving...

379

Nanoscale Thin Film Electrolytes for Clean Energy Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems can be used as electrolytes to develop solid oxide fuel cells for clean energy production and to prevent air pollution by developing efficient, reliable oxygen sensors....

380

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12 Values usedFuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C....

382

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Marshal Smart (JPLABR), Brett Lucht (URI) - New Electrolyte evaluation. * DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program - New polyelectrolyte material synthesis and Applied Science...

383

Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrolyte Channels 10 nm For ion conduction Li cathode Hard matrix For mechanical support Dendrite (1 m) Decouple the mechanical and electrical properties...

384

Sandia National Laboratories: lithium-ion-based solid electrolyte...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lithium-ion-based solid electrolyte battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March...

385

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin University of Utah May 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any...

386

Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Battaglia & J. Kerr (LBNL) * M. Payne (Novolyte) * F. Puglia & B. Ravdel (Yardney) * G. Smith & O. Borodin (U. Utah) 3 3 Develop novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that...

387

Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production techonologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003.

388

Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

goals. * Develop understanding of the mechanism of improved capacity retention for Si nano- particle electrodes in the presence of electrolyte additives FEC andor VC. * Conduct...

389

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Funding for FY12 * 250K Timeline Budget Barriers * Argonne National Laboratory * Saft Batteries * U of Texas, Austin * U of Utah * U of Maryland Partners * SOA electrolytes...

390

Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) and Hydrophobic Fumed Silica: Dynamic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilized in electrolyte processing. Introduction Rechargeable lithium batteries employing solid elec electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).1 Solid polymer electrolytes can potentially eliminate battery* Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695

Raghavan, Srinivasa

391

Usefulness of gel-casting method in the fabrication of nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3}-based electrolytes for high temperature application  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogels obtained from lower toxicity monomers of N-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were applied to form nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3}-based electrolytes. A coprecipitation-calcination method with ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in concentrated NH{sub 3} aqueous solution was used to synthesise CaZrO{sub 3} involving 51 mol.% CaO (CZ-51) powder. The gas-tight CaZrO{sub 3}-based rods were prepared by the gel-casting method with 45 vol.% suspension and then sintered at 1500 deg. C-2 h. It was found that in low oxygen partial pressure, the nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3} obtained by gel-casting method were pure oxide ion conductors. These samples exhibited comparable electrical conductivity values to isostatically compressed pellets starting from the same powder. The results of experiments on thermochemical stability of CZ-51 gel-cast shapes at high temperatures in air or gas mixtures involving 2-50 vol.% H{sub 2}, as well as the corrosion resistance in exhaust gases from a self-ignition engine were also presented and discussed. The thermal resistance of CaZrO{sub 3} obtained rods against molten nickel or iron was also examined. Based upon these investigations, it is evident that only in hydrogen-rich gas atmospheres can the stability of CaZrO{sub 3} shapes be limited due to the presence of CaO precipitation as a second phase. The nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3} (CZ-51) gel-cast materials were also tested in solid galvanic cells, designed to study thermodynamic properties of oxide materials, important for SOFC and energy technology devices. In this way, the Gibbs energy of NiM{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Cr, Fe, at 650-1000 deg. C was determined. The CaZrO{sub 3} involving 51 mol.% CaO gel-cast sintered shapes seems to be promising solid electrolytes for electrochemical oxygen probes in control of metal processing and thermodynamic studies of materials important for the development of the energy industry.

Dudek, Magdalena [AGH - University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Non-Aqueous Battery Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0 V. Practical non-aqueous batteries have energies extending from 100...electric watches to 20 kWh secondary batteries being developed for vehicle traction...10 years, to a military lithium thermal battery delivering all of its energy in...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Solid electrolytes for battery applications a theoretical perspective a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid state batteries at the present time. · Several companies are involved in all solids state batterySolid electrolytes for battery applications ­ a theoretical perspective a Natalie Holzwarth ion batteries Solid electrolytes Advantages 1. Excellent chemical and physical stability. 2. Perform

Holzwarth, Natalie

395

Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), have been studied in two separate parts. Part 1 of the thesis

Kjelstrup, Signe

396

Electrolytic production of neodymium without perfluorinated carbon compounds on the offgases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing neodymium in an electrolytic cell without formation of perfluorinated carbon gases (PFCs), the method comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and providing an anode in an anode region of the electrolyte and providing a cathode in a cathode region of the electrolytic cell. Dissolving an oxygen-containing neodymium compound in the electrolyte in the anode region and maintaining a more intense electrolyte circulation in the anode region than in the cathode region. Passing an electrolytic current between said anode and said cathode and depositing neodymium metal at the cathode, preventing the formation of perfluorinated carbon gases by limiting anode over voltage.

Keller, Rudolf (Export, PA); Larimer, Kirk T. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

Dudney, N.J.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride formed by robocasting aqueous slurries  

SciTech Connect

Robocasting is a new freeform fabrication technique for dense ceramics. It uses robotics to control deposition of ceramic slurries through an orifice. The optimization of concentrated aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry properties to achieve high green density robocast bodies and subsequent high sintered densities was investigated. The effects of pH, electrolyte, additives and solids loading on the dispersion and rheological properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurries were determined. The mechanical behavior of sintered robocast bars was determined and compared to conventionally produced silicon nitride ceramics.

HE,GUOPING; HIRSCHFELD,DEIDRE A.; CESARANO III,JOSEPH

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

399

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

400

Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media inPolymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a quasipotential approach along with conformal mapping is used to model the diffusion media of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. This method provides a series solution that is grid independent and only requires integration along a single boundary to solve the problem. The approach accounts for nonisothermal phenomena, two-phase flow, correct placement of the electronic potential boundary condition, and multilayer media. The method is applied to a cathode diffusion medium to explore the interplay between water and thermal management and performance, the impact of the rib-to-channel ratio, and the existence of diffusion under the rib and flooding phenomena.

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electrolytic Enrichment of Tritium with Solid Polymer Electrolyte for Application to Environmental Measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated electrolytic separation factors of hydrogen isotopes by SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) for application to environmental tritium analysis. The apparent separation factors {alpha}{sub a} for deuterium and {beta}{sub a} for tritium were determined as 3.5 {+-} 0.1 and 6.2 {+-} 0.5, respectively. The tritium enrichment of 8.4 times was achieved, when a 1000 ml of sample water was electrolyzed to about 60 ml. The chemical composition changes before and after the electrolysis were examined, showing an increase in H{sup +} and Na{sup +} concentrations and a decrease in Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}concentrations. F{sup -}, which was not contained in the sample water, was detected after electrolysis accompanying with a reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}. The memory of tritium and ions in the electrolysis cell after electrolysis was possible to be eliminated by washings with de-ionized water. Tritium concentrations of rain at Kumamoto, Japan were determined with a combination of the present electrolytic enrichment system and liquid scintillation counting.

Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nagao, Yusaku; Toyoshima, Takahiro [Kumamoto University (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces Title Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zormpa, Vasileia, Jaroslaw Syzdek, Xianglei Mao, Richard E. Russo, and Robert Kostecki Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 100 Issue 23 Date Published 05-2012 ISSN 0003-6951 Keywords electrochemical electrodes, graphite, high-speed optical techniques, laser beam effects, organic compounds, pyrolysis, solid electrolytes Abstract Direct chemical analysis of electrode/electrolyte interfaces can provide critical information on surface phenomena that define and control the performance of Li-based battery systems. In this work, we introduce the use of ex situ femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to probe compositional variations within the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Nanometer-scale depth resolution was achieved for elemental and molecular depth profiling of SEI layers formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte. This work demonstrates the unique ability of ultrafast laser spectroscopy as a highly versatile, light element-sensitive technique for direct chemical analysis of interfacial layers in electrochemical energy storage systems.

403

A Raman Spectrographic and Potentiometric Study of Aqueous Lithium and Potassium Acetate Complexation at Temperatures from 20 to 200 ?C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Raman spectra of aqueous NaOHCH3COOH solution containing either LiCl or KCl were collected at temperatures from 20 to 200 ?C. Interpretation of these spectra reveals significant aqueous LiCH3COO0 formation, ...

Patricia Fournier; Robert Gout; Eric H. Oelkers

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

September 25, 2006 Experimental pressure solution compaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 25, 2006 Experimental pressure solution compaction of synthetic halite/calcite aggregates by addition of hard particles. Sieved mixtures of calcite and halite grains are experimentally compacted in drained pressure cells in the presence of a saturated aqueous solution. The individual halite grains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Device for aqueous detection of nitro-aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a compact and portable detection apparatus for nitro-aromatic based chemical compounds, such as nitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene (TNT). The apparatus is based upon the use of fiber optics using filtered light. The preferred process of the invention relies upon a reflective chemical sensor and optical and electronic components to monitor a decrease in fluorescence when the nitro-aromatic molecules in aqueous solution combine and react with a fluorescent polycyclic aromatic compound. 4 figures.

Reagen, W.K.; Schulz, A.L.; Ingram, J.C.; Lancaster, G.D.; Grey, A.E.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

406

Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings  

SciTech Connect

Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(1) A194-A200 (2014). (1,716 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu have developed an improved lithium ion battery electrolyte containing a...

408

Design of PHEVs and Electrolyte Properties | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Modeling with Emphasis on Low Temperature Performance High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery Material High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries...

409

Simulating Nonuniform Properties in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN POLYMER-ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A. Z. Weber and J. Newmanvapor flow throughout all of the fuel-cell sandwich layers,of the membrane thickness in fuel-cell water management. The

Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Solid-state Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (<80 C), flammable, and volatile organic electrolytes. These organic based ...

Hu, Qichao

411

In Situ Study of Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

M. J. Bedzyk, "In Situ X-ray Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Graphene as a Model Li-ion Battery Anode," Chemistry of Materials, 24(15), 3038 -3043...

412

Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to power zero-emission electric vehicles, but they currently are gaining traction as backup power in aircraft and smart grid applications (3, 4). The electrolyte used in these batteries, however, hinders their use in large-scale applications...

Dominica H. C. Wong; Jacob L. Thelen; Yanbao Fu; Didier Devaux; Ashish A. Pandya; Vincent S. Battaglia; Nitash P. Balsara; Joseph M. DeSimone

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Success Stories: Solid Electrolyte Lithium Ion Batteries - Seeo, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid Electrolyte May Usher in a New Generation of Solid Electrolyte May Usher in a New Generation of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries For Vehicles With sky rocketing gasoline prices and exploding laptops, there could not have been a better time for a new rechargeable battery breakthrough. Enter Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) nanostructured polymer electrolyte (NPE). NPE is a solid electrolyte designed for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. The unique material was developed by LBNL researchers Nitash Balsara, Hany Eitouni, Enrique Gomez, and Mohit Singh and licensed to startup company Seeo Inc. in 2007. With solid financial backing from Khosla Ventures, located in Menlo Park, California, and an impressive scientific team recruited from LBNL, University of California, Berkeley, and the battery industry, Seeo is now

415

Paul trapping of charged particles in aqueous solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1]. Oxygen plasma treatment was...surrounding ionic atmosphere to the motion of...ii) Trapping with large fluctuations...V) Frequency (MHz) b q a i 1...with the surface area of the particle...V, and f=2.5 MHz, using the device...

Weihua Guan; Sony Joseph; Jae Hyun Park; Predrag S. Krsti?; Mark A. Reed

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Sonoelectrochemical (20 khz) production of hydrogen from aqueous solutions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There are various methods of producing Hydrogen. These include electrolysis, which this work is based upon, and steam reforming; currently the most commercially viable method. (more)

Symes, Daniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Adsorption studies of phthalic acid esters in aqueous solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

they are produced in large quantities and are frequently found in environmental samples. Montmorillonite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite, calcite, and a sediment sample were used as representative marine particulates. Both phthalic acid esters were adsorbed onto... and desorbed from the solid adsorbents and the glass test tubes used in the adsorption experiments . A study of the kinetics of phthal ate adsorption showed that equilibrium was attained after 12 hours. At equilibrium, the amount of phthalate bound to a...

Sullivan, Kevin Francis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

418

How to identify water from thickener aqueous solutions by touch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2008.4479912 ) 45 West, R. C. (ed.) 1970 Handbook of chemistry and physics . Boca Raton, FL: Chemical Rubber Co. 46 Tagami...2010.08.003 ) 54 Pashler, H. 2002 Stevens' handbook of experimental psychology, 3rd edn, pp. 537-583...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Reverse Osmosis for the Separation of Organics from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) has proved reliable and economically ... such effluents often contain organics as solvents. Reverse osmosis is very suitable for the treatment of... Its mod...

R. Rautenbach; I. Janisch

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS NaCl SOLUTIONS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

and uti1 ization of geothermal energy, petroleum recovery, desalination of sea water, and other energy systems involving water containing dissolved salts. brines contain a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Aging of Iron Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution: Effects on Structure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(by XPS, XRD, TEM, and bulk Fe0 content), and (ii) the reactivity of the particles (by carbon tetrachloride reaction kinetics and electrochemical corrosion potentials). Our...

422

Computer Modeling of crystalline electrolytes Lithium Thiophosphates and Phophosphates a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

th ECS Meeting ­ Montr´eal 2011 1 #12;Solid vs liquid electrolytes in Li ion batteries Solid;Example of solid electrolyte ­ thin film battery technology 219th ECS Meeting ­ Montr´eal 2011 3 #12;Li/3; ceramic · Li+ conductivity 10-3 S/cm; thermal activation energies 0.1-0.3 eV. 1 Bates et al, Solid State

Holzwarth, Natalie

423

Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on Primary Li-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nonaqueous electrolytes on the performance of primary Li-air batteries operated in dry air environment have been investigated. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between Li anode and water during the discharge process. The polarity of aprotic solvents outweighs the viscosity, ion conductivity and oxygen solubility on the performance of Li-air batteries once these latter properties attain certain reasonable level, because the solvent polarity significantly affects the number of tri-phase regions formed by oxygen, electrolyte, and active carbons (with catalyst) in the air electrode. The most feasible electrolyte formulation is the system of LiTFSI in PC/EC mixtures, whose performance is relatively insensitive to PC/EC ratio and salt concentration. The quantity of such electrolyte added to a Li-air cell has notably effects on the discharge performance of the Li-air battery as well, and a maximum in capacity is observed as a function of electrolyte amount. The coordination effect from the additives or co-solvents [tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and crown ethers in this study] also greatly affects the discharge performance of a Li-air battery.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

424

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

426

Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

427

Investigation of the semiconductoroxide electrolyte interface in GaAs utilizing electrolyte electroreflectance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) spectra of NGaAs in the vicinity of the E o transition (direct gap at k?=0). A pronounced interference phenomenon sensitive to the d c b i a s e l e c t r i c f i e l d has been observed which we identify with an exciton quenching effect within the semiconductor spacecharge region (SCR). We have utilized this excitonic feature to interferometrically probe the dynamic and steady?state properties of the SCR during electrochemical anodization procedures. The same EER spectra also exhibit FranzKeldysh oscillations the period of which is explicitly dependent on the a c e l e c t r i c f i e l d. Using these phenomena we have shown that the interfacial and oxide electric fields under steady?state conditions are just sufficient to continue growing the oxide in compensation for slow dissolution. If the dc bias voltage is suddenly reduced the SCR temporarily collapses due to transient effects which we attribute to very slow interface states in the oxide. These techniques are applicable to the study of the SCR in a variety of semiconductorelectrolyte systems as well as in the Schottky barrier configuration.

R. P. Silberstein; F. H. Pollak

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

Workshop on electrodes for flowing solution batteries. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical technology of aqueous secondary cells with flowing electrolyte solutions was the subject of a workshop sponsored by EPRI with the cooperation of DOE. The workshop was held in Tampa, Florida, 5-7 November 1979, and was attended by a select group drawn from advanced battery developers, government agencies, universities, and research organizations. The workshop general objectives were to look at the significant parameters believed to govern the performance of the two basic types of electrodes now in use; namely, a porous flow-through electrode (PFTE), and an impervious flow-by electrode. Progress, problems, and prospects were informally discussed. Brief critical reviews were given by session chairmen as a means of introducing each of the key topics (Current Distribution in FTPE, Conversion Efficiency, Segmented FTPE Studies, General Discussion on FTPF Parameters, Surface Activation, Application of FTPE to Waste Recovery, Exxon Zinc-Bromine Flow-By System, FTPE In NASA Redox Energy Storage, and Application of FTPE In Lockheed Zinc/Ferricyanide Redox System). The interaction of this diverse group of engineers and scientists was said by all to be of great benefit in widening understanding of the problems and possible future approaches to new work. The main needs for future work that were identified in the final discussion session among the participants were: (1) engineering analysis, (2) porous structures, (3) materials characteristics, and (4) chemical characteristics. In generally comparing flow-through to flow-by electrodes, there were some surprising differences arising from experimental results that did not fit conventional thinking.

Nanis, L.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

431

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Fuel Cell - Polymer Electrolyte  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Research Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Research Xiaoping Wang measures the stability of a platinum cathode electrocatalyst. Xiaoping Wang measures the stability of a platinum cathode electrocatalyst. One of the main barriers to the commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems, especially for automotive use, is the high cost of the platinum electrocatalysts. Aside from the cost of the precious metal, concern has also been raised over the adequacy of the world supply of platinum, if fuel cell vehicles were to make a significant penetration into the global automotive fleet. At Argonne, chemists are working toward the development of low-cost nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction--durable materials that would be stable in the fuel

433

Effects of proton-conducting electrolyte microstructure on the performance of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three kinds of proton-conducting electrolyte powder BaCe0.8Sm0.2O2.9 (BCS) with different microstructures are synthesized by three different methods: EDTA-citrate method EDTA-citrate and ball-milling method and hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the BCS powders and electrochemical measurements and impedance spectroscopy are employed to analyze electrical characteristics of the electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is found that the performance of electrolyte-supported SOFCs strongly depends upon the electrolyte microstructure which is dominated by the synthesis methods. At the operating temperature of 650?C the highest SOFC performance (80?mW/cm2) is obtained from the cell with nanostructured proton conducting electrolyte powder synthesized by the hydrothermal method while the lowest performance (17?mW/cm2) is the cell with the largest grain powder synthesized by the EDTA-citrate method without ball-milling treatment.

Jing Sui; Lei Cao; Qianqian Zhu; Liyan Yu; Qian Zhang; Lifeng Dong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 10?4 S cm{sup ?1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}?7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg?1 for low current drain.

Mishra, Kuldeep, E-mail: mishkuldeep@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad-201009, India and Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India); Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

436

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Abstract: It is well known that the stability of...

438

Treating electrolytic manganese residue with alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) from the electrolytic manganese industry is a solid waste containing mainly calcium sulfate dihydrate and quartzite. It is impossible to directly use the EMR as a building mat...

Changbo Zhou; Jiwei Wang; Nanfang Wang

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Dow Chemical, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, Argonne National Lab (ANL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), have developed the Advanced Electrolyte Model (AEM), a powerful tool that analyzes and identifies potential electrolytes for use in battery systems.

440

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, and Infrastructurein Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells Adam Z. Weber 1, * ,z andAs polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) make the transfer

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Mathematical modelling of the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......polymer electrolyte fuel cell A. A. Shah...polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The model explicitly...unwanted reactions (degradation), such as carbon...certain ranges of cell voltage). (5...performance of the fuel cell. We point......

A. A. Shah; Gwang-Soo Kim; K. Promislow

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, J.L.

1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

443

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethylene Carbonate in Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Guoyingof a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 %are an important part of Li-ion battery technology yet their

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems onto spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate its ability to remove phenol from aqueous solution, Jordanian {open_quotes}spent{close_quotes} oil shale, an abundant natural resource, has been used in an experimental adsorption study. Equilibrium of the system has been determined at three temperatures: 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C. The resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms are well represented by Frendlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms, as regressed from the experimental equilibrium data, are presented. Effects of solution pH (in the range of 3-11), in addition to effects of three inorganic salts (Kl, KCl, and NaCl), on the equilibrium isotherms were also investigated. The effects of pH in the presence of KI and NaCl were also investigated for a possible interaction between salts and solution pH. The initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous system studied ranges from 10 to 200 ppm. Experimental results show that while an acidic solution has no effect on the adsorption capacity of spent oil shale to phenol, a highly basic solution reduces its adsorbability. No sound effect was observed for the inorganic salts studied on the adsorption of phenol on spent oil shale. The experimental results show that there is no interaction between the pH of solution and the presence of salts. In spite of its ability to remove phenol, spent oil shale showed a very low equilibrium capacity (of an order of magnitude of 1 mg/g). Should the adsorption capacity of the shale be improved (by different treatment processes, such as grafting, surface conditioning), results of this study will find a direct practical implication in serving as {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} reference data for comparison purposes.

Darwish, N.A.; Halhouli, K.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Aqueous self-assembly of SDS@2b-CD complexes: lamellae and vesicles Lingxiang Jiang, Yu Peng, Yun Yan and Jianbin Huang*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aqueous self-assembly of SDS@2b-CD complexes: lamellae and vesicles Lingxiang Jiang, Yu Peng, Yun to be able to self-assemble into well-defined lamellar structures in concentrated aqueous solution membrane. Moreover, since the outer surface of SDS@2b-CD is hydrophilic, its self-assembly behavior, unlike

Huang, Jianbin

447

Aqueous and pyrochemical reprocessing of actinide fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processing of the nuclear fuel actinides has developed in two independent directionsaqueous processing and pyroprocessing. Similarities in the two processes, their...

L. Mac Toth Ph.D.; Walter D. Bond Ph.D.; Larry R. Avens Ph.D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Of Wheat Germ Oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this study is to investigate the aqueous enzymatic extraction of wheat germ oil. Four enzymes (Viscozyme L, Multifect CX 13l, Multifect CX (more)

Xie, Meizhen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous processing material Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aqueous humor. Collection and Processing of Aqueous Humor Aqueous humor... ... Source: Johnson, Mark - Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University Collection:...

450

First-principles simulations of extended structures in the lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolytes The structure of thin film battery2 Solid state electrolytes that are physically and chemically+xPO4-yNz with x = 3z -2y has been developed as a solid state electrolyte for Li ion batteries., J. of Solid State Chemistry 115, 313 (1995). 2. http://www.ms.ornl.gov/researchgroups/Functional/Battery

Holzwarth, Natalie

451

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy

452

Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

453

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

454

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

455

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

456

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

457

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

458

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

459

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

460

Membranes and separators for flowing electrolyte batteries-a review  

SciTech Connect

Flowing electrolyte batteries are rechargeable electrochemical storage devices in which externally stored electrolytes are circulated through the cell stack during charge or discharge. The potential advantages that flow batteries offer compared to other secondary batteries include: 1) ease of thermal and electrolyte management, 2) simple electrochemistry, 3) deep cycling capability, and 4) minimal loss of capacity with cycling. However, flow batteries are more complex than other secondary batteries and consequently may cost more and may be less reliable. Flow batteries are being developed for utility load leveling, electric vehicles, solar photovoltaic and wind turbine application. The status of flow batteries has recently been reviewed by Clark et al. The flowing electrolyte batteries place rigorous demands on the performance of separators and membranes. The operating characteristics of the iron/chromium redox battery were changed in order to accommodate the limitations in membrane performance. Low cost alternatives to the presently used membrane must be found before the zinc/ferricyanide battery can be economically feasible. The zinc/bromine battery's efficiency could be improved if a suitably selective membrane were available. It is anticipated that better and less costly membranes to meet these needs will be developed as more is learned about their preparation and performance.

Arnold, C.; Assink, R.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Phosphorous Computer Modeling of Crystalline Electrolytes: Lithium Thiophosphates and Phosphates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-search algorithm · Minimum-energy migration paths were determined via the construction of a weighted graph Results: Abstract Recently, lithium thiophosphate materials suitable for usage as solid electrolytes with PAW functionals generated using atompaw, and used in pwscf and abinit) · Formation energies

Holzwarth, Natalie

462

Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 10{sup ?3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N., E-mail: nallanis2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry-605014 (India); Venkateswarlu, M. [R and D, Amaraja batteries, Thirupathi-517501 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

463

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Catherine Chan & Lauren Isbell objectives Important variables that lead to results Conclusion #12;Basic Operation of a PEM Fuel Cell fuel cell? A flow channel? The importance of water management Experimental setup and methods Project

Petta, Jason

464

Corrosion and contact resistance measurements of different bipolar plate material for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different types of commercial stainless steels (SS316, SS310 and incoloy 800), poco graphite, composite graphite, titanium carbide, zirconium carbide and carbide base coating on aluminum substrate using thermal spray technique were evaluated as metallic bipolar plate in terms of Interfacial Contact Resistance (ICR) and corrosion resistance in a solution simulating the environment of a bipolar plate in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), 0.5 M H2SO4 and 200 ppm HF at room temperature. In addition, a comparison between graphite composites and carbide-based amorphous metallic coating alloy bipolar plate cost analysis. Results show that stainless steels have a high ICR and undergo corrosion in both anode and cathode due to the passive film formation. Moreover, although carbide-based alloy showed an ICR much less than composite graphite, their behaviour was not satisfactory in corrosive acidic medium.

Yue Hung; Hazem Tawfik; K.M. El-Khatib; Hammam El-Abd

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Effect of oleic acid plasticizer on chitosanlithium acetate solid polymer electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasticized polymer electrolytes composed of chitosan as the host polymer, oleic acid (OA) as the plasticizer and lithium acetate (LiOAc) as the doping salt were prepared by the solution cast technique. These complexes with different amounts of salts and plasticizers were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The highest ionic conductivity of the plasticized chitosanLiOAc was ?10?5 Scm?1 for the film containing 40.0 wt.% LiOAc and 10.0 wt.% of OA. Conductivity for the plasticized LiOAc-doped chitosan polymer was also studied as a function of temperature between 300 and 363 K. The plot of ln(?T) versus 103/T for each sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating the conductivity to be thermally assisted. XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques have been used for the structural studies.

M.Z.A. Yahya; A.K. Arof

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Negative Differential Electrolyte Resistance in a Solid-State Nanopore Resulting from Electroosmotic Flow Bistability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

negative differential resistance; nanopore; sensor; finite element simulation; electrical feedback and bistability ... The NernstPlanck equation governing the diffusional, migrational, and convective fluxes of K+ and Cl, the NavierStokes equation for low-Reynolds number flow engendered by the external pressure and electroosmosis, and Poissons equation relating the ion distributions to the local electric field were simultaneously solved to obtain local values of the fluid velocity, ion concentrations, electric potential, and ion fluxes. ... (39)In eq 1, ?d is the diffuse layer potential near the charged surface, c0 is the bulk concentration of a symmetric monovalent electrolyte, e is the absolute value of elementary charge (?1.60 1019 C), R is the gas constant, ? is the solution permittivity, T is the absolute temperature of 298 K, and kB is the Boltzmann constant. ...

Long Luo; Deric A. Holden; Henry S. White

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

467

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with uranium from mining and milling operations, radioactive wastes, and from nuclear accidents is a majorShort Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type

Ohta, Shigemi

468

Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? With its all-liquid design, this battery is much more efficient than today's rechargeable batteries, which use 80-90% of the space to hold

470

Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

471

Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS coreshell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling.

Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Electrolytic recovery of mercury enriched in isotopic abundance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of electrolytically extracting liquid mercury from HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Additionally there are disclosed two related techniques associated with the present invention, namely (1) a technique for selectively removing product from different regions of a long photochemical reactor (photoreactor) and (2) a method of accurately measuring the total quantity of mercury formed as either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

474

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Manor, PA); Richards, Von L. (Angola, IN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Power Control of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition to degrading performance (from a Nernst potential perspective), this depleted oxygen state could damage the electrocatalyst. ... Unfortunately, application of these advanced control methods will require the development of more sophisticated models, so as to reduce the model mismatch degradation resulting from the feed-forward characteristics inherent to these controllers. ... A math. model is developed to simulate the transient phenomena in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system. ...

Kevin C. Lauzze; Donald J. Chmielewski

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

476

Method for processing aqueous wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

Pickett, John B. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Martin, Hollis L. (Rt. 1, Box 188KB, McCormick, SC 29835); Langton, Christine A. (455 Sumter St. SE., Aiken, SC 29801); Harley, Willie W. (110 Fairchild St., Batesburg, SC 29006)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Mechanisms of Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanisms of Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil ... showed also that the inertial turbulent regime is inappropriate for emulsification of oils with viscosity ?500 mPa s, if drops of micrometer size are to be obtained. ...

K. A. Campbell; C. E. Glatz

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

478

Chemical Models for Aqueous Biodynamical Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proton inventory method was applied to the study of three processes: the viscous flow of water, the neutral hydrolysis of esters, and the exchange reaction between aqueous sodium ion and the carboxylic exchanger Amberlite ...

Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Effect of surface modification of bentonite nanoclay with polymers on its stability in an electrolyte solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently surface modification of clay minerals has become increasingly important for improving the practical applications of clays and clay minerals. In this research work surface modifications of bentonite nanoclay

A. Khoshniyat; A. Hashemi; A. Sharif; J. Aalaie; C. Duobis

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions: Temperature dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4- 1-azetidinyl benzonitrile P4C in ethyl acetate EA , acetonitrile ACN , and ethanol at several concentrations of lithium perchlorate LiClO4 has been investigated

Biswas, Ranjit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aqueous electrolyte solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a double layer capacitior includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two arts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

483

Temperature dependent surface electrochemistry on Pt singlecrystals in alkaline electrolyte: Part 3: The oxygen reductionreaction  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in alkaline electrolyte at 293-333K on Pt(hkl) surfaces by means of the rotating ring-disk electrode technique with solution phase peroxide detected at the ring electrode. The ORR on Pt(hkl) was found to be highly structure sensitive with activities increasing in the sequence (111) > (100) > (110)(1x2). Very similar apparent activation energies (37-45 {+-} 5 kJmol-1, {eta} = 0.35 V) were found on all three surfaces. Furthermore, at elevated temperature, significantly smaller amounts of peroxide are formed in agreement with enhanced peroxide reduction rates by increasing temperature. We found that the Tafel slopes on all three single crystal surfaces decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that the logi-E relationship is not represented by a classical Butler-Volmer expression. Based on the kinetic analysis of the polarization curves and from simulations of logi-E curves, we propose that the rate of the ORR on Pt(hkl) in alkaline solution is mainly determined by the potential/temperature dependent surface coverage by OH{sub ad}. We propose two modes of action of the OH{sub ad}: (i) OH{sub ad} blocks the adsorption of O{sub 2} on active platinum sites; and (ii) OH{sub ad} alters the adsorption energy of intermediates which are formed during the ORR on Pt sites.

tom.schmidt@psi.ch

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II; Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

485

Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

486

Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Slides presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton" on May 23, 2011.

487

Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording of the webinar, Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton, originally presented on May 23, 2011.

488

Microstructure and properties of barium cerate based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Barium cerate based ceramics have been widely reported to have high ionic conductivity and hold promise as electrolyte materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC`s). Samples of niobium-doped barium cerate have been produced with a variety of microstructures. Many parameters affecting the final microstructure of the electrolyte materials have been systematically investigated. The conductivity of the electrolyte materials produced have been studied using impedance spectroscopy to understand the effect of microstructure on the desired properties of barium cerate based electrolytes.

Rauch, W.L.; Liu, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

489

The mechanism of HF formation in LiPF6-based organic carbonate electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithium ion battery electrolytes upon thermal aging werethermal degradation of LiPF 6 at 50C in a lithium ion battery

Lux, Simon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

much greater thermal The passivation of aluminum in batterybattery electrolytes, LiPF 6 does have some shortcomings. In particular, the thermal

Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Advances in water electrolysis technology with emphasis on use of the solid polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efforts to improve water electrolysis technology are being made using three promising ... ) development of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysers, (b) increasing the operating temperature of alkaline...

P. W. T. Lu; S. Srinivasan

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted electrolyte cell Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modelica This presentation will describe... a dynamic and spatially distributed (quasi 2- dimensional) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell... model that has been created...

493

Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Downs, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA); King, Robert B. (Westlake, OH)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

A study of structure and dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions using flow birefringence measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stress optical data from polyelectrolytes (sodium polystyrenesulfonate) in aqueous solutions have been determined using flow birefringence. The stress optical rule was found to be violated in the semidilute unentangled concentration regime...

Chen, Shih Ping

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

495

Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production technologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003. The operating specifications of commercially available electrolyzers from five manufacturers, i.e., Stuart, Teledyne, Proton, Norsk Hydro, and Avalence, are summarized. Detailed economic analyses of three systems for which cost and economic data were available were completed. The contributions of the cost of electricity, system efficiency, and capital costs to the total cost of electrolysis are discussed.

Ivy, J.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production technologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003. The operating specifications of commercially available electrolyzers from five manufacturers, i.e., Stuart, Teledyne, Proton, Norsk Hydro, and Avalence, are summarized. Detailed economic analyses of three systems for which cost and economic data were available were completed. The contributions of the cost of electricity, system efficiency, and capital costs to the total cost of electrolysis are discussed.

Ivy, J.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Cation Transport in Polymer Electrolytes: A Microscopic Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microscopic theory for cation diffusion in polymer electrolytes is presented. Based on a thorough analysis of molecular dynamics simulations on PEO with LiBF$_4$ the mechanisms of cation dynamics are characterised. Cation jumps between polymer chains can be identified as renewal processes. This allows us to obtain an explicit expression for the lithium ion diffusion constant D_{Li} by invoking polymer specific properties such as the Rouse dynamics. This extends previous phenomenological and numerical approaches. In particular, the chain length dependence of D_{Li} can be predicted and compared with experimental data. This dependence can be fully understood without referring to entanglement effects.

A. Maitra; A. Heuer

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

498

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

499

Coulometric determination of americium in acetonitrile solution of phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

A procedure was developed for the coulometric determination of americium using the electrochemical couple Am(IV)-Am(III). An acetonitrile solution of 0.3-0.2 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was used as the electrolyte. Americium can be determined in the presence of large amounts of Cm, Pu, Ce, and other impurities; limit of detection approx. 10 ..mu..g.

Perevalov, S.A.; Kulyakov, Yu.M.; Lebedev, I.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

1986-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

500

State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technical Assistance Technical Assistance Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions to someone by E-mail Share State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Facebook Tweet about State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Twitter Bookmark State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Google Bookmark State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Delicious Rank State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Digg Find More places to share State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on AddThis.com... Strategic Energy Planning Energy Policies & Programs Financing Financing Overview Financing Program Market Segments Energy Data Management Energy Technologies