Sample records for aqueous electrolyte solutions

  1. Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    industrial contexts. For example, capillary failure in the context of CO2 geological storage is, to a large model based on the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Pitzer theory is described and used water. The model predictions are in good agreement with the surface tension data for 1:1 electrolytes

  2. Theoretical analysis of aqueous solutions of mixed strong electrolytes by a smaller-ion shell electrostatic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraenkel, Dan, E-mail: dfraenkel@eltronresearch.com [Eltron Research and Development Inc., 4600 Nautilus Court South, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Eltron Research and Development Inc., 4600 Nautilus Court South, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the great importance of mixed electrolytes in science and technology, no compelling theoretical explanation has been offered yet for the thermodynamic behavior of such systems, such as their deviation from ideality and the variation of their excess functions with ionic composition and concentration. Using the newly introduced Smaller-ion Shell treatment – an extension of the Debye–Hückel theory to ions of dissimilar size (hence DH–SiS) – simple analytic mathematical expressions can be derived for the mean and single-ion activity coefficients of binary electrolyte components of ternary ionic systems. Such expressions are based on modifying the parallel DH–SiS equations for pure binary ionic systems, by adding to the three ion-size parameters – a (of counterions), b{sub +} (of positive coions), and b{sub ?} (of negative coions) – a fourth parameter. For the (+ + ?) system, this is “b{sub ++},” the contact distance between non-coion cations. b{sub ++} is derived from fits with experiment and, like the other b’s, is constant at varying ion concentration and combination. Four case studies are presented: (1) HCl–NaCl–H{sub 2}O, (2) HCl–NH{sub 4}Cl–H{sub 2}O, (3) (0.01 M HX)–MX–H{sub 2}O with X = Cl, Br, and with M = Li, Na, K, Cs, and (4) HCl–MCl{sub n}–H{sub 2}O with n = 2, M = Sr, Ba; and n = 3, M = Al, Ce. In all cases, theory is fully consistent with experiment when using a of the measured binary electrolyte as the sole fitting parameter. DH–SiS is thus shown to explain known “mysteries” in the behavior of ternary electrolytes, including Harned rule, and to adequately predict the pH of acid solutions in which ionized salts are present at different concentrations.

  3. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  4. Anomalous pH Dependent Stability Behavior of Surfactant-Free Nonpolar Oil Drops in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    . In this study, we investigated the interaction across an aqueous thin film between fluorocarbon with a higher refractive index than water, and a fluorocarbon oil (perfluoropentane, C5F12), a liquid will be attractive for the hydrocarbon oil and repulsive for the fluorocarbon oil. Traditional methods

  5. Physical property parameter set for modeling ICPP aqueous wastes with ASPEN electrolyte NRTL model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous waste evaporators at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are being modeled using ASPEN software. The ASPEN software calculates chemical and vapor-liquid equilibria with activity coefficients calculated using the electrolyte Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model for local excess Gibbs free energies of interactions between ions and molecules in solution. The use of the electrolyte NRTL model requires the determination of empirical parameters for the excess Gibbs free energies of the interactions between species in solution. This report covers the development of a set parameters, from literature data, for the use of the electrolyte NRTL model with the major solutes in the ICPP aqueous wastes.

  6. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  7. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

  8. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiegel, Ella F. (Louisville, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  9. Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped lixmnyoz

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (5801 Eubank, N.E., Apt. #97, Albuquerque, NM 87111); Voigt, James A. (187 Aaramar La., Corrales, NM 87048)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li.sub.x Mn.sub.y O.sub.z precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder.

  10. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  11. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery dominate commercial lithium battery applications in which the major consideration is the specific energy. The use of aqueous electrolytes in lithium battery systems was pioneered by the Dahn group,7-10 which

  12. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibagon, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid@is.mpg.de; Bier, Markus, E-mail: bier@is.mpg.de; Dietrich, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  13. Nanoscale heterogeneity at the aqueous electrolyte-electrode interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David T. Limmer; Adam P. Willard

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal emergent properties of hydrated electrode interfaces that while molecular in origin are integral to the behavior of the system across long times scales and large length scales. Specifically, we describe the impact of a disordered and slowly evolving adsorbed layer of water on the molecular structure and dynamics of the electrolyte solution adjacent to it. Generically, we find that densities and mobilities of both water and dissolved ions are spatially heterogeneous in the plane parallel to the electrode over nanosecond timescales. These and other recent results are analyzed in the context of available experimental literature from surface science and electrochemistry. We speculate on the implications of this emerging microscopic picture on the catalytic proficiency of hydrated electrodes, offering an new direction for study in heterogeneous catalysis at the nanoscale.

  14. Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution...

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    Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using...

  15. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  16. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Yan-Chun; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observat...

  17. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Xiang Luo; Yun-Zhao Xing; Yan-Chun Ling; Alfred Kleinhammes; Yue Wu

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

  18. Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    371-411. Debye, P. and Huckel, E., (1923) PhysikZ., 24, 185 Pitzer, K.S. (1973) Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. I. Theoretical Basis and General Equations, J. Phys. Chem., 77,...

  19. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard (West Paducah, KY); Seltzer, Steven F. (Paducah, KY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  20. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  1. aqueous rare-earth electrolyte: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous rare-earth electrolyte First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Hydrothermal transport...

  2. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  3. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  4. aqueous solution combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite membranes; Combustion synthesis; Membrane microstructure; Sintering; Oxygen selective Mukasyan, Alexander 6 Explosivity Conditions of Aqueous Solutions and L....

  5. Structure and transport of aqueous electrolytes: From simple halides to radionuclide ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartkamp, Remco, E-mail: hartkamp@mit.edu; Coasne, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.coasne@enscm.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, CNRS (UMR 5253), Université Montpellier 2, ENSCM, 8 rue de l’Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); MultiScale Material Science for Energy and Environment, CNRS/MIT (UMI 3466), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular simulations are used to compare the structure and dynamics of conventional and radioactive aqueous electrolytes: chloride solutions with sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, and strontium. The study of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} is important because these radioactive ions can be extremely harmful and are often confused by living organisms for K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, respectively. Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Sr{sup 2+} are strongly bonded to their hydration shell because of their large charge density. We find that the water molecules in the first hydration shell around Na{sup +} form hydrogen bonds between each other, whereas molecules in the first hydration shell around Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} predominantly form hydrogen bonds with water molecules in the second shell. In contrast to these three ions, K{sup +} and Cs{sup +} have low charge densities so that they are weakly bonded to their hydration shell. Overall, the structural differences between Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} are small, but the difference between their coordination numbers relative to their surface areas could potentially be used to separate these ions. Moreover, the different decays of the velocity-autocorrelation functions corresponding to these ions indicates that the difference in mass could be used to separate these cations. In this work, we also propose a new definition of the pairing time that is easy to calculate and of physical significance regardless of the problem at hand.

  6. Refractive indexes of aqueous LiBr solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R. (Energy Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the refractive indexes of water-lithium bromide solutions were measured in the temperature range from 5.0 to 80.0 {degrees}C and in the range of salt concentrations from 0.00 (deionized water) to 58.90 mass %. An electrolyte solution of LlBr in water was chosen for study because of its wide use as an absorption chiller fluid. The concentration of LlBr aqueous solution was determined by argentimetric titration using tetrabromofluoresceln (Eosin) as an adsorption indicator and was checked at a few discrete concentrations (10.06, 20.30, and 58.90 mass % LlBr) against the values obtained by gravimetric analysis. The deviation between values obtained using these two techniques was found to be less than 0.27 mass %. The refractive indexes are shown to represent a reliable and convenient way of measuring the concentration of salt (or water) in LlBr solutions with accuracies of {plus minus}0.3 mass % salt.

  7. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  8. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

  9. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria in acid gas: Aqueous alkanolamine systems using the electrolyte-NRTL equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M.; Rochelle, G.T. (Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (US)); (Peng, X. (Sinopen Beijing Design Institute (US)); Chen, C.C. (Aspen Technology, Inc. TX (US)))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a thermodynamically-consistent model is developed for representing vapor-liquid equilibria in the acid gas (H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/)-alkanolamine-water system. The model accounts for chemical equilibria in a rigorous manner. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, treating both long-range ion-ion interactions and short-range interactions between all true liquid phase species. Both water and alkanolamine are treated as solvents. Adjustable parameters of the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, representing short-range binary interactions, are fitted primarily on binary and ternary system VLE data. Calculated vapor pressures of H/sub 2/S or CO/sub 2/ over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine or diethanolamine generally agree with published experimental data within 10 percent over the temperature range 25-120{sup 0}C. No more than two additional parameters are adjusted on quartenary system VLE data to provide a good representation of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ vapor pressures over the same alkanolamine solutions.

  10. Phase behavior of DODAB aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronov, V. P.; Kuryakov, V. N.; Muratov, A. R., E-mail: muratov@ogri.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Oil and Gas Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase behavior of DODAB aqueous solution, prepared without sonication, was studied by adiabatic scanning calorimetry. Measurements revealed four phase transitions with the temperatures 35.2, 39.6, 44.6, and 52.4 Degree-Sign C at heating and one transition at the temperature 40.4 Degree-Sign C at cooling. The first three transitions at heating occur in unilamellar vesicles. The first and third transitions correspond to the subgel-gel and gelliquid phase transitions, corresponding enthalpy jumps are equal to 33 and 49 kJ/mol. The second transition appears after some aging and is similar to gel-ripple phase transition in a DPPC solution, with the enthalpy jump under the transition exceeding 7.4 kJ/mol. The transition occurs in unilamellar vesicles. The transition at the temperature 52.4 Degree-Sign C occurs in another subsystem of the solution, which we believe to be multilamellar vesicles. The enthalpy jump at this transition is equal to 97 kJ/mol, and data analysis suggests that this is a subgel-liquid transition. The phase transition at cooling is the liquid-gel transition in unilamellar vesicles. During the measurements, a slow evolution of the solution occurs, consisting in a change of concentrations of unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles. This transformation mainly occurs at low temperatures.

  11. aqueous solution studied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dispersion of chemical shifts indicated 6 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  12. aqueous solutions studied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dispersion of chemical shifts indicated 6 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  13. aqueous solutions decoration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrosoluble Polymers in Aqueous Solutions: Decoration Versus Bridging. a Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: In this paper we examine the...

  14. aqueous solution chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  15. apparatus aqueous solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  16. aqueous solution route: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  17. anaerobic aqueous solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  18. aqueous solution electron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  19. antibiotic aqueous solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  20. aqueous solutions gamma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  1. aqueous benzene solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  2. aqueous libr solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  3. aqueous solutions experimental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  4. aqueous solution importance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  5. aqueous solution mineral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  6. aqueous methanol solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  7. aqueous alkaline solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  8. aqueous solutions part: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  9. aqueous solutions application: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  10. aqueous solution investigations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  11. aqueous solution method: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  12. aqueous nitrate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  13. aqueous solution formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  14. aqueous solution extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  15. aqueous solution extractions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  16. aqueous methanol solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  17. alkaline aqueous solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  18. aqueous alkaline solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  19. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  20. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  1. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  2. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore »the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  3. aqueous oleic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Base, and Salt Solutions Chemistry Websites Summary: view of the structure of the airsolution interface of aqueous electrolytes containing monovalent. The behavior of acids is...

  4. aqueous electrolyte solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    swelling with a water content beyond 80%. Isotope exchange studies using ZNa, K, and aeCl indicated the existence of an intermediate rate constant and compartment which varied...

  5. aqueous electrolyte solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    swelling with a water content beyond 80%. Isotope exchange studies using ZNa, K, and aeCl indicated the existence of an intermediate rate constant and compartment which varied...

  6. aqueous nacl solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  7. aqueous nonelectrolyte solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  8. aqueous solution yucca: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  9. aqueous solution irradiated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  10. aqueous solutions irradiated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  11. aqueous alkanol solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  12. aqueous solutions phthalic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  13. aqueous solutions issledovanie: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  14. aqueous solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  15. aqueous alkanolamine solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  16. aqueous thiocyanate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  17. aqueous solutions salicylic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  18. aqueous solution complexacao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  19. aqueous solutions korroziya: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  20. aqueous perchlorate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  1. aqueous cyanide solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  2. aqueous solution promoted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  3. aqueous ampicillin solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  4. aqueous solutions affected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  5. aqueous hydroxide solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  6. aqueous licl solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  7. aqueous nacl solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  8. aqueous fissile solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  9. aqueous borate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  10. aqueous solutions selection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relation Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 5 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  11. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  12. The rheology of oxide dispersions and the role of concentrated electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, Simon; Tindley, Amy [Leeds University/Nexis Solutions URA in Particle Science and Technology, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability control of particulate dispersions is critical to a wide range of industrial processes. In the UK nuclear industry, significant volumes of waste materials arising from the corrosion products of Magnox fuel rods currently require treatment and storage. The majority of this waste is present as aqueous dispersions of oxide particulates. Treatment of these dispersions will require a variety of unit operations including mobilisation, transport and solid- liquid separation. Typically these processes must operate across a narrow optimal range of pH and the dispersions are, almost without exception, found in complex electrolyte conditions of high overall concentration. Knowledge of the behaviour of oxides in various electrolyte conditions and over a large pH range is essential for the efficient design and control of any waste processing approach. The transport properties of particle dispersions are characterised by the rheological properties. It is well known that particle dispersion rheology is strongly influenced by particle-particle interaction forces, and that particle-particle interactions are strongly influenced by adsorbed ions on the particle surfaces. Here we correlate measurements of the shear yield stress and the particle zeta potentials to provide insight as to the role of ions in moderating particle interactions. The zeta potential of model TiO{sub 2} suspensions were determined (Colloidal Dynamics Zeta Probe) over a range of pH for a series of alkali metal halides and quaternary ammonium halides at a range of solution concentrations (0.001 M - 1 M). The results show some surprising co-ion effects at high electrolyte concentrations (>0.5 M) and indicate that even ions generally considered to be indifferent induce a shift in iso-electric point (i.e.p.) which is inferred as being due to specific adsorption of ions. The shear yield stress values of concentrated titania dispersions were measured using a Bohlin C-VOR stress controlled rheometer. The shear yield stress of a material is defined as the minimum applied shear stress required to induce flow. The yield stress vs. pH curves obtained reflected the shifts in i.e.p. seen in the zeta potential results. Interestingly, specific ion adsorption results in an unexplained increase in the value of the yield stress over that expected for simple systems with no such interfacial ion adsorption. Possible reasons for this effect such as ion-ion correlation effects are discussed. The importance of this increased attraction for the mobilisation of settled solids in an aqueous environment and especially the likely effects on the treatment of Magnox fuel waste materials is discussed. (authors)

  13. Dependence of the dielectric constant of electrolyte solutions on ionic concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavish, Nir

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dependence of the static dielectric constant of aqueous electrolyte solutions upon the concentration of salt in the solution and temperature. The model takes into account the orientation of the solvent dipoles due to the electric field created by ions, the ionic response to an applied field, and the effect of thermal fluctuations. The analysis suggests that the formation of ion pairs by a small fraction of disassociated ions can have a significant effect on the static dielectric constant. The model predicts the dielectric has the functional dependence $\\varepsilon(c)=\\varepsilon_w-\\beta L(3\\alpha c/\\beta)$ where $L$ is the Langevin function, $c$ is the salt concentration, $\\varepsilon_w$ is the dielectric of the pure water, $\\alpha$ is the total excess polarization of the ions and $\\beta$ is the relative difference between the water dipole moment and the effective dipole moment of ion pairs as weighted by the density of ion pairs and their structural rigidity. The functional form gives an extreme...

  14. Development of three-dimensional site-site Smoluchowski-Vlasov equation and application to electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, Kento [Department of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Sato, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirofumi@moleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Site-site Smoluchowski-Vlasov (SSSV) equation enables us to directly calculate van Hove time correlation function, which describes diffusion process in molecular liquids. Recently, the theory had been extended to treat solute-solvent system by Iida and Sato [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034506 (2012)]. Because the original framework of SSSV equation is based on conventional pair correlation function, time evolution of system is expressed in terms of one-dimensional solvation structure. Here, we propose a new SSSV equation to calculate time evolution of solvation structure in three-dimensional space. The proposed theory was applied to analyze diffusion processes in 1M NaCl aqueous solution and in lithium ion battery electrolyte solution. The results demonstrate that these processes are properly described with the theory, and the computed van Hove functions are in good agreement with those in previous works.

  15. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  16. Continuum Electrostatic Energies of Macromolecules in Aqueous Solutions Marco Scarsi, Joannis Apostolakis, and Amedeo Caflisch*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Continuum Electrostatic Energies of Macromolecules in Aqueous Solutions Marco Scarsi, Joannis evaluation of electrostatic energies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is useful for many problems for obtaining correct electrostatic energies of molecules in solution. In addition, it is demonstrated

  17. Study of anion adsorption at the gold--aqueous solution interface by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, S.; Mulvaney, P.; Grieser, F. (Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)); Zukoski, C.F. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The forces between a gold coated colloidal silica sphere and a pure gold plate have been measured in aqueous solution as a function of electrolyte concentration using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Forces in the presence of gold(III) chloride (HAuCl[sub 4]), sodium chloride, and trisodium citrate were recorded as a function of concentration. Each of these anion species is present during the formation of colloidal gold by the reduction of gold(III) chloride with trisodium citrate. In pure water the force between the gold surfaces was exclusively attractive. In sodium chloride or trisodium citrate solution a repulsive interaction was observed which is attributed to the adsorption of these anions at the gold/water interface. The observed interaction force in gold(III) chloride solution was always attractive, the surface potential never exceeding 20 mV. Data taken in aqueous solutions of citrate and chloride ions together suggested that the citrate ions were preferentially adsorbed to the surface of the gold. Addition of gold(III) chloride to the AFM liquid cell after the pre-adsorption of citrate anions caused the force of interaction to change from a repulsvie force to an attractive one initially as the gold(III) chloride was reduced to gold by the citrate anions. 33 refs., 11 figs.

  18. aqueous fluoride solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 M for KCl; 0.005, 0.01,... Buzatu, D; Buzatu, F D 2004-01-01 123 Isotherm Study Of The Biosorption Of Cu (II) From Aqueous Solution By Vigna Subterranea...

  19. Behavior of lithium alloy electrodes in organic electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Ishikawa, Masashi; Morita, Masayuki; Otani, Kenya [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical behavior of lithium (Li) alloy electrodes, Li-aluminum (Al) and Li-tin (Sn), has been investigated in propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte containing lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}). The content of Al or Sn in the Li-based alloy was in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 wt.%. The interfacial behavior between the alloy electrode/electrolyte was discussed on the basis of the results of an ac impedance analysis and charge-discharge cycling tests.

  20. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  1. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  2. VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150oC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozbek, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. , Fabuss, B.M. , "Viscosities of Binary Aqueous Solutionsof Pressure on the Viscosity of Aqueous NaCl Solutions inF.A. , Kestin, J. , "The Viscosity of NaCl and KCl Solutions

  3. Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency methanol (CH3OH) and aqueous methanol solutions were investigated using broad bandwidth sum frequency of methanol molecules at the air-liquid interfaces of neat methanol and aqueous methanol solutions. However

  4. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & Evaluate...

  5. Adsorption analysis of ammonia in an aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arman, B.; Panchal, C.B.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is carried out to determine the effects of the diffusional resistance on the rate of the adsorption of ammonia in an aqueous solution. A performance prediction model is developed to calculate the local rate of heat and mass transfer, including physical and thermodynamic property calculations of the mixture. An algorithm is developed for calculating the interfacial conditions. The local heat- and mass-transfer calculation is then incorporated into the performance prediction method for adsorption for a given geometry.

  6. Phase behavior and mesoscale solubilization in aqueous solutions of hydrotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepa Subramanian; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules that are too small to spontaneously form equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, referred to as clusters. In the presence of a hydrophobic compound, these clusters seem to get stabilized leading to the formation of long-lived, highly stable mesoscopic droplets, a phenomenon that we call mesoscale solubilization. In this work, we focus on the unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a nonionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), on addition of various hydrophobic compounds. Aqueous TBA solutions, in about 3 to 8 mol percent TBA concentration range and about 0 to 25 deg. C temperature range, show the presence of short-ranged (0.5 nm), short-lived (tens of picoseconds) molecular clusters which result in anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. These clusters are transient but do not relax by diffusion, thus distinctly different from conventional concentration fluctuations. In this concentration and temperature range, upon the addition of a third (more hydrophobic) component to TBA-water solutions, long-lived mesoscopic droplets of about 100 nm size are observed. In this work, we clarify the ambiguity behind the definition of solubility and elucidate the phenomenon of mesoscale solubilization. A systematic study of the macro and meso phase behavior of three ternary systems TBA-water-propylene oxide, TBA-water-isobutyl alcohol, and TBA-water-cyclohexane has been carried out. We differentiate between molecular solubility, mesoscale solubilization, and macroscopic phase separation. We have confirmed that practically stable aqueous colloids can be created from small molecules, without addition of surfactants or polymers. Such kind of novel materials may find applications in the design of various processes and products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and agrochemicals.

  7. THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Silvester, L.F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vol. I. Aq~leous Solutions Database D L S.1,. Philiips, F.V.Vol 1. Aqueous Solutions Database Sidney L. Phillips, FrankDatabase ..

  8. Preparation of thin ceramic films via an aqueous solution route

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chemical method of forming thin ceramic films has been developed. An aqueous solution of metal nitrates or other soluble metal salts and a low molecular weight amino acid is coated onto a substrate and pyrolyzed. The amino acid serves to prevent precipitation of individual solution components, forming a very viscous, glass-like material as excess water is evaporated. Using metal nitrates and glycine, the method has been demonstrated for zirconia with various levels of yttria stabilization, for lanthanum-strontium chromites, and for yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductors on various substrates.

  9. Study of the dehydrochlorination of DDT in basic media in sulfobetaine aqueous micellar solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, A.; Mar Graciani, M. del; Guinda, A.; Munoz, M.; Moya, M.L.

    2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of dehydrochlorination of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, DDT, with hydroxide ions has been studied in aqueous micellar solutions of N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammino-1-propane-sulfonate, SB3-14, and N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, SB3-16. A simple expression for the observed rate constant, k{sub obs}, based on the pseudophase model, could explain the influence of changes in the surfactant concentration on k{sub obs}. The kinetic effects of added electrolytes (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, and NaNO{sub 3}) on the reaction rate in SB3-14 micellar media have also been studied. They were rationalized by considering the binding of the anions, which come from the added salt, to the sulfobetaine micelles and their competition with the reactive hydroxide ions for the micellar surface. Conductivity measurements have been a helpful tool in the discussion of the kinetic effects of added salts and permitted the estimation of equilibrium constants for the distribution of the anions between the zwitterionic micelles and the aqueous phase.

  10. Technetium separation from aqueous solutions using polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, N.C.; Ball, J.R.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-soluble, metal-binding, polymers that possess functional groups with high selectivity for technetium have been developed for ground and waste waters remediation. When combined with ultrafiltration, a new homogeneous all aqueous-based technology for metals removal/recovery, called Polymer Filtration, becomes available. Technetium distribution coefficients experiments were obtained with the polymers from simple solutions, high nitrate simulants, and DSSF simulant. We have completed a preliminary proof-of-principal evaluation of Polymer Filtration technology for removal of technetium-99 from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant contaminated groundwater simulant.

  11. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  12. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous Lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husch, Tamara

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Li-Air battery is a very promising candidate for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-Air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-Air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li+ and O2- solubilities, but about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compoun...

  13. Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Deyu; Hu, Dehong; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the nature of the limited cycle life and poor energy efficiency associated with the secondary Li-O¬2 batteries the discharge products of primary Li-O2 cells at different depth of discharge (DOD) are systematically analyzed in this work. It is revealed that if discharged to 2.0 V a small amount of Li2O2 coexist with Li2CO3 and RO-(C=O)-OLi) in alkyl carbonate-based electrolyte. Further discharging the air electrodes to below 2.0 V the amount of Li2CO3 and LiRCO3 increases significantly due to the severe electrolyte decomposition. There is no Li2O detected in this alkyl carbonate electrolyte regardless of DOD. It is also found that the alkyl carbonate based electrolyte begins to decompose at 4.0 V during charging under the combined influences from the high surface area carbon, the nickel metal current collector and the oxygen atmosphere. Accordingly the impedance of the Li-O2 cell continues to increase after each discharge and recharge process indicating a repeated plating of insoluble lithium salts on the carbon surface. Therefore the whole carbon electrode becomes completely insulated only after a few cycles and loses the function of providing active tri-phase regions for the Li-oxygen batteries.

  14. Supplementary information1 S1: Estimation of the dissolved organic mass (DOM) concentrations in aqueous solutions3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    (1). APCI-MS measurements of aqueous solutions by direct47 infusion of liquid solutions-MS measurements of aqueous solutions by direct47 infusion of liquid solutions, in the negative mode (a

  15. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate...

  16. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using alum sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujana, M.G.; Thakur, R.S.; Rao, S.B. [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.] [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of treated alum sludge to remove fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated. The studies were carried out as functions of contact time, concentration of adsorbent and adsorbate, temperature, pH, and effect of concentrations of other anions. The data indicate that treated alum sludge surface sites are heterogeneous in nature and that fits into a heterogeneous site binding model. The optimum pH for complete removal of fluoride from aqueous solution was found to be 6. The rate of adsorption was rapid during the initial 5 minutes, and equilibrium was attained within 240 minutes. The adsorption followed first-order rate kinetics. The present system followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The loading factor (i.e., the milligram of fluoride adsorbed per gram of alum sludge) increased with initial fluoride concentration, whereas a negative trend was observed with increasing temperature. The influence of addition of anions on fluoride removal depends on the relative affinity of the anions for the surface and the relative concentrations of the anions.

  17. Adding salt to an aqueous solution of t-butanol: Is hydrophobic association enhanced or reduced?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, Dieter

    Adding salt to an aqueous solution of t-butanol: Is hydrophobic association enhanced or reduced experiments on aqueous salt solutions of amphiphilic t-butanol by Bowron and Finney Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 in the presence of salt, as it would be expected for purely hydrophobic solutes. T. Ghosh et al., J. Phys. Chem. B

  18. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions: Temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Gazi, Harun Al Rasid; Biswas, Ranjit [Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences and Unit for Nanoscience and Technology, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature dependence of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) in ethyl acetate (EA), acetonitrile (ACN), and ethanol at several concentrations of lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) has been investigated by using the steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The temperature range considered is 267-343 K. The temperature dependent spectral peak shifts and reaction driving force (-{Delta}G{sub r}) in electrolyte solutions of these solvents can be explained qualitatively in terms of interaction between the reactant molecule and ion-atmosphere. Time resolved studies indicate that the decay kinetics of P4C is biexponential, regardless of solvents, LiClO{sub 4} concentrations, and temperatures considered. Except at higher electrolyte concentrations in EA, reaction rates in solutions follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence where the estimated activation energy exhibits substantial electrolyte concentration dependence. The average of the experimentally measured activation energies in these three neat solvents is found to be in very good agreement with the predicted value based on data in room temperature solvents. While the rate constant in EA shows a electrolyte concentration induced parabolic dependence on reaction driving force (-{Delta}G{sub r}), the former in ethanol and ACN increases only linearly with the increase in driving force (-{Delta}G{sub r}). The data presented here also indicate that the step-wise increase in solvent reorganization energy via sequential addition of electrolyte induces the ICT reaction in weakly polar solvents to crossover from the Marcus inverted region to the normal region.

  19. Pervaporation separation of aqueous alcohol solution through asymmetric polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.R.; Liu, M.J.; Lai, J.Y. (Chung Yuan Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work the separation of aqueous alcohol mixtures through wet-phase inversion prepared polycarbonate membranes was studied by using the pervaporation process. The formation of asymmetric pervaporation membranes was discussed in terms of the presence of a nonsolvent in the casting solution, the polycarbonate concentration, and the kinds of coagulation media. The effects of feed composition, swelling degree, and the size of the alcohols on the pervaporation performances were investigated. The rate of liquid-liquid demixing increases with a decreasing number of carbon atoms of the alcohol coagulation medium. The permeation rate of the pervaporation process for the nonsolvent-added membrane was much higher than that of the membrane without nonsolvent additive. In binary alcohol mixtures, the permselectivities of small-sized alcohols through the asymmetric membrane are decided by two factors: preferential solubility of larger-sized alcohol and predominant diffusivity of small-sized alcohol. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Huang, Cheng; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The vanadium (IV) electrolyte solutions with various vanadium concentrations are studied by variable temperature 1H and 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure and kinetics of vanadium (IV) species in the electrolyte solutions are explored with respect to vanadium concentration and temperature. It was found that the vanadium (IV) species exist as hydrated vanadyl ion, i.e. [VO(H2O)5]2+ forming an octahedral coordination with vanadyl oxygen in the axial position and the remaining positions occupied by water molecules. This hydrated vanadyl ion structure is stable in vanadium concentrations up to 3M and in the temperature range of 240 to 340 K. The sulfate anions in the electrolyte solutions are found to be weekly bound to this hydrated vanadyl ion and occupies its second coordination sphere. The possible effects of these sulfate anions in proton and water exchange between vanadyl ion and solvent molecules are discussed based on 1H and 17O NMR results.

  1. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl{sub 2}, LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct-pressure measurements were also made at elevated temperatures. The project included multicomponent mixtures useful for verification of models, and a set of binary solutions with common ions (such as KNO{sub 3} + NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NaNO{sub 3} + Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and KNO{sub 3} + K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) needed for determination of the mixing parameters in the Pitzer ion-interaction model for mixtures. The results are compared with existing experimental results and model predictions.

  2. The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UVVisible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UV of aqueous nickel chloride complexes is important for understanding and quantitatively evaluating nickel for dissolved nickel in perchlorate, triflic acid and sodium chloride solutions at temperatures up to 250 °C

  3. A route to explain water anomalies from results on an aqueous solution of salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Corradini; M. Rovere; P. Gallo

    2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the possibility to detect the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in supercooled aqueous solutions of salts. Molecular dynamics computer simulations are conducted on bulk TIP4P water and on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in TIP4P water, with concentration c = 0.67 mol/kg. The liquid-liquid critical point is found both in the bulk and in the solution. Its position in the thermodynamic plane shifts to higher temperature and lower pressure for the solution. Comparison with available experimental data allowed us to produce the phase diagrams of both bulk water and the aqueous solution as measurable in experiments. Given the position of the liquid-liquid critical point in the solution as obtained from our simulations, the experimental determination of the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in aqueous solutions of salts appears possible.

  4. Structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, Manish [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Choudhury, Niharendu, E-mail: nihcho@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work describes a molecular dynamics simulation study of structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions in water. Structural properties of the system in terms of radial distribution functions and dynamical characteristics as obtained through velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacements have been analyzed. The results for radial distribution functions show the oxygen of water to form the first solvation shell at 2.4 Å around the uranium atom, whereas the hydrogen atoms of water are distributed around the uranium atom with the major peak at around 3.0 Å. Analyses of transport behaviors of ions and water through MSD indicates that the diffusion of the uranyl ion is much less as compared to that of the water molecules. It is also observed that the dynamical behavior of water molecules gets modified due to the presence of uranyl ion. The effect of increase in concentration of uranyl ions on the structure and dynamics of water molecules is also studied.

  5. Cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolas, E.

    1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The cathode comprises an active surface consisting of a metal oxide obtained by the thermal decomposition of a thermally decomposable compound of a metal chosen from amongst cobalt, iron, manganese or nickel. The cathode is particularly suitable for the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in cells with a permeable diaphragm.

  6. An investigation of a direct current method for measuring resistances of electrolytic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Jacob Russell

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    they vere in contact Cor4on and his co workers (6, 7, 8, 9, 10) published a series of papers on the oonduotivities of NaC1 ~ KGB KB' NaBrg KX ~ LiC1 and CaC1 in aqueous solutions, anhydrous methanol, an4 methanol-vater mixtures, These solutions vere... studied at various temperatures and conoentrations, employing the metho4 devised by Cunning and Cordon, Ei Elias an4 I, X+ Sohiff (ll) reported a modification of the method developed by Cunning and Cordon vhich exten4ed its application to eleotroiytes...

  7. aqueous three-component solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  8. aqueous na2s2o3 solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  9. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  10. Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathe, Mark

    The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation ...

  11. Concentration of light organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption on bound silicalite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Kathryn Louise

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCENTRATION OF LIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION ON BOUND SILICALITE A Thesis KATHRYN LOUISE FLORES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CONCENTRATION OF LIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION ON BOUND SILICALITE A Thesis by KATHRYN LOUISE FLORES Approved...

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  13. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K. (Ocean, NJ); Chin, Der-Tau (Winthrop, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  14. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  15. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  16. Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wider, Gerhard

    1 Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution V. Dötsch,1 G. Wider, G Hochschule- Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland Keywords Protein folding; Urea denaturation; Salt changing the solution conditions. In this paper we describe the influence of various salts or non

  17. aqueous solutions final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ml final solution 1000 1000 1000 Geosciences Websites Summary: To make 4 N HCl in 1 liter bottle from concentrated 1xQD Stock ml final solution 1000 1000 1000 ml Conc. Stock 511.5...

  18. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH); Dawson, William J. (Dublin, OH); McCormick, Buddy E. (Dublin, OH)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  19. Representing vapor-liquid equilibrium for an aqueous MEA-CO{sub 2} system using the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Watanasiri, S. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the work of Austgen et al., the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) model was applied in a thermodynamically consistent manner to represent the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA)-CO{sub 2} system with rigorous chemical equilibrium consideration. Special attention was given to the accurate VLE description of the system at both absorbing and stripping conditions relevant to most aqueous MEA absorption/stripping processes for CO{sub 2} removal. The influence from chemical equilibrium constants, Henry`s constant, experimental data, and data regression on the representation of the VLE of the system was discussed in detail. The equilibrium constant of the carbamate reversion reaction as well as important interaction parameters of the electrolyte NRTL model were carefully fitted to experimental data. A good agreement between the calculated values and the experimental data was achieved. Moreover, the model with newly fitted parameters was successfully applied to simulate three industrial cases for CO{sub 2} removal using a rate-based approach. The results from this work were compared with those using the model by Austgen et al.

  20. aqueous hcl solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alain Hedoux; Yannick Guinet; Marc Descamps 2010-05-28 18 To make 4 N HCl in 1 liter bottle from concentrated 1xQD Stock ml final solution 1000 1000 1000 Geosciences Websites...

  1. aqueous hcl solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alain Hedoux; Yannick Guinet; Marc Descamps 2010-05-28 18 To make 4 N HCl in 1 liter bottle from concentrated 1xQD Stock ml final solution 1000 1000 1000 Geosciences Websites...

  2. aqueous solution properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polarizable potential model (BSV) and the non polarizable simple point charge extended (SPCE) model. At T673 K we compare the water-solute pair correlation functions of the...

  3. Effect of salt identity on the phase diagram for a globular protein in aqueous electrolyte solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bostrom, Mathias; Tavares, Frederico W.; Ninham, Barry W.; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or NaSCN. For all cases, salt concentration is 0.2 M. StableEFFECT OF SALT IDENTITY ON THE PHASE DIAGRAM FOR A GLOBULARcannot account for the effect of salt identity on the phase

  4. aqueous ethanol solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ethanol solutions First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A swollen phase observed between the...

  5. aqueous ethanol solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ethanol solution First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A swollen phase observed between the...

  6. ADSORPTION OF INTAN-100 AT THE BITUMEN/AQUEOUS SOLUTION INTERFACE STUDIED BY SPINNING DROP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    1 ADSORPTION OF INTAN-100 AT THE BITUMEN/AQUEOUS SOLUTION INTERFACE STUDIED BY SPINNING DROP an experimental study on the adsorption behaviour of Intan-100, a non- ionic surfactant, at the bitumen Spinning Drop Tensiometer, bitumen, heavy water, Intan-100, Gibbs adsorption isotherm. #12;2 Introduction

  7. Oligomerization and Phase Transitions in Aqueous Solutions of Native and Truncated Human B1-Crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedek, George B.

    Oligomerization and Phase Transitions in Aqueous Solutions of Native and Truncated Human B1 Processing Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and Department that undergoes in vivo truncation at the N-terminus with aging. By studying native B1 and truncated B1N41, which

  8. Electropolymerization kinetics of pyrrole in aqueous solution on graphite felt electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otero, Toribio Fernández

    Electropolymerization kinetics of pyrrole in aqueous solution on graphite felt electrodes I. depends on the synthesis conditions, such as the nature of the solvent, the electro- synthesis method®c properties, the synthesis conditions play a vital role in the performance of the material. In this work, we

  9. Modeling the Removal of Uranium U(VI) from Aqueous Solutions in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include natural U deposits, mining, milling, and tailing operations and U.S. Department of Energy (DOEModeling the Removal of Uranium U(VI) from Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of Sulfate Reducing The reduction kinetics of soluble hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) to insoluble tetravalent U(IV) by both a mixed

  10. Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

  11. Modulation of Drug Transport Properties by Multicomponent Diffusion in Surfactant Aqueous Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    Modulation of Drug Transport Properties by Multicomponent Diffusion in Surfactant Aqueous Solutions ReceiVed July 1, 2008 Diffusion coefficients of drug compounds are crucial parameters used for modeling diffusion. A multicomponent diffusion study on drug-surfactant-water ternary mixtures is reported here

  12. Millimeter-scale contact printing of aqueous solutions using a stamp made out of paper and tape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    three-dimensional, microfluidic, paper-based analyt- ical devices (3D-mPADs) as ``stamps'' (eMillimeter-scale contact printing of aqueous solutions using a stamp made out of paper and tape This communication describes a simple method for printing aqueous solutions with millimeter-scale patterns

  13. Water Structure at Air/Acetonitrile Aqueous Solution Interfaces Yi Rao, Nicholas J. Turro, and Kenneth B. Eisenthal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Water Structure at Air/Acetonitrile Aqueous Solution Interfaces Yi Rao, Nicholas J. Turro organized beneath an acetonitrile monolayer at the air/acetonitrile aqueous solution interface? The method-like", and the non-hydrogen bonded "free" OD, responded differently as the acetonitrile bulk concentration

  14. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  15. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  16. Large Angular Jump Mechanism Observed for Hydrogen Bond Exchange in Aqueous Perchlorate Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Minbiao; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Odelius3, Michael; /Stockholm U.; Gaffney1, K.J.; /aff SLAC, PULSE

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism for hydrogen bond (H-bond) switching in solution has remained subject to debate despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies. We have applied polarization-selective multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy to investigate the H-bond exchange mechanism in aqueous NaClO{sub 4} solution. The results show that a water molecule shifts its donated H-bonds between water and perchlorate acceptors by means of large, prompt angular rotation. Using a jump-exchange kinetic model, we extract an average jump angle of 49 {+-} 4{sup o}, in qualitative agreement with the jump angle observed in molecular dynamics simulations of the same aqueous NaClO{sub 4} solution.

  17. Pulse radiolytic study of aqueous solutions containing nitrobenzene and methylviologen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahor, G.S.; Rabini, J.

    1985-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solutions containing 2-propanol, nitrobenzene (NB), and methylviologen (MVS ) have been studied in wide ranges of concentrations and pHs. The two radicals NB and MV are formed by the reactions of NB and MV S , respectively, with both the hydrated electron and the 2-propanol radical. Studies were carried out at 578 nm where only the MV absorbs light. The decay of MV follows a single second-order process whose rate constant depends on (NB), (H ), and (MVS ). The findings could be explained by a fast equilibrium between the viologen and nitrobenzene redox systems followed by a slow reaction between MV and either NB or its acidic form NBH. 17 references, 7 figures.

  18. Andrey G. Kalinichev Molecular Modeling of Aqueous Solutions and Substrate-Solution Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalinichev, Andrey G.

    (RDFs) o Mean square displacement (MSD) and self-diffusion coefficients o Velocity autocorrelation;2 · Hydrogen bonding in aqueous systems o Geometric, energetic and other criteria of H-bonding o Donating and accepting H-bonds; local tetrahedrality of water structure o Statistical analysis of H-bonding o Variations

  19. Evaluation of selected glove materials for worker hand protection against exposure to an aqueous aniline solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Marc Kendall

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOVE MATERIALS FOR WORKER HAND PROTECTION AGAINST EXPOSURE TO AN AQUEOUS ANILINE SOLUTION A Thesis by NARC KENDALL POWELL Approved... glove materials to enable a health or safety professional to justify his selection of protective gloves for aniline workers. The results of this research indicate that any of the four glove materials evaluated would be acceptable to use for hand...

  20. Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Nita

    Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution Michel R 16, 2005 We present 29 Si, 27 Al, and 67 Zn NMR evidence to show that silicate ions in alkaline, with aluminate (Al(OH)4 - ). Zincate reacts with monomeric silicate at pH 14-15 to form [(HO)O2Si-O-Zn(OH)3

  1. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zheng, Doug; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1,more »0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  2. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zheng, Doug [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  3. Megasonic cleaning of wafers in electrolyte solutions: Possible role of electro-acoustic and cavitation effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    -acoustic and cavitation effects M. Keswani a , S. Raghavan a,*, P. Deymier a , S. Verhaverbeke b a Materials Science Keywords: Wafer Cleaning Electrolyte Megasonic Electro-acoustic Cavitation Pressure amplitude a b s t r a c Waals adhesion forces. The effect of ionic strength on cavitation has been investigated through

  4. Biochemistry 1991, 30, 6563-6574 6563 The NMR Structure of Cyclosporin A Bound to Cyclophilin in Aqueous Solution+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wider, Gerhard

    in Aqueous Solution+ C. Weber,* G. Wider,* B. von Freyberg,* R. Traber,s W. Braun,* H. Widmer,s and K resonance spectroscopy using uniform lSN-or 13C-labelingof cyclosporin A and heteronuclear spectral editing

  5. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. (Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  6. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)] [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  7. H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+y AlxTi2?x SiyP3?yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

  8. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zheng, Doug [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  9. Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  10. An in situ x-ray spectroscopic study of Mo?{sup +} speciation in supercritical aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Hao [Missouri State University, Springfield, MO (United States); Mayanovic, Robert A. [Missouri State University, Springfield, MO (United States); Anderson, Alan J. [St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada); Meredith, Peter R. [St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ XRF and Mo K-edge XAS measurements were made on the ID20-B beam line at the APS on MoO? in 1 M H?O? aqueous solution, at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C. The samples were analyzed using a modified Bassett-type hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. Our XRF measurements show that MoO? is highly soluble in the supercritical H?O? aqueous fluid. Analysis of XAS spectra shows that the Mo?{sup +} ion exhibits consistent speciation in the H?O? aqueous solution at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C.

  11. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

  12. Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

    2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

  13. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in...

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery . Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for...

  15. Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease ABSTRACT The sorption and desorption of acetonitrile on K, Na, Ca, and Mg- trometer and the c-axis spacings of K, Ca, and Mg montmorillonite in the acetonitrile solutions were

  16. Adding Salt to an Aqueous Solution of t-Butanol: Is Hydrophobic Association Enhanced or Reduced?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek; Alfons Geiger; Momo Jeufack Herve; Dieter Suter

    2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent neutron scattering experiments on aqueous salt solutions of amphiphilic t-butanol by Bowron and Finney [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 89}, 215508 (2002); J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 118}, 8357 (2003)] suggest the formation of t-butanol pairs, bridged by a chloride ion via ${O}-{H}...{Cl}^-$ hydrogen-bonds, and leading to a reduced number of intermolecular hydrophobic butanol-butanol contacts. Here we present a joint experimental/theoretical study on the same system, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements. Both theory and experiment clearly support the more intuitive scenario of an enhanced number of hydrophobic contacts in the presence of the salt, as it would be expected for purely hydrophobic solutes [J. Phys. Chem. B {\\bf 107}, 612 (2003)]. Although our conclusions arrive at a structurally completely distinct scenario, the molecular dynamics simulation results are within the experimental errorbars of the Bowron and Finney work.

  17. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  18. Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

    2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

  19. Electrolyte effects in a model system for mesoporous carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, M. C.F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a variety of alkali halide aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with planar graphite slit pores are simulated using classical molecular dynamics. Size trends in structure and transport properties are examined by varying the choice of ions. The intermediate atomic weight ions within each group are found to diffuse faster than the larger or smaller ions. System dynamics are driven by changes in water hydration behavior and, specifically, by variations in the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule. Both the cation and the anion sequences demonstrate that confinement effects can significantly alter the expected trends of alkali halide electrolytes.

  20. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production of citric acid by fermentation, recovery of theof Citric Acid from Aqueous Fermentation Solutions byof citric acid was 1.1.1 Lactic Acid Currently, fermentation

  1. Energetics of the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution Interface: Approximate Conduction Band Edge Variations between H0 ) -10 and H-) +26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energetics of the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution Interface: Approximate). Here we report on the dependence of the conduction band edge energy of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

  2. Rotational Relaxation of Ionic Molecules in Electrolyte Solutions. Anisotropy Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurnikova, Maria

    and the metal cation. Conductivity measure- ments and ab initio electronic structure calculations are used structure and the solute dynamics occur for ionic solute molecules. Both experimental4-10 and theoretical11 of experimental studies, ab initio electronic struc- ture, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used

  3. Static light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering study on aggregated recombinant gelatin in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutter, Marc

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Static Light Scattering and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study on Aggregated Recombinant Gelatin in Aqueous Solution A. Ramzi 1, M. Sutter 2, W.E. Hennink 1, W. Jiskoot 1,2 1 Department of Pharmaceutics, UIPS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands...-angle neutron scattering (SANS) for detecting aggregation of recombinant gelatin in aqueous solution and to obtain structural information about the aggregates. Recombinant Gelatin: RG-15-His 5.6Ser 25.2Pro 1.9Lys 3.7His 34.2Gly 15.5Gln 5.2Glu 11.8Asn 1.2Ala...

  4. An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salt’s enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

  5. Determination of Henry's law constants of organics in dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, K.C.; Zhou, Zhou; Yaws, C.L.; Aminabhavi, T.M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate knowledge of Henry's law constants, H, or air/water partitioning coefficients are required to predict the behavior of organic compounds in the environment. In particular, when the compounds are relatively volatile and exhibit low solubility in water, air stripping may be a viable method for above-ground treatment. Henry's law constants of 15 volatile organic compounds in dilute aqueous solutions were measured by the procedure of equilibrium partitioning in a closed system. The method is based upon the measurement of the headspace concentration by gas chromatography. The compounds investigated included six halogenated hydrocarbons, four aromatic hydrocarbons, and five alkanes. The measurements were made at three temperatures between 25 and 45 C. The measured Henry's law constants compared well with the literature data of some liquids. The temperature dependence of Henry's law constant was also studied from the van't Hoff relation.

  6. Concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter in aqueous solutions of capped PEO chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Chaudhari; L. R. Pratt; M. E. Paulaitis

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence on volume fraction $\\varphi$ of the Flory-Huggins $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ describing the free energy of mixing of polymers in water is obtained by exploiting the connection of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ to the chemical potential of the water, for which quasi-chemical theory is satisfactory. We test this theoretical approach with simulation data for aqueous solutions of capped PEO oligomers. For CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ ($m$=11), $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ depends strongly on $\\varphi$, consistent with experiment. These results identify coexisting water-rich and water-poor solutions at $T$ = 300K and $p$ = 1atm. Direct observation of the coexistence of these two solutions on simulation time scales supports that prediction for the system studied. This approach directly provides the osmotic pressures. The osmotic second virial coefficient for these chains is positive, reflecting repulsive interactions between the chains in the water, a good solvent for these chains.

  7. Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned Layered Double Hydroxides: Batch and Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned Layered Double to humans. The focus of the present work is to do a systematic study of the adsorption of As by conditioned the dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH3. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been

  8. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  9. Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013 Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

  10. Nanofiltration of Electrolyte Solutions by Sub-2nm Carbon Nanotube Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Kim, S; In, J B; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Both MD simulations and experimental studies have shown that liquid and gas flow through carbon nanotubes with nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast. For applications in separation technology, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In this work, we use pressure-driven filtration experiments to study ion exclusion in silicon nitride/sub-2-nm CNT composite membranes as a function of solution ionic strength, pH, and ion valence. We show that carbon nanotube membranes exhibit significant ion exclusion at low salt concentration. Our results support a rejection mechanism dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.

  11. aqueous solution-gel syntheses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous Materials Science Websites Summary: Te quantum dot antennas Evren Mutlugun,1 Olga Samarskaya,1 Tuncay Ozel,1 Neslihan Cicek,1 Nikolai Gaponik,2@bilkent.edu.tr...

  12. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  13. Thermophysical Properties of Lithium Bromide + 1, 2-Propanediol Aqueous Solutions Solubility, Density and Viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubilities, densities and viscosities of lithium bromide (LiBr) + 1, 2-propanediol (HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3) aqueous solution (mass ratio of LiBr/HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3 = 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5) were measured in the mass fraction range from 0.30 to 0.75. Solubility measurements were performed by the visual method in the temperature range of (271.15 to 345.15) K. The density measurements were made using an automated vibrating tube density meter, and the viscosity measurements were carried out with an automated falling-ball viscometer in the temperature range of (293.15 to 363.15) K. The density and viscosity data were correlated with appropriate regression equations as a function of the mass fraction and temperature. The maximum average absolute deviations (AAD) between experimental and correlated data were 0.08% and 1.51% for densities and viscosities, respectively.

  14. New porous titanium–niobium oxide for photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaleshtori, Maryam Zarei, E-mail: mzarei@utep.edu [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Hosseini, Mahsa; Edalatpour, Roya [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Masud, S.M. Sarif [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Chianelli, Russell R., E-mail: chianell@utep.edu [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic activity of different porous titanium–niobium oxides was evaluated toward degradation of bromocresol green (BG) under UV light. A better catalytic activity was observed for all samples at lower pH. Catalysts have a stronger ability for degradation of BG in acid media than in alkaline media. - Highlights: • Different highly structured titanium–niobium oxides have been prepared using improved methods of synthesis. • Photo-degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) with nanostructure titanium–niobium oxide catalysts was carried out under UV light. • The photo-catalytic activity of all catalysts was higher in lower pH. • Titanium–niobium oxide catalysts are considerably stable and reusable. - Abstract: In this study, high surface area semiconductors, non porous and porous titanium–niobium oxides derived from KTiNbO{sub 5} were synthesized, characterized and developed for their utility as photocatalysts for decontamination with sunlight. These materials were then used in the photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) in aqueous solution using UV light and their catalytic activities were evaluated at various pHs. For all catalysts, the photocatalytic degradation of BG was most efficient in acidic solutions. Results show that the new porous oxides have large porous and high surface areas and high catalytic activity. A topotactic dehydration treatment greatly improves catalyst performance at various pHs. Stability and long term activity of porous materials (topo and non-topo) in photocatalysis reactions was also tested. These results suggest that the new materials can be used to efficiently purify contaminated water.

  15. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  16. Water Assisted Reaction Mechanism of OH- with CCl4 in Aqueous Solution - Hybrid Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Yin, Hongyun; Wang, Dunyou; Valiev, Marat

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The OH- (H2O) + CCl4 reaction in aqueous solution was investigated using the combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics approach. The reaction mechanism of OH- (H2O) + CCl4 consists of two concerted steps - formation of OH- in the favorable attack conformation via the proton transfer process, and the nucleophilic substitution process in which the newly formed OH- attacks the CCl4. The free energy activation barrier is 38.2 kcal/mol at CCSD(T)/MM level of theory for this reaction, which is about 10.3 kcal/mol higher than that of the direct nucleophilic substitution mechanism of the OH- + CCl4 reaction in aqueous solution.

  17. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Co 13 O 2 , LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 Anode: MCMB, LTO Electrolyte-1: 1.2M LiPF 6 ECEMC 37 with or without additive Electrolyte-2: fully or partially fluorinated...

  18. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermun Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    testing Cathode: LiNi13Mn13Co13O2 Anode: MCMB Electrolyte: 1.2M LiPF6 ECEMC 37 with or without additive - Separator: Celgard 2325 Voltage for cycling:...

  20. Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular diffusion in natural volcanic liquids discriminates between isotopes of major ions (e.g., Fe, Mg, Ca, and Li). Although isotope separation by diffusion is expected on theoretical grounds, the dependence on mass is highly variable for different elements and in different media. Silicate liquid diffusion experiments using simple liquid compositions were carried out to further probe the compositional dependence of diffusive isotopic discrimination and its relationship to liquid structure. Two diffusion couples consisting of the mineral constituents anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}; denoted AN), albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}; denoted AB), and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; denoted DI) were held at 1450°C for 2 h and then quenched to ambient pressure and temperature. Major-element as well as Ca and Mg isotope profiles were measured on the recovered quenched glasses. In both experiments, Ca diffuses rapidly with respect to Si. In the AB–AN experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 20 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Ca is much greater than in natural liquid experiments where D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 1. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 6 and the efficiency of isotope separation is between that of the natural liquid experiments and the AB–AN experiment. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Mg}/D{sub Si} ~ 1 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Mg is smaller than it is for Ca yet similar to that observed for Mg in natural liquids. The results from the experiments reported here, in combination with results from natural volcanic liquids, show clearly that the efficiency of diffusive separation of Ca isotopes is systematically related to the solvent-normalized diffusivity—the ratio of the diffusivity of the cation (D{sub Ca}) to the diffusivity of silicon (D{sub Si}). The results on Ca isotopes are consistent with available data on Fe, Li, and Mg isotopes in silicate liquids, when considered in terms of the parameter D{sub cation}/D{sub Si}. Cations diffusing in aqueous solutions display a similar relationship between isotopic separation efficiency and D{sub cation} =D{sub H 2 O} , although the efficiencies are smaller than in silicate liquids. Our empirical relationship provides a tool for predicting the magnitude of diffusive isotopic effects in many geologic environments and a basis for a more comprehensive theory of isotope separation in liquid solutions. We present a conceptual model for the relationship between diffusivity and liquid structure that is consistent with available data.

  1. Voltammetry and conductivity of a polyether-pyridinium room temperature molten salt electrolyte and of its polymer electrolyte solutions in polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyati, R.; Murray, R.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the synthesis, microelectrode voltammetry, and ionic conductivity of a new room temperature molten salt N-(methoxy(ethoxy){sub 2}ethyl)pyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (abbreviated as[Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][Tos{sup {minus}}]) and of its solution in a hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane. Both ionically conductive liquids (conductivity = 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}) exhibit voltammetric potential windows of about 1.5 V. The negative potential limit is determined by the reduction of the [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}] pyridinium species, with subsequent radical coupling to form a voltammetrically observed viologen dimer. The estimated diffusivities of the [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}] species, of a diethyleneglycol-tailed ferrocene redox solute studied, and by application of Nernst-Einstein relation to the ionic charge carriers, all lie in the 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/s range. Viscosities and glass transition thermal observations are reported as is the fit of the temperature dependencies of ionic conductivity in [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][Tos{sup {minus}}] and in [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][TOS{sup {minus}}]/PDMS mixtures to Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher predictions.

  2. Kinetic isotope and trace element partitioning during calcite precipitation from aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Laura Christina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that ensure constant calcium and carbonate ion activity byfilled with calcium and carbonate solutions. These syringessyringes containing calcium and carbonate solutions are

  3. The Effect of Salt on Protein Chemical Potential Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    The Effect of Salt on Protein Chemical Potential Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous as a function of salt concentration, (b) compare the behavior of the protein chemical potential for the three salts, which we found to be consistent with the Hofmeister series, and (c) discuss our thermodynamic

  4. Structure of gas-liquid interface and hydrophobic interface for urea aqueous solution: a computer simulation study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Meng

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Sci. U. S. A. 2006, 103, 18417- 18420 (57) Courtenay, E. S.; Capp, M. W.; Record, M. T. Protein Sci. 2001, 10, 2485-2497. (58) Soper, A. K.; Bruni, F.; Ricci, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 106, 247. 34 VITA Name: Meng Yu Address... STRUCTURE OF GAS-LIQUID INTERFACE AND HYDROPHOBIC INTERFACE FOR UREA AQUEOUS SOLUTION SYSTEMS: A COMPUTER SIMULATION STUDY A Thesis by MENG YU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  5. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  6. Electrochemistry at anthracene crystal/aqueous NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ solution interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leong, B.; Pope, M.; Steigman, J.

    1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Holes (radical cations) were injected into one face of an anthracene crystal slab and discharged at the other face, which was in contact with a neutral aqueous solution containing 1 M NO/sub 3//sup -/ or NO/sub 2//sup -/. Hole current densities (J) of up to 700 ..mu..A cm/sup -2/ generated a variety of surface oxidation products including anthraquinone, 9-nitroanthracene (9NA), oxanthrone, anthrone, bianthronyl (BA), and 9,10-dinitroanthracene with both NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NO/sub 2//sup -/ solutions. The amount of BA and 9NA increased as J/sup 2/. With increasing NO/sub 3//sup -/ concentration the amount of 9NA produced increased, while that of BA decreased. It was concluded that 9NA is made by cooperation of two holes on adjoining molecules at defect sites.

  7. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  8. The Influence of Pre-oxidation on the Corrosion of Copper Nuclear Waste Canisters in Aqueous Anoxic Sulphide Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.M.; Qin, Z.; Wren, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W. [Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, N6A5B7 (Canada)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scandinavian/Canadian high-level nuclear waste repository conditions are expected to evolve from initially warm and oxic to eventually cool and anoxic. During the warm, oxic period corrosion products will accumulate on the container surface. These deposits could impede the reaction of Cu with aqueous sulphide, the only reaction that could lead to the significant accumulation of additional corrosion damage under the long-term anoxic conditions. The kinetics of the reaction of Cu with aqueous sulphide solutions have been studied using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. Corrosion potential measurements were used to follow the evolution of the surface as oxides/hydroxides were converted to sulphides in the sulphide concentration range 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} mol/L. Changes in composition were followed by in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Of critical importance is whether or not a period of pre-oxidation of a Cu container surface can prevent subsequent reaction of the surface with remotely produced sulphide. (authors)

  9. The Breeding Blanket Interface (BBI): Recent results for the solid breeder and the aqueous salt solution blanket concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.; Enoeda, M.; Okuno, K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos is a full-scale facility dedicated to testing tritium processing for fusion reactors. We are involved in a study of adding a Breeder Blanket Interface (BBI) to the TSTA. The BBI is to test the processing required for the tritium output streams for the various fusion reactor breeder blankets. In the current phase of the study, we are evaluating the characteristics of the output from various breeding blankets types. Emphasis is placed on defining the output stream with respect to H/T ratio, impurity content, and radionuclide content. Reported herein is an assessment for two blanket concepts: solid breeder blanket (ceramic, Li{sub 2}O), and aqueous salt solution. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. User's guide to PROTOCOL, a numerical simulator for the dissolution reactions of inorganic solids in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, G.; Jackson, D.D.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a user's manual for PROTOCOL, a comprehensive coupled kinetic/equilibrium computer program for analyzing the dissolution reactions of solids with aqueous solutions, specifically applied to the potential corrosion of vitrified nuclear waste by groundwater. The capabilities and available options are summarized as well as instructions for setting up and running problems. Also described in this report and included in the PROTOCOL software package are MASTER, a master file of species thermodynamic data, MANEQL, a preprocessor program and POSTP, a postprocessor. POSTP provides offline plotting using the CRAY-1 DISSPLA 9.0 graphics library. PROTOCOL is operational on the CDC-7600 and CRAY-1 computers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 7 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions by La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasay, Syed Abdul; Tokunaga, Shuzo [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraka (Japan); Park, S.W. [Keimyung Univ., Daegu City (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New adsorbents, La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina, were prepared for the removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions. A commercially available alumina was impregnated with La(III) or Y(III) ions by the adsorption process. The change in the surface charge due to the impregnation was measured by acid/base titration. The adsorption rate and the capacity of the alumina for La(III) and Y(III) ions were determined. The adsorption characteristics of the La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina and the original alumina for fluoride, phosphate, arsenate and selenite ions were analyzed under various conditions. The pH effect, dose effect, and kinetics were studied. The removal selectivity by the impregnated alumina was in the order fluoride > phosphate > arsenate > selenite. The impregnated alumina has been successfully applied for the removal of hazardous anions from synthetic and high-tech industrial wastewaters.

  12. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of solubilization of tributyl phosphate in aqueous solutions of L64 Pluronic triblock copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Causse; Julian Oberdisse; Jacques Jestin; Serge Lagerge

    2010-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the solubilization behaviour of tributylphosphate (TBP) in aqueous solutions of L64-Pluronics, using light and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Varying the temperature and the oil-content, the system presents a non trivial phase behaviour. In particular, at 308K, a first solubilization followed by an emulsification failure and a resolubilization is found. We have measured the microstructure by SANS and characterized the microemulsion droplet core-size, corona-thickness, polydispersity, and interactions. It is shown that at low oil content, the system is made of small swollen micelles. After the phase separation, the resolubilization is carried by larger oil droplets decorated by copolymer. From specific surface measurements at large angles, a surprising change in surfactant conformation is found to accompany this morphological evolution which is also supported by previous results obtained from 1H NMR experiments. In independent measurements, our structural modelling is confirmed using contrast-variation SANS.

  13. Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskin, David J

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

  14. Urea-Functionalized M4L6 Cage Receptors: Self-Assembly, Dynamics, and Anion Recognition in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extensive study of a novel class of de novo designed tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} (M = Ni, Zn) cage receptors, wherein internal decoration of the cage cavities with urea anion-binding groups, via functionalization of the organic components L, led to selective encapsulation of tetrahedral oxoanions EO{sub 4}{sup -} (E = S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, n = 2; E = P, n = 3) from aqueous solutions, based on shape, size, and charge recognition. External functionalization with tBu groups led to enhanced solubility of the cages in aqueous methanol solutions, thereby allowing for their thorough characterization by multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 77}Se) and diffusion NMR spectroscopies. Additional experimental characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, as well as theoretical calculations, led to a detailed understanding of the cage structures, self-assembly, and anion encapsulation. We found that the cage self-assembly is templated by EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions (n {ge} 2), and upon removal of the templating anion the tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} cages rearrange into different coordination assemblies. The exchange selectivity among EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions has been investigated with {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy using {sup 77}SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} as an anionic probe, which found the following selectivity trend: PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In addition to the complementarity and flexibility of the cage receptor, a combination of factors have been found to contribute to the observed anion selectivity, including the anions charge, size, hydration, basicity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities.

  15. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OXON OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OXON OX11 0QX, United Kingdom and CNR-ISC, Sezione di Firenze, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OXON OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Amaldi, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  16. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  17. Surface Potentials of (001), (012), (113) Hematite (?-Fe2O3) Crystal Faces in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatman, Shawn ME; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Hematite (?-Fe2O3) is an important candidate electrode for energy system technologies such as photoelectrochemical water splitting. Conversion efficiency issues with this material are presently being addressed through nanostructuring, doping, and surface modification. However, key electrochemical properties of hematite/electrolyte interfaces remain poorly understood at a fundamental level, in particular those of crystallographically well-defined hematite faces likely present as interfacial components at the grain scale. We report a combined measurement and theory study that isolates and evaluates the equilibrium surface potentials of three nearly defect-free single crystal faces of hematite, titrated from pH 3 to 11.25. We link measured surface potentials with atomic-scale surface topology, namely the ratio and distributions of surface protonation/deprotonation site types expected from the bulk structure. The data reveal face-specific points of zero potential (PZP) relatable to points of zero net charge (PZC) that lie within a small pH window (8.35-8.85). Over the entire pH range the surface potentials show strong non-Nernstian charging at pH extremes separated by a wide central plateau in agreement with surface complexation modeling predictions, but with important face-specific distinctions. We introduce a new surface complexation model based on fitting the entire data set that depends primarily only on the proton affinities of two site types and the two associated electrical double layer capacitances. The data and model show that magnitudes of surface potential biases at the pH extremes are on the order of 100 mV, similar to the activation energy for electron hopping mobility. An energy band diagram for hematite crystallites with specific face expression and pH effects is proposed that could provide a baseline for understanding water splitting performance enhancement effects from nanostructuring, and guide morphology targets and pH for systematic improvements in efficiency.

  18. Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes Alexandre P. dos Santos and Yan Levin to account quantitatively for the surface and interfacial tensions of different electrolyte solutions can also be used to calculate the surface and the interfacial tensions of acid solutions, predicting

  19. Aluminum hydroxide solubility in aqueous solutions containing fluoride ions at 50/sup 0/Cype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjuan, B.; Michard, G.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum hydroxide solubility experiments were performed at 50/sup 0/C using the method of May et al. (1979b). The shift observed by May at 25/sup 0/C between acidic and alkaline solution was also observed in these experiments. Infrared spectra of solids separated from solutions show that the low solubility values observed in alkaline medium can be related to the formation of a new solid phase: bayerite (or nordstrandite) (pK*/sub S/sub 4// = 13.4 at 50/sup 0/C) in the presence of initial gibbsite. A second set of experiments was performed in solutions containing fluoride ions in the 10/sup -4/-10/sup -3/ M concentration range. Fluorocomplexes are important in acidic solution; Al(OH)/sub m/F/sub p/ mixed complexes can be important in the minimum of Al solubility when total fluoride exceeds 10/sup -3/ M. The authors propose values of thermodynamic data for Al(OH)/sub 2/F/sub 2//sup -/, Al(OH)F/sub 3//sup -/, Al(OH)/sub 2/F/sup 0/ and for aluminum trifluoride solid. The difference of aluminum hydroxide solubility between acidic and alkaline medium is still observed.

  20. The Passivity and Breakdown of Beryllium in Aqueous Solutions M.A. Hill, D.P. Butt, and R.S. Lillard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Passivity and Breakdown of Beryllium in Aqueous Solutions M.A. Hill, D.P. Butt, and R beryllium (Be) has been studied as a function of pH. Below pH 2, Be exhibited active dissolution at all, the presence of the fluoride increased the passive current density of beryllium, but had no effect

  1. Corrosion Mechanisms of Mild Steel in Aqueous CO2 SolutionsThu Tran Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology, Ohio University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botte, Gerardine G.

    Corrosion Mechanisms of Mild Steel in Aqueous CO2 SolutionsThu Tran Institute for Corrosion," Corrosion Science 41, (1999): pp. 117-139. [2] E. Remita, B. Tribollet, E. Sutter, V. Vivier, F. Ropital contribution of the buffering effect," Corrosion Science 50, (2008): pp. 1433-1440. [3] C. DeWaard and D

  2. Semiconductor-Based Interfacial Electron-Transfer Reactivity: Decoupling Kinetics from pH-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution System Susan G. Yan and Joseph T energy of the electron in the electrode). The observed insensitivity to large changes in band-functionalized ruthenium bipyridyl complexes to- gether with high-area nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films.2

  3. Nanoparticle Doped Water -NeowaterTM The effects of the rf-treatments of water and aqueous solutions can be amplified and stabilized by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    Nanoparticle Doped Water - NeowaterTM The effects of the rf-treatments of water and aqueous solutions can be amplified and stabilized by doping the water with low density of insoluble nanoparticles [1 osmosis (RO) water that is kept below the anomaly point (i.e. below 4°C) and is irradiated by rf signal

  4. Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methanesulfonic Acid Revealed by Phase-Sensitive Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide States ReceiVed: August 26, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 9, 2010 Interfacial water. Through isotopic dilution, we probed bulk water hydrogen bonding strength using the vibrational frequency

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  6. Measurements of the volatilities of solutes from aqueous solutions and their application to water/steam cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, J.P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partitioning of NaSO{sub 4} and NaHSO{sub 4} between the liquid and vapor phases was measured at 300, 325 and 350{degrees}C by sampling both phases from a static platinum-lined autoclave. Sample compositions were determined by ion chromatography and acidimetric titrations. The solutions were buffered with either acid or base so that the volatility of individual species was determined. The molal thermodynamic partitioning constants were calculated by taking into account the mean stoichiometric activity coefficient in the liquid phase and the hydrolysis equilibrium constants. The vapor phase species were assumed to be neutral molecules with unit activity coefficients. The strong temperature dependence of the partitioning constant was treated by the isocoulombic method to obtain a linear dependence of the logarithm of the partitioning constant versus reciprocal temperature in Kelvin. A model is described for predicting the composition of the condensate in the water/steam cycle of power plants using drum boilers. Equilibrium between liquid and steam is assumed in the drum during boiling, and in the low pressure turbine on steam condensation. The model is based on the measured partitioning constants of HCl, NH{sub 4}Cl, NaCl, NaOH, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NaHSO{sub 4}, NaSO{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}, the hydrolysis of HSO{sub 4}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and the ionic product of water. Two test cases are given to demonstrate the sensitivity of the pH of the first condensate to the concentrations of various anions relative to the corresponding sodium concentration in the drum. These calculations also indicate that very high concentrations of solutes can be achieved under certain conditions.

  7. Effect of water concentration on photoreduction of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate by 2-propanol in aqueous acetonitrile solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakisaka, A.; Ebbesen, T.W.; Sakuragi, H.; Tokumaru, K.

    1987-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Irradiation of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) in the presence of 2-propanol (0.08 M) in aqueous acetonitrile solution with nitrogen laser (337 nm) gave AQS radical anion (AQS/sup .-/) in a yield depending very much on water content, the highest yield being obtained in the solution of 40-60 vol% water content. This is attributable to exponential increase with water concentration of the decay rate of triplet AQS and of the deprotonation rate of AQSH/sup ./ resulting from hydrogen abstraction of triplet AQS from 2-propanol. The dependence of these rates on water concentration was treated satisfactorily with Perrin's equation to give an average value of 3.3 A for the radius of the solvation sphere surrounding triplet AQS and AQSH/sup ./ in which a water molecule must exist to quench triplet AQS and to accept a proton from AQSH/sup ./, respectively. Laser exciation and continuous irradiation gave apparently different pK/sub a/ values of AQSH/sup ./. The meaning of this observation was also discussed

  8. Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

    2009-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser exposure of suspension of either gold or palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of UO2Cl2 of natural isotope abundance was experimentally studied. Picosecond Nd:YAG lasers at peak power from 1011 to 1013 W/cm2 at the wavelength of 1064 and 355 nm were used as well as a visible-range Cu vapor laser at peak power of 1010 W/cm2. The composition of colloidal solutions before and after laser exposure was analyzed using atomic absorption and gamma spectroscopy between 0.06 and 1 MeV range of photon energy. A real-time gamma-spectroscopy was used to characterize the kinetics of nuclear reactions during laser exposure. It was found that laser exposure initiated nuclear reactions involving both 238U and 235U nuclei via different channels in H2O and D2O. The influence of saturation of both the liquid and nanoparticles by gaseous H2 and D2 on the kinetics of nuclear transformations was found. Possible mechanisms of observed processes are discussed.

  9. Effects of oxygen reduction on nickel deposition from unbuffered aqueous solutions. 2: Characterization of the electrode interface in electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, C.Q.; Lee, J.Y.; Lin, J.; Tan, K.L. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to the reactive electrodeposition of cobalt, porous nickel is not easily produced by electrodeposition from neutral aqueous solutions in the presence of dissolved oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the electrode surface detected the presence of a highly stable metal hydroxide layer of the same characteristics as precipitated Ni(OH){sub 2}. The hydroxide layer inhibits the nucleation of nickel nuclei and increases the irreversibility in electrodeposition. For reactive deposition to result in a porous deposit, the hydroxide layer should have only moderate stability so that it can be continuously removed and reinstated by interfacial chemical and electrochemical reactions. The surface Ni(OH){sub 2} formed in neutral solutions lacks the reactivity for such dynamism. Nonetheless, the stability of surface Ni(OH){sub 2} could be lowered by increasing the acidity of the deposition medium. Careful pH control seems to be a requirement for nickel reactive electrodeposition to produce porous metal deposits.

  10. Use of differential pulse polarography to study corrosion of galvanized steel in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V.; Guinon, J.L. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. (ENSIGC, Toulouse (France))

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Static and dynamic corrosion of galvanized steel in 4.6 M lithium bromide (LiBr) solution at 20 C and at 70 C was studied using a new polarographic method for the determination of zinc (Zn) in LiBr solution. Static and dynamic corrosion of galvanize steel at 20 C and 70 C followed a linear tendency with exposure time. However, a change in the slope of dynamic corrosion was observed at 20 C. The corrosion product was studied using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) and x-ray diffractometry and was considered to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)[sub 2] and oxides. The corrosion product morphology was amorphous and gelatinous at 20 C and crystalline at 70 C.

  11. Changes in U(VI) speciation upon sorption onto montmorillonite from aqueous and organic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm-Brause, C.; Morris, D.E.; Eller, P.G.; Buscher, T.; Conradson, S.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speciation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} Tributylphosphate (TBP) mixtures has been investigated in solution and intercalated with the reference smectite clay SAz-1 using x-ray absorption, Raman, and luminescence spectroscopies. Neither aquated UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} nor its TBP complex undergoes any detectable changes in uranium oxidation state on intercalation. Further, at the pH values employed in this work, there is no evidence for hydrolysis of the uranium species to generate dimeric or higher order uranium oligomers. However, we do find indications that the structures of the solution complexes are altered on intercalation, particularly for the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/TBP system. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that, at the loading levels used in this study, the uranyl species may be interacting with two or more spectroscopically distinguishable sites on SAz-1. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Measurement of the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of carbon dioxide in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotope ratio method has been developed which permits measurement of the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of solutes in solution. Diffusion is conducted in a diaphragm cell of the type usually used for tracer diffusion measurements. The difference in isotopic composition of the solute before and after the diffusion process is measured by means of an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This difference is then used to calculate the ratio of diffusion coefficients for the two isotopic species. By this method the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of CO/sub 2/ dissolved in water has been found to be D(/sup 12/CO/sub 2/)/D(/sup 13/CO/sub 2/) = 1.0007 +/- 0.0002 at 25/sup 0/C. The same series of experiments also produced a value of 1.0011 for the ratio of solubilities of /sup 12/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ in water at 30/sup 0/C, in excellent agreement with the published value. 23 references, 1 table.

  13. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  14. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  15. Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  16. Study of the interaction of C60 fullerene with human serum albumin in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Song [Vanderbilt University; Zhao, Xiongce [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Mo, Yiming [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C60 fullerene, continues to grow. While evidence continues to mount that C60 and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. To better understand the interaction of C60 with proteins, the protein human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in solution with C60 at C60:HSA molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 4:1. HSA is the major protein component of blood plasma and plays a role in a variety of functions, such as the maintenance of blood pH and pressure. The C60-HSA interaction was probed by a combination of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C60-driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in -helical content in response to the presence of C60. Similarly, C60 produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA, as evidenced by the SANS data and MD. The data do not indicate that C60 is causing a change in the oligomerization state of the protein. Taken together results demonstrate that C60 interacts with HSA, but it does not strongly perturb the structure of the protein by unfolding it or inducing aggregation, suggesting a mechanism for transporting C60 throughout the body to accumulate in various tissues.

  17. Corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steels, and titanium in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinon, J.L.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. (ENSIGC, Toulouse (France))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, pH, temperature, exposure time, and the action of some inhibitors on corrosion of several carbon (C) steels, stainless steels (SS), and a titanium (Ti) alloy were studied. Corrosion rates were determined by the polarization resistance method and compared to rates determined by weight-loss measurements. Pitting potentials (E[sub p]) were evaluated in neutral LiBr solution and with different inhibitors. Pit density and average pit depth depended on the metal tested, with lowest values for Ti, the next lowest values for type 316 SS (UNS S31600), and the highest values for UNS G41350 tempered steel.

  18. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  19. Solubility of, and hydrogen ion adsorption on, some metal oxides in aqueous solutions to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, D.A.; Benezeth, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Machesky, M.L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Hayashi, Ken-ichiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology; Hyde, K.E. [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solubility of boehmite (AlOOH), ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2)/magnetite (Fe3O4), zincite (ZnO), and brucite (Mg(OH)2) were measured over a range of temperatures (AlOOH, 100-290 C; Fe(OH)2/Fe3O4, 100-250 C; ZnO, 50-290 C; Mg(OH)2, 60-200 C) using in situ pH measurements. A hydrogen-electrode concentration cell was used; the pH range depended on the oxide. The solubility results for boehmite mainly demonstrate the method viability, while those for zincite are mainly restricted to mildly acidic to neutral pH where Zn{sup 2+} predominates in solution. The magnetite (presumably coated with Fe(OH)2) solubilities extend from pHs > 5 and, because of relevance to water/steam cycles of power plants, are compared in detail with previous studies. The same cell was used to investigate the surface adsorption-desorption thermodynamics of H ions on rutile (TiO2) and zincite to 290 C. Behavior of pH at zero-point-of-charge as function of temperature and application of the Stern-3-layer model were determined for this solid. The zincite study is still incomplete; preliminary results show trends that can be rationalized only qualitatively now with the zero- point-of-charge being apparently affected by hydration of the surface in basic solutions and specific adsorption of Na ions under the same conditions.

  20. Excited States and Luminescent Properties of UO2F2 and Its Solvated Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jing; Wang, Zheming; Pan, Duoqiang; Li, Jun

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic absorption and emission spectra of free UO2F2 and its water solvated complexes below 32,000 cm?1 are investigated at the levels of ab initio CASPT2 and CCSD(T) with inclusion of scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects. The influence of the water coordination on the electronic spectra of UO2F2 is explored by investigating the excited states of solvated complexes (H2O)nUO2F2 (n = 1?3). In these uranyl-complexes, water coordination is found to have appreciable influence on the 3? (? = 1g) character of the luminescent state and on the electronic spectral shape. The simulated luminescence spectral curves based on the calculated spectral parameters of (H2O)nUO2F2 from CCSD(T) approach agree well with experimental spectra in aqueous solution at both near liquid helium temperature and room temperature. The possible luminescence spectra of free UO2F2 in gas phase are predicted based on CASPT2 and CCSD(T) results, respectively, by considering three symmetric vibration modes. The effect of competition between spin-orbital coupling and ligand field repulsion on the luminescent state properties is discussed.

  1. Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odoh, Samuel O.; Bylaska, Eric J.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations have been used to examine the hydration structures, coordination energetics and the first hydrolysis constants of Pu3+, Pu4+, PuO2+ and PuO22+ ions in aqueous solution at 300 K. The coordination numbers and structural properties of the first shell of these ions are in good agreement with available experimental estimates. The hexavalent PuO22+ species is coordinated to 5 aquo ligands while the pentavalent PuO2+ complex is coordinated to 4 aquo ligands. The Pu3+ and Pu4+ ions are both coordinated to 8 water molecules. The first hydrolysis constants obtained for Pu3+ and PuO22+ are 6.65 and 5.70 respectively, all within 0.3 pH units of the experimental values (6.90 and 5.50 respectively). The hydrolysis constant of Pu4+, 0.17, disagrees with the value of -0.60 in the most recent update of the Nuclear Energy Agency Thermochemical Database (NEA-TDB) but supports recent experimental findings. The hydrolysis constant of PuO2+, 9.51, supports the experimental results of Bennett et al. (Radiochim. Act. 1992, 56, 15). A correlation between the pKa of the first hydrolysis reaction and the effective charge of the plutonium center was found.

  2. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  3. Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions by reversible chemical complexation with organoboronates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extractants consisting of an ion-pair of Aliquat 336 with phenylboronate or 3-nitrophenylboronate were prepared in various diluents (2-ethylhexanol, toluene, o-xylene or diisobutylketone). In batch experiments propyleneglycol (1,2-PD) was effectively extracted even at low concentrations. Heterogeneous complexation constants {beta}{sub 11} calculated at 25 C were 45-120 (mol/1){sup {minus}1} in 2-ethylhexanol, 34.8 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in toluene, 37.6 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in o-xylene and 14.4 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in diisobutylketone. In 2-ethythexanol, there was no significant effect of extractant concentration on the complexation constant. Equilibrium water concentration in the extractants was 8-12 wt %, decreasing with 1,2-PD uptake. Nearly all extractant/diluent systems exhibited overloading (more than stoichiometric uptake of 1,2-PD). Evidence for aggregation of the ion-pair extractant in organic phase was found from water solubilization studies (molar solubilization ratios up to 10) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy studies. Solubilization of 1,2-PD within hydrophilic aggregate interiors may explain the observed overloading. The complexation constant decreased with increasing temperature, but not enough to make back extraction after a temperature change attractive. Back extraction may be achieved after acidification with carbon dioxide to convert the organoboronate anion to the corresponding organoboronic acid. Up to 80% of the extracted 1,2-PD was backextracted in a batch extraction using C0{sub 2}. The extractant could then be regenerated by stripping carbon dioxide from solution at temperatures exceeding 110 C. However, at these temperatures the extractant appears to undergo a transformation in which color changes and extraction capacity is reduced to about 60% of original value.

  4. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, Jai (3849 NW. 65th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32653); Thackeray, Michael M. (1763 Cliffside Ct., Naperville, IL 60565); Dees, Dennis W. (6224 Middaugh Ave., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Myles, Kevin M. (1231 60th Pl., Downers Grove, IL 60516-1856)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  5. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous potassium hypochlorite Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ions such as potassium, chloride, and bromide show... in aqueous electrolyte supercapacitor systems. Significance Molecular level understanding of ion diffusivity Source:...

  7. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  8. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  9. The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

  10. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovationâ??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  11. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  12. Novel Electrolytes and Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 Point of Reference - Electrode and Electrolyte Chemistries Gen 2 electrolyte EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) + 1.2M LiPF 6 Cu (-) Al (+) Mag-10 graphite Particle size 5 m Celgard...

  13. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  14. Accelerated alpha-decay of 232U isotope achieved by exposure of its aqueous solution with gold nanoparticles to laser radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are presented on laser-induced accelerated alpha-decay of Uranium-232 nuclei under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of its salt. It is demonstrated that the decrease of alpha-activity strongly depends on the peak intensity of the laser radiation in the liquid and is highest at several terawatt per square centimeter. The decrease of alpha-activity of the exposed solutions is accompanied by the deviation of gamma-activities of daughter nuclides of Uranium-232 from their equilibrium values. Possible mechanisms of the laser influence on the alpha-activity are discussed on the basis of the amplification of the electric field of laser wave on metallic nanoparticles.

  15. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  16. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  18. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  19. Preprint Author Copy -Vancostenoble, A., C. Duret-Thual, C. Bosch, and D. Delafosse. 2014. "Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Drawn Ferrito-Pearlitic Steels in Confined Aqueous Solutions Containing Dissolved CO2." In NACE Corrosion Conference 2014,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Corrosion Cracking of Cold Drawn Ferrito-Pearlitic Steels in Confined Aqueous Solutions Containing Dissolved CO2." In NACE Corrosion Conference 2014, 51314­4321­SG. Houston, Tx: NACE International. http://www.nace.org/cstm/Store/Product.aspx?id=762f2a5c-a5ba-e311-a396- 0050569a007e. Stress Corrosion Cracking of ferrito-pearlitic steel in aqueous

  20. Structure and dynamics of electrical double layers in organic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic electrolyte of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}) in the aprotic solvent of acetonitrile (ACN) is widely used in electrochemical systems such as electrochemical capacitors. In this paper, we examine the solvation of TEA{sup +} and BF{sub 4}{sup -} in ACN, and the structure, capacitance, and dynamics of the electrical double layers (EDLs) in the TEABF{sub 4}-ACN electrolyte using molecular dynamics simulations complemented with quantum density functional theory calculations. The solvation of TEA+ and BF4- ions is found to be much weaker than that of small inorganic ions in aqueous solutions, and the ACN molecules in the solvation shell of both types of ions show only weak packing and orientational ordering. These solvation characteristics are caused by the large size, charge delocalization, and irregular shape (in the case of TEA+ cation) of the ions. Near neutral electrodes, the double-layer structure in the organic electrolyte exhibits a rich organization: the solvent shows strong layering and orientational ordering, ions are significantly contact-adsorbed on the electrode, and alternating layers of cations/anions penetrate ca. 1.1 nm into the bulk electrolyte. The significant contact adsorption of ions and the alternating layering of cation/anion are new features found for EDLs in organic electrolytes. These features essentially originate from the fact that van der Waals interactions between organic ions and the electrode are strong and the partial desolvation of these ions occurs easily, as a result of the large size of the organic ions. Near charged electrodes, distinct counter-ion concentration peaks form, and the ion distribution cannot be described by the Helmholtz model or the Helmholtz + Poisson-Boltzmann model. This is because the number of counter-ions adsorbed on the electrode exceeds the number of electrons on the electrode, and the electrode is over-screened in parts of the EDL. The computed capacitances of the EDLs are in good agreement with that inferred from experimental measurements. Both the rotations (ACN only) and translations of interfacial ACN and ions are found to slow down as the electrode is electrified. We also observe an asymmetrical dependence of these motions on the sign of the electrode charge. The rotation/diffusion of ACN and the diffusion of ions in the region beyond the first ACN or ion layer differ only weakly from those in the bulk

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  2. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  3. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  4. True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

  5. The H2O2+OH ? HO2+H2O reaction in aqueous solution from a charge-dependent continuum model of solvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel

    2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied our recently developed protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation to describe the title reaction in aqueous solution. The model has the unique feature of the molecular cavity being dependent on the atomic charges in the solute, and can be extended naturally to transition states and reaction pathways. It was used to calculate the reaction energetics and reaction rate in solution for the title reaction. The rate of reaction calculated using canonical variational transition state theory CVT in the context of the equilibrium solvation path (ESP) approximation, and including correction for tunneling through the small curvature approximation (SCT) was found to be 3.6 106 M-1 s-1, in very good agreement with experiment, These results suggest that the present protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation with the charge-dependent cavity definition captures accurately the solvation effects at transition states and allows for quantitative estimates of reaction rates in solutions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  6. Critical Droplet Theory Explains the Glass Formability of Aqueous Solutions Matthew Warkentin,* James P. Sethna, and Robert E. Thorne*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethna, James P.

    to atmospheric physics. Ice is a key issue in cryopreservation of cells and tissues [1] and in cryocooling (see Fig. 1), including a salt (sodium chloride), simple alcohols (methanol, ethanol), sugars (dextrose using thermocouples threaded down the tube center. For each tubing diameter, solutions with solute

  7. Inorganic non-aqueous cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Foster, D. L.; Gopikanth, M. L.; Schlaikjer, C. R.

    1985-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel inorganic non-aqueous electrochemical cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode, an inorganic electrolyte comprised of an SO/sub 2/ solvent with an alkali or alkaline earth metal halide salt of aluminum, tantalum niobium or antimony, dissolved in the SO/sub 2/ and a cathode comprised of a carbonaceous material having an apparent bulk density in excess of 5 lb/ft/sup 3/ (80 gm/1). Lower bulk density carbonaceous material may, however, be used in electrolytes having high salt concentrations. Ketjenblack EC (furnace black) carbonaceous material may be admixed with a solid cathode active material which is substantially insoluble in the SO/sub 2/ electrolyte to provide a high primary cell capacity and an effectively rechargeable cell. There is no SO/sub 2/ per se discharge in the cell.

  8. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  9. Supporting Information Surface Electric Fields of Aqueous Solutions of NH4NO3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S1 Supporting Information Surface Electric Fields of Aqueous Solutions of NH4NO3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3 interfaces of (a) 1.0 M and 2.0 M LiNO3, (b) 1.0 M and 1.7 M NaNO3, (c) 1.0 M and 1.6 M NH4NO3, and (d) 1.0 M water 1.0 M NaNO3 1.7 M NaNO3 c water 1.0 M NH4 NO3 1.6 M NH4 NO3 | (2) | 2 (10 3 arb.units) Wavenumber

  10. High-precision gigahertz-to-terahertz spectroscopy of aqueous salt solutions as a probe of the femtosecond-to-picosecond dynamics of liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinh, N Q; Allen, S James; George, D K; Rahmani, A J; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because it is sensitive to fluctuations occurring over femtoseconds to picoseconds, gigahertz-to-terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy can provide a valuable window into water's most rapid intermolecular motions. In response, we have built a vector network analyzer dielectric spectrometer capable of measuring absorbance and index of refraction in this frequency regime with unprecedented precision. Using this to determine the complex dielectric response of water and aqueous salt solutions from 5.9 GHz to 1.12 THz (which we provide in the SI), we have obtained strong new constraints on theories of water's collective dynamics. For example, while the salt-dependencies we observe for water's two slower relaxations (8 and 1 ps) are easily reconciled with suggestions that they arise due to rotations of fully and partially hydrogen bonded molecules, respectively, the salt-dependence of the fastest relaxation (180 fs) appears difficult to reconcile with its prior assignment to liberations of single hydrogen bon...

  11. Interfacial degradation effects of aqueous solution-processed molybdenum trioxides on the stability of organic solar cells evaluated by a differential method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lou, Yan-Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Graduate School of Science and Technology, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku Toyama (Japan); Wang, Zhao-Kui, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Yuan, Da-Xing; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Okada, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku Toyama (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the influence of two hole interfacial materials poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and aqueous solution-processed MoO{sub 3} (sMoO{sub 3}) on cell stability. sMoO{sub 3}-based device demonstrated obviously improved stability compared to PEDOT:PSS-based one. Current-voltage characteristics analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of the hole interfacial layers on the cell stability. The formation of additional trap states at the interfaces between the hole interfacial layer and the active layer in degraded devices is verified by a differential method. Improved cell stability is attributed to a relatively stable sMoO{sub 3} interfacial layer compared to PEDOT:PSS by comparing their different trap states distributions.

  12. A swollen phase observed between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol in DPPC aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Seto; M. Hishida; H. Nobutou; N. L. Yamada; M. Nagao; T. Takeda

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A swollen phase, in which the mean repeat distance of lipid bilayers is larger than the other phases, is found between the liquid-crystalline phase and the interdigitated gel phase in DPPC aqueous solution. Temperature, pressure and ethanol concentration dependences of the structure were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, and a bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was by neutron spin echo. The nature of the swollen phase is similar to the anomalous swelling reported previously. However, the temperature dependence of the mean repeat distance and the bending rigidity of lipid bilayers are different. This phase could be a precursor to the interdigitated gel phase induced by pressure and/or adding ethanol.

  13. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  14. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of interfacial confinement effects of aqueous NaCl brines in nanoporous carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, M. C.F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, studies of aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with a family of porous carbon geometries using classical molecular dynamics simulations are presented. These simulations provide an atomic scale depiction of ion transport dynamics in different environments to elucidate power of aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The electrolyte contains alkali metal and halide ions, which allow for the examination of size trends within specific geometries as well as trends in concentration. The electrode pores are modeled as planar graphite sheets and carbon nanotubes with interstices ranging from one to four nanometers. Ordered layers form parallel to the carbon surface, which facilitates focused ion motion under slightly confining conditions. As a result, the ion’s diffusivities are enhanced in the direction of the slit or pore. Further confining the system leads to decreased ion diffusivities. The ions are fully hydrated in all but the smallest slits and pores with those sizes showing increased ion pairing. There is strong evidence of charge separation perpendicular to the surface at all size scales, concentrations, and ion types, providing a useful baseline for examining differential capacitance behavior and future studies on energy storage. These systems show promise as high-power electrical energy storage devices.

  16. Nano Res (2010) 3: 452458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Nano Res (2010) 3: 452­458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton Mauro Pasta1,2 , Fabio the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety

  17. Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 0218...

  18. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  19. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  20. Dissociative Binding of Carboxylic Acid Ligand on Nanoceria Surface in Aqueous Solution: A Joint in Situ Spectroscopic Characterization and First-Principles Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zhou; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Weina; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Hongfei

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylic acid is a common ligand anchoring group to functionalize nanoparticle surfaces. Its binding structures and mechanisms as a function of the oxidation states of metal oxide nanoparticle surfaces are not well characterized experimentally. We present an in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) study on the binding of deuterated acetic acid on ceria nanoparticles in the aqueous solution. In the SFG experiment, ceria nanoparticles were deposited on the flat surface of a CaF2 hemisphere in contact with acetic acid solutions. While the ceria nanoparticle deprotonated the acetic acid, the CaF2 surface could not. Thus, the binding of the deprotonated acetic acid on ceria can be selectively probed. SFG spectra revealed that the binding modes of the carboxylate group depend on the oxidation states of the ceria surfaces. SFG polarization analysis suggested that the bidentate chelating and bridging binding modes co-exist on the reduced ceria surfaces, while the oxidized ceria surfaces are dominated by the bidentate bridging mode. The direct spectroscopic evidence helps to clarify the binding structures and mechanisms on the ceria nanoparticles. Furthermore, the middle-infrared (IR) transparent CaF2 and its chemical inertness make CaF2 and similar substrate materials good candidates for direct SFG-VS measurement of nanoparticle surface reactions and binding chem-istry.

  1. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  2. Electrolysis at an anthracene crystal/aqueous NO sub 3 sup minus solution interface: The role of crystal defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, M.; Mao, B.; Steigman, J.; Geacintov, N.E. (New York Univ., NY (USA))

    1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrolysis of a 1 M solution of NaNO{sub 3} by means of an anthracene crystal electrode results in the production of many surface reaction products, including 9-nitroanthracene (9NA), bianthronyl (BA), and anthraquinone (AQ). The production of 9NA and BA have been shown to depend on the square of the current density. This dependence was rationalized by hypothesizing the need for the simultaneous discharge of two carriers at adjoining lattice defect sites. By annealing the crystals, it was found that the efficiency of producing 9NA was reduced by a factor of as much as 6; this supports the hypothesis.

  3. Condensation of Self-assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene glycol and Doped with Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heung-Shik Park; Shin-Woong Kang; Luana Tortora; Satyendra Kumar; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering, to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of inter-aggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates, and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  4. SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    MA 162 - Quiz 5 (20 minutes). SOLUTIONS. The solutions I present are not necessarily the only solutions. As long as you give a correct method of solving a ...

  5. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, Gary J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Weesner, Forrest J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  6. Ab-initio simulation of novel solid electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, William D. (William Davidson)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All solid-state batteries may be a solution to some of the problems facing conventional organic electrolytes in Li and Na-ion batteries, but typically conductivities are very low. Reports of fast lithium conduction in Li ...

  7. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  8. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

  9. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes. 16 figs.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution by visible light sensitive N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindan, Kadarkarai, E-mail: govindanmu@gmail.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Water Chemistry Lab, Water Institute, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India); Murugesan, Sepperumal [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Maruthamuthu, Pitchai [Department of Energy (Chemistry-Interdisciplinary), University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for the visible light photocatalytic process of N and F codoped TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: ? Visible light sensitive N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2}. ? Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol. ? Effect of oxidants on photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol. ? PMS is a more efficient oxidant for the photodegradation of PCP. - Abstract: In this present study, N-F-codoped titanium dioxide nanocatalyst (NFTO) has been synthesized by simple sol–gel assisted solvothermal method for the effective utilization of visible light in photocatalytic reactions. Structural characterization of the photocatalyst is analyzed by XRD, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), SEM and TEM. Moreover the chemical statuses of NFTO are gathered by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that a high surface area with photoactive anatase phase crystalline is obtained. In addition, nitrogen and fluorine atoms are doped into TiO{sub 2} crystal lattice to extend the visible light absorption and higher photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution is examined under visible light irradiation, the addition of oxidants such as PMS, PDS and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is analyzed in detail. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol is obtained in the following order: PMS > PDS > H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  11. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin, E-mail: xiejm391@sohu.com; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  12. Novel Electrolytes and Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Gr) - 8% PVDF binder (KurehaC) Baseline Electrolyte (Gen2): - 1.2 M LiPF 6 in ECEMC (3:7) Typical cycling range: - Positive: 3 - 4.3V vs. Li - Negative: 2 - 0 vs. Li -...

  13. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Nonaqueous Electrolytes in Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [University of California, Riverside

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLCs with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLCs hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition, which requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this Perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLCs. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  14. Modelling of Gas Clathrate Hydrate Equilibria using the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (eNRTL) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modelling of Gas Clathrate Hydrate Equilibria using the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (e + salt2 + gas} systems (salt = NaCl, KCl, CaCl2; gas = CH4, CO2) comprising a gas clathrate hydrate phase-electrolyte aqueous systems involving gas hydrate phases. In the H-Lw-G calculations, fugacities in the gas phase were

  15. Use of nafion as a solid polymer electrolyte for the electroreduction of tungsten (VI) fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettelheim, A.; Raven, A.; Polak, M.; Ozer, D. (Nuclear Research Center, Beer-Sheva 84190 (IL))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a new method is described in which WF{sub 6} is electroreduced in a solid-state cell configuration with a Nafion membrane serving as a solid polymer electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry indicates a behavior similar to that of metallic tungsten for coatings obtained at dry conditions and similar to that of tungsten oxide species when water vapor is not totally expelled. Surface analysis using Auger electroscope and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that solid-state electro-reduction of WF{sub 6} in dry conditions yields coatings free of fluorine, which contain much less oxygen than electrodeposits obtained from aqueous solutions. However, due to possible oxidation and reduction reactions occurring before and during the surface-analysis process, it is not possible at this state to determine the exact content of metallic and oxide species in the deposits obtained by the present method.

  16. Electrolytes at Solid-Water Interfaces: Theoretical Studies for Practical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striolo, Alberto

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research program was to determine how a solid substrate affects structure and dynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions. From fundamental observations, we seek to improve practical applications. Of particular interest at the project inset were carbon nanotube separation, electric double layer capacitors, and water desalination. As time progresses, we became interested in sub-surface water transport and fate, and in hydraulic fracturing. We employed an arsenal of techniques based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We validated our methods using experimental data, to propose practical improvements. Some experiments were conducted in house. We established valuable collaborations with experienced scientists at National Laboratories to provide information not attainable with our in-house resources.

  17. Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

  18. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Thomas F [Forest Concepts, LLC; Dooley, James H [Forest Concepts, LLC

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  19. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De Jonghe TWO-AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De JongheAND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De Jonghe

  20. Photochemical generation of alkyl radicals and their reactions with methyl viologen radical cation and with transition-metal complexes in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakac, A.; Espenson, J.H. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))

    1989-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The irradiation of aqueous solutions of RCo((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} (R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, 1-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}, CH{sub 2}Cl, CH{sub 2}Br, CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}) with visible light, {lambda} {le} 400 nm, results in the homolysis of the cobalt-carbon bond. These complexes are quite unreactive toward a variety of dealkylating and redox reagents and thus represent a convenient source of small unstabilized carbon-centered radicals in the presence of potential substrates. The radicals react rapidly with the methyl viologen radical cation, k{sub MB} = (1-2) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The kinetics of the formation of RCr{sup 2+} and RCo((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in the reactions of radicals with Cr{sup 2+} and Co((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, were studied by using MV{sup +} as a probe. The respective rate constants have values k{sub Cr} = (1.9-2.4) {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and k{sub Co} = (1-2) {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} for all the radicals examined. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halide solution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosal, Sutapa

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols Sutapa Ghosal, 1species associated with sea salt ice and aerosols has beena minor component in sea salt, which has a Br – /Cl – molar

  2. Equilibria in aqueous iodine solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Joanne Denise

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    determined at several temperatures and the values of bH, AG, and aS have been calculated. 0 0 0 Ki x 10 was 0, 586 at 0, 5. 04 at 25, 18. 9 at $8 41. 2 at 50 , and 67. 6 at 56 , This equilibrium constant had never before been determined above 25... dependence of K . The enthalpy found in this work was 3. 65 kcal/mole, which agrees with the literature value of 3, 6 kcal/mole, The dissociation constant for iodine I2(aq) + was estimated as 3 HO=HOI +I x 10 . It was not possible to estab- "9 lish...

  3. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  4. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  5. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda (Savannah River National Laboratory); Kane, Marie; Au, Ming (Savannah River National Laboratory)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

  6. Densities and refractive indexes of aqueous (Li,K,Na) NO[sub 3] mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.; Linkous, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.); Klatt, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Analytical Chemistry Div.)

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes experimental procedures and techniques for measuring densities and/or refractive indexes of aqueous salt solutions between 25 and 200 [degrees]C and with 18.90-90.50 wt % mixed salt (LINO[sub 3], KNO[sub 3], and NaNO[sub 3]). An electrolyte solution of (LI, K, Na) NO[sub 3] slats in water was chosen for study because of its recent development as a potential high-temperature heat pump fluid, but any other appropriate fluid may be accommodated for study in the apparatus. The densities and refractive indexes are shown to represent a convenient way to measuring the concentration of salt (or water), and accuracies of [plus minus]0.8 and [plus minus]0.3 wt % total mixed salt were achieved by using the above two methods, respectively.

  7. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  8. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  9. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Liu, Jue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lee, Byungju [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Qiao, Ruimin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Yang, Zhenzhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Xu, Shuyin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)] (ORCID:000000018513518X); Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Hu, Yong-Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)] (ORCID:0000000284306474); Yang, Wanli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source] (ORCID:0000000306668063); Kang, Kisuk [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Li, Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)] (ORCID:000000028659086X); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Huang, Xuejie [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  10. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore »identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  11. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  12. A Universal Model for Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors Applicable to Diverse Pore Regimes, Carbons, and Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications requiring high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm) where pores are large enough so that the pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, showing the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbons. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal to carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials including activated carbons, template carbons, and novel carbide-derived carbons, and with diverse electrolytes including organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4), tetraethylammonium methyl-sulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H2SO4 and KOH electrolytes, and even ionic liquid electrolyte such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium bis(trifluromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend a support for the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon supercapacitors via experiments. On the basis of the insight obtained from the new model, we also discuss the effects of the kinetic solvation/desolvation process, multimodal (versus unimodal) pore size distribution, and exohedral (versus endohedral) capacitors on the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors.

  13. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  14. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  15. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  16. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  17. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  18. Energetics of Electron Transfer at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor/ Aqueous Solution Interface: pH Invariance of the Metal-Based Formal Potential of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energetics of Electron Transfer at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor/ Aqueous,4-(CH2PO3)-2,2-bipyridine)3 10-, bound to a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide film shows energy (ECB) of the underlying semiconductor electrode in response to the same environmental

  19. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  20. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  1. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  2. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  3. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  4. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  6. Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution: We're looking for the presale cost of the shirt, so let x be the price of ... The sale price is $10 and we've called the presale price x, so we need to solve.

  7. UV Second-Harmonic Studies of Concentrated Aqueous Electrolyte Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otten, Dale Edward

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probed by UV Second Harmonic Generation, in Department ofby UV Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy," 114, 13746with Femtosecond Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy,"

  8. Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management » History »Dept ofY-12

  9. Fluorinated Arylboron Oxalate for Non-Aqueous Battery Electrolytes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorking OutsideFluorescentbeam

  10. Creating Addressable Aqueous Microcompartments above Solid Supported

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combinatorial libraries of solid supported fluid lipid membranes because these systems retain many a novel soft lithographic technique5 for partitioning and addressing aqueous solutions above supported methodology affords the ability to create a large number of aqueous compartments consisting of various

  11. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Alberta, CA); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  12. Nonadditive effects of nonaqueous electrolyte components on the electrochemical behavior of lithium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shembel', E.M.; Maksyuta, I.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium electrode surfaces passivate in nonaqueous electrolytes. For this reason, high-energy-density lithium batteries can be stored, but at the same time anodic lithium dissolution during initial discharge of the battery is delayed. For an optimization of the anode characteristics and the battery performance the authors of this paper seek to determine the factors governing the parameters of the passivating film under the influence of various nonaqueous electrolyte solutions. The influence of electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior and electrical conductivity and impedance of the film was tested for sulfur-dioxide-containing electrolytes based on propylene carbonate, acetonitrile, DMSO, and lithium perchlorate.

  13. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  14. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  15. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  16. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report This report provides an overview of the...

  17. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of poly(ethylene oxide) molten-salt rubbery electrolytes.of poly(ethylene oxide) molten-salt rubbery electrolytes.

  18. aqueous phase leaching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Donald L. Suarez; Catherine Grieve 139 In-situ spectroscopic investigations of surfactant adsorption and water structure at the CaF2aqueous solution interfacey Chemistry Websites...

  19. aqueous organic systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light were examined Boolchand, Punit 10 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  20. aqueous sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity, 771, for PDMDAAC fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light Dubin, Paul D. 32 Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous...

  1. aqueous oxalate buffer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and alternating current polarography of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions and in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The polarographic reduction of...

  2. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  3. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  4. Electrolytes - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meutzner, Falk; Ureña de Vivanco, Mateo [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety, lifetime, energy density, and costs are the key factors for battery development. This generates the need for improved cell chemistries and new, advanced battery materials. The components of an electrolyte are the solvent, in which a conducting salt and additives are dissolved. Each of them plays a specific role in the overall mechanism of a cell: the solvent provides the host medium for ionic conductivity, which originates in the conductive salt. Furthermore, additives can be used to optimize safety, performance, and cyclability. By understanding the tasks of the individual components and their optimum conditions of operation, the functionality of cells can be improved from a holistic point of view. This paper will present the most important technological features and requirements for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The state-of-the-art chemistry of each component is presented, as well as different approaches for their modification. Finally, a comparison of Li-cells with lithium-based technologies currently under development is conducted.

  5. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  6. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  7. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  8. Electron transfer through a lipid-bilayer-membrane-aqueous-solution interface and kinetics of the oxidation of viologen radicals in homogeneous and vesicular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafirovich, V.Ya.; Levin, P.P.; Khannanov, N.K.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1986-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of the nature of the oxidizing agent on the rate constant of the oxidation of viologen radicals in homogeneous and vesicular systems by water-soluble oxidizing agents. In this work the authors used the following water-soluble viologens: methyl viologen, sulfoethyl viologen, trimethylaminopropyl viologen, and octadecyl viologen, which is soluble only in a lipid bilayer. The rate constant for the oxidation of a viologen radical cation in a lipid bilayer by electron acceptors in the aqueous phase, in contrast to the homogeneous reaction, is lower than the rate constant of the diffusion-controlled reaction. The rate of electron transfer on the interface is determined by the interaction of the reactants with the lipid bilayer. The rate constant for electron transfer from a viologen radical cation near the inner surface of a lipid bilayer to viologen near the outer surface with the formation of a radical which is available for oxidation in the external aqueous phase has been determined and has been found to be independent of the nature of the oxidizing agent.

  9. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  10. Water distributions in PS-b-P(S-g-PEO) block grafted copolymer system in aqueous solutions revealed by contrast variation SANS study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present a contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of PS-b-P(S-g-PEO) block graft copolymers in aqueous media at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Through varying the solvent D2O/H2O ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the micellar constituent components can be determined. Based on the commonly used core-shell model, a theoretical coherent scattering cross section incorporating the effect of water penetration is developed and used to analyze the SANS I(Q), we have successfully quantified the micellar structure and the number of - water molecules associated with the core and corona. We have found that the overall micellar hydration level increase with the increase in the molecular weight of hydrophilic PEO side chains. This study provides key information in understanding solvent distributions within self-assembled amphiphilic block grafted copolymers.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes Riccardo Ruffo a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes Riccardo Ruffo 2008 Available online xxxx Keywords: LiCoO2 Aqueous electrolyte LiNO3 Lithium-ion battery Cathode substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic

  12. Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    diagnostics. Some of these electrolytes contained the following: - Solvents: EC, PC, EMC, etc. - Salts: LiPF 6 , LiBF 4 , LiB(C 2 O 4 ) 2 , LiF 2 BC 2 O 4 , etc. - Additives:...

  13. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  14. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  15. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery electrolytes; we also describe a general approach toward performing fundamental in situ characterization

  16. Physical Property Modeling of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Solutions, Part I - Derivation of Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.; Pierce, R. A.; Edwards, T. B.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Major analytes projected to be present in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant cesium ion-exchange eluate solutions were identified from the available analytical data collected during radioactive bench-scale runs, and a test matrix of cesium eluate solutions was designed within the bounding concentrations of those analytes. A computer model simulating the semi-batch evaporation of cesium eluate solutions was run in conjunction with a multi-electrolyte aqueous system database to calculate the physical properties of each test matrix solution concentrated to the target endpoints of 80% and 100% saturation. The calculated physical properties were analyzed statistically and fitted into mathematical expressions for the bulk solubility, density, viscosity, heat capacity and volume reduction factor as a function of temperature and concentration of each major analyte in the eluate feed. The R{sup 2} of the resulting physical property models ranged from 0.89 to 0.99.

  17. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  18. Effect of temperature on the protonation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine-N,N'N'-triacetic acid in aqueous solutions: Potentiometric and calorimetric studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xingliang Li; Zhicheng Zhang; Francesco Endrizzi; Leigh Martin; Shunzhong Luo; Linfeng Rao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) has been demonstrated in several pilot-scale operations to be effective at separating trivalent actinides (An3+) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). However, fundamental studies have revealed undesired aspects of TALSPEAK, such as the signi?cant partitioning of Na+, lactic acid, and water into the organic phase, thermodynamically unpredictable pH dependence, and the slow extraction kinetics. In the modi?ed TALSPEAK process, the combination of the aqueous holdback complexant HEDTA (N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N0,N0-triacetic acid) with the extractant HEH[EHP] (2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester) in the organic phase has been found to exhibit a nearly ?at pH dependence between 2.5 and 4.5 and more rapid phase transfer kinetics for the heavier lanthanides. To help understand the speciation of Ln3+ and An3+ in the modi?ed TALSPEAK, systematic studies are underway on the thermodynamics of major reactions in the HEDTA system under conditions relevant to the process (e.g., higher temperatures). Thermodynamics of the protonation and complexation of HEDTA with Ln3+ were studied at variable temperatures. Equilibrium constants and enthalpies were determined by a combination of techniques including potentiometry and calorimetry. This paper presents the protonation constants of HEDTA at T = (25 to 70) C. The potentiometric titrations have demonstrated that, stepwise, the ?rst two protonation constants decrease and the third one slightly increases with the increase of temperature. This trend is in good agreement with the enthalpy of proton-ation directly determined by calorimetry. The results of NMR analysis further con?rm that the ?rst two protonation reactions occur on the diamine nitrogen atoms, while the third protonation reaction occurs on the oxygen of a carboxylate group. These data, in conjunction with the thermodynamic parameters of Ln3+/An3+ complexes with HEDTA at different temperatures, will help to predict the speciation and temperature-dependent behavior of Ln3+/An3+ in the modi?ed TALSPEAK process.

  19. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  2. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  3. EAF dust as an electrolytic zinc resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zunkel, A.D. [A.D. Zunkel Consultants Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two viable options are presently available to the electrolytic zinc producer to supplement the zinc production capability significantly by using electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) or leady ZnO products derived from EAFD: Integrated processing of the materials using the Modified Zincex Process and commingling the zinc sulfate solution from that process with the neutral solution from the calcine leaching circuit; Installing a completely separate circuit for treating the material using technologies such as the Modified Zincex or Esinex Processes. EAFD and halogen-bearing EAFD derived products are a zinc resource which is virtually untapped by new or existing electrolytic zinc producers and which offers them, with the advent of new technologies able to deal with halides, the opportunity to maintain or increase their zinc production from a relatively cheap, if not ``free``, and already mined zinc source. Such an approach would also provide the EAFD producer an alternative, perhaps lower cost, outlet for their material to the currently rather closely held EAFD processing industry.

  4. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

  5. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  6. Reorientation of the ‘free OH’ group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called ‘free O-H’ group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the ‘free O-H’ group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the ‘free O-H’ changes from about 35.3 degrees ± 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees ± 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

  7. Corrosion and anodic behavior of lithium in solutions of the system LiC1-LiOH-H/sub 2/O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantinova, M.V.; Demidov, A.I.; Morachevskii, A.G.

    1986-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the electrochemical behavior of lithium in aqueous electrolyte solutions is of interest to the development of water-activated electrochemical cells. This paper reports the results of a study of the electrochemical behavior of lithium in solutions of the system LiC1-LiOH-H/sub 2/O ( /SUP m/ LiC1 = 0.4-1.2, /SUP m/ LiOH = 3.1-4.2, where m is the molality) at 298 K. Solutions of the specificed compositions have the highest conductivity in this system. The LiC1 and LiOH concentrations in solutions of the specified compositions were found by analytical determination of their chloride and hydroxide ion contents. The investigations show that addition of lithium chloride to the LiOH-H/sub 2/O electrolyte lowers the rate of lithium corrosion in solution by a factor of 1.5-4. The influence of added LiC1 on the corrosion rate of the metal is stronger in electrolytes of lower LiOH concentrations.

  8. Kinetics of oxidation of an organic amine with a Cr(V) salen complex in homogeneous aqueous solution and on the surface of mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szajna-Fuller, Ewa; Huang, Yulin; Rapp, Jennifer L.; Chaka, Gezhegn; Lin, Victor S.Y.; Pruski, Marek; Bakac, Andreja

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative study of catalytic activity under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions was carried out using the (salen)Cr{sup III}-catalyzed oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with iodosobenzene as a model reaction. Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) were synthesized in a co-condensation reaction and functionalized with salen via a covalent Si-C bond. A Cr(III) complex of this supported ligand, MSN-(salen)Cr{sup III}, was prepared and characterized. Data from powder XRD, BET isotherms and BJH pore size distribution all showed that MSN-(salen)Cr{sup III} still had the typical MSN high surface area, narrow pore size distribution, and ordered hexagonal pore structure, which were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si solid-state NMR data provided structural information about the catalyst and verified successful functionalization of the salen ligand and coordination to Cr(III). No unreacted salen or Cr(III) were observed. The loadings of salen and salen-Cr{sup III} complex were determined via TGA and EDX, respectively. Both measurements indicated that approximately 0.5 mmol/g of catalyst was loaded on the surface of MSN. The oxidation of TMB with iodosobenzene using MSN-(salen)Cr{sup III} as a heterogeneous catalyst exhibited both similarities and differences with the analogous homogeneous reaction using (salen)Cr{sup III}(H{sub 2}O){sup +} as a catalyst in aqueous acetonitrile. In the presence of 0.10 M HClO{sub 4}, the two catalytic reactions proceeded at similar rates and generated the doubly oxidized product TMB{sup 2+}. In the absence of acid, the radical cation TMB{sup +} was produced. The kinetics of the heterogeneous reaction in the absence of added acid responded to concentrations of all three reagents, i.e. (salen)Cr{sup III}, TMB, and PhIO.

  9. Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion, and electrolyte flow rate on fuel cell performance to obtain a maximum power density of 191 mW/cm2. This flowing

  10. Electrochemical Behavior of Lithium in LiOH-H/sub 2/O-System Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, A.I.; Gerasimenko, L.N.; Konstantinova, M.V.; Morachevskii, A.G.

    1985-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic behavior and corrosion of lithium in LiOH-H/sub 2/O-system solutions at 298 /SUP o/ K is made. Anodic potentiodynamic and galvanostatic polarization plots were taken with a P-5827M potentiostat and displayed on a PDP-4 flatbed X-Y recorder. The potentiodynamic polarization curves were taken at a scanning rate of 80 mV/sec where the data were almost reproducible. Ptentiodynamic polarization plots taken for solutions of various LiOH concentrations are shown. Corrosion of the lithium in the aqueous electrolyte was studied volumetrically. Data obtained on lithium corrosion in solutions of the LiOH-H/sub 2/O system confirm the postualte that a lithium hydroxide concentration of more than 4 m densifies passive film on the lithium electrode.

  11. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  12. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  13. Performance of capacitors using organic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morimoto, T.; Tsushima, M.; Che, Y.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) based on charge storage at the interface between a high surface area activated carbon electrode and an electrolyte solution are characterized by their long cycle life and high power density in comparison with batteries. However, energy density of electric double-layer capacitors obtained at present is at most 1Wh/kg at a power density of 600W/kg and smaller compared with that of batteries, which limits the applications of the capacitor. Therefore, new capacitors which show larger energy density than that of electric-double layer capacitors are proposed. The new capacitors are hybrid capacitors consisting of activated carbon cathode, Li-doped graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. Maximum voltage applicable to the cell becomes over 4.0V which is larger than that of the electric double-layer capacitor. As a result, discharged energy density of the cell becomes 4Wh/kg at a power density of 600W/kg.

  14. Update on Electrolyte Modeling with Emphasis on Low Temperature...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    performance) Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

  15. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keqin Huang

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

  16. One-electron-transfer reactions of the couple SO/sub 2//SO/sub 2//sup -/ in aqueous solutions. Pulse radiolytic and cyclic voltametric studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neta, P.; Huie, R.E.; Harriman, A.

    1987-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate constants for one-electron reduction of SO/sub 2/ by several radicals and for reduction of several compounds by SO/sub 2//sup .-/ radicals were determined by pulse radiolysis at pH 1. SO/sub 2/ is reduced by the (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/COH radicals with k = 2.1 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and by viologen radicals and certain porphyrin ..pi..-radical anions with k approx. 10/sup 8/-10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. The SO/sub 2//sup .-/ radical reduces compounds which have reduction potentials more positive than -0.28 V. The rate constants for these reductions vary from < 10/sup 7/ to > 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and depend on the redox potentials of the compounds and on other properties such as charge and self-exchange rate. The reduction potentials for SO/sub 2/ and for the porphyrins were determined by cyclic voltametry under identical conditions. These reduction potentials were used along with the rate constants and previously reported self-exchange rates to estimate the self-exchange rate for the couple SO/sub 2//SO/sub 2//sup .-/ in acidic solutions. The calculated values were found to vary over many orders of magnitude, similar to the situation reported before for the O/sub 2//O/sub 2//sup -/ couple.

  17. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?°C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?°C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  18. Method of making chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Harabin, CN)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an electrode catalyst material using aqueous solutions. The electrode catalyst material includes a support comprising at least one transition metal and at least one chalcogen disposed on a surface of the transition metal. The method includes reducing a metal powder, mixing the metal powder with an aqueous solution containing at least one inorganic compound of the chalcogen to form a mixture, and providing a reducing agent to the mixture to form nanoparticles of the electrode catalyst. The electrode catalyst may be used in a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell.

  19. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  20. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  1. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  2. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

  3. Fuel cell with electrolyte feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Highland Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell having a pair of electrodes at the sites of electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen and a phosphoric acid electrolyte provided with an electrolyte supporting structure in the form of a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes. The matrix assembly is formed of a central layer disposed between two outer layers, each being permeable to the flow of the electrolyte. The central layer is provided with relatively large pores while the outer layers are provided with relatively small pores. An external reservoir supplies electrolyte via a feed means to the central layer to compensate for changes in electrolyte volume in the matrix assembly during the operation of fuel cell.

  4. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Kevin R. (Southern Pines, NC); Scribner, Louie L. (Southern Pines, NC)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  5. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These endeavors have lead us to a solution which we think is quite unique and should allow us to obtain flaw free dense films of thickness in the 0.5 to 5 {micro}m range at processing temperatures {le} 900{sup o}. The process involves the deposition of a slurry of nanocrystalline YSZ onto a presintered porous LSM substrate. The key element in the deposition is that the slurry contains sufficient YSZ polymer precursor to allow adhesion of the YSZ particles to each other and the surface after annealing at about 600 C. This allows the formation of a porous film of 0.5 to 5 {micro}m thick which adheres to the surface. After formation of this film, YSZ polymer precursor is allowed to impregnate the porous surface layer (capillary forces tend to confine the polymer solution in the nanoporous layer). After several impregnation/heat treatment cycles, a dense film results. Within the next few months, this process should be developed to the point that single cell measurements can be made on 0.5 to 5 {micro}m films on a LSM substrate. This type of processing allows the formation of essentially flaw free films over areas > 1 cm{sup 2}.

  6. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  7. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

  8. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  9. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have synthesized a new series of brownmillerite solid electrolyte phases Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} (x = 0,0.2,0.4) with the x = 0.2 phase exhibiting an unusually low E. relative to both the observed ionic conductivity in this phase and to E{sub a}s observed in similar compounds. We attribute measured ionic conductivities to a lack of available charge carriers in Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}O{sub 5}. However, the low E{sub a} supports the premise that brownmillerite solid electrolyte structures are suitable for supporting high ionic conductivity. Current work is focusing on enhancing the amount of charge carriers in these materials by systematically introducing disorder into the brownmillerite lattice.

  10. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx_equal} 1.

  11. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx equal} 1.

  12. aqueous organic solvents: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excel 15 16... Choi, Jihyun 2000-01-01 2 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  13. acidic aqueous alno33: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    medium J. Champion,1,3 C. Alliot,2 E to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and answer the two main questions raised from.01 V vs. NHE. INTRODUCTION Astatine...

  14. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations. ) 73 FIGURE Page 47 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEME mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 1%(w/w)) 48 Correlation between Kd and water concentration... in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA;DEMAW mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 2%(w/w)) 49 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEMAW mL:1 m...

  15. Characterization of ?-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ?-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ?-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ?-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ?-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ?-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup ?6} S cm{sup ?1} and 2.19 ×10{sup ?8} S cm{sup ?1}, respectively.

  16. Polymeric electrolytes based on hydrosilyation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, John Borland (Oakland, CA); Wang, Shanger (Fairfield, CA); Hou, Jun (Painted Post, NY); Sloop, Steven Edward (Berkeley, CA); Han, Yong Bong (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Gao (Oakland, CA)

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    New polymer electrolytes were prepared by in situ cross-linking of allyl functional polymers based on hydrosilation reaction using a multifunctional silane cross-linker and an organoplatinum catalyst. The new cross-linked electrolytes are insoluble in organic solvent and show much better mechanical strength. In addition, the processability of the polymer electrolyte is maintained since the casting is finished well before the gel formation.

  17. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  18. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keqin Huang

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    LSGM electrolyte and LSCF cathode materials were synthesized via solid state reaction and wet-chemical method. From these materials, symmetrical cells were fabricated for electrochemical characterizations.

  19. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  20. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  1. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. Nature 394, 456-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (vanadium oxides for lithium batteries. Journal of Materials

  2. Design of PHEVs and Electrolyte Properties

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    size and capacity usage depend on - Cell chemistry and design - Separator area and driving distance 4 Barriers * Electrolyte properties - Poor transport properties - A lack...

  3. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  4. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  5. Phase Behavior of Aqueous NA-K-MG-CA-CI-NO3 Mixtures: Isopiestic Measurements and Thermodynamic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.S. Gruszkiewiez; D.A. Palmer; R.D. Springer; P. Wang; A. Anderko

    2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive model has been established for calculating thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aqueous systems containing the Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions. The thermodynamic framework is based on a previously developed model for mixed-solvent electrolyte solutions. The framework has been designed to reproduce the properties of salt solutions at temperatures ranging from the freezing point to 300 C and concentrations ranging from infinite dilution to the fused salt limit. The model has been parameterized using a combination of an extensive literature database and new isopiestic measurements for thirteen salt mixtures at 140 C. The measurements have been performed using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) previously designed gravimetric isopiestic apparatus, which makes it possible to detect solid phase precipitation. Water activities are reported for mixtures with a fixed ratio of salts as a function of the total apparent salt mole fraction. The isopiestic measurements reported here simultaneously reflect two fundamental properties of the system, i.e., the activity of water as a function of solution concentration and the occurrence of solid-liquid transitions. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the new isopiestic data as well as literature data for binary, ternary and higher-order subsystems. Because of its high accuracy in calculating vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria, the model is suitable for studying deliquescence behavior of multicomponent salt systems.

  6. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  7. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  8. Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Christine Chihfan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries." Advancedpolymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries." Journal ofinclude lithium and lithium-ion chemistries with various

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes and...

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the AgCl/Electrolyte Interfacial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulation of the AgClElectrolyte Interfacial Capacity. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the AgClElectrolyte Interfacial Capacity. Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation of the...

  11. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Electrolyte Properties Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and...

  12. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  13. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation...

  14. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Electrochimica Acta, 53,

  15. Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  16. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes...

  17. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  18. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

  19. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    15eswise2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

  20. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    15eswise2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

  1. Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  2. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  3. Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narang, S.C.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SRI International has synthesized novel solid polymer electrolytes for high energy density, rechargeable lithium batteries. We have systematically replaced the oxygens in PEO with sulfur to reduce the strong hard-acid hard-base interaction, while retaining the favorable helical conformation of the polymer backbone. The best polymer electrolyte produced so far is suitable for a medium power battery. In another effort, we have synthesized single ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on polyethyleneimine, polyphosphazene, and polysiloxane backbones. The single ion conducting polymer electrolytes will allow greater depth of charge and discharge by preventing dc polarization. The best conductivity so far with single ion conductors is 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} Scm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature. Further optimization of electrical and mechanical properties will allow the use of these polymer electrolytes in the fabrication of rechargeable lithium batteries. 8 tabs.

  4. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  5. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  6. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  7. Electrolytes For Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liqu Ids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolyte solutions of soluble bifunctional redox dyes in molten salt solvent may be used to prepare electrooptic devices with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 CF.sub.2 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-).

  8. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  9. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  10. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  11. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  12. Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors Iddo-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene can function as highly sensitive nanoscale (bio)sensors in solution. Here, we compare experimentally how SWNT and graphene transistors respond to changes in the composition

  13. Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andelman, David

    Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach Tomer, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Dated: November 19, 2014) We study the surface tension of ionic solutions expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical

  14. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Megan E; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Tomás A; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here we describe an approach that images the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio non-linear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte a...

  15. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  16. Photoinduced redox reactions in aqueous micelles. Quenching, back-reaction, and competing processes for tetraanionic porphyrins with alkylviologens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmehl, R.H.; Whitten, D.G.

    1981-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinduced redox reactions employing the anionic porphyrins meso-tetrakis(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (1) and its palladium(II) complex (2) as excited substrates and various alkylviologens as quenchers have been studied in homogeneous aqueous solution and in the presence of the charged detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) above the critical micelle concentration (cmc). In homogeneous solution strong ground-state association between the porphyrins and the viologens occurs; even dynamic quenching processes result in no separation of electron transfer product ions. Addition of either SDS or CTAC reduces the quenching rates but allows the detection of product ions surviving up to ca. 100 ms in some cases. The back-reactions are sensitive to a variety of factors including added electrolyte, hydrophobicity of the viologen and its one-electron reduction product, and the charge on the surfactant. The long-lived products can be selectively intercepted by a variety of reagents. In the case of quenching of the palladium porphyrin (2) by methylviologen, the oxidized porphyrin can be reduced by iodide while the reduced viologen can be oxidized via either a colloidal catalyst or reaction with molecular oxygen. These reactions illustrate the possibility for obtaining net chemical conversion in a process whereby both the light-absorbing substrate and the quencher are recycled.

  17. Self-doped microphase separated block copolymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, Anne M. (Waltham, MA); Sadoway, Donald R. (Waltham, MA); Banerjee, Pallab (Boston, MA); Soo, Philip (Cambridge, MA); Huang, Biying (Cambridge, MA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer electrolyte includes a self-doped microphase separated block copolymer including at least one ionically conductive block and at least one second block that is immiscible in the ionically conductive block, an anion immobilized on the polymer electrolyte and a cationic species. The ionically conductive block provides a continuous ionically conductive pathway through the electrolyte. The electrolyte may be used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

  18. Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

  19. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid StateH. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. AdvancedReviews, 2010). Ozawa, K. Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

  20. A disposable, self-administered electrolyte test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prince, Ryan, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis demonstrates the novel concept that it is possible to make a disposable, self-administered electrolyte test to be introduced to the general consumer market. Although ion specific electrodes have been used to ...

  1. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  2. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Vanadium Oxide Aerogels. J. Non. Cryst. Solids (102)of composite V 2 O 5 aerogel electrodes. 26electrolyte and a V 2 O 5 aerogel cathode. There are few

  3. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  4. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

  5. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1993-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  7. Treatment of electrochemical cell components with lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl.sub.4) to promote electrolyte wetting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical cell components such as interelectrode separators, retaining screens and current collectors are contacted with lithium tetrachloroaluminate prior to contact with molten electrolytic salt to improve electrolyte wetting. The LiAlCl.sub.4 can be applied in powdered, molten or solution form but, since this material has a lower melting point than the electrolytic salt used in high-temperature cells, the powdered LiAlCl.sub.4 forms a molten flux prior to contact by the molten electrolyte when both materials are initially provided in solid form. Components of materials such as boron nitride and other materials which are difficult to wet with molten salts are advantageously treated by this process.

  8. Surface tension of electrolyte solutions: A self-consistent theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Compilation Index Visit the EPL website to read the latest articles published in cutting-edge fields-review process, from selection of the referees to making all final acceptance decisions Impact Factor ­ The 2010 Impact Factor is 2.753; your work will be in the right place to be cited by your peers Speed

  9. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell, and an electrochemical cell including the electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coetzer, J.; Nolte, M.J.; Steynberg, A.D.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte for use in an electrochemical cell is disclosed of the alkali metal-aluminium-halide type. The electrolyte has a melting point below 140/sup 0/ C. At atmospheric pressure and conforms with the stoichiometric product MAlx4 wherein M represents lithium cations, a mixture of lithium and potassium cations or a mixture of sodium and potassium cations; and X represents a mixture of chloride and fluoride anions. A method of reducing the melting point of a sodium-aluminiumchloride or lithium-aluminium-chloride electrolyte by doping it with a potassium fluoride, sodium fluoride, or lithium fluoride, to obtain said electrolyte with a melting point below 140/sup 0/ C. Is disclosed, as are various electrochemical cells employing the product electrolyte.

  11. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  12. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  13. Reduction and aggregation of silver in aqueous gelatin and silica suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, S.; Lawless, D.; Kennepohl, P.; Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Serpone, N. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of silver reduction and aggregation processes are of specific interest to the photographic industry, which relies heavily on photochemical equivalents of these reactions. Mechanistic insights into the formation of small silver clusters in aqueous solution have been obtained from both pulse and {gamma}-radiolytic studies. This paper examines the reduction of silver ions and the subsequent formation of silver clusters in aqueous gelatin solutions and on colloidal silica particles using the pulse radiolysis technique. The aggregation processes are compared with the parallel reactions in aqueous solutions.

  14. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  15. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow...

  16. Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Molten-Salt Rubbery Electrolytes.Imides: A New Family of Molten Salts and Conductive Plasticof Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Molten-Salt Rubbery Electrolytes.

  17. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boundary conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 Polymer—Electrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

  18. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  19. Electrode/electrolyte interface. A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bard, A.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Chidsey, C.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Faulkner, L.R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)); Feldberg, S.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Itaya, Kingo (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Majda, M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Melroy, O. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States)); Murray, R.W. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Porter, M.D. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States)); Soriaga, M.P. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); White, H.S. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of a workshop on the [open quotes]state of the art[close quotes] and potential future directions in the study of the electrode/electrolyte interface. Recent advances in experimental capabilities of characterizing the structure of the interface, e.g., through the use of such techniques as scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray methods, are described. New approaches to studies of interfacial dynamics and materials aspects of the electrode/electrolyte interface are also discussed. 346 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  1. 2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

  2. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  3. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  4. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  5. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  6. Coupling MD Simulations and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Ions in Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcos, E. Sanchez; Beret, E. C.; Martinez, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. R. [University of Seville, Dept. of Physical Chemistry (Spain); Ayala, R.; Munoz-Paez, A. [University of Seville, CSIC-ICMSE. Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry (Spain)

    2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of ionic solutions is a key-point in understanding physicochemical properties of electrolyte solutions. Among the reduced number of experimental techniques which can supply direct information on the ion environment, X-ray Absorption techniques (XAS) have gained importance during the last decades although they are not free of difficulties associated to the data analysis leading to provide reliable structures. Computer simulations of ions in solution is a theoretical alternative to provide information on the solvation structure. Thus, the use of computational chemistry can increase the understanding of these systems although an accurate description of ionic solvation phenomena represents nowadays a significant challenge to theoretical chemistry. We present: (a) the assignment of features in the XANES spectrum to well defined structural motif in the ion environment, (b) MD-based evaluation of EXAFS parameters used in the fitting procedure to make easier the structural resolution, and (c) the use of the agreement between experimental and simulated XANES spectra to help in the choice of a given intermolecular potential for Computer Simulations. Chemical problems examined are: (a) the identification of the second hydration shell in dilute aqueous solutions of highly-charged cations, such as Cr{sup 3+}, Rh{sup 3+}, Ir{sup 3+}, (b) the invisibility by XAS of certain structures characterized by Computer Simulations but exhibiting high dynamical behavior and (c) the solvation of Br{sup -} in acetonitrile.

  7. Entropically Driven Partitioning of Ethylene Oxide Oligomers and Polymers in Aqueous/ Organic Biphasic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Entropically Driven Partitioning of Ethylene Oxide Oligomers and Polymers in Aqueous/ Organic; In Final Form: June 19, 2002 Partitioning of ethylene oxide oligomers and polymers (PEO) in biphasic unit, smaller than hydration numbers reported in aqueous solutions. All of these findings lead

  8. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs BosonAccurate knowledge of aqueous

  9. Metal intercalation characteristics of n-HfS/sub 2/ photoelectrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes. Technical report No. 1, October 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Pujare, N.U.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of single-crystal n-hafnium disulfide was correlated with capacitance and impedance measurements obtained with the photoanode van der Waals layers oriented either parallel or perpendicular to acetonitrile-based nonaqueous electrolytes, with and without copper chloride introduced as an intercalating redox species. For van der Waals layers, perpendicular to the electrolyte (i.e., available for copper intercalation) space-charge capacitance values of respectively .01 and 1 microfarad/sq. cm were obtained for the non-intercalated and copper-intercalated photoelectrodes. The implications of these experimental observations were discussed in relation to the application of these intercalating photoelectrodes in both liquid non-aqueous and solid-polymer-electrolyte PEC storage devices.

  10. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  11. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  12. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  13. Electrolyte Composition for Cu Electrochemical Mechanical Planarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    abrasives are included within the ECMP electrolyte. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results measurements of the Cu removal rate, with and without surface abrasion. These results predict a 500 m indicate that the interfacial impedance is increased by the presence of silica, suggesting that silica

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  15. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  16. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Argonne's Fluorinated Compounds as High Voltage Electrolytes (HVEs) O O O O O O EC EMC O O O CF CF 3 CF 3 O O O CF 3 F 2 HC C F 2 O F 2 C CF 2 H 6 Code Name Chemical...

  17. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  18. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  19. Electrosorption selectivity of ions from mixtures of electrolytes inside nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Chia-Hung [Georgia Institute of Technology; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are employed to study the selective electrosorption of ions from a mixture of symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes confined in pores and results are compared to experimental observations obtained via cyclic voltammetry and batch electrosorption equilibrium experiments. GCMC simulations have the advantage over other Monte Carlo methods to unambiguously quantify the total number of ions in the pore solution. The exclusion parameter and selectivity factor are used to evaluate the selective capacity of pores toward different ionic species under various conditions. The number of coions inside the pore solution is determined by the proportion of different counterions present in the double-layer region. Because of the competitive effects resulting from asymmetries in charge and size associated with different ions, the electrosorption selectivity of small monovalent over large divalent counterions first decreases with increasing surface charge, passes through a minimum, and then increases with further increase in surface charge. At low and moderate surface charge densities, the fact that large divalent counterions preferentially screen the surface charge has a strong effect on pore occupancy; whereas at a very high surface charge density, size-exclusion effects dominate and determine the accessibility of different ions into the pores. Therefore, electrosorption selectivity of ions from a mixture of electrolytes could, in principle, be achieved via tuning the electrical double-layer formation inside the pores through the regulation of surface charge tailored for different ion characteristics. The findings of this work provide important information relevant to ion selectivity during separation processes and energy storage in supercapacitors.

  20. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  1. Correlation of Soil and Sediment Organic Matter Polarity to Aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution of the measured partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC to their organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and 1

  2. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  3. Method and apparatus for storage battery electrolyte circulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Inkmann, Mark S. (Milwaukee, WI)

    1980-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte reservoir in fluid communication with the cell of a storage battery is intermittently pressurized with a pulse of compressed gas to cause a flow of electrolyte from the reservoir to the upper region of less dense electrolyte in the cell. Upon termination of the pressure pulse, more dense electrolyte is forced into the reservoir from the lower region of the cell by the differential pressure head between the cell and reservoir electrolyte levels. The compressed gas pulse is controlled to prevent the entry of gas from the reservoir into the cell.

  4. Resistance and polarization losses in aqueous buffermembrane electrolytes for water-splitting photoelectrochemical cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the environmental consequences of increasing energy use. Hydrogen, which can be made from many different energy sources, is one of the most promising energy carriers for transportation applications. Hydrogen has a high be powered by several carbon-neutral energy sources including photovoltaic (PV)- coupled electrolyzers.2

  5. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processes may occur during porewater extraction such as dissolution of soluble minerals (processes taking place during aqueous extraction. Identification of GM requires knowing: 1) Aqueous complexes, 2) Mineral

  6. Mediating gel formation from structurally controlled poly(electrolytes) through multiple "head-to-body" electrostatic interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan Srour; Olivier Ratel; Mathieu Leocmach; Emma A. Adams; Sandrine Denis-Quanquin; Vinukrishnan Appukuttan; Nicolas Taberlet; Sébastien Manneville; Jean-Charles Majesté; Christian Carrot; Chantal Andraud; Cyrille Monnereau

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Tuning the chain-end functionality of a short-chain cationic homopolymer, owing to the nature of the initiator used in the ATRP polymerisation step, can be used to mediate the formation of a gel of this poly(electrolyte) in water. While a neutral end group gives a solution of low viscosity, a highly homogeneous gel is obtained with a phosphonate anionic moiety, as characterized by rheometry and diffusion NMR. This novel type of supramolecular control over poly(electrolytic) gel formation could find potential use in a variety of applications in the field of electroactive materials.

  7. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  8. Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruett, D.J.; Howerton, W.B.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 10/sup 3/ (vs approx. 500 for the Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 4/, respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 10/sup 4/.

  9. Stimuli-responsive Polymers in Solution and on Grafted Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Hui

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoresponsive polymers such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) have lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in aqueous solutions. Below the LCST, these polymers are hydrophilic with an extended coil conformation. Above the LCST...

  10. Stimuli-responsive Polymers in Solution and on Grafted Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Hui

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoresponsive polymers such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) have lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in aqueous solutions. Below the LCST, these polymers are hydrophilic with an extended coil conformation. Above the LCST...

  11. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  12. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

  13. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  14. Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

  15. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trulove, Paul C; Foley, Matthew P

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  16. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  17. Electrode assembly for use in a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas reaction fuel cell may be provided with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane. Porous gas diffusion electrodes are formed of carbon particles supporting a catalyst which is effective to enhance the gas reactions. The carbon particles define interstitial spaces exposing the catalyst on a large surface area of the carbon particles. A proton conducting material, such as a perfluorocarbon copolymer or ruthenium dioxide contacts the surface areas of the carbon particles adjacent the interstitial spaces. The proton conducting material enables protons produced by the gas reactions adjacent the supported catalyst to have a conductive path with the electrolyte membrane. The carbon particles provide a conductive path for electrons. A suitable electrode may be formed by dispersing a solution containing a proton conducting material over the surface of the electrode in a manner effective to coat carbon surfaces adjacent the interstitial spaces without impeding gas flow into the interstitial spaces.

  18. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Microstructural changes in unsupported nanocrystalline yttrium stabilized zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}:16%Y, or YSZ) thin films were examined as a function of temperature and annealing time in order to determine the grain growth exponent and the mechanisms of pinhole formation. Grain growth and pinhole formation were measured using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), normal imaging mode transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Grain growth was found to vary with a time exponent of about one half before pinhole formation and about one third after. Pinhole formation in 70 nm thick films occurred at temperatures near 600 C, corresponding to a grain size of about 15 nm, or a grain size to film thickness ration of approximately 0.25. The deposition of films on porous substrates is hampered by the penetration of the polymer precursor solution into the substrate whose pores as > 0.2 {micro}m, therefore much attention has to be paid to the development of porous colloidal oxide films onto surfaces. Thus during this line period we have been studying these films. Optical properties have proven to be an excellent way to study the quality of these nanoporous films. The influence of porosity and densification on optical properties of films on sapphire substrates that were prepared from water colloidal suspensions of small ({approx}5nm) particles of ceria was investigated. The colloidal ceria films have initially very porous structure (porosity about 50%) and densification starts at about 600 C accompanied by grain growth. The concurrence of these two processes makes it difficult to interpret the results of the optical spectrophotometry, but the combination of transmittance and reflectance measurements provides enough data to separate these two influences and to calculate the porosity, particle size and energy band gap separately. XRD, SEM, ellipsometry and mechanical profilometry were used to confirm the results obtained from the spectrophotometric measurements. All these methods gave results, which are in good agreement: the change in the porosity from 50% to 15% and the particle size increased from 5 to 65nm in the temperature region from 400 to 1000 C. An important result of the investigation is the fact that the main optical properties of the coating such as refractive index and band gap energy depend only on the porosity, but not on the grain size. The grain size influences the scattering properties of the coating, which allows the grain size to be estimated from optical measurements.

  19. Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

  20. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.