National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aqueous electrolyte solutions

  1. Molecular Simulations of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility: 1. The Expanded-Ensemble Osmotic Molecular Dynamics Method for the Solution Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    considering the solubility of solid electrolytes in solvents, one can view the dissolution process into individual ionic species in the solvent. At saturation, the solid electrolyte may be regarded as a reservoirMolecular Simulations of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility: 1. The Expanded-Ensemble Osmotic Molecular

  2. Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    industrial contexts. For example, capillary failure in the context of CO2 geological storage is, to a large model based on the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Pitzer theory is described and used water. The model predictions are in good agreement with the surface tension data for 1:1 electrolytes

  3. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  4. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress Tests for PGM ElectrocatalystSupport Durability Evaluation Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated...

  5. Theoretical analysis of aqueous solutions of mixed strong electrolytes by a smaller-ion shell electrostatic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraenkel, Dan, E-mail: dfraenkel@eltronresearch.com [Eltron Research and Development Inc., 4600 Nautilus Court South, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Eltron Research and Development Inc., 4600 Nautilus Court South, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    In spite of the great importance of mixed electrolytes in science and technology, no compelling theoretical explanation has been offered yet for the thermodynamic behavior of such systems, such as their deviation from ideality and the variation of their excess functions with ionic composition and concentration. Using the newly introduced Smaller-ion Shell treatment – an extension of the Debye–Hückel theory to ions of dissimilar size (hence DH–SiS) – simple analytic mathematical expressions can be derived for the mean and single-ion activity coefficients of binary electrolyte components of ternary ionic systems. Such expressions are based on modifying the parallel DH–SiS equations for pure binary ionic systems, by adding to the three ion-size parameters – a (of counterions), b{sub +} (of positive coions), and b{sub ?} (of negative coions) – a fourth parameter. For the (+ + ?) system, this is “b{sub ++},” the contact distance between non-coion cations. b{sub ++} is derived from fits with experiment and, like the other b’s, is constant at varying ion concentration and combination. Four case studies are presented: (1) HCl–NaCl–H{sub 2}O, (2) HCl–NH{sub 4}Cl–H{sub 2}O, (3) (0.01 M HX)–MX–H{sub 2}O with X = Cl, Br, and with M = Li, Na, K, Cs, and (4) HCl–MCl{sub n}–H{sub 2}O with n = 2, M = Sr, Ba; and n = 3, M = Al, Ce. In all cases, theory is fully consistent with experiment when using a of the measured binary electrolyte as the sole fitting parameter. DH–SiS is thus shown to explain known “mysteries” in the behavior of ternary electrolytes, including Harned rule, and to adequately predict the pH of acid solutions in which ionized salts are present at different concentrations.

  6. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-22

    An electrolyte including an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a triazinane trione; wherein the electrolyte is substantially non-aqueous.

  7. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  8. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almon, Amy C. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  9. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  10. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  11. Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. Viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Basic energy properties...

  12. Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Sun, Xuehui (Middle Island, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  13. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiegel, Ella F. (Louisville, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  14. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  15. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery dominate commercial lithium battery applications in which the major consideration is the specific energy. The use of aqueous electrolytes in lithium battery systems was pioneered by the Dahn group,7-10 which

  16. Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery electrolyte solutions. Specifically, this invention is directed to boron-containing electrolyte solvents and boron-containing electrolyte solutions.

  17. Ionic conductivity and exchange current density of non-aqueous lithium polysulfide electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Menghsuan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-polysulfide flow batteries, which utilize the high solubility of lithium polysulfide in non-aqueous electrolytes to enable flowable electrodes, have high theoretical energy density and low raw materials cost. To ...

  18. Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discussion of their uses and our motivation for improving their electrolyte m ode1 i ng ca pabi I it ies Discussion of some of the challenges in modeling electrolyte systems...

  19. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    was originally applied to water desalination in which water was extracted from aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Here, we explore its potential to recover acetate produced via fermentation. At 40C 55C, which corresponds to typical fen-fermentation temperatures...

  20. Toward the understanding of hydration phenomena in aqueous electrolytes from the interplay of theory, molecular simulation, and experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Vlcek, Lukas

    2015-05-22

    We confront the microstructural analysis of aqueous electrolytes and present a detailed account of the fundamentals underlying the neutron scattering with isotopic substitution (NDIS) approach for the experimental determination of ion coordination numbers in systems involving both halides anions and oxyanions. We place particular emphasis on the frequently overlooked ion-pairing phenomenon, identify its microstructural signature in the neutron-weighted distribution functions, and suggest novel techniques to deal with either the estimation of the ion-pairing magnitude or the correction of its effects on the experimentally measured coordination numbers. We illustrate the underlying ideas by applying these new developments to the interpretation ofmore »four NDIS test-cases via molecular simulation, as convenient dry runs for the actual scattering experiments, for representative aqueous electrolyte solutions at ambient conditions involving metal halides and nitrates.« less

  1. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  2. Fluorinated Arylboron Oxalate for Non-Aqueous Battery Electrolytes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    when used together with electrolytes, produce a battery with improved conductivity, lithium ion transference, and SEI formation over those using BBARs alone. Applications and...

  3. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen; Wu, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  4. Generic transport coefficients of a confined electrolyte solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroaki Yoshida; Hideyuki Mizuno; Tomoyuki Kinjo; Hitoshi Washizu; Jean-Louis Barrat

    2014-11-16

    Physical parameters characterising electrokinetic transport in a confined electrolyte solution are reconstructed from the generic transport coefficients obtained within the classical non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamic framework. The electro-osmotic flow, the diffusio-osmotic flow, the osmotic current, as well as the pressure-driven Poiseuille-type flow, the electric conduction, and the ion diffusion, are described by this set of transport coefficients. The reconstruction is demonstrated for an aqueous NaCl solution between two parallel charged surfaces with a nanoscale gap, by using the molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. A Green-Kubo approach is employed to evaluate the transport coefficients in the linear-response regime, and the fluxes induced by the pressure, electric, and chemical potential fields are compared with the results of non-equilibrium MD simulations. Using this numerical scheme, the influence of the salt concentration on the transport coefficients is investigated. Anomalous reversal of diffusio-osmotic current, as well as that of electro-osmotic flow, is observed at high surface charge densities and high added-salt concentrations.

  5. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Xiang Luo; Yun-Zhao Xing; Yan-Chun Ling; Alfred Kleinhammes; Yue Wu

    2015-02-24

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

  6. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  7. UV Second-Harmonic Studies of Concentrated Aqueous Electrolyte Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otten, Dale Edward

    2010-01-01

    et al. , J. Colloid Interface Sci. , "The ? -Potential ofElectrons at the Water/Air Interface," 132, 6917 (2010)at the Aqueous/Air Interface," 113, 11672 (2009) Paluch,

  8. Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

    1981-01-01

    The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

  9. Structure and transport of aqueous electrolytes: From simple halides to radionuclide ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartkamp, Remco, E-mail: hartkamp@mit.edu; Coasne, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.coasne@enscm.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, CNRS (UMR 5253), Université Montpellier 2, ENSCM, 8 rue de l’Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); MultiScale Material Science for Energy and Environment, CNRS/MIT (UMI 3466), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    Molecular simulations are used to compare the structure and dynamics of conventional and radioactive aqueous electrolytes: chloride solutions with sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, and strontium. The study of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} is important because these radioactive ions can be extremely harmful and are often confused by living organisms for K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, respectively. Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Sr{sup 2+} are strongly bonded to their hydration shell because of their large charge density. We find that the water molecules in the first hydration shell around Na{sup +} form hydrogen bonds between each other, whereas molecules in the first hydration shell around Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} predominantly form hydrogen bonds with water molecules in the second shell. In contrast to these three ions, K{sup +} and Cs{sup +} have low charge densities so that they are weakly bonded to their hydration shell. Overall, the structural differences between Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} are small, but the difference between their coordination numbers relative to their surface areas could potentially be used to separate these ions. Moreover, the different decays of the velocity-autocorrelation functions corresponding to these ions indicates that the difference in mass could be used to separate these cations. In this work, we also propose a new definition of the pairing time that is easy to calculate and of physical significance regardless of the problem at hand.

  10. Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements of structural genomicsOffice of Scientific andAqueous

  11. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  12. Pulse Radiolysis of Aqueous Thiocyanate Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2005-01-13

    The pulse radiolysis of N2O saturated aqueous solutions of KSCN was studied under neutral pH conditions. The observed optical absorption spectrum of the SCN• radical in solution is more complex than previously reported, but it is in good agreement with that measured in the gas phase. Kinetic traces at 330 nm and 472 nm corresponding to SCN• and (SCN)2•¯, respectively, were fit using a Monte Carlo simulation kinetic model. The rate coefficient for the oxidation of SCN¯ ions by OH radicals, an important reaction used in competition kinetics measurements, was found to be 1.4 ± 0.1 x 1010 M-1 s-1, about 30 % higher than the normally accepted value. A detailed discussion of the reaction mechanism is presented.

  13. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1996-08-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

  14. A Comparative Study of Anodized Titania Nanotube Architectures in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, Matthew R; Lai, Peng; Hu, Michael Z.

    2011-01-01

    The unique and highly utilized properties of TiO2 nanotubes are a direct result of nanotube architecture. In order to create different engineered architectures, the effects of electrolyte solution, time, and temperature on the anodization of titanium foil were studied along with the resultant anodized titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube architectures encompassing nanotube length, pore diameter, wall thickness, smoothness, and ordered array structure. Titanium foil was anodized in three different electrolyte solutions: one aqueous (consisting of NH4F and (NH4)2SO4)) and two nonaqueous (glycerin or ethylene glycol, both containing NH4F) at varying temperatures and anodization times. Variation in anodization applied voltage, initial current, and effect of F- ion concentration on ATO nanotube architecture were also studied. Anodization in the aqueous electrolyte produced short, rough nanotube arrays, whereas anodization in organic electrolytes produced long, smooth nanotube arrays greater than 10 m in length. Anodization in glycerin at elevated temperatures for several hours presents the possibility of producing freely dispersed individual nanotubes.

  15. Electrical pulse fabrication of graphene nanopores in electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuan, Aaron T.; Szalay, Tamas; Lu, Bo; Xie, Ping; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2015-05-18

    Nanopores in graphene membranes can potentially offer unprecedented spatial resolution for single molecule sensing, but their fabrication has thus far been difficult, poorly scalable, and prone to contamination. We demonstrate an in-situ fabrication method that nucleates and controllably enlarges nanopores in electrolyte solution by applying ultra-short, high-voltage pulses across the graphene membrane. This method can be used to rapidly produce graphene nanopores with subnanometer size accuracy in an apparatus free of nanoscale beams or tips.

  16. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  17. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  18. Li4SiO4-Li3PO4 solid solutions as ceramic electrolytes in Li metal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liying

    2012-01-01

    between lithium and solid electrolyte. After heating, theP-O and Li-Si-P-B-O solid electrolytes were found to have a3 PO 4 solid solutions as ceramic electrolytes in Li metal

  19. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore »the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  20. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-01

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  1. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  2. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  3. Apparent Slip Due to the Motion of Suspended Particles in Flows of Electrolyte Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauga, Eric

    Apparent Slip Due to the Motion of Suspended Particles in Flows of Electrolyte Solutions Eric Lauga of electrolyte solutions in small channels or capillaries in which tracer particles are used to probe velocity near a stationary solid surface.1 Although it has been a crucial ingredient of our understanding

  4. Li4SiO4-Li3PO4 solid solutions as ceramic electrolytes in Li metal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liying

    2012-01-01

    3 PO 4 solid solutions as ceramic electrolytes in Li metalpotential application as a ceramic protective layer in Li

  5. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  6. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  7. Surface Tension of Electrolyte Solutions: A Self-consistent Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudi Podgornik

    2014-04-09

    We study the surface tension of electrolyte solutions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Employing field-theoretical methods and considering short-range interactions of anions with the surface, we expand the Helmholtz free energy to first-order in a loop expansion and calculate the excess surface tension. Our approach is self-consistent and yields an analytical prediction that reunites the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We obtain analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of concentrations for different salts using one fit parameter, reproducing the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.10.1029

  8. Continuum Electrostatic Energies of Macromolecules in Aqueous Solutions Marco Scarsi, Joannis Apostolakis, and Amedeo Caflisch*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Continuum Electrostatic Energies of Macromolecules in Aqueous Solutions Marco Scarsi, Joannis evaluation of electrostatic energies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is useful for many problems for obtaining correct electrostatic energies of molecules in solution. In addition, it is demonstrated

  9. Dissolution of lead paint in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, G.L.; Davis, A.P.

    1996-07-01

    An analysis of the rate and extent of lead leaching from a lead-based paint was completed. At low-solution pH, dissolution was rapid and approached 80% of the total lead. Residual lead can be estimated based on the predicted solubility of lead carbonate and basic lead carbonate. Release of lead from the paint was slower than that from pure basic lead carbonate due to inhibition by the paint matrix. Although the dissolved concentration of lead in solution at neutral/high pH was low, the paint binder was apparently destroyed at these pH values, releasing colloidal lead pigment particles. The presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) enhanced both the rate and degree of lead dissolution, while benzoic acid had a minimal effect.

  10. Modeling of activity coefficients of aqueous solutions of quaternary ammonium salts with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    with the electrolyte-NRTL equation Lionel S. Belvèze, Joan F. Brennecke* and Mark A. Stadtherr Department of Chemical behavior of IL solutions, we will show how a conventional electrolyte model, the electrolyte nonrandom two, liquid and solid solubilities in ILs,2,11-31 and some liquid- liquid equilibrium data between ILs

  11. Representing Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for an Aqueous MEA-CO2 System Using the Electrolyte Nonrandom-Two-Liquid Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Luzheng

    for processing to-be-liquefied natural gas, syn- thesis gas, and hydrogen stream, which require low CO2 leakage processing the natural gas and refinery gas streams. The disadvantages of aqueous MEA include the followingRepresenting Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for an Aqueous MEA-CO2 System Using the Electrolyte Nonrandom-Two-Liquid

  12. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  13. Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency methanol (CH3OH) and aqueous methanol solutions were investigated using broad bandwidth sum frequency of methanol molecules at the air-liquid interfaces of neat methanol and aqueous methanol solutions. However

  14. Phase behavior and mesoscale solubilization in aqueous solutions of hydrotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepa Subramanian; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-09-27

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules that are too small to spontaneously form equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, referred to as clusters. In the presence of a hydrophobic compound, these clusters seem to get stabilized leading to the formation of long-lived, highly stable mesoscopic droplets, a phenomenon that we call mesoscale solubilization. In this work, we focus on the unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a nonionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), on addition of various hydrophobic compounds. Aqueous TBA solutions, in about 3 to 8 mol percent TBA concentration range and about 0 to 25 deg. C temperature range, show the presence of short-ranged (0.5 nm), short-lived (tens of picoseconds) molecular clusters which result in anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. These clusters are transient but do not relax by diffusion, thus distinctly different from conventional concentration fluctuations. In this concentration and temperature range, upon the addition of a third (more hydrophobic) component to TBA-water solutions, long-lived mesoscopic droplets of about 100 nm size are observed. In this work, we clarify the ambiguity behind the definition of solubility and elucidate the phenomenon of mesoscale solubilization. A systematic study of the macro and meso phase behavior of three ternary systems TBA-water-propylene oxide, TBA-water-isobutyl alcohol, and TBA-water-cyclohexane has been carried out. We differentiate between molecular solubility, mesoscale solubilization, and macroscopic phase separation. We have confirmed that practically stable aqueous colloids can be created from small molecules, without addition of surfactants or polymers. Such kind of novel materials may find applications in the design of various processes and products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and agrochemicals.

  15. Adsorption analysis of ammonia in an aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arman, B.; Panchal, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    An analysis is carried out to determine the effects of the diffusional resistance on the rate of the adsorption of ammonia in an aqueous solution. A performance prediction model is developed to calculate the local rate of heat and mass transfer, including physical and thermodynamic property calculations of the mixture. An algorithm is developed for calculating the interfacial conditions. The local heat- and mass-transfer calculation is then incorporated into the performance prediction method for adsorption for a given geometry.

  16. Preparation of thin ceramic films via an aqueous solution route

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A new chemical method of forming thin ceramic films has been developed. An aqueous solution of metal nitrates or other soluble metal salts and a low molecular weight amino acid is coated onto a substrate and pyrolyzed. The amino acid serves to prevent precipitation of individual solution components, forming a very viscous, glass-like material as excess water is evaporated. Using metal nitrates and glycine, the method has been demonstrated for zirconia with various levels of yttria stabilization, for lanthanum-strontium chromites, and for yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductors on various substrates.

  17. X-ray studies of concentrated aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Warburton, W.K.; Fontaine, A.

    1987-07-01

    Concentrated aqueous solutions of three transition metal bromides (ZnBr/sub 2/, CuBr/sub 2/, and NiBr/sub 2/) and an alkali bromide (RbBr) have been studied with differential anomalous scattering (DAS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The aq-ZnBr/sub 2/ solutions exhibit considerable inner-shell ion complexing with the formation of tetrahedral complexes about the Zn/sup 2 +/. In aq-CuBr/sub 2/, the Cu/sup 2 +/ has an octahedral coordination shell. Most of the anions are bound directly to the cations in both solutions. In contrast, there are only a few Ni--Br nearest neighbors in aq-NiBr/sub 2/. Instead, cations and anions share hydrating water molecules. Preliminary data show that any ion complexing in aq-RbBr must be weak. These results are in good agreement with published thermodynamic studies.

  18. Technetium separation from aqueous solutions using polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, N.C.; Ball, J.R.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Water-soluble, metal-binding, polymers that possess functional groups with high selectivity for technetium have been developed for ground and waste waters remediation. When combined with ultrafiltration, a new homogeneous all aqueous-based technology for metals removal/recovery, called Polymer Filtration, becomes available. Technetium distribution coefficients experiments were obtained with the polymers from simple solutions, high nitrate simulants, and DSSF simulant. We have completed a preliminary proof-of-principal evaluation of Polymer Filtration technology for removal of technetium-99 from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant contaminated groundwater simulant.

  19. Osmotic pressures and second virial coefficients for aqueous saline solutions of lysozyme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Y.U.

    2011-01-01

    AC03-76SF00098. ®,..;ycledpaper Osmotic Pressures and Second2SoC are reported for osmotic pressures of aqueous solutionsZ. and J. M. Prausnitz, "Osmotic Pressures of Aqueous Bovine

  20. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  1. Supplementary information1 S1: Estimation of the dissolved organic mass (DOM) concentrations in aqueous solutions3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    (1). APCI-MS measurements of aqueous solutions by direct47 infusion of liquid solutions-MS measurements of aqueous solutions by direct47 infusion of liquid solutions, in the negative mode (a

  2. New terahertz dielectric spectroscopy for the study aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Deepu K; Vinh, N Q

    2015-01-01

    We present a development of a high precision, tunable far-infrared (terahertz) frequency-domain dielectric spectrometer for studying the dynamics of biomolecules in aqueous solutions in the gigahertz-to-terahertz frequency. As a first application we report on the measurement of the absorption and refractive index for liquid water in the frequency range from 5 GHz to 1.12 THz (0.17 to 37.36 cm-1 or 0.268 to 60 mm). The system provides a coherent radiation source with a power up to 20 mW in the gigahertz-to-terahertz region. The power signal-to-noise ratio of our instrument reaches 1015 and the system achieves a spectral resolution of less than 100 Hz. The temperature of samples can be controlled precisely with an error bars of 0.02 oC from above 0 oC to 90 oC. Given these attributes, our spectrometer provides unique capabilities for the accurate measurement of even very strongly absorbing materials such as aqueous solutions.

  3. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous Lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husch, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    The Li-Air battery is a very promising candidate for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-Air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-Air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li+ and O2- solubilities, but about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compoun...

  4. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 – 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  5. Enantiopure, Octadentate Ligands as Sensitizers for Europium andTerbium Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Michael; Moore, Evan G.; Ingram, Andrew J.; Muller,Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-09

    Tb and Eu complexes of enantiopure ligands with a new modular design show strong overall luminescence and CPL activity in aqueous solution.

  6. Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1998-01-13

    A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution. 7 figs.

  7. The oxidationreduction potential of aqueous soil solutions at the Mars Phoenix landing site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    The oxidationreduction potential of aqueous soil solutions at the Mars Phoenix landing site Richard; revised 2 June 2011; accepted 3 June 2011; published 23 July 2011. [1] Results from the Mars Phoenix) of the Phoenix WCL Rosy Red sample soil solution. The measured Eh of the Rosy Red sample in the WCL aqueous test

  8. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Huang, Cheng; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2010-11-15

    The vanadium (IV) electrolyte solutions with various vanadium concentrations are studied by variable temperature 1H and 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure and kinetics of vanadium (IV) species in the electrolyte solutions are explored with respect to vanadium concentration and temperature. It was found that the vanadium (IV) species exist as hydrated vanadyl ion, i.e. [VO(H2O)5]2+ forming an octahedral coordination with vanadyl oxygen in the axial position and the remaining positions occupied by water molecules. This hydrated vanadyl ion structure is stable in vanadium concentrations up to 3M and in the temperature range of 240 to 340 K. The sulfate anions in the electrolyte solutions are found to be weekly bound to this hydrated vanadyl ion and occupies its second coordination sphere. The possible effects of these sulfate anions in proton and water exchange between vanadyl ion and solvent molecules are discussed based on 1H and 17O NMR results.

  10. A route to explain water anomalies from results on an aqueous solution of salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Corradini; M. Rovere; P. Gallo

    2010-03-26

    In this paper we investigate the possibility to detect the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in supercooled aqueous solutions of salts. Molecular dynamics computer simulations are conducted on bulk TIP4P water and on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in TIP4P water, with concentration c = 0.67 mol/kg. The liquid-liquid critical point is found both in the bulk and in the solution. Its position in the thermodynamic plane shifts to higher temperature and lower pressure for the solution. Comparison with available experimental data allowed us to produce the phase diagrams of both bulk water and the aqueous solution as measurable in experiments. Given the position of the liquid-liquid critical point in the solution as obtained from our simulations, the experimental determination of the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in aqueous solutions of salts appears possible.

  11. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  12. Structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, Manish; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2014-04-24

    The present work describes a molecular dynamics simulation study of structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions in water. Structural properties of the system in terms of radial distribution functions and dynamical characteristics as obtained through velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacements have been analyzed. The results for radial distribution functions show the oxygen of water to form the first solvation shell at 2.4 Å around the uranium atom, whereas the hydrogen atoms of water are distributed around the uranium atom with the major peak at around 3.0 Å. Analyses of transport behaviors of ions and water through MSD indicates that the diffusion of the uranyl ion is much less as compared to that of the water molecules. It is also observed that the dynamical behavior of water molecules gets modified due to the presence of uranyl ion. The effect of increase in concentration of uranyl ions on the structure and dynamics of water molecules is also studied.

  13. Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols In Aqueous Solution By Ultraviolet Excilamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matafonova, Galina; Philippova, Natalya; Batoev, Valeriy

    2011-08-25

    The direct photolysis of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in model aqueous solution was studied using UV XeBr (282 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excilamps. The highest pseudo-first order rate constants and quantum yields were found for molecular form of 4-CP (at pH 2 and 5.7) and anionic forms of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP (at pH 11) when irradiated by XeBr excilamp. The maximum removal efficiency of molecular form of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP with the lowest UV dose of absorbed energy was observed using KrCl excilamp. On the contrary, the XeBr excilamp required the lowest dose ({approx}2 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2}) for complete degradation of molecular 4-CP and anionic 2-CP. The highest removal efficiency of anionic form of 4-CP (65%) was achieved when using KrCl excilamp.

  14. Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1999-03-30

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

  15. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng; Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the O—D stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of O—D vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing O—D stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the O—D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the O—D stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating O—D stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the O—D stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We anticipate that this computational approach will be of critical use in interpreting linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopies of HDO molecule that is considered as an excellent local probe for monitoring local electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding environment in not just salt but also other confined and crowded solutions.

  16. Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathe, Mark

    The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation ...

  17. Dispersion Stability of Functionalized Graphene in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The colloidal stability of functionalized graphene sheets of reaggregation decreased with increasing SDS concentration; above 40 M, the suspensions were colloidally stableDispersion Stability of Functionalized Graphene in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions Andrew

  18. Aqueous Solutions of Amino Acid Based Ionic Liquids. Dispersion and Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaban, Vitaly V

    2014-01-01

    New ionic liquids (ILs) are continuously introduced involving an increasing number of organic and inorganic ions. Amino acid based ILs (AAILs) represent a specific interest due to their natural origin and, allegedly, low cost. We apply our recently developed force field for imidazolium-based AAILs to investigate structure properties in their aqueous solutions via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. By reporting cluster analysis, radial distribution functions and spatial distribution functions, we argue that AAIL ions are well dispersed in the aqueous media, irrespective of the AAIL content. Aqueous solutions of AAILs exhibit desirable properties as solvents for chemical engineering. The AAILs in relatively dilute aqueous solutions (10 mol% AAIL) exist as ion pairs, while more concentrated solutions feature certain amount of larger ionic aggregates.

  19. Dynamics of Magnesite Formation at Low-Temperature and High pCO2 in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Dixon, David A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bowden, Mark E.; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2015-09-17

    Like many metal carbonate minerals, despite conditions of supersaturation, precipitation of magnesite from aqueous solution is kinetically hindered at low temperatures, for reasons that remain poorly understood. The present study examines precipitation products from reaction of Mg(OH)2 in aqueous solutions saturated with supercritical CO2 at high pressures (90 atm and 110 atm) and low temperatures (35 °C and 50 °C). Traditional bulk characterization (X-ray diffraction) of the initial solid formed indicated the presence of hydrated magnesium carbonates (hydromagnesite and nesquehonite), thermodynamically metastable phases that were found to slowly react during ageing to the more stable anhydrous form, magnesite, at temperatures as low as 35 °C (135-140 days) and at a faster rate at 50 °C (56 days). Undetected by bulk measurements, detailed examination of the precipitates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that magnesite is present as a minor component at relatively early reaction times (7 days) at 50 °C. In addition to magnesite dominating the solid phases over time, we find that mangesite nucleation and growth occurs more quickly with increasing partial pressure of CO2, and in electrolyte solutions with high bicarbonate content. Furthermore, formation of magnesite was found to be enhanced in sulfate-rich solutions, compared to chloride-rich solutions. We speculate that much of this behavior is possibly due to sulfate serving as sink of protons generated during carbonation reactions. These results support the importance of integrating magnesite as an equilibrium phase in reactive transport calculations of the effects of carbon dioxide sequestration on subsurface formations at long time scales.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  1. Three-phase contact line and line tension of electrolyte solutions in contact with charged substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrid Ibagon; Markus Bier; S. Dietrich

    2015-11-16

    The three-phase contact line formed by the intersection of a liquid-vapor interface of an electrolyte solution with a charged planar substrate is studied in terms of classical density functional theory applied to a lattice model. The influence of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength of the solution on the intrinsic structure of the three-phase contact line and on the corresponding line tension is analyzed. We find a negative line tension for all values of the surface charge density and of the ionic strength considered. The strength of the line tension decreases upon decreasing the contact angle via varying either the temperature or the substrate charge density.

  2. FEATURE ARTICLE Unified Molecular Picture of the Surfaces of Aqueous Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEATURE ARTICLE Unified Molecular Picture of the Surfaces of Aqueous Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions inorganic ions. Molecular dynamics calculations show that in salt solutions and bases the positively charged, consequently, these acids (unlike bases and salts) reduce the surface tension of water. The results

  3. Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wider, Gerhard

    1 Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution V. Dötsch,1 G. Wider, G Hochschule- Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland Keywords Protein folding; Urea denaturation; Salt changing the solution conditions. In this paper we describe the influence of various salts or non

  4. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K. (Ocean, NJ); Chin, Der-Tau (Winthrop, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  5. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  6. Delayed luminescence induced by complex domains in water and in aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Colleoni; S. Esposito; R. Grasso; M. Gulino; F. Musumeci; D. Romeli; G. Rosace; G. Salesi; A. Scordino

    2014-11-09

    Many recent studies on water have conjectured a complex structure composed of hydrogen bonded low- and high-density domains. In this work the structure of pure water and aqueous solutions of silica gel (TEOS) has been investigated by using delayed luminescence, which previously have showed significant increase in aqueous salt solutions where low-density domain formation is expected. Photon emission shows an Arrhenius trend with an activation energy in water-TEOS solutions larger than in pure water and salt-water solutions. Moreover, delayed photon emission decay shows an intrinsic lifetime of about 5 microseconds both in solutions and in pure water that, along with secondary lifetimes induced by the presence of TEOS, could be related to the formation of different domains.

  7. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH); Dawson, William J. (Dublin, OH); McCormick, Buddy E. (Dublin, OH)

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  8. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moucka, Filip; Bratko, Dusan Luzar, Alenka

    2015-03-28

    Using a newly developed grand canonical Monte Carlo approach based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules, we studied equilibrium partitioning of both components between laterally extended apolar confinements and surrounding electrolyte solution. Accurate calculations of the Hamiltonian and tensorial pressure components at anisotropic conditions in the pore required the development of a novel algorithm for a self-consistent correction of nonelectrostatic cut-off effects. At pore widths above the kinetic threshold to capillary evaporation, the molality of the salt inside the confinement grows in parallel with that of the bulk phase, but presents a nonuniform width-dependence, being depleted at some and elevated at other separations. The presence of the salt enhances the layered structure in the slit and lengthens the range of inter-wall pressure exerted by the metastable liquid. Solvation pressure becomes increasingly repulsive with growing salt molality in the surrounding bath. Depending on the sign of the excess molality in the pore, the wetting free energy of pore walls is either increased or decreased by the presence of the salt. Because of simultaneous rise in the solution surface tension, which increases the free-energy cost of vapor nucleation, the rise in the apparent hydrophobicity of the walls has not been shown to enhance the volatility of the metastable liquid in the pores.

  9. Labradorite dissolution in aqueous organic acid solutions: an experimental study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, MD. Raquib Uddin

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in sand-pack, flow-through reactors to study labradorite solubility and dissolution kinetics at 50' and IOO'C and 13.8 MPa. Labradorite grains were reacted with distilled deionized water, HCI solutions (pHi=3.5, 4.7), p...

  10. Time-resolved fluorometric determination of terbium in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmilae, I.

    1985-07-01

    The fluorescent properties of water-soluble binary and ternary complexes of terbium(III) were studied and their applications in time-resolved fluorometric analysis were tested. Solutions composed of different ..beta..-diketones, tri-n-octylphosphine oxide as the synergistic agent, and Triton X-100 as the detergent were optimized to maximize fluorescence emission in Tb measurement. The results were then compared with seven published methods which included the use of the following respective solutions, ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis((o-hydroxy-phenyl)acetic acid), dipicolinic acid, iminodiacetic acid with Tiron, EDTA with Tiron, EDTA with 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, EDTA with sulfosalicylic acid, and EDTA with salicylate. Fluorinated aliphatic ..beta..-diketones showed the most promising properties in acidic solution. They were especially suitable for use in time-resolved fluorometric analyses where Tb was used as the label after being conjugated to the analyte via bifunctional complexones. An acidic pH is required for Tb release before conversion into a fluorescent chelate. The applicability of the developed measurement solutions to the measurement of Eu was also tested. 22 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Sorption of metal ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions by activated carbons produced from waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Goba, V.E.; Kovtun, M.F.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Boiko, A.N.

    2008-08-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermal treatment of a mixture of sunflower husks, low-grade coal, and refinery waste were studied as adsorbents of transition ion metals from aqueous solutions of various compositions. The optimal conditions and the mechanism of sorption, as well as the structure of the sorbents, were studied.

  12. A VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF AQUEOUS HYDROGEN HALIDE SOLUTIONS: APPLICATION TO ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heterogeneous reactions on the surfaces of atmospheric aerosols play an important role in atmospheric chemistryA VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF AQUEOUS HYDROGEN HALIDE SOLUTIONS: APPLICATION TO ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL CHEMISTRY A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master

  13. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Protein Backbone Transitions in Aqueous Solution: Combined QM and MM Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Protein Backbone Transitions in Aqueous Solution: Combined QM and MM (MM) calculations is developed to simulate the n f * and f * backbone transitions of proteins using a new algorithm, EHEF, which combines a molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory obtained with a MM

  14. Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquidliquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedek, George B.

    Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquid­liquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions, 2002 We have studied the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the liquid­liquid phase separation. PEG ternary mixtures solubility partitioning Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic nonionic

  15. Hydrogen bond dynamics in aqueous NaBr solutions Sungnam Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen bond dynamics in aqueous NaBr solutions Sungnam Park and M. D. Fayer§ Department. D. Fayer, August 19, 2007 (sent for review July 27, 2007) Hydrogen bond dynamics of water in Na pump­probe experiments. The hydrogen bond structural dynamics are observed by measuring spectral

  16. High-voltage pulse switching hardware for electro-optic studies of conducting aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    High-voltage pulse switching hardware for electro-optic studies of conducting aqueous solutions 22 April 2002 The hardware necessary for the electro-optic study of conducting polyelectrolyte is to present the design of hardware that is applicable, available, and practical for biological electro

  17. Water structure around peptide fragments in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E [ORNL; Soper, Alan K [ORNL; Watts, Prof Anthony [University of Oxford

    2008-01-01

    The bulk water structure around small peptide fragments - glycyl-L-alanine, glycyl-L-proline and L-alanyl-L-proline - has been determined by a combination of neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution and empirical potential structural refinement techniques. The addition of each of the dipeptides to water yields a decreased water-water coordination in the surrounding water solvent. Additionally both the Ow-Ow radial distribution functions and the water-water spatial density functions in all of the solutions indicate an electrostrictive effect in the second water coordination shell of the bulk water network. This effect is not observed in similar experiments on the amino acid L-proline alone in solution, which is one component of two of the peptides measured here.

  18. Interfacial structures of acidic and basic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, C.; Ji, N.; Waychunas, G.; Shen, Y.R.

    2008-10-20

    Phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study water/vapor interfaces of HCl, HI, and NaOH solutions. The measured imaginary part of the surface spectral responses provided direct characterization of OH stretch vibrations and information about net polar orientations of water species contributing to different regions of the spectrum. We found clear evidence that hydronium ions prefer to emerge at interfaces. Their OH stretches contribute to the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum. Their charges create a positive surface field that tends to reorient water molecules more loosely bonded to the topmost water layer with oxygen toward the interface, and thus enhances significantly the 'liquid-like' band in the spectrum. Iodine ions in solution also like to appear at the interface and alter the positive surface field by forming a narrow double-charge layer with hydronium ions. In NaOH solution, the observed weak change of the 'liquid-like' band and disappearance of the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum indicates that OH{sup -} ions must also have excess at the interface. How they are incorporated in the interfacial water structure is however not clear.

  19. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  20. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  1. Sorption of cobalt on activated carbons from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paajanen, A.; Lehto, J.; Santapakka, T.; Morneau, J.P. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-01-01

    The efficiencies of 15 commercially available activated carbons were tested for the separation of trace cobalt ({sup 60}Co) in buffer solutions at pH 5.0, 6.7, and 9.1. On the basis of the results four carbon products, Diahope-006, Eurocarb TN5, Hydraffin DG47, and Norit ROW Supra, were selected for further study. These carbons represented varying (low, medium and high) cobalt removal efficiencies and were prepared of three typical raw materials: peat, coconut shell, or coal. Study was made of the effects on sorption efficiencies of factors of interest in metal/radionuclide-bearing waste effluents. These factors were pH, sodium ions, borate, and citrate.

  2. The chemistry of plutonium(VI) in aqueous carbonate solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, B.E.; Choppin, G.R. . Dept. of Chemistry); Sullivan, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of carbonate ion as a ligand that interacts with the hexavalent actinyl ions of U, Np, and Pu has been examined by {sup 13}C NMR. The first order rate parameter that describes the exchange between bulk solution and bound carbonate decreases with increasing pH. At a pH of 10.0, 25{degree}C, the respective values of k for the U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) complexes are 27.1 {plus minus} 0.3, 64.7 {plus minus} 3.3 and 706 {plus minus} 29. The variation of k with temperature was used to calculate the values of {Delta}H{sup +} = 53 and 42 kJ/M; and {Delta}S{sup +} = {minus}40 and {minus}71 J/M-K for the uranyl and neptunyl systems, respectively. A plausible reaction scheme for the exchange reaction is considered. The influence of these slow carbonate exchange reactions on selected electron transfer reactions is noted. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Compatibility of Lithium Salts with Solvent of the Non-Aqueous Electrolyte in Li–O2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Peng; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Luo, Xiangyi; Bareno, Javier; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Curtiss, Larry A.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-20

    The stability of lithium salts, especially in the presence of reduced oxygen species, O2 and H2O (even in a small amount), plays an important role in the cyclability and capacity of Li–O2 cells. This combined experimental and computational study provides evidence that the stability of the electrolyte used in Li–O2 cells strongly depends on the compatibility of lithium salts with solvent. In the case of the LiPF6–1NM3 electrolyte, the decomposition of LiPF6 occurs in the cell as evidenced by in situ XRD, FT-IR and XPS analysis, which triggers the decomposition of 1NM3 solvent due to formation of HF from the decomposition of LiPF6. These reactions lead to degradation of the electrolyte and cause poor cyclability of the cell. The same reactions are not observed when LiTFSI and LiCF3SO3 are used as the lithium salts in 1NM3 solvent, or LiPF6 is used in TEGDME solvent.

  4. Effect of temperature on the complexation of Uranium(VI) with fluoride in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-05-18

    Complexation of U(VI) with fluoride at elevated temperatures in aqueous solutions was studied by spectrophotometry. Four successive complexes, UO{sub 2}F{sup +}, UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(aq), UO{sub 2}F{sub 3}{sup -}, and UO{sub 2}F{sub 4}{sup 2-}, were identified, and the stability constants at 25, 40, 55, and 70 C were calculated. The stability of the complexes increased as the temperature was elevated. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the complexation of U(VI) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at 25 to 70 C is slightly endothermic and entropy-driven. The Specific Ion Interaction (SIT) approach was used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of complexation at infinite dilution. Structural information on the U(VI)/fluoride complexes was obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  5. Z .Fluid Phase Equilibria 155 1999 139154 Osmotic pressures of aqueous bovine serum albumin solutions at high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Z .Fluid Phase Equilibria 155 1999 139­154 Osmotic pressures of aqueous bovine serum albumin­2753 , osmotic pressures of aqueous bovine serum albumin BSA solutions were Z . Z .measured at three pH 4.5, 5 of state represents the contribution of the hard-sphere repulsion to the osmotic pressure. Van der Waals

  6. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Kaleen, AU)

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  7. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Giralang, AU)

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  8. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zheng, Doug [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  9. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zheng, Doug; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1,more »0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  10. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants aremore »0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  11. Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2014-08-21

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  12. Solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.; Han, B.; Yan, H.; Liu, R.

    1995-10-01

    The solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were measured at 313.15 K and at pressures up to 3 MPa. The molalities of SDS (m{sub SDS}) in the aqueous solution were 0.0000, 0.0020, 0.0040, 0.0060, 0.0070, 0.0080, 0.0090, 0.0100, 0.0126, 0.0150, 0.0200, and 0.0300. The effect of SDS on the gas solubility in both concentration regions below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) was studied. The existence of the micelles of SDS in the solution is favorable to the dissolution of ethane due to the hydrocarbon-like interior of the micelles. The solubilities of ethane in each micelle at different pressures were evaluated based on some assumptions. It was found that the intramicellar solubility of ethane is less than that of the gas in n-dodecane. It was also found that the solubility of ethane in the micelles increases linearly with the partial pressure of ethane. The cmc of SDS was evaluated based on the solubility vs m{sub SDS} curves and the effect of dissolved ethane on the cmc was studied. It was observed that the cmc shifts toward a higher value with the increase in dissolved ethane.

  13. Role of microscopic phase separation in gelation of aqueous gelatin solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damjan Pelc; Sanjin Marion; Miroslav Požek; Mario Basleti?

    2012-07-20

    Using a unique home-made cell for four-contact impedance spectroscopy of conductive liquid samples, we establish the existence of two low frequency conductivity relaxations in aqueous solutions of gelatin, in both liquid and gel state. A comparison with diffusion measurements using pulsed field gradient NMR shows that the faster relaxation process is due to gelatin macromolecule self-diffusion. This single molecule diffusion is mostly insensitive to the macroscopic state of the sample, implying that the gelation of gelatin is not a percolative phenomenon, but is caused by aggregation of triple helices into a system-spanning fibre network.

  14. Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions by Selective Crystallization of Alkali Metal Coordination Capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajbanshi, Arbin; Moyer, Bruce A; Custelcean, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly of a tris(urea) anion receptor with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} yields crystalline capsules held together by coordinating Na{sup +} or K{sup +} cations and hydrogen-bonding water bridges, with the sulfate anions encapsulated inside urea-lined cavities. The sodium-based capsules can be selectively crystallized in excellent yield from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions ({approx}6 M Na{sup +}, pH 14), thereby providing for the first time a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  15. Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

    2000-09-05

    A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

  16. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zheng, Doug; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  17. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  18. H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-09-15

    It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+y AlxTi2?x SiyP3?yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

  19. Precipitation in aqueous mixtures with addition of a strongly hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute Ryuichi Okamoto and Akira Onuki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precipitation in aqueous mixtures with addition of a strongly hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute ions, preferential solvation can stabilize water domains enriched with ions. This precipitation occurs the mixture solvent would be in a one-phase state without solute. The volume fraction of precipitated domains

  20. Adding Salt to an Aqueous Solution of t-Butanol: Is Hydrophobic Association Enhanced or Reduced?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek; Alfons Geiger; Momo Jeufack Herve; Dieter Suter

    2006-01-16

    Recent neutron scattering experiments on aqueous salt solutions of amphiphilic t-butanol by Bowron and Finney [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 89}, 215508 (2002); J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 118}, 8357 (2003)] suggest the formation of t-butanol pairs, bridged by a chloride ion via ${O}-{H}...{Cl}^-$ hydrogen-bonds, and leading to a reduced number of intermolecular hydrophobic butanol-butanol contacts. Here we present a joint experimental/theoretical study on the same system, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements. Both theory and experiment clearly support the more intuitive scenario of an enhanced number of hydrophobic contacts in the presence of the salt, as it would be expected for purely hydrophobic solutes [J. Phys. Chem. B {\\bf 107}, 612 (2003)]. Although our conclusions arrive at a structurally completely distinct scenario, the molecular dynamics simulation results are within the experimental errorbars of the Bowron and Finney work.

  1. Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tani, Atsushi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ono, Yusuke; Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi

    2012-06-18

    To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) and superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

  2. Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides with different phases in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristl, Matjaž, E-mail: matjaz.kristl@uni-mb.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Hojnik, Nuša [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Material Synthesis, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drofenik, Miha [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Material Synthesis, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides in aqueous solutions is reported. ? CuS and Cu{sub 2}S nanoparticles with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm were obtained. ? Crystallite size can be changed using different complexing agents. ? Thermal behavior was studied by TG and XRD measurements. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in the synthesis of nanostructured copper sulfides due to their ability to form compounds with various stoichiometries. We report a sonochemical route for the preparation of copper sulfides with different compositions in aqueous solutions, using different, general and convenient copper sources such as copper acetate, copper hydroxide or basic copper carbonate and thiourea or thioacetamide as sulfur precursors under ambient air. Phase analysis, purity and morphology of the products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that nanoparticles of covellite, CuS, with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm can be obtained by using different precursors and complexing agents and that chalcocite, Cu{sub 2}S, can also be prepared sonochemically.

  3. Conformation and Phase Separation of Oligo (ethylene glycol) Grafted Polystyrene in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Gang [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Wignall, George D [ORNL; Hua, Fengjun [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Temperature induced conformational changes of poly(p-oligo(ethylene glycol) styrene) (POEGS) in aqueous solutions were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), neutron transmission and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The molecular weight of the polymer studied was 9400 g/mol with a polydispersity index of 1.18 and each repeat unit of the polymer had four ethylene glycol monomer segments. The polymer was water soluble due to the hydrophilicity of the OEG side chains and these solutions showed lower critical solution temperature (LCST) depending on the concentration of the polymer. Measurements of solution behavior were made as a function of temperature in the range of 25-55 C for three polymer concentrations (0.1 wt%, 0.3 wt%, and 1.8 wt%). Neutron transmission measurements were used to monitor the amount of polymer which precipitated or remained in solution above the cloud point temperature (T{sub CP}). DLS revealed the presence of large clusters in all solutions both below and above T{sub CP} while SANS provided information on the structure and interactions between individual chains. It was found that in the homogeneous region below T{sub CP} the shape of individual polymers in solution was close to ellipsoidal with the dimensions R{sub a} = 37 Angstroms and R{sub b} = 14 Angstroms and was virtually independent of temperature. The SANS data taken for the most concentrated solution studied (1.8 wt%) were fit to the ellipsoidal model with attractive interactions which were approximated by the Ornstein-Zernike function with a temperature-dependent correlation length in the range of 24-49 Angstroms. The collapse of individual polymers to spherical globules with the radius of 15 Angstroms above TCP was observed.

  4. Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

    2004-03-29

    Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

  5. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

  6. Precipitation in aqueous mixtures with addition of strongly hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2010-10-09

    We examine phase separation in aqueous mixtures due to preferential solvation with a low-density solute (hydrophilic ions or hydrophobic particles). For hydrophilic ions, preferential solvation can stabilize water domains enriched with ions. This precipitation occurs in wide ranges of the temperature and the average composition above a critical solute density $n_p$, where the mixture solvent would be in a one-phase state without solute. The volume fraction of precipitated domains tends to zero as the average solute density $\\bar n$ is decreased to $n_p$ or as the interaction parameter $\\chi$ is decreased to a critical value $\\chi_p$. If we start with one-phase states with ${\\bar n}>n_p$ or $\\chi>\\chi_p$, precipitation proceeds via homogeneous nucleation or via heterogeneous nucleation, for example, around suspended colloids. In the latter case, colliod particles are wrapped by thick wetting layers. We also predict a first-order prewetting transition for $\\bar n$ or $\\chi$ slightly below $n_p$ or $\\chi_p$.

  7. Controlled synthesis of calcium carbonate in a mixed aqueous solution of PSMA and CTAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Zhao Xiufeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Changji University, Changji 831100 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Zhang Qingjie [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China)

    2005-03-15

    A mixed system of poly (styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a very effective crystal growth modifier to direct the controlled synthesis of CaCO{sub 3} crystals with various morphologies and polymorphs. The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the concentrations and relative ratios of PSMA and CTAB in the mixed aqueous solution were turned out to be important parameters for the morphology and polymorph of CaCO{sub 3} crystals. Various morphologies of CaCO{sub 3} crystals, such as hollow microsphere, peanut and so on, were produced depending on the concentrations and relative ratios of PSMA and CTAB. Moreover, the formation mechanisms of CaCO{sub 3} crystals with different morphologies were discussed.

  8. Temperature and pH driven association in uranyl aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druchok, M; 10.5488/CMP.15.43602

    2013-01-01

    An association behavior of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions is explored. For this purpose a set of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is performed. During the simulation, the fractions of uranyl ions involved in dimer and trimer formations were monitored. To accompany the fraction statistics one also collected distributions characterizing average times of the dimer and trimer associates. Two factors effecting the uranyl association were considered: temperature and pH. As one can expect, an increase of the temperature decreases an uranyl capability of forming the associates, thus lowering bound fractions/times and vice versa. The effect of pH was modeled by adding H^+ or OH^- ions to a "neutral" solution. The addition of hydroxide ions OH^- favors the formation of the associates, thus increasing bound times and fractions. The extra H^+ ions in a solution produce an opposite effect, thus lowering the uranyl association capability. We also made a structural analysis for all the observed associates to reveal...

  9. Temperature and pH driven association in uranyl aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Druchok; M. Holovko

    2012-12-27

    An association behavior of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions is explored. For this purpose a set of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is performed. During the simulation, the fractions of uranyl ions involved in dimer and trimer formations were monitored. To accompany the fraction statistics one also collected distributions characterizing average times of the dimer and trimer associates. Two factors effecting the uranyl association were considered: temperature and pH. As one can expect, an increase of the temperature decreases an uranyl capability of forming the associates, thus lowering bound fractions/times and vice versa. The effect of pH was modeled by adding H^+ or OH^- ions to a "neutral" solution. The addition of hydroxide ions OH^- favors the formation of the associates, thus increasing bound times and fractions. The extra H^+ ions in a solution produce an opposite effect, thus lowering the uranyl association capability. We also made a structural analysis for all the observed associates to reveal the mutual orientation of the uranyl ions.

  10. Structural Properties of High and Low Density Water in a Supercooled Aqueous Solution of Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Corradini; M. Rovere; P. Gallo

    2011-01-27

    We consider and compare the structural properties of bulk TIP4P water and of a sodium chloride aqueous solution in TIP4P water with concentration c = 0.67 mol/kg, in the metastable supercooled region. In a previous paper [D. Corradini, M. Rovere and P. Gallo, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 134508 (2010)] we found in both systems the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP). The LLCP is believed to be the end point of the coexistence line between a high density liquid (HDL) and a low density liquid (LDL) phase of water. In the present paper we study the different features of water-water structure in HDL and LDL both in bulk water and in the solution. We find that the ions are able to modify the bulk LDL structure, rendering water-water structure more similar to the bulk HDL case. By the study of the hydration structure in HDL and LDL, a possible mechanism for the modification of the bulk LDL structure in the solution is identified in the substitution of the oxygen by the chloride ion in oxygen coordination shells.

  11. Concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter in aqueous solutions of capped PEO chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Chaudhari; L. R. Pratt; M. E. Paulaitis

    2014-10-05

    The dependence on volume fraction $\\varphi$ of the Flory-Huggins $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ describing the free energy of mixing of polymers in water is obtained by exploiting the connection of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ to the chemical potential of the water, for which quasi-chemical theory is satisfactory. We test this theoretical approach with simulation data for aqueous solutions of capped PEO oligomers. For CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ ($m$=11), $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ depends strongly on $\\varphi$, consistent with experiment. These results identify coexisting water-rich and water-poor solutions at $T$ = 300K and $p$ = 1atm. Direct observation of the coexistence of these two solutions on simulation time scales supports that prediction for the system studied. This approach directly provides the osmotic pressures. The osmotic second virial coefficient for these chains is positive, reflecting repulsive interactions between the chains in the water, a good solvent for these chains.

  12. Electrolyte effects in a model system for mesoporous carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, M. C.F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a variety of alkali halide aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with planar graphite slit pores are simulated using classical molecular dynamics. Size trends in structure and transport properties are examined by varying the choice of ions. The intermediate atomic weight ions within each group are found to diffuse faster than the larger or smaller ions. System dynamics are driven by changes in water hydration behavior and, specifically, by variations in the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule. Both the cation and the anion sequences demonstrate that confinement effects can significantly alter the expected trends of alkali halide electrolytes.

  13. Rotational Relaxation of Ionic Molecules in Electrolyte Solutions. Anisotropy Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurnikova, Maria

    and the metal cation. Conductivity measure- ments and ab initio electronic structure calculations are used structure and the solute dynamics occur for ionic solute molecules. Both experimental4-10 and theoretical11 of experimental studies, ab initio electronic struc- ture, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used

  14. Zinc-bromine batteries with improved electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantner, E.

    1985-01-01

    The coulombic efficiency of aqueous zinc bromine batteries can be increased if, in addition to the bromide ions required to be present in the electrolyte to charge the cell to rated capacity, chloride ions are added to the electrolyte in amounts sufficient to reduce the amount of free bromine present in the electrolyte during operation of the cell.

  15. ADSORPTION OF TETRACYCLINE ON SINGLE-WALLED AND MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES AS AFFECTED BY AQUEOUS SOLUTION CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    contaminants in water treatment. The present study investigated the influence of aqueous solution chemistry,6]. The removal of pharmaceutical antibiotics by con- ventional water and wastewater treatment technologies,*y and PEDRO J. ALVAREZ§ yState Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University

  16. Static light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering study on aggregated recombinant gelatin in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutter, Marc

    2006-10-25

    Static Light Scattering and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study on Aggregated Recombinant Gelatin in Aqueous Solution A. Ramzi 1, M. Sutter 2, W.E. Hennink 1, W. Jiskoot 1,2 1 Department of Pharmaceutics, UIPS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands... 2 Department of Drug Delivery Technology, LACDR, Leiden University, The Netherlands Recombinant Gelatins ? Recombinant gelatins are currently being evaluated as pharmaceutical excipients. ? Behavior of recombinant gelatins in solution is not well...

  17. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  18. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  19. Electrophoretic Study of the SnO2/Aqueous Solution Interface up to 260 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Santiago, V; Fedkin, Mark V.; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-07-01

    An electrophoresis cell developed in our laboratory was utilized to determine the zeta potential at the SnO{sub 2} (cassiterite)/aqueous solution (10{sup -3} mol kg{sup -1} NaCl) interface over the temperature range from 25 to 260 C. Experimental techniques and methods for the calculation of zeta potential at elevated temperature are described. From the obtained zeta potential data as a function of pH, the isoelectric points (IEPs) of SnO{sub 2} were obtained for the first time. From these IEP values, the standard thermodynamic functions were calculated for the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium at the SnO{sub 2} surface, using the 1-pK surface complexation model. It was found that the IEP values for SnO{sub 2} decrease with increasing temperature, and this behavior is compared to the predicted values by the multisite complexation (MUSIC) model and other semitheoretical treatments, and were found to be in excellent agreement.

  20. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  1. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  2. New porous titanium–niobium oxide for photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaleshtori, Maryam Zarei, E-mail: mzarei@utep.edu [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Hosseini, Mahsa; Edalatpour, Roya [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Masud, S.M. Sarif [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Chianelli, Russell R., E-mail: chianell@utep.edu [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic activity of different porous titanium–niobium oxides was evaluated toward degradation of bromocresol green (BG) under UV light. A better catalytic activity was observed for all samples at lower pH. Catalysts have a stronger ability for degradation of BG in acid media than in alkaline media. - Highlights: • Different highly structured titanium–niobium oxides have been prepared using improved methods of synthesis. • Photo-degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) with nanostructure titanium–niobium oxide catalysts was carried out under UV light. • The photo-catalytic activity of all catalysts was higher in lower pH. • Titanium–niobium oxide catalysts are considerably stable and reusable. - Abstract: In this study, high surface area semiconductors, non porous and porous titanium–niobium oxides derived from KTiNbO{sub 5} were synthesized, characterized and developed for their utility as photocatalysts for decontamination with sunlight. These materials were then used in the photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) in aqueous solution using UV light and their catalytic activities were evaluated at various pHs. For all catalysts, the photocatalytic degradation of BG was most efficient in acidic solutions. Results show that the new porous oxides have large porous and high surface areas and high catalytic activity. A topotactic dehydration treatment greatly improves catalyst performance at various pHs. Stability and long term activity of porous materials (topo and non-topo) in photocatalysis reactions was also tested. These results suggest that the new materials can be used to efficiently purify contaminated water.

  3. Mechanistic studies of hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution catalyzed by a tertpyridine-amine cobalt complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Baine, Teera; Zhao, Xuan; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko; Poyansky, Dmitry E.

    2015-04-22

    The ability of cobalt-based transition metal complexes to catalyze electrochemical proton reduction to produce molecular hydrogen has resulted in a large number of mechanistic studies involving various cobalt complexes. In addition, while the basic mechanism of proton reduction promoted by cobalt species is well understood, the reactivity of certain reaction intermediates, such as CoI and CoIII–H, is still relatively unknown owing to their transient nature, especially in aqueous media. In this work we investigate the properties of intermediates produced during catalytic proton reduction in aqueous solutions promoted by the [(DPA-Bpy)Co(OH?)]n+ (DPA-Bpy = N,N-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-2,20-bipyridine-6-methanamine) complex ([Co(L)(OH?)]n+ where L is the pentadentatemore »DPA-Bpy ligand or [Co(OH?)]n+ as a shorthand). Experimental results based on transient pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis methods, together with electrochemical studies and supported by DFT calculations indicate that, while the water ligand is strongly coordinated to the metal center in the oxidation state 3+, one-electron reduction of the complex to form a CoII species results in weakening the Co–O bond. The further reduction to a CoI species leads to the loss of the aqua ligand and the formation of [CoI–VS)]? (VS = vacant site). Interestingly, DFT calculations also predict the existence of a [CoI(??-L)(OH?)]? species at least transiently, and its formation is consistent with the experimental Pourbaix diagram. Both electrochemical and kinetics results indicate that the CoI species must undergo some structural change prior to accepting the proton, and this transformation represents the rate-determining step (RDS) in the overall formation of [CoIII–H]?. We propose that this RDS may originate from the slow removal of a solvent ligand in the intermediate [CoI(??-L)(OH?)]? in addition to the significant structural reorganization of the metal complex and surrounding solvent resulting in a high free energy of activation.« less

  4. Cloud Point of Aqueous Solutions of Tetrabutylammonium Dodecyl Sulfate Is a Function of the Concentration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    to be a function of the tetrabutylammonium counterion concentration in the aqueous phase whether the counterions is a function of the concentration of TBA+ cations in the aqueous phase, whether the counterions are provided surfactant did not produce ashes when calcined at high temperature, contrary to SDS, which yields sodium

  5. Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013 Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

  6. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution and nickel plating industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: Peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periasamy, K.; Namasivayam, C. [Bharathair Univ. Tamil Nadu (India)] [Bharathair Univ. Tamil Nadu (India)

    1995-07-01

    Activated carbon prepared from peanut hulls (PHC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The process of uptake obeys both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Quantitative removal of Ni(II) from 100 mL aqueous solution containing 20 mg/L Ni(II) by 85 mg PHC was observed over a pH range of 4.0 to 10.0. The suitability of PHC for treating nickel plating industry wastewater was also tested. A comparative study with a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) showed that PHC is 36 times more efficient compared to GAC based on Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q{sub O}).

  7. Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xia-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Xiang, Caili (Upton, NY)

    2000-02-08

    Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  8. Preparation and lithium intercalation behavior of TiO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yunjiao, E-mail: yunjiaoli6601@hotmail.com; Li, Lin; Chen, Lingpeng; Wang, Xuanyu; Xu, Cang

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The poor crystalline anatase phase or amorphous TiO{sub 2} was prepared by TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis under different pH conditions. • Phase transition behavior and lithium intercalation ability of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were found to be related to TiO{sub 2} property. • The results indicate that TiO{sub 2} products obtained from TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis at lower pH are favorable for lithium intercalation. - Abstract: The low crystalline or amorphous TiO{sub 2} was prepared by TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis in aqueous solutions under different pH conditions at 45 °C. The products obtained at lower pH (1.23–3.10) appear to be nano-sized particles with poor crystalline anatase structure and an uniform particle size distribution, while the product prepared at pH 4.10 presents in a poor crystalline anatase structure and the regular morphology starts to disappear, and the products obtained at higher pH (>6.00) are amorphous and irregular morphology. The hydrolysis products obtained at pH 2.60 and 8.80 were heat-treated at 300, 400, 600, 700 and 800 °C for 3 h, respectively, to figure out the phase transition. The differences in phase transition process were observed, which verified the properties difference. The lithium intercalation abilities of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were studied. The results indicated that the TiO{sub 2} obtained at lower pH are more favorable for lithium intercalation and are better precursors.

  9. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes.

  10. Anomalous pH Dependent Stability Behavior of Surfactant-Free Nonpolar Oil Drops in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    microscopy (AFM) force measurement techniques have allowed the direct measurement and theoretical (perfluoropentane) droplets, hydrocarbon (tetradecane) droplets, and a droplet and a flat mica surface of these interactive forces suggests that the DLVO theory cannot explain the observed behavior. The measured force

  11. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Mehdi, Beata L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Gu, Meng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Yaohui; Arslan, Ilke; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-03-12

    One of the goals in the development of new battery technologies is to find new electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability. In-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using an electrochemical fluid cell provides the ability to rapidly and directly characterize electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions under battery relevant electrochemical conditions. Furthermore, as the electron beam itself causes a localized electrochemical reaction when it interacts with the electrolyte, the breakdown products that occur during the first stages of battery operation can potentially be simulated and characterized using a straightforward in-situ liquid stage (without electrochemical biasing capabilities). In this paper, we have studied the breakdown of a range of inorganic/salt complexes that are used in state-of-the-art Li-ion battery systems. The results of the in-situ (S)TEM experiments matches with previous stability tests performed during battery operation and the breakdown products and mechanisms are also consistent with known mechanisms. This analysis indicates that in-situ liquid stage (S)TEM observations can be used to directly test new electrolyte designs and provide structural insights into the origin of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation mechanism.

  12. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S.C.

    1982-08-01

    Improvements in the performance of zinc-bromine batteries have been observed with electrolytes containing a quaternary ammonium salt that complexes the bromine to reduce the concentration of free bromine in solution. A variety of quaternary ammonium salts that complex bromine to form a so-called polybromide oil have been considered. Various papers have discussed measurements of the physicochemical properties of the two-component system of bromine-quaternary ammonium bromide in an aqueous medium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interfacial tension of polybromide oils on the electrolytes for zinc-bromine batteries by reporting a study of the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops in which the sessile drop method is used. The interfacial tensions for the polybromide phases are found to be considerably lower than the values commonly reported for two-phase systems containing organic and aqueous phases. However, several two-phase systems, such as benzyl alcohol/water, furfural/water, and ethyl acetate/water have low interfacial tension comparable to that of the polybromide/electrolyte system. The low interfacial tension of the polybromide oil phase has important practical implications for the zinc-bromine battery. A stable emulsion can be produced very readily; small drops of the polybromide-oil phase can thus be stabilized with the electrolyte phase and can be expected to enhance the mass transfer of bromine from the polybromide to the electrode.

  13. Self-Association of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Its Complexation with Gelatin in Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    Self-Association of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Its Complexation with Gelatin in Aqueous with the interchain association. Gelatin was encaptured/complexed into the PNIPAM aggregates and the complexation was completely reversible as the temperature varied. The PNIPAM/gelatin complexes with the highest molar mass

  14. Krafft Temperature and Micelle Ionization of Aqueous Solutions of Cesium Dodecyl Sulfate Barney L. Bales*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    The Krafft temperature of the surfactant cesium dodecyl sulfate, as determined by conductivity measurements, was shown to be a function of the Cs+ concentration in the aqueous phase whether the counterions-5 show that Caq is given as follows: In eq 1, St is the total surfactant concentration and Sf

  15. An NH Moiety Is Not Required for Anion Binding to Amides in Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature (LCST) of PDEA was measured as a function of the concentration for 11 sodium salts in aqueous-in effect to occur. INTRODUCTION The physical behavior of numerous surfactants, polymers, and biomolecules the LCST of the polymer with increasing the salt concentration. Weakly hydrated anions (SCN- , ClO4 - , I

  16. THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Silvester, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium Solution-Mineral Equilibria at Low Temperatures with Applications to Sedimentary Ore Deposits",

  17. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  18. 2012 WATER & AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (GRC) AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (GRS), AUG 10-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz, PI

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the fundamental principles governing the structure and dynamics of water - and particularly how water mediates chemical interactions and processes - continues to pose formidable challenges and yield abundant surprises. The focus of this Gordon Research Conference is on identifying key questions, describing emerging understandings, and unveiling surprising discoveries related to water and aqueous solutions. The talks and posters at this meeting will describe studies of water and its interactions with objects such as interfaces, channels, electrons, oils, ions, and proteins; probed using optical, electrical, and particle experiments, and described using classical, quantum, and multi-scale theories.

  19. Spontaneous CO Release from RuII(CO)2–Protein Complexes in Aqueous Solution, Cells, and Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaves-Ferreira, Miguel; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Coelho, Ana C.; Carvalho, Sandra M.; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Romão, Carlos C.; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2014-12-04

    stream_source_info Chaves_Ferreira_et_al-2015-Angewandte_Chemie_International_Edition.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 21359 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Chaves_Ferreira_et_al-2015-Angewandte_Chemie... denaturing conditions. c) ESI-MS analysis of CO release from HEWL–RuII(CO)2 at 0, 2, and 4 h in aqueous buffered solution (PBS pH 7.4). Angewandte Chemie 1173Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 1172 –1175 ? 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag Gmb...

  20. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  1. Solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutins were determined at 25/sup 0/C. The protosurfactants studied are sodium salts of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonic acid, and 3,5-diisopropyisalicylic acid. Each of them has six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and does not form micelles in water. The two micelle-forming surfactants used are sodium n-hexanoate with six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and sodium n-octanoate with eight alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =8). In three-component systems of toluene or n-octane with water and organic salt (either protosurfactant or surfactant), the solubility of the hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase increases as the number of alkyl carbons of the organic salt and as the aqueous concentration of the organic salt increases. However, in this study we found that sodium 3,5-diisopropyisalicylate causes much more pronounced increases in hydrocarbon solubility than these two surfactants. Sodium 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonate, although not as effective in solubilization as the salicylate, has much stronger hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than either of these two surfactants. Sodium cyclohexanoate, with a compact arrangement of the six alkyl carbons, shows a higher hydrotropic effect than sodium n-hexanoate.

  2. Structural Investigation of PAMAM Dendrimers in Aqueous Solutions Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering: Effect of Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a series of poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimers (PAMAM) of different generations in acidic, aqueous solutions using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). While the overall molecular size is found to be practically unaffected by a pD change, a strong generational dependence of counterion association is revealed. Upon increasing the dendrimer generation, the effective charge obtained from our SANS experiments only shows a small increase in contrast to the nearly exponential increase predicted by a recent atomic simulation. We also find that with the same degree of molecular protonation the specific counterion association, which is defined as the ratio of bound chloride anions to positively charged amines in solutions, is larger for higher-generation PAMAM dendrimer. The associated counterion density also increases upon increasing generation number.

  3. Nitrogen K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure of pyrimidine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki Minami, Hirotake; Okuizumi, Naoto; Sakuma, Ichiro; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Yuji

    2015-05-07

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was measured at energies around the N K-edge of the pyrimidine-containing nucleotides, cytidine 5?-monophosphate (CMP), 2?-deoxythymidine 5?-monophosphate (dTMP), and uridine 5?-monophosphate (UMP), in aqueous solutions and in dried films under various pH conditions. The features of resonant excitations below the N K-edge in the XANES spectra for CMP, dTMP, and UMP changed depending on the pH of the solutions. The spectral change thus observed is systematically explained by the chemical shift of the core-levels of N atoms in the nucleobase moieties caused by structural changes due to protonation or deprotonation at different proton concentrations. This interpretation is supported by the results of theoretical calculations using density functional theory for the corresponding nucleobases in the neutral and protonated or deprotonated forms.

  4. Quantitative extraction and concentration of synthetic water-soluble acid dyes from aqueous media using a quinine-chloroform solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, F.; Ozawa, N.; Hanai, J.; Isobe, M.; Watabe, T.

    1986-12-01

    Twenty-one water-soluble acid dyes, including eleven azo, five triphenylmethane four xanthene, one naphthol derivatives, used at practical concentrations for food coloration, were quantitatively extracted from water and various carbonated beverages into a 0.1 M quinine-chloroform solution in the presence of 0.5 M boric acid by brief shaking. Quantitative extraction of these dyes was also accomplished by the 0.1 M quinine-chloroform solution made conveniently from chloroform, quinine hydrochloride, and sodium hydroxide added successively to water or beverages containing boric acid. Quinine acted as a countercation on the dyes having sulfonic and/or carboxylic acid group(s) to form chloroform-soluble ion-pair complexes. The diacidic base alkaloid interacted with each acid group of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasulfonic acid dyes approximately in the ratio 0.8-0.9 to 1. The dyes in the chloroform solution were quantitatively concentrated into a small volume of sodium hydroxide solution also by brief shaking. The convenient quinine-chloroform method was applicable to the quantitative extraction of a mixture of 12 dyes from carbonated beverages, which are all currently used for food coloration. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method is also presented for the systematic separation and determination of these 12 dyes following their concentration into the aqueous alkaline solution. The chromatogram was monitored by double-wavelength absorptiometry in the visible and ultraviolet ray regions.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of the electrical double layer on smectite surfaces contacting concentrated mixed electrolyte (NaCl-CaCl?) solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

    2011-01-01

    We report new molecular dynamics results elucidating the structure of the electrical double layer (EDL) on smectite surfaces contacting mixed NaCl–CaCl2 electrolyte solutions in the range of concentrations relevant to pore waters in geologic repositories for CO2 or high-level radioactive waste (0.34–1.83 molc dm-3). Our results confirm the existence of three distinct ion adsorption planes (0-, ?-, and d-planes), often assumed in EDL models, but with two important qualifications: (1) the location of the ?- and d-planes are independent of ionic strength or ion type and (2) “indifferent electrolyte” ions can occupy all three planes. Charge inversion occurred in the diffuse ion swarm because of the affinity of the clay surface for CaCl+ ion pairs. Therefore, at concentrations {>=0.34 molc dm-3}, properties arising from long-range electrostatics at interfaces (electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, co-ion exclusion, colloidal aggregation) will not be correctly predicted by most EDL models. Co-ion exclusion, typically neglected by surface speciation models, balanced a large part of the clay mineral structural charge in the more concentrated solutions. Water molecules and ions diffused relatively rapidly even in the first statistical water monolayer, contradicting reports of rigid “ice-like” structures for water on clay mineral surfaces.

  6. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  7. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  8. Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskin, David J

    1997-01-01

    Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

  9. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of solubilization of tributyl phosphate in aqueous solutions of L64 Pluronic triblock copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Causse; Julian Oberdisse; Jacques Jestin; Serge Lagerge

    2010-12-04

    We have studied the solubilization behaviour of tributylphosphate (TBP) in aqueous solutions of L64-Pluronics, using light and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Varying the temperature and the oil-content, the system presents a non trivial phase behaviour. In particular, at 308K, a first solubilization followed by an emulsification failure and a resolubilization is found. We have measured the microstructure by SANS and characterized the microemulsion droplet core-size, corona-thickness, polydispersity, and interactions. It is shown that at low oil content, the system is made of small swollen micelles. After the phase separation, the resolubilization is carried by larger oil droplets decorated by copolymer. From specific surface measurements at large angles, a surprising change in surfactant conformation is found to accompany this morphological evolution which is also supported by previous results obtained from 1H NMR experiments. In independent measurements, our structural modelling is confirmed using contrast-variation SANS.

  10. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  11. Flat band potential measurements of naked and viologen-modified n-WS[sub 2] electrodes in aqueous iodide and triiodide solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1994-09-15

    The flat band potentials, E[sub FB], of naked n-WS[sub 2] electrodes and cationic viologen polymer-modified n-WS[sub 2] electrodes have been determined in KI and KI[sub 3] solutions by differential capacitance measurements. The E[sub FB] values for naked n-WS[sub 2] electrodes are shifted negatively in electrolyte media containing I[sup [minus

  12. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  13. Coagulation of quartz particles in aqueous solutions of copper(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, I.; Pugh, R.J.

    1998-12-15

    The colloidal stability of quartz suspension was determined over a wide range of pH in aqueous copper nitrate where the state of Cu(II) is changed from mainly aqua ions and monohydroxyl complexes in the acid and neutral pH to polynuclear hydroxo complexes and colloidal precipitated copper hydroxide at higher pH. Two regions of instability were observed and in both cases the particles were shown to have low electrophoretic mobility. In the neutral pH region, the uptake of Cu(II) was sufficient to reduce the mobility of the particles to zero, while in the high-pH region evidence suggested coagulation between precipitated Cu(OH){sub 2} and the quartz particles. It was shown that in all cases the coagulation was reversible and that the uptake of Cu(II) was dependent on the uncharged surface hydroxyl density. Studies of the coagulation kinetics showed that extended time scales were involved (several minutes in the neutral pH region to tens of minutes at high pH).

  14. Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous Solutions of Amphiphilic Sodium Maleate-Containing Alternating Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colby, Ralph H.

    of small-angle neutron scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, and rheometry. Semidilute solutions and the viscosity remains small until a relatively high concentration at which the globules start to overlap. Once structures have also been found.19,20 HMPEs are charged copolymers, containing hydro- phobic comonomers

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  16. Growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires from aqueous solution: The decisive role of a seed layer for controlling the wires' diameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires from aqueous solution: The decisive role of a seed layer,c,d,Ã a Center of Materials Technology and Laser, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Heraklion, Crete, Greece c Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research & Technology

  17. Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methanesulfonic Acid Revealed by Phase-Sensitive Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide States ReceiVed: August 26, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 9, 2010 Interfacial water. Through isotopic dilution, we probed bulk water hydrogen bonding strength using the vibrational frequency

  18. The Passivity and Breakdown of Beryllium in Aqueous Solutions M.A. Hill, D.P. Butt, and R.S. Lillard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Passivity and Breakdown of Beryllium in Aqueous Solutions M.A. Hill, D.P. Butt, and R beryllium (Be) has been studied as a function of pH. Below pH 2, Be exhibited active dissolution at all, the presence of the fluoride increased the passive current density of beryllium, but had no effect

  19. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopicmore »titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.« less

  20. Use of differential pulse polarography to study corrosion of galvanized steel in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V.; Guinon, J.L. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. )

    1994-02-01

    Static and dynamic corrosion of galvanized steel in 4.6 M lithium bromide (LiBr) solution at 20 C and at 70 C was studied using a new polarographic method for the determination of zinc (Zn) in LiBr solution. Static and dynamic corrosion of galvanize steel at 20 C and 70 C followed a linear tendency with exposure time. However, a change in the slope of dynamic corrosion was observed at 20 C. The corrosion product was studied using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) and x-ray diffractometry and was considered to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)[sub 2] and oxides. The corrosion product morphology was amorphous and gelatinous at 20 C and crystalline at 70 C.

  1. Measurement of free ammonia produced by X irradiation of glycylglycine in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, H.; Bolch, W.E.; Jacobson, K.B.; Turner, J.E. )

    1990-03-01

    This research was initiated to test the validity of predictions based on Monte Carlo calculations of the effect of ionizing radiation on a simple dipeptide. The mechanism for the formation of ammonia, proposed by Garrison, Sokol, and Bennett-Corniea, was reevaluated by measuring the yields under deoxygenated and oxygenated conditions. Although free ammonia was formed under both conditions, the yields were different, depending on the concentrations of solute and molecular oxygen. The reaction probabilities of the specific interactions of free radicals formed in pure water with solute and oxygen are discussed to account for the observed difference. Our results obtained after low-dose-rate X irradiation are compared with those obtained by Garrison et al. after high-dose-rate 60Co gamma irradiation.

  2. Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

    2009-11-29

    Laser exposure of suspension of either gold or palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of UO2Cl2 of natural isotope abundance was experimentally studied. Picosecond Nd:YAG lasers at peak power from 1011 to 1013 W/cm2 at the wavelength of 1064 and 355 nm were used as well as a visible-range Cu vapor laser at peak power of 1010 W/cm2. The composition of colloidal solutions before and after laser exposure was analyzed using atomic absorption and gamma spectroscopy between 0.06 and 1 MeV range of photon energy. A real-time gamma-spectroscopy was used to characterize the kinetics of nuclear reactions during laser exposure. It was found that laser exposure initiated nuclear reactions involving both 238U and 235U nuclei via different channels in H2O and D2O. The influence of saturation of both the liquid and nanoparticles by gaseous H2 and D2 on the kinetics of nuclear transformations was found. Possible mechanisms of observed processes are discussed.

  3. Speciation of aqueous palladium(II) chloride solutions using optical spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Rogers, P.S.Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of palladium(II) chloride solutions have been performed under ambient to elevated temperature conditions with systematic changes in pH and (Cl{sup {minus}}). Spectral signatures from electronic absorption spectra (Uv/Vis) and Raman vibrational spectra were determined, and these were subsequently used to systematically map out species along several paths of the predominance diagram. The species PdCl{sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4{minus}x}{sup 2{minus}x} (x = 2, 3, or 4) and Pd(OH){sub 2} were observed, along with a precipitation product formed from > 10 {mu}M (Pd{sup 2+}) solutions under near-neutral conditions. The elemental composition of the precipitation product was examined with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and was found to contain chloride as well as palladium. While sub-stoichiometric amounts of available OH{sup {minus}} ligand produced UV/Vis solution spectra likely to be from mixed Pd-Cl-OH species, the pH field of these species would be vanishingly small at low, geologically relevant palladium ion concentrations where (OH{sup {minus}}) is no longer the limiting reagent in the transformation. In mildly acidic media, where chloropalladium(II) species predominate, elevated temperatures (up to 90C) cause lower charged palladium-chloride species to be favored, consistent with the lowered dielectric constant of water at higher temperatures.

  4. Measurement of the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of carbon dioxide in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    An isotope ratio method has been developed which permits measurement of the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of solutes in solution. Diffusion is conducted in a diaphragm cell of the type usually used for tracer diffusion measurements. The difference in isotopic composition of the solute before and after the diffusion process is measured by means of an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This difference is then used to calculate the ratio of diffusion coefficients for the two isotopic species. By this method the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of CO/sub 2/ dissolved in water has been found to be D(/sup 12/CO/sub 2/)/D(/sup 13/CO/sub 2/) = 1.0007 +/- 0.0002 at 25/sup 0/C. The same series of experiments also produced a value of 1.0011 for the ratio of solubilities of /sup 12/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ in water at 30/sup 0/C, in excellent agreement with the published value. 23 references, 1 table.

  5. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof EnergyBreakout2Electrolyte Materialsof

  6. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof EnergyBreakout2Electrolyte Materialsofof

  7. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof EnergyBreakout2Electrolyte

  8. Study of the interaction of C60 fullerene with human serum albumin in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Song [Vanderbilt University; Zhao, Xiongce [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Mo, Yiming [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C60 fullerene, continues to grow. While evidence continues to mount that C60 and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. To better understand the interaction of C60 with proteins, the protein human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in solution with C60 at C60:HSA molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 4:1. HSA is the major protein component of blood plasma and plays a role in a variety of functions, such as the maintenance of blood pH and pressure. The C60-HSA interaction was probed by a combination of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C60-driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in -helical content in response to the presence of C60. Similarly, C60 produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA, as evidenced by the SANS data and MD. The data do not indicate that C60 is causing a change in the oligomerization state of the protein. Taken together results demonstrate that C60 interacts with HSA, but it does not strongly perturb the structure of the protein by unfolding it or inducing aggregation, suggesting a mechanism for transporting C60 throughout the body to accumulate in various tissues.

  9. Corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steels, and titanium in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinon, J.L.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. (ENSIGC, Toulouse (France))

    1994-03-01

    Effects of lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, pH, temperature, exposure time, and the action of some inhibitors on corrosion of several carbon (C) steels, stainless steels (SS), and a titanium (Ti) alloy were studied. Corrosion rates were determined by the polarization resistance method and compared to rates determined by weight-loss measurements. Pitting potentials (E[sub p]) were evaluated in neutral LiBr solution and with different inhibitors. Pit density and average pit depth depended on the metal tested, with lowest values for Ti, the next lowest values for type 316 SS (UNS S31600), and the highest values for UNS G41350 tempered steel.

  10. Strong Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Highly Emissive Terbium Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, Amanda; Lunkley, Jamie; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-03-15

    Two luminescent terbium(III) complexes have been prepared from chiral ligands containing 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophores and their non-polarized and circularly-polarized luminescence properties have been studied. These tetradentate ligands, which form 2:1 ligand/Tb{sup III} complexes, utilize diaminocyclohexane (cyLI) and diphenylethylenediamine (dpenLI) backbones, which we reasoned would impart conformational rigidity and result in Tb{sup III} complexes that display both large luminescence quantum yield ({phi}) values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activities. Both Tb{sup III} complexes are highly emissive, with {phi} values of 0.32 (dpenLI-Tb) and 0.60 (cyLI-Tb). Luminescence lifetime measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O indicate that while cyLI-Tb exists as a single species in solution, dpenLI-Tb exists as two species: a monohydrate complex with one H{sub 2}O molecule directly bound to the Tb{sup III} ion and a complex with no water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Both cyLI-Tb and dpenLI-Tb display increased CPL activity compared to previously reported Tb{sup III} complexes made with chiral IAM ligands. The CPL measurements also provide additional confirmation of the presence of a single emissive species in solution in the case of cyLI-Tb, and multiple emissive species in the case of dpenLI-Tb.

  11. Adsorption of Ions on Zirconium Oxide Surfaces from Aqueous Solutions at High Temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, Donald; Machesky, Michael L.; Benezeth, Pascale; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-07-01

    Surface titrations were carried out on suspensions of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} from 25 to 290 C slightly above saturation vapor pressure at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.1 and 1.0 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}(NaCl). A typical increase in surface charge was observed with increasing temperature. There was no correlation between the radius of the cations, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}N{sup +}, and the magnitude of their association with the surface. The combined results were treated with a 1-pK{sub a} MUSIC model, which yielded association constants for the cations (and chloride ion at low pH) at each temperature. The pH of zero-point-charge, pH{sub zpc}, decreased with increasing temperature as found for other metal oxides, reaching an apparent minimum value of 4.1 by 250 C. Batch experiments were performed to monitor the concentration of LiOH in solutions containing suspended ZrO{sub 2} particles from 200 to 360 C. At 350 and 360 C, Li{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions were almost totally adsorbed when the pressure was lowered to near saturation vapor pressure. This reversible trend has implications not only to pressure-water reactor, PWR, operations, but is also of general scientific and other applied interest. Additional experiments probed the feasibility that boric acid/borate ions adsorb reversibly onto ZrO{sub 2} surfaces at near-neutral pH conditions as indicated in earlier publications.

  12. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  13. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  14. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes andElectrolyte...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces 2010 DOE...

  16. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  17. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  18. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, Jai (3849 NW. 65th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32653); Thackeray, Michael M. (1763 Cliffside Ct., Naperville, IL 60565); Dees, Dennis W. (6224 Middaugh Ave., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Myles, Kevin M. (1231 60th Pl., Downers Grove, IL 60516-1856)

    1998-01-01

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  19. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  20. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With assistance from AMO, OLI Systems, Inc., developed the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, a comprehensive physical property package that can predict the properties of electrolyte systems ranging...

  1. Laser Raman spectroscopy study of the zinc and bromide ion complex equilibrium in zinc/bromine battery electrolytes. [2M ZnBr/sub 2/ and 1M KBr solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.G.; Larrabee, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to study the zinc and bromide ion complex equilibrium in zinc bromine battery model electrolytes. Solutions of zinc bromide with added KBr, HBr and N-methyl, N-ethyl morpholinium (MEM) bromide were examined and compared. Solutions studied ranged from 1 to 3 molar in zinc and from 2.5 to 8 molar in bromide. A typical Raman spectrum of a zinc bromide solution is shown in Figure 1. Each of the zinc species is identified, Zn/sup + +/ (aq), ZnBr/sup +/, ZnBr/sub 2/ (aq), ZnBr/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/. By the use of peak heights or deconvolution/integration along with published Raman cross sections, the amount of each zinc species could be quantitatively determined. The addition of bromide ions to the zinc bromide solutions will shift the equilibrium toward higher bromide complexes. The added cations will influence the shifts. It has been noted that the conductivity of the electrolyte decreases when the quaternary ammonium ions are present compared to cations such as potassium or hydrogen. Significantly more free zinc is present in zinc bromide solutions with added KBr than with either MEMBr or HBr. Shifts are also noted with the other zinc ion containing species. It appears that the quaternary ammonium ions and possibly the pH could have a stabilizing effect on zinc bromide complex ion formation. 2 figs.

  2. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  3. In-situ spectroscopic investigations of surfactant adsorption and water structure at the CaF2/aqueous solution interfacey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    of solids immersed in an aqueous phase is important to many diverse fields including oil recovery, colloidalIn-situ spectroscopic investigations of surfactant adsorption and water structure at the CaF2 of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1253, USA E-mail: richmond@oregon.uoregon.edu.; Fax: 541

  4. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions by ETS-4 microporous titano-silicate: effect of contact time, titano-silicate mass and initial metal concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, C. B.; Otero, M.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C. [CESAM and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lin, Z.; Silva, C. M.; Rocha, J. [CICECO and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment and therefore is extremely important develop new, simple and reliable techniques for its removal from aqueous solutions. A recent line of research within this context is the application of microporous materials. The use of these materials for removing heavy metals from solutions may become a potential clean-up technology in the field of wastewater treatment. In this work it is reported the application of microporous titano-silicate ETS-4 as ion exchanger to remove Hg{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. Under batch conditions, we studied the effect of contact time, titano-silicate mass and initial Hg{sup 2+} concentration. Only 5 mf of ETS-4 are required to purify 2 litres of water with 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} of metal. Under the experimental conditions, the initial Hg{sup 2+} concentration and ETS-4 mass have strong influence on the sorption process, and it is proved that 24 h are almost always sufficient to attain ion exchange equilibrium. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit equilibrium experimental results. The kinetics of mercury removal was reliably described by a pseudo second-order model. On the whole, ETS-4 shows considerable potential to remove Hg{sup 2+} from wastewaters. (authors)

  5. Me-3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Efficient Sensitization of Yb(III) and Nd(III) in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Dodani, Sheel; Jocher, Christoph; D'Aleo, Anthony; Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth

    2009-11-10

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, solution stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes of Yb(III) and Nd(III) using both tetradentate and octadentate ligand design strategies and incorporating the 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (Me-3,2-HOPO) chelate group are reported. Both the Yb(III) and Nd(III) complexes have emission bands in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region, and this luminescence is retained in aqueous solution ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Yb} {approx} 0.09-0.22%). Furthermore, the complexes demonstrate very high stability (pYb {approx} 18.8-21.9) in aqueous solution, making them good candidates for further development as probes for NIR imaging. Analysis of the low temperature (77 K) photophysical measurements for a model Gd(III) complex were used to gain an insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree well with corresponding TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G{sup ++}(d,p) level of theory for a simplified model monovalent sodium complex.

  6. In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Borondics, Ferenc; Glans, Per-Anders; West, Mark W.; Chang, Ching-Lin; Salmeron, Miquel; Guo, Jinghua

    2010-03-31

    A novel electrochemical setup has been developed for soft x-ray absorption studies of the electronic structure of electrode materials during electrochemical cycling. In this communication we illustrate the operation of the cell with a study of the corrosion behavior of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution via the electrochemically induced changes of its electronic structure. This development opens the way for in situ investigations of electrochemical processes, photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells, water splitting, corrosion, electrodeposition, and a variety of important biological processes.

  7. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  8. Nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of purine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Taishi; Minami, Hirotake; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Yuji

    2014-08-07

    The N K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the purine-containing nucleotide, guanosine 5{sup ?}-monophosphate (GMP), in aqueous solution are measured under various pH conditions. The spectra show characteristic peaks, which originate from resonant excitations of N 1s electrons to ?* orbitals inside the guanine moiety of GMP. The relative intensities of these peaks depend on the pH values of the solution. The pH dependence is explained by the core-level shift of N atoms at specific sites caused by protonation and deprotonation. The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical spectra calculated by using density functional theory for GMP and the other purine-containing nucleotides, adenosine 5{sup ?}-monophosphate, and adenosine 5{sup ?}-triphosphate. The N K-edge XANES spectra for all of these nucleotides are classified by the numbers of N atoms with particular chemical bonding characteristics in the purine moiety.

  9. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  10. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  11. Structure of gas-liquid interface and hydrophobic interface for urea aqueous solution: a computer simulation study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Meng

    2009-05-15

    of water structure by the urea solute on the hydrophobic interface in terms of the orientation and number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule....

  12. Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electrode interfaces Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

  13. The H2O2+OH ? HO2+H2O reaction in aqueous solution from a charge-dependent continuum model of solvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel

    2008-07-07

    We applied our recently developed protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation to describe the title reaction in aqueous solution. The model has the unique feature of the molecular cavity being dependent on the atomic charges in the solute, and can be extended naturally to transition states and reaction pathways. It was used to calculate the reaction energetics and reaction rate in solution for the title reaction. The rate of reaction calculated using canonical variational transition state theory CVT in the context of the equilibrium solvation path (ESP) approximation, and including correction for tunneling through the small curvature approximation (SCT) was found to be 3.6 106 M-1 s-1, in very good agreement with experiment, These results suggest that the present protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation with the charge-dependent cavity definition captures accurately the solvation effects at transition states and allows for quantitative estimates of reaction rates in solutions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  14. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovationâ??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  15. True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

  16. Entropy of electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laird, Brian Bostian; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The entropy of 1–1 and 2–2 model electrolytes is calculated from an expansion in terms of the multiparticle correlation functions. For electrolytes, a simple truncation of this expansion is never sufficient for the accurate calculation...

  17. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  18. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  19. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  20. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  2. Structure And Dynamics of the Hydrated Palladium(II) Ion in Aqueous Solution a QMCF MD Simulation And EXAFS Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofer, T.S.; Randolf, B.R.; Shah, S.Adnan Ali; Rode, B.M.; Persson, I.

    2009-06-01

    The pharmacologically and industrially important palladium(II) ion is usually characterised as square-planar structure in aqueous solution, similar to the platinum(II) ion. Our investigations by means of the most modern experimental and theoretical methods give clear indications, however, that the hydrated palladium(II) ion is hexa-coordinated, with four ligands arranged in a plane at 2.0 {angstrom} plus two additional ligands in axial positions showing an elongated bond distance of 2.7-2.8 A. The second shell consists in average of 8.0 ligands at a mean distance of 4.4 {angstrom}. This structure provides a new basis for the interpretation of the kinetic properties of palladium(II) complexes.

  3. High-precision gigahertz-to-terahertz spectroscopy of aqueous salt solutions as a probe of the femtosecond-to-picosecond dynamics of liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinh, N Q; Allen, S James; George, D K; Rahmani, A J; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Because it is sensitive to fluctuations occurring over femtoseconds to picoseconds, gigahertz-to-terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy can provide a valuable window into water's most rapid intermolecular motions. In response, we have built a vector network analyzer dielectric spectrometer capable of measuring absorbance and index of refraction in this frequency regime with unprecedented precision. Using this to determine the complex dielectric response of water and aqueous salt solutions from 5.9 GHz to 1.12 THz (which we provide in the SI), we have obtained strong new constraints on theories of water's collective dynamics. For example, while the salt-dependencies we observe for water's two slower relaxations (8 and 1 ps) are easily reconciled with suggestions that they arise due to rotations of fully and partially hydrogen bonded molecules, respectively, the salt-dependence of the fastest relaxation (180 fs) appears difficult to reconcile with its prior assignment to liberations of single hydrogen bon...

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  5. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  6. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  7. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  8. Raman spectral studies of aqueous zinc bromide solutions to 300/sup 0/C at pressures of 9 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.; Crerar, D.A.; Irish, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    A Raman spectral study of 14 solutions of varying bromide to zinc ratios was conducted up to 300/sup 0/C and 9 MPa. The tetra-, tri-, di- as well as the mono-bromozinc complexes were identified. The signal from the ZnBr/sup +/ complex increased in intensity as temperature increased, for solutions of low bromide- to-zinc ratios. The ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/ species was favored at higher Br/Zn ratios, and higher temperatures favored the formation of the species ZnBr/sub 2/ and ZnBr/sup +/ at the expense of ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and ZnBr/sub 3//sup -/. Although solvated water is probably present in these zinc-bromo complexes, they found no evidence of O-Zn vibrations other than for Zn(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/. However, spectra of successive dilutions of solutions with high bromide to zinc ratios show a relative change in species populations thereby suggesting that water activity plays a decisive role in complex formation. For the first time trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (HTFMS) has been used as an internal standard in Raman spectroscopy. This permitted quantitative measurement of stepwise stability constants.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of interfacial confinement effects of aqueous NaCl brines in nanoporous carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, M. C. F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2010-12-09

    In this paper, studies of aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with a family of porous carbon geometries using classical molecular dynamics simulations are presented. These simulations provide an atomic scale depiction of ion transport dynamics in different environments to elucidate power of aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The electrolyte contains alkali metal and halide ions, which allow for the examination of size trends within specific geometries as well as trends in concentration. The electrode pores are modeled as planar graphite sheets and carbon nanotubes with interstices ranging from one to four nanometers. Ordered layers form parallel to the carbon surface, which facilitates focused ion motion under slightly confining conditions. As a result, the ion’s diffusivities are enhanced in the direction of the slit or pore. Further confining the system leads to decreased ion diffusivities. The ions are fully hydrated in all but the smallest slits and pores with those sizes showing increased ion pairing. There is strong evidence of charge separation perpendicular to the surface at all size scales, concentrations, and ion types, providing a useful baseline for examining differential capacitance behavior and future studies on energy storage. These systems show promise as high-power electrical energy storage devices.

  10. Condensation of Self-assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene glycol and Doped with Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heung-Shik Park; Shin-Woong Kang; Luana Tortora; Satyendra Kumar; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2011-04-06

    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering, to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of inter-aggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates, and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  11. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  12. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  13. Zinc deposition in acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

    1981-01-01

    In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, several problems related to the zinc electrode have yet to be solved. These are related to the growth of dendritic zinc and a maldistribution of the zinc deposit that can occur during cycling. Both problems are exacerbated by recharge of the battery after partial discharge of the zinc deposit. A survey of the literature indicates that a more desireable zinc morphology can be achieved by use of inorganic additives, fluorinated surfactants, and A-C modulation of the charging current. In this investigation, the deposition of zinc from zinc bromide and zinc chloride electrolytes was investigated under conditions that precluded dendrite growth. The techniques used were cyclic voltammetry, the potential step technique and scanning electron microscopy. The variables investigated were the substrate (zinc and dense graphite), electrolyte pH, inorganic additives (Pb/sup + +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/) and A-V modulation of the charging potential by superimposed square waves.

  14. Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 0218...

  15. Methods and electrolytes for electrodeposition of smooth films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Shao, Yuyan

    2015-03-17

    Electrodeposition involving an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and/or film surface. For electrodeposition of a first conductive material (C1) on a substrate from one or more reactants in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second conductive material (C2), wherein cations of C2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the reactants.

  16. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  17. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  18. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  19. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Jan Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Sakai, Victoria Garcia

    2014-12-07

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H{sub 2}O (or D{sub 2}O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0–90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  20. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  1. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  2. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, H. Russell (Vernon, CT); Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT); Katz, Murray (Newington, CT)

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  3. Ab-initio simulation of novel solid electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, William D. (William Davidson)

    2014-01-01

    All solid-state batteries may be a solution to some of the problems facing conventional organic electrolytes in Li and Na-ion batteries, but typically conductivities are very low. Reports of fast lithium conduction in Li ...

  4. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

    2010-11-16

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  5. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

  6. Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halide solution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosal, Sutapa

    2009-01-01

    A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols Sutapa Ghosal, 1species associated with sea salt ice and aerosols has beena minor component in sea salt, which has a Br – /Cl – molar

  7. Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jony

    Qurz 2 SOLUTIONS, SECTION ALL. (10 pts.) Find the length of the curve. Solution. Using the formula for the arclength, of a curve onthe interval [0, 2],. 0. (5 pts.) ...

  8. Electrolytes at Solid-Water Interfaces: Theoretical Studies for Practical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striolo, Alberto

    2013-09-23

    The goal of this research program was to determine how a solid substrate affects structure and dynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions. From fundamental observations, we seek to improve practical applications. Of particular interest at the project inset were carbon nanotube separation, electric double layer capacitors, and water desalination. As time progresses, we became interested in sub-surface water transport and fate, and in hydraulic fracturing. We employed an arsenal of techniques based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We validated our methods using experimental data, to propose practical improvements. Some experiments were conducted in house. We established valuable collaborations with experienced scientists at National Laboratories to provide information not attainable with our in-house resources.

  9. Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

  10. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Thomas F; Dooley, James H

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  11. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  12. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    in a polymeric solid electrolyte by isothermal transientand structure of the solid electrolyte interface at themeasurements on the solid electrolyte, PS- b-PEO containing

  13. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase is knownseparator or a solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures.3 :EMIC electrolyte showing the second (solid black) and

  14. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  15. Aqueous Zinc Bromide Waste Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A.

    2002-07-23

    The goal of this study was to select one or more commercially available aqueous sorbents to solidify the zinc bromide solution stored in C-Area, identify the polymer to zinc bromide solution ratio (waste loading) for the selected sorbents, and identify processing issues that require further testing in pilot-scale testing.

  16. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  17. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1997-04-22

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  18. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  19. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  20. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore »identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  1. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Liu, Jue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lee, Byungju [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Qiao, Ruimin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Yang, Zhenzhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Xu, Shuyin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)] (ORCID:000000018513518X); Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Hu, Yong-Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)] (ORCID:0000000284306474); Yang, Wanli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source] (ORCID:0000000306668063); Kang, Kisuk [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Li, Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)] (ORCID:000000028659086X); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Huang, Xuejie [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  2. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes andelectrolyte...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  4. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  5. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  6. Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-09

    Tank Mania! (1) Consider a 200 liter tank used to hold a dye solution with a concentration of 1g/liter. The tank needs to be rinsed with fresh water flowing in a

  7. Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jony

    2011-09-04

    Quiz 2, Section 11. P1. Find the cosine of the angle between the vectors bbb. AB and bbb. AC, where A = (2,b1,3), B = (1,1,2),. C = (3,1,0). Solution: First, we ...

  8. Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-09-09

    Solution: We're looking for the presale cost of the shirt, so let x be the price of ... The sale price is $10 and we've called the presale price x, so we need to solve.

  9. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  10. A Universal Model for Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors Applicable to Diverse Pore Regimes, Carbons, and Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications requiring high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm) where pores are large enough so that the pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, showing the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbons. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal to carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials including activated carbons, template carbons, and novel carbide-derived carbons, and with diverse electrolytes including organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4), tetraethylammonium methyl-sulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H2SO4 and KOH electrolytes, and even ionic liquid electrolyte such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium bis(trifluromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend a support for the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon supercapacitors via experiments. On the basis of the insight obtained from the new model, we also discuss the effects of the kinetic solvation/desolvation process, multimodal (versus unimodal) pore size distribution, and exohedral (versus endohedral) capacitors on the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors.

  11. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  12. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, Robert W. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  13. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  14. Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jony

    sz 6, SECTION 171, T 2:30 PM. P1. Find the points in the cone 22 = x2 + y2 that are closest to the point (4, 2, 0). Solution 1: First, we note that given the point (4, ...

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode...

  16. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  17. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  18. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  19. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  20. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  1. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress Tests for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -Rob Roberts About Us Rob Roberts -Ronald E.Underfoot |PGM

  2. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  3. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  4. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  5. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  6. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  7. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  8. Water distributions in PS-b-P(S-g-PEO) block grafted copolymer system in aqueous solutions revealed by contrast variation SANS study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we present a contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of PS-b-P(S-g-PEO) block graft copolymers in aqueous media at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Through varying the solvent D2O/H2O ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the micellar constituent components can be determined. Based on the commonly used core-shell model, a theoretical coherent scattering cross section incorporating the effect of water penetration is developed and used to analyze the SANS I(Q), we have successfully quantified the micellar structure and the number of - water molecules associated with the core and corona. We have found that the overall micellar hydration level increase with the increase in the molecular weight of hydrophilic PEO side chains. This study provides key information in understanding solvent distributions within self-assembled amphiphilic block grafted copolymers.

  9. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei

    2015-11-12

    Electrodeposition and energy storage devices utilizing an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and anode surface. For electrodeposition of a first metal (M1) on a substrate or anode from one or more cations of M1 in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second metal (M2), wherein cations of M2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the cations of M1.

  10. Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    carbonates. #12;Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes Project Summary Michael Webb RigidRESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes From the Resnick of Polymer Electrolytes Global Significance While progress of sustainable energy- harvesting techniques

  11. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Alberta, CA); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  12. Radio-frequency capacitive discharge with non-flow-type and droplet-jet electrolytic electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaisin, A. F.; Abdullin, I. Sh.; Basyrov, R. Sh.; Khaziev, R. M.; Samitova, G. T.; Shakirova, E. F.

    2014-12-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the shape, structure, and spectral characteristics of an RF capacitive discharge operating between a droplet-jet electrolytic electrode and an electrolytic cell in air at pressures of P = 10{sup 3}–10{sup 5} Pa, as well as of a discharge burning between a copper rod and the surface of non-flow electrolyte at atmospheric pressure. It is found that, at voltages of U ? 3500 V, the multichannel discharge burning between the rod and the electrolyte (saturated solution of NaCl in technical water) surface transforms into a torch discharge. Specific features of the burning of a discharge with a droplet electrolytic electrode are investigated. Different forms of discharges burning on the surface of a copper tube and an electrolyte jet are revealed.

  13. Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. VI. Acetonitrile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. VI. Acetonitrile-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Highly Associated Salts Revisited Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrolyte...

  14. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  15. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report This report provides an overview of the...

  16. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer...

  17. Electrolytes - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meutzner, Falk; Ureña de Vivanco, Mateo

    2014-06-16

    Safety, lifetime, energy density, and costs are the key factors for battery development. This generates the need for improved cell chemistries and new, advanced battery materials. The components of an electrolyte are the solvent, in which a conducting salt and additives are dissolved. Each of them plays a specific role in the overall mechanism of a cell: the solvent provides the host medium for ionic conductivity, which originates in the conductive salt. Furthermore, additives can be used to optimize safety, performance, and cyclability. By understanding the tasks of the individual components and their optimum conditions of operation, the functionality of cells can be improved from a holistic point of view. This paper will present the most important technological features and requirements for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The state-of-the-art chemistry of each component is presented, as well as different approaches for their modification. Finally, a comparison of Li-cells with lithium-based technologies currently under development is conducted.

  18. Extensional rheology of shear-thickening fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    polyethylene oxide solution Sunilkumar Khandavalli and Jonathan P. Rothsteina) Mechanical and Industrial rheology of fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solution

  19. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  20. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes -...

  1. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  2. Spectroscopic and Computational Studies of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solution Surfaces Elizabeth L. Hommel, John K. Merle, Gang Ma, Christopher M. Hadad,* and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ethylene glycol (EG) and EG-water hydrogen-bonding complexes indicate that experimental vibrational spectra of EG and EG-water solution surfaces have contributions from numerous conformations of both EG and EG distribution, show similarity to the experimental surface vibrational spectra of EG taken by broad

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE DEPENDENCE OF AC ELECTROOSMOTIC PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE DEPENDENCE OF AC ELECTROOSMOTIC PUMPS Kapil Subramanian1 , John Abstract: Recent studies indicate increased efficiency of microfluidic ac electro-osmotic pumps of ac electroosmosis in microchannels on solution chemistry for the new fast aceo stepped pumps

  4. Reorientation of the ‘free OH’ group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called ‘free O-H’ group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the ‘free O-H’ group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the ‘free O-H’ changes from about 35.3 degrees ± 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees ± 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

  5. The effect of hydroxide ion on Cd-chalcogenide/aqueous polysulfide photoelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, S.; Manassen, J.

    1985-05-01

    Alkali hydroxide, added to the aqueous polysulfide electrolyte in n-Cd chalcogenide/S /SUB r/ photoelectrochemical solar cells (PEC's), is is shown to be detrimental to cell performance. It is demonstrated that the added hydroxide increases visible light absorption in the polysulfide solution and decreases the solution lifetime. Even after compensation for the decrease in light tranmission by the electrolyte, added hydroxide is shown to decrease the PEC photocurrent, photovoltage, and optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency. In a cell of 1 cm path length, the transmittance at 580 nm, for solutions containing 2m K/sub 2/S, 3m sulfur, and 0, 2, 6, or 12m KOH, was, respectively, 66, 55, 44, and 37.5%. Analysis of the distribution of ionic species reveals a shift from S/sub 4/ to S/sub 3/ with increasing hydroxide. Compared to S/sub 4/, the peak absorbance of S/sub 3/ is shifted 50 nm toward the vible, causing the variation in solution spectra response with hydroxide. K/sup +/ activty measrements were interpreted as indicative of increasing ion pairing with increased added hydroxide which may adversely effect charge-transfer kinetics. A measured negative shift in polysulfide redox potential with increasing hydroxide is evidently not paralleled by a comparable shift in Cd(SeTe) flatband potential resulting in the observed decrease in open-ciruit voltage. Relative conversion efficiency for an electroplated thin film CdSe /SUB 0.65/ Te /SUB 0.35/ electrode was 36% less in polysulfide with 12m KOH compared to the PEC without added KOH. The electrode immersed in 2/2/2, 2/2/3, or 0/1,3/2 (molality KOH/K/sub 2/S/S) exhibited conversion efficiencies of 4.72, 4.80, 5.24, and 5.44, respectively, at 100mW/cm/sup 2/ tungsten-halogen lamp illumination.

  6. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  7. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  8. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  9. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M. (Shrewsbury, MA); Kovar, Robert F. (Wrentham, MA); Osenar, Paul (Watertown, MA); Landrau, Nelson (Marlborough, MA); Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  10. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  11. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  12. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  15. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  16. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  17. Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Christine Chihfan

    2010-01-01

    John H. "THIN FILM SOLID ELECTROLYTE SYSTEMS." Thin Solidelectrodes that form solid- electrolyte interface (SEI)include research on solid electrolyte and nano-dimensioned

  18. Raman and far ir spectroscopic study of quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases for zinc bromine circulating electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larrabee, J.A.; Graf, K.R.; Grimes, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The circulating electrolyte zinc bromine battery is an attractive advanced battery system. The electrolyte is a solution of zinc bromide, quaternary ammonium bromides for bromine complexation and added salts to enhance properties. Laser Raman spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the liquid quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases.

  19. Ions at the Water-oil Interface: Interfacial Tension of Electrolyte Alexandre P. dos Santos and Yan Levin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    Ions at the Water-oil Interface: Interfacial Tension of Electrolyte Solutions Alexandre P. dos tension of an electrolyte-oil interface accurately. The chaotropic (structure-breaking) ions are found to adsorb to the water-oil interface as the result of large polarizability, weak hydration, and hydrophobic

  20. Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion, and electrolyte flow rate on fuel cell performance to obtain a maximum power density of 191 mW/cm2. This flowing

  1. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  2. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  3. Update on Electrolyte Modeling with Emphasis on Low Temperature...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regions (subtask low temperature performance) Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes...

  4. Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

  5. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    copolymer electrolyte, poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide), (micrograph of lamellar poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (electrolyte is poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (55/45 wt/

  6. Method of making chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Harabin, CN)

    2010-12-14

    A method of making an electrode catalyst material using aqueous solutions. The electrode catalyst material includes a support comprising at least one transition metal and at least one chalcogen disposed on a surface of the transition metal. The method includes reducing a metal powder, mixing the metal powder with an aqueous solution containing at least one inorganic compound of the chalcogen to form a mixture, and providing a reducing agent to the mixture to form nanoparticles of the electrode catalyst. The electrode catalyst may be used in a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell.

  7. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  8. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  9. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  10. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

  11. Calculation of chemical equilibrium between aqueous solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SALTON SEA; SEAWATER; WATER; CALIFORNIA; COMPUTERS; DISPERSIONS; FELDSPARS; FLUIDS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; IMPERIAL VALLEY; ITERATIVE METHODS; KINETICS; MANAGEMENT; MIXTURES; NORTH...

  12. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  13. Protein Diffusiophoresis and Salt Osmotic Diffusion in Aqueous Onofrio Annunziata,* Daniela Buzatu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    Protein Diffusiophoresis and Salt Osmotic Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions Onofrio Annunziata salt osmotic diffusion induced by a protein concentration gradient, and is related to protein

  14. Solvent and Process for Recovery of Hydroxide from Aqueous Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    1999-09-13

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  15. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chambliss, C. Kevin (Macon, GA); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Keever, Tamara J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  16. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    We have synthesized a new series of brownmillerite solid electrolyte phases Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} (x = 0,0.2,0.4) with the x = 0.2 phase exhibiting an unusually low E. relative to both the observed ionic conductivity in this phase and to E{sub a}s observed in similar compounds. We attribute measured ionic conductivities to a lack of available charge carriers in Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}O{sub 5}. However, the low E{sub a} supports the premise that brownmillerite solid electrolyte structures are suitable for supporting high ionic conductivity. Current work is focusing on enhancing the amount of charge carriers in these materials by systematically introducing disorder into the brownmillerite lattice.

  17. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  18. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-09-01

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx_equal} 1.

  19. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx equal} 1.

  20. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  1. Observations of solute effects on bubble formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

  2. Characterization of ?-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ?-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ?-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ?-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ?-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ?-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup ?6} S cm{sup ?1} and 2.19 ×10{sup ?8} S cm{sup ?1}, respectively.

  3. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Block Copolymer Electrolyte Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    Solid-State NMR Investigation of Block Copolymer Electrolyte Dynamics D. J. Harris,*, T. J in solid polymer electrolytes. The electrolytic properties of lithium salt-doped poly(ethyl- ene oxide- vored candidates for polymer electrolytes.1,2 Some of the primary applications for polymer electrolyte

  4. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  5. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  6. Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.

    1984-09-14

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  7. Polymeric electrolytes based on hydrosilyation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, John Borland (Oakland, CA); Wang, Shanger (Fairfield, CA); Hou, Jun (Painted Post, NY); Sloop, Steven Edward (Berkeley, CA); Han, Yong Bong (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Gao (Oakland, CA)

    2006-09-05

    New polymer electrolytes were prepared by in situ cross-linking of allyl functional polymers based on hydrosilation reaction using a multifunctional silane cross-linker and an organoplatinum catalyst. The new cross-linked electrolytes are insoluble in organic solvent and show much better mechanical strength. In addition, the processability of the polymer electrolyte is maintained since the casting is finished well before the gel formation.

  8. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  9. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  10. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  11. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene Carbonate for Lithium Ion Battery Use. Journal oflithium atoms in lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Chemicalcapacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevated

  12. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  13. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  14. Solid electrolytes for battery applications a theoretical perspective a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Solid electrolytes for battery applications ­ a theoretical perspective a Natalie Holzwarth, USA · Introduction and motivation for solid electrolytes · What can computation do for this project? · Specific examples ­ LiPON, thio phosphates, other solid electrolytes · Suggestions for collaboration

  15. Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

    2010-01-01

    P. Balsara, Chair Solid electrolytes have been a long-polymers as a viable solid electrolyte is still limited byproperties of the solid polymer electrolyte system P(EO)(n)

  16. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  17. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Roche, Michael F. (Downers Gorve, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  18. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  19. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  20. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Vijayakumar, M.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-01

    The stability of the electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow battery was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment and in-situ flow-battery testing methods. The effects of inorganic and organic additives have been studied. The additives containing the ions of potassium, phosphate, and polyphosphate are not suitable stabilizing agents because of their reactions with V(V) ions, forming precipitates of KVSO6 or VOPO4. Of the chemicals studied, polyacrylic acid and its mixture with CH3SO3H are the most promising stabilizing candidates which can stabilize all the four vanadium ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+) in electrolyte solutions up to 1.8 M. However, further effort is needed to obtain a stable electrolyte solution with >1.8 M V5+ at temperatures higher than 40 °C.

  1. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on...

  2. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation...

  3. Process of making electrolyte structure for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Ronald H. [Schenectady, NY; Curran, Matthew J. [Schenectady, NY

    1980-08-05

    An electrolyte structure is produced by forming matrix material powder into a blank at room temperature and impregnating the resulting matrix blank with molten electrolyte.

  4. Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Christine Chihfan

    2010-01-01

    electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of PowerElectrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries." Advanced materialsstate, plastic, lithium-ion batteries for for low-power

  5. Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be Battery Game-Changer Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer The Materials Project screens molecules to accelerate electrolyte discovery April 15, 2015 Julie Chao,...

  6. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. On a Pioneering Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in, USPTO Editor, UnitedRenewable Energy, Office of Fuel Cell Technologies, of thePolymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model Adam Z Weber Lawrence

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  9. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Electrochimica Acta, 53,

  10. Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  11. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton...

  12. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  13. High Performance Electrolyte Gated Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, Jeff

    High Performance Electrolyte Gated Carbon Nanotube Transistors Sami Rosenblatt, Yuval Yaish, Jiwoong Park,, Jeff Gore, Vera Sazonova, and Paul L. McEuen*, Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics to grow the tubes, annealing to improve the contacts, and an electrolyte as a gate, we obtain very high

  14. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Dry Electrolyte Ayan Ghosha,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Nanostructured Block Copolymer Dry Electrolyte Ayan Ghosha, * and Peter Kofinasb,z a Department, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA We report on the synthesis and characterization of a solid-state polymer electrolyte with enhanced lithium transport based on a self-assembled diblock copolymer. The diblock copolymer

  15. Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes The Science Michael Webb Previous theoretical workRESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes From the Resnick Sustainability Institute Graduate Research Fellows at the California Institute of Technology Michael Webb #12;THE

  16. Modeling Solid-Electrolyte-Electrode Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Modeling Solid-Electrolyte- Electrode Interfaces N. D. Lepley and N. A. W. Holzwarth Wake Forest University Supported by NSF grant DMR-1105485 #12;Motivation · Solid electrolyte/electrode interfaces more chemically stable · Enable Li anodes, S cathodes · Interested in characterizing interface ­ What interface

  17. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  18. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Electrolytes For Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liqu Ids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-02-08

    Electrolyte solutions of soluble bifunctional redox dyes in molten salt solvent may be used to prepare electrooptic devices with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 CF.sub.2 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-).

  20. Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors Iddo-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene can function as highly sensitive nanoscale (bio)sensors in solution. Here, we compare experimentally how SWNT and graphene transistors respond to changes in the composition

  1. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Megan E; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Tomás A; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here we describe an approach that images the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio non-linear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte a...

  2. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-01-28

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  3. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  4. Shock compression of water and solutions of ammonium nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morley, Michael James

    2011-07-12

    Modern mining explosives employ solutions of ammonium nitrate, where the solution is the oxidising component of a fuel/oxidiser mixture. This thesis is primarily concerned with the shock response of water and of aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate...

  5. Computer Modeling of Crystalline Electrolytes Lithium Thiophosphates and Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    migration. I. Introduction During the last 5 years, lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte materials haveComputer Modeling of Crystalline Electrolytes ­ Lithium Thiophosphates and Phosphates N. D. Lepley properties of (thio)phosphate electrolyte materials, focusing on the "superionic" electrolyte Li7P3S11. We

  6. Intermediate Temperature SOFC Operation Using Lanthanum Gallate Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.; Balagopal, S. Hartvigsen, J.; Tipmer, M.; Larsen, D.

    2005-01-27

    This presentation discusses intermediate temperature SOFC operation using lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

  7. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  8. Self-doped microphase separated block copolymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, Anne M. (Waltham, MA); Sadoway, Donald R. (Waltham, MA); Banerjee, Pallab (Boston, MA); Soo, Philip (Cambridge, MA); Huang, Biying (Cambridge, MA)

    2002-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte includes a self-doped microphase separated block copolymer including at least one ionically conductive block and at least one second block that is immiscible in the ionically conductive block, an anion immobilized on the polymer electrolyte and a cationic species. The ionically conductive block provides a continuous ionically conductive pathway through the electrolyte. The electrolyte may be used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

  9. Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    V. Acetonitrile-Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) Mixtures Electrolytes with the salt lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) have been evaluated relative to comparable...

  10. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    of Vanadium Oxide Aerogels. J. Non. Cryst. Solids (102)of composite V 2 O 5 aerogel electrodes. 26electrolyte and a V 2 O 5 aerogel cathode. There are few

  11. A disposable, self-administered electrolyte test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prince, Ryan, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates the novel concept that it is possible to make a disposable, self-administered electrolyte test to be introduced to the general consumer market. Although ion specific electrodes have been used to ...

  12. Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2003-04-08

    This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

  13. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2009-04-14

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  14. Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-07-07

    A process is described for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H[sub 2]O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg. 1 fig.

  15. Electrolyte for zinc bromine storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Y.; Ochiai, T.

    1985-04-09

    A negative electrolyte for electrolyte circulation-type storage batteries has a composition basically comprising zinc bromide as an active material and this active material is mixed with specified amounts of quaternary ammonium bromides of heterocyclic compounds such as morpholine, pyridine and pyrrolidine or ammonia as a bromine complexing agent and a dendrite inhibitor with or without specified amounts of Sn/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/.

  16. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Pudick, Sheldon (Sayreville, NJ); Wang, Chiu L. (Edison, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  17. Interaction Between Like-Charged Colloidal Spheres in Electrolyte Solutions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBartheExpansion (JournalChemicalNew

  18. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical ensemble

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal Article) |ContinuumPhotoactiveMixtures:Monte Carlo

  19. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical ensemble

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal Article) |ContinuumPhotoactiveMixtures:Monte

  20. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-09-20

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

  1. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1993-02-03

    This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  2. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  3. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  4. Absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ghawas, H.A.; Ruiz-Ibanez, G.; Sandall, O.C. (Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (US))

    1988-01-01

    The absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was studied over a range of temperatures and MDEA concentrations. MDEA is commonly used for selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of carbon dioxide. However, sulfur in the form of COS may also be present and it is necessary that estimates of absorption rates of this compound be made. The objective of this study is to determine the physiochemical properties needed to predict COS absorption rates in aqueous MDEA. Free gas solubility and the diffusivity of COS in MDEA solutions were measured over the temperature range 15 to 40{sup 0}C for MDEA concentrations up to 30 weight per cent using the nitrous oxide analogy method. Solubilities were measured volumetrically in an equilibrium cell and diffusivities were measured using a laminar liquid jet absorber. The kinetics of the reaction between COS and MDEA were studied by measuring absorption rates in a single wetted-sphere absorber.

  5. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  6. pH effect on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures grown with aqueous chemical growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    crystals [1], photodetectors [2], varistors [3] and solar cells [4]. Moreover, the synthesis laboratory oven. The pH of the aqueous solution was adjusted using a 0.1 M NaOH solution. After each

  7. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  8. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  9. Entropically Driven Partitioning of Ethylene Oxide Oligomers and Polymers in Aqueous/ Organic Biphasic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Entropically Driven Partitioning of Ethylene Oxide Oligomers and Polymers in Aqueous/ Organic; In Final Form: June 19, 2002 Partitioning of ethylene oxide oligomers and polymers (PEO) in biphasic unit, smaller than hydration numbers reported in aqueous solutions. All of these findings lead

  10. Proton-Induced Dysfunction Mechanism of Cathodes in an Aqueous Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Proton-Induced Dysfunction Mechanism of Cathodes in an Aqueous Lithium Ion Battery Qiang Shu, Long: The proton-induced dysfunction mechanism of cathodes in aqueous lithium ion batteries is investigated of the Li+ and H+ in the solution. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been proved to be com- mercially

  11. Uptake of SO2 to Aqueous Formaldehyde Surfaces Stephanie T. Ota and Geraldine L. Richmond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Uptake of SO2 to Aqueous Formaldehyde Surfaces Stephanie T. Ota and Geraldine L. Richmond of the vapor/water interface during uptake of SO2 to aqueous formaldehyde solutions, elucidating the role between SO2 and formaldehyde, hydroxymethanesulfonate, shows a surface affinity that is enhanced

  12. Method of fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-06

    Fuel cell stacks contain an electrolyte layer surrounded on top and bottom by an electrode layer. Porous electrodes are prepared which enable fuel and oxidant to easily flow to the respective electrode-electrolyte interface without the need for high temperatures or pressures to assist the flow. Rigid, inert microspheres in combination with thin-film metal deposition techniques are used to fabricate porous anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes. Microshperes contained in a liquid are randomly dispersed onto a host structure and dried such that the microsperes remain in position. A thin-film deposition technique is subsequently employed to deposit a metal layer onto the microsperes. After such metal layer deposition, the microspheres are removed leaving voids, i.e. pores, in the metal layer, thus forming a porous electrode. Successive repetitions of the fabrication process result in the formation of a continuous fuel cell stack. Such stacks may produce power outputs ranging from about 0.1 Watt to about 50 Watts.

  13. Supporting Information Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    S1 Supporting Information Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol: Acetaldehyde; Form: Formaldehyde #12;S2 Density functional theory calculations of paraformaldehyde ionization+ of atomized solutions of 1 M formaldehyde in 3.1 M AS. m/z (amu) ± 1.0 amu Ion Formula Molecular Formula

  14. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  15. The mechanism of HF formation in LiPF6-based organic carbonate electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lux, Simon

    2014-01-01

    6 at 50°C in a lithium ion battery electrolyte containingcarbonate-based lithium ion battery electrolytes upon

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by a combination of suspension plasma spray and very low pressure plasma spray.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slamovich, Elliot (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Fleetwood, James (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); McCloskey, James F.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Trice, Rodney Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-07-01

    Plasma spray coating techniques allow unique control of electrolyte microstructures and properties as well as facilitating deposition on complex surfaces. This can enable significantly improved solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), including non-planar designs. SOFCs are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. However, electrolytes deposited using conventional plasma spray are porous and often greater than 50 microns thick. One solution to form dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs is to combine suspension plasma spray (SPS) with very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS). Increased compositional control is achieved due to dissolved dopant compounds in the suspension that are incorporated into the coating during plasma spraying. Thus, it is possible to change the chemistry of the feed stock during deposition. In the work reported, suspensions of sub-micron diameter 8 mol.% Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) powders were sprayed on NiO-YSZ anodes at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Thermal Spray Research Laboratory (TSRL). These coatings were compared to the same suspensions doped with scandium nitrate at 3 to 8 mol%. The pressure in the chamber was 2.4 torr and the plasma was formed from a combination of argon and hydrogen gases. The resultant electrolytes were well adhered to the anode substrates and were approximately 10 microns thick. The microstructure of the resultant electrolytes will be reported as well as the electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system via potentiodynamic testing and impedance spectroscopy.

  17. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Cross—Section Below Freezingstart—up of a fuel cell from below freezing. Because waterFreezing in a Polymer—Electrolyte—Membrane Fuel Cell,” ECS

  18. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  19. Key Issues Regarding Electrolytes at Interfacial Regions (subtask...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion...

  20. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Boundary conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 Polymer—Electrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

  1. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  2. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  3. 2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

    2008-03-01

    In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

  4. Metal intercalation characteristics of n-HfS/sub 2/ photoelectrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes. Technical report No. 1, October 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Pujare, N.U.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-07-01

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of single-crystal n-hafnium disulfide was correlated with capacitance and impedance measurements obtained with the photoanode van der Waals layers oriented either parallel or perpendicular to acetonitrile-based nonaqueous electrolytes, with and without copper chloride introduced as an intercalating redox species. For van der Waals layers, perpendicular to the electrolyte (i.e., available for copper intercalation) space-charge capacitance values of respectively .01 and 1 microfarad/sq. cm were obtained for the non-intercalated and copper-intercalated photoelectrodes. The implications of these experimental observations were discussed in relation to the application of these intercalating photoelectrodes in both liquid non-aqueous and solid-polymer-electrolyte PEC storage devices.

  5. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  6. Composite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Pluronics: Does Ordering Matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    Composite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Pluronics: Does Ordering Matter? Lyudmila MVised Manuscript ReceiVed October 5, 2007 Composite solids polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on Pluronic block One of the modern trends in development of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on "salt

  7. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; et al

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more »When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  8. An Electrolytic Method to Form Zirconium Hydride Phases in Zirconium Alloys with Morphologies Similar to Hydrides Formed in Used Nuclear Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhr, Samuel Houston

    2012-10-19

    )........................................................................................................... 56 Figure 23 Copper from the bronze electrode dissolved into solution and electroplated on top of graphite anode. ............................................... 60 Figure 24 Method 2 sample holder configuration... morphologies, densities, and geometries of hydrides which mimic those found in the real world application. 2.3.1 Electrolytic Method Electrolytic methods involving sulfuric acid baths or molten salt baths are used to coat the outside of the sample...

  9. Practical Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous Vanadium- and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Practical Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous Vanadium- and Iron-Based Flow Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Practical Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous...

  10. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  11. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  12. Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    and oil­water interfaces should help shed light on how the ions interact with proteins and colloidal also observed in the fields of science as diverse as biophysics, biochemistry, electro-chemistry tension of the oil­electrolyte interface, the dispersion interactions must also be included. The theory

  13. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  15. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  16. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  17. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Yu-Min (Hsinchu, TW); Wang, Jih-Wen (Hsinchu, TW); Liue, Chun-Ying (Tau-Yung, TW); Yeh, Shinn-Horng (Kaohsiung, TW)

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  18. Electrosorption selectivity of ions from mixtures of electrolytes inside nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2008-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are employed to study the selective electrosorption of ions from a mixture of symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes confined in pores and results are compared to experimental observations obtained via cyclic voltammetry and batch electrosorption equilibrium experiments. GCMC simulations have the advantage over other Monte Carlo methods to unambiguously quantify the total number of ions in the pore solution. The exclusion parameter and selectivity factor are used to evaluate the selective capacity of pores toward different ionic species under various conditions. The number of coions inside the pore solution is determined by the proportion of different counterions present in the double-layer region. Because of the competitive effects resulting from asymmetries in charge and size associated with different ions, the electrosorption selectivity of small monovalent over large divalent counterions first decreases with increasing surface charge, passes through a minimum, and then increases with further increase in surface charge. At low and moderate surface charge densities, the fact that large divalent counterions preferentially screen the surface charge has a strong effect on pore occupancy; whereas at a very high surface charge density, size-exclusion effects dominate and determine the accessibility of different ions into the pores. Therefore, electrosorption selectivity of ions from a mixture of electrolytes could, in principle, be achieved via tuning the electrical double-layer formation inside the pores through the regulation of surface charge tailored for different ion characteristics. The findings of this work provide important information relevant to ion selectivity during separation processes and energy storage in supercapacitors.

  19. Stimuli-responsive Polymers in Solution and on Grafted Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Hui

    2011-08-08

    Thermoresponsive polymers such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) have lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in aqueous solutions. Below the LCST, these polymers are hydrophilic with an extended coil conformation. Above the LCST...

  20. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  1. Resistance and polarization losses in aqueous buffermembrane electrolytes for water-splitting photoelectrochemical cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be powered by several carbon-neutral energy sources including photovoltaic (PV)- coupled electrolyzers.2

  2. Elaboration and Characterization of a Free Standing LiSICON Membrane for Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -sur-Loing, France Abstract In order to develop a LISICON separator for an aqueous lithium-air battery, a thin an important ohmic loss contribution which limits the power performance of a lithium-air battery. Keywords: Metal-air battery, Lithium anode, Li2O - Al2O3 - TiO2 - P2O5 system, LiPON, Solid electrolyte 1

  3. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-11-01

    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (?1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  4. Method and apparatus for storage battery electrolyte circulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Inkmann, Mark S. (Milwaukee, WI)

    1980-09-09

    An electrolyte reservoir in fluid communication with the cell of a storage battery is intermittently pressurized with a pulse of compressed gas to cause a flow of electrolyte from the reservoir to the upper region of less dense electrolyte in the cell. Upon termination of the pressure pulse, more dense electrolyte is forced into the reservoir from the lower region of the cell by the differential pressure head between the cell and reservoir electrolyte levels. The compressed gas pulse is controlled to prevent the entry of gas from the reservoir into the cell.

  5. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  6. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    4.7. It consists of a solid electrolyte stacked between twoa reactive electrode, a solid electrolyte, and an inert

  7. Hydrodynamics of aqueous humor outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overby, Darryl Ray, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness resulting from elevated intraocular pressure caused by a pathologic increase in the resistance to aqueous humor outflow from the eye. Currently, ...

  8. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  9. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore »electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  10. J-aggregation of ionic liquid solutions of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Maroof; Kumar, Vinod; Baker, Sheila N; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    The title porphyrin was dissolved in the hydrophilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and triggered to assemble into J-aggregates by the addition of incremental volumes of water containing various amounts of acid (0.1, 0.2, or 1.0 M HCl). In contrast to recent studies, the current investigation is unique in that it centers on media that contain a predominant ionic liquid component (2.9 5.4 M [bmim][BF4]), as opposed to an aqueous electrolyte containing a small fraction of ionic liquid as dissociated solute. Complex aggregation and underlying photophysical behavior are revealed from absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence, and resonance light scattering studies. Upon addition of aqueous HCl, the efficient formation of H4TPPS2 J-aggregates from the diprotonated form of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (H2TPPS4) occurs in [bmim][BF4]-rich media in a manner highly dependent upon the acidity, TPPS concentration, and solvent composition. The unique features of TPPS aggregation in this ionic liquid were elucidated, including the surprising disassembly of J-aggregates at higher aqueous contents, and our results are described qualitatively in terms of the molecular exciton theory. Finally, the potential of this system for the optical sensing of water at a sensitivity below 0.5 wt% is demonstrated. Overall, our findings accentuate how little is known about functional self-assembly within ionic liquids and suggest a number of avenues for exploring this completely untouched research landscape.

  11. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  12. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  13. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  14. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  15. SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -Rob Robertseere.energy.gov TimothySOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES

  16. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyan, S. Froehlich, Th.

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20?S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6?}S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1?S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  17. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trulove, Paul C; Foley, Matthew P

    2013-03-14

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  18. A Fundamental Study on the [(?-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ Dimer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Cox, Jonathan T.; Hu, Dehong; Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Tang, Keqi; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a fundamental study on [(?-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+dimer electrolytes using various physical methods including Subambient Pressure Ionization with Nanoelectrospray Mass spectrometry (SPIN-MS), Raman spectroscopy, 25Mg{1H} NMR, 27Al{1H} NMR and electrochemical analysis. For the first time, long time sought THF solvated [MgCl]+ species was experimentally characterized by SPIN mass spectrometry in the solution of the Mgdimer containing electrolyte, confirming the mono-Cl- abstraction reaction between MgCl2 and an Al Lewis acid. Solvated MgCl2 in the electrolyte was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results establish the previously proposed dimerization equilibrium of solvated [MgCl]+ and MgCl2 with [(?-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+. 25Mg{1H} NMR, 27Al{1H} NMR and electrochemical analysis on chloration reaction of [(?-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]AlPh3Cl with external Cl- led to further insights on the coordination chemistry of the dimer electrolyte. Finally, a comprehensive mechanism is proposed for the reversible electrochemical Mg deposition and stripping and Mg2+ and Cl- ion transports of the Mg dimer electrolytes in rechargeable Mg batteries.

  19. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  20. Electrode assembly for use in a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell may be provided with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane. Porous gas diffusion electrodes are formed of carbon particles supporting a catalyst which is effective to enhance the gas reactions. The carbon particles define interstitial spaces exposing the catalyst on a large surface area of the carbon particles. A proton conducting material, such as a perfluorocarbon copolymer or ruthenium dioxide contacts the surface areas of the carbon particles adjacent the interstitial spaces. The proton conducting material enables protons produced by the gas reactions adjacent the supported catalyst to have a conductive path with the electrolyte membrane. The carbon particles provide a conductive path for electrons. A suitable electrode may be formed by dispersing a solution containing a proton conducting material over the surface of the electrode in a manner effective to coat carbon surfaces adjacent the interstitial spaces without impeding gas flow into the interstitial spaces.

  1. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5?×?10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8?×?10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  2. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A. (Glastonbury, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

  3. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  4. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu, Dongping [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China) [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China) [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Yue [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)] [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  5. Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-12-09

    A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

  6. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radical Compatibility with...

  7. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions...

  8. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  10. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedFuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

  11. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, M.; Schroll, C.R.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention relates to a device for preventing the electrical shorting of a stack of electrolytic cells during an extended period of operation. The device has application to fuel cell and other electrolytic cell stacks operating in low or high temperature corrosive environments. It is of particular importance for use in a stack of fuel cells operating with molten metal carbonate electrolyte for the production of electric power. Also, the device may have application in similar technology involving stacks of electrolytic cells for electrolysis to decompose chemical compounds.

  12. Zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition with lead additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henriksen, Gary L. (Troy, MI)

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition containing an additive providing improved zinc-on-zinc recyclability. The improved electrolyte composition involves the use of a lead additive to inhibit undesirable irregular plating and reduce nodular or dendritic growth on the electrode surface. The lead-containing electrolyte composition of the present invention appears to influence not only the morphology of the base plate zinc, but also the morphology of the zinc-on-zinc replate. In addition, such lead-containing electrolyte compositions appear to reduce hydrogen formation.

  13. Electrolytic cell for production of aluminum from alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2005-03-15

    Electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte employing inert anode and cathodes, the anode having a box shape with slots for the cathodes.

  14. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

  15. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

    1998-03-17

    A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

  16. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast...

  17. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  18. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport...

  19. Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es089kerr2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrolytes -...

  20. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  1. Ionic Transport Across Interfaces of Solid Glass and Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A study of lithium cation transport across solid-solid electrolyte interfaces to identify critical resistances in nanostructured solid electrolytes is reported. Bilayers of glass and polymer thin film electrolytes were fabricated and characterized for this study. The glass electrolyte was lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon), and two polymer electrolytes were studied: poly(methyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) and poly(styrene-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate). Both copolymers contained LiClO{sub 4} salt. In bilayers where polymer electrolyte layers are fabricated on top of Lipon, the interfacial resistance dominates transport. At 25 C, the interfacial resistance is at least three times greater than the sum of the Lipon and polymer electrolyte resistances. By reversing the structure and fabricating Lipon on top of the polymer electrolytes, the interfacial resistance is eliminated. Experiments to elucidate the origin of the interfacial resistance in the polymer-on-Lipon bilayers reveal that the solvent mixtures used to fabricate the polymer layers do not degrade the Lipon layer. The importance of the polymer electrolytes' mechanical properties is also discussed.

  2. Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08balsara.pdf More Documents & Publications Polymers For Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced...

  3. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High elastic modulus polymer...

  4. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    2015-08-07

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO4(H2O) 52-]n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  5. Device for aqueous detection of nitro-aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, W.K.; Schulz, A.L.; Ingram, J.C.; Lancaster, G.D.; Grey, A.E.

    1994-04-26

    This invention relates to a compact and portable detection apparatus for nitro-aromatic based chemical compounds, such as nitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene (TNT). The apparatus is based upon the use of fiber optics using filtered light. The preferred process of the invention relies upon a reflective chemical sensor and optical and electronic components to monitor a decrease in fluorescence when the nitro-aromatic molecules in aqueous solution combine and react with a fluorescent polycyclic aromatic compound. 4 figures.

  6. Device for aqueous detection of nitro-aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN); Schulz, Amber L. (Bremerton, WA); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a compact and portable detection apparatus for ro-aromatic based chemical compounds, such as nitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene (TNT). The apparatus is based upon the use of fiber optics using filtered light. The preferred process of the invention relies upon a reflective chemical sensor and optical and electronic components to monitor a decrease in fluorescence when the nitro-aromatic molecules in aqueous solution combine and react with a fluorescent polycyclic aromatic compound.

  7. Condensation dynamics of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline in solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    general, occurring in chiral derivatives of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids with a chiral center behavior of L-Pro, L-Hyp, and L-Pro­L-Hyp in 70% aqueous methanol. The individual amino acid solutions show in an oscillatory fashion in low molecular weight carboxylic acids dissolved in aqueous and non-aqueous abiotic

  8. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of {le}20 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} swipable and {le}500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product.

  9. Transport properties of the solid polymer electrolyte system P(EO)nLiTFSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Properties of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte System P(EO)Properties of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte System P(EO)~Properties of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte System P(EO)~

  10. A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Gregory Michael

    2012-01-01

    referred to as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) [4,for a high modulus solid electrolyte is that in addition tois not as simple for a solid electrolyte that must adhere to

  11. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  12. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuanping Li

    2004-12-19

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles' surfaces in the aqueous suspension. The viscosity of the suspension increases dramatically when the solid volume fraction exceeds 30 vol.%. The overlap of physically adsorbed water layers at this level causes the sharp increase in viscosity. Fructose molecules can weaken the interactions between the particle surfaces and water molecules, as a consequence, they release some bound water layers from the surfaces to the bulk medium. It is believed that fraction of the water that is bound by the solid surface is reduced hence becoming available for flow. The oxygen-17 relaxation time decreased with the increase of particle volume fractions in the suspension. Fructose addition increased the overall water mobility in the suspension. Only part of the alumina particle surfaces was covered with fructose molecules. This adsorption of fructose molecules on the particle surfaces increased the pH of the suspension with a concomitant decrease in {zeta}-potential of the alumina nanoparticles. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water to a large extent can be explained by the DLVO theory. However, the interactions between particles in fructose solutions cannot be well described by the DLVO theory. The interaction forces (magnitude and range) as well as adhesive force and surface tension between nanometric alumina particles were decreased with the fructose concentration.

  13. Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bean

    2007-09-01

    Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

  14. THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. X. ENTHALPY AND THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvester, Leonard F.

    2011-01-01

    09 THERMODYNAMICS OFELECI'ROLYTES. X'rights. r'-" e. ct THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. X.Coefficient, Electrolyte, Thermodynamics v ~p , I J ! l

  15. Electrolytic production of neodymium without perfluorinated carbon compounds on the offgases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Rudolf (Export, PA); Larimer, Kirk T. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A method of producing neodymium in an electrolytic cell without formation of perfluorinated carbon gases (PFCs), the method comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and providing an anode in an anode region of the electrolyte and providing a cathode in a cathode region of the electrolytic cell. Dissolving an oxygen-containing neodymium compound in the electrolyte in the anode region and maintaining a more intense electrolyte circulation in the anode region than in the cathode region. Passing an electrolytic current between said anode and said cathode and depositing neodymium metal at the cathode, preventing the formation of perfluorinated carbon gases by limiting anode over voltage.

  16. PERFORMANCE OF SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA SOLID ELECTROLYTE IN Na/S CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA SOLID ELECTROLYTE IN Na/S CELLS Lutgardium-be ta alumina type solid electrolytes i s limit ed by

  17. Dr. Piotr Zelenay's Professional Bio Dr. Zelenay's expertise is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, electrocatalysis, surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of polymer electrolyte fuel cell science and technology, electrocatalysis, and electrode kinetics. PiotrDr. Piotr Zelenay's Professional Bio Dr. Zelenay's expertise is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

  18. Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudney, N.J.

    1987-04-30

    A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

  19. Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells , Journal of Power Sources,in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells , in M. Schlesinger, ed. ,in Polymer- Electrolyte Fuel Cells , Journal of the

  20. Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), have been studied in two separate parts. Part 1 of the thesis