National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aqueous electrolyte solutions

  1. Implementation of equilibrium aqueous speciation and solubility (EQ3 type) calculations into Cantera for electrolyte solutions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2009-06-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level capability for modeling brine thermodynamic properties using the open-source code Cantera. This implementation into Cantera allows for the application of chemical thermodynamics to describe the interactions between a solid and an electrolyte solution at chemical equilibrium. The formulations to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes are based on Pitzer's model to calculate molality-based activity coefficients using a real equation-of-state (EoS) for water. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of solutes at elevated temperature and pressures are computed using the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) EoS for ionic and neutral aqueous species. The thermodynamic data parameters for the Pitzer formulation and HKF EoS are from the thermodynamic database compilation developed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) used with the computer code EQ3/6. We describe the adopted equations and their implementation within Cantera and also provide several validated examples relevant to the calculations of extensive properties of electrolyte solutions.

  2. Excellent stability of a lithium-ion-conducting solid electrolyte upon reversible Li+/H+ exchange in aqueous solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Cheng; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liang, Chengdu; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; More, Karren Leslie; Chi, Miaofang

    2014-10-21

    Batteries with an aqueous catholyte and a Li metal anode have attracted interest owing to their exceptional energy density and high charge/discharge rate. The long-term operation of such batteries requires that the solid electrolyte separator between the anode and aqueous solutions must be compatible with Li and stable over a wide pH range. Unfortunately, no such compound has yet been reported. In this study, an excellent stability in neutral and strongly basic solutions was observed when using the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 garnet as a Li-stable solid electrolyte. The material underwent a Li+/H+ exchange in aqueous solutions. Nevertheless, its structure remained unchangedmore » even under a high exchange rate of 63.6%. When treated with a 2 M LiOH solution, the Li+/H+ exchange was reversed without any structural change. Furthermore, these observations suggest that cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 is a promising candidate for the separator in aqueous lithium batteries.« less

  3. Excellent stability of a lithium-ion-conducting solid electrolyte upon reversible Li+/H+ exchange in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Cheng; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liang, Chengdu; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; More, Karren Leslie; Chi, Miaofang

    2014-10-21

    Batteries with an aqueous catholyte and a Li metal anode have attracted interest owing to their exceptional energy density and high charge/discharge rate. The long-term operation of such batteries requires that the solid electrolyte separator between the anode and aqueous solutions must be compatible with Li and stable over a wide pH range. Unfortunately, no such compound has yet been reported. In this study, an excellent stability in neutral and strongly basic solutions was observed when using the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 garnet as a Li-stable solid electrolyte. The material underwent a Li+/H+ exchange in aqueous solutions. Nevertheless, its structure remained unchanged even under a high exchange rate of 63.6%. When treated with a 2 M LiOH solution, the Li+/H+ exchange was reversed without any structural change. Furthermore, these observations suggest that cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 is a promising candidate for the separator in aqueous lithium batteries.

  4. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  5. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-22

    An electrolyte including an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a triazinane trione; wherein the electrolyte is substantially non-aqueous.

  6. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  7. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almon, Amy C.

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  8. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  9. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  10. Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. Viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Basic energy properties ...

  11. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  12. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-06-07

    A lithium-air cell includes a negative electrode; an air positive electrode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte which includes an anion receptor that may be represented by one or more of the formulas. ##STR00001##

  13. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-01-26

    A substantially non-aqueous electrolyte solution includes an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an organophosphorus compound of Formula IA, IB, or IC: ##STR00001## where R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 are each independently hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, cycloalkoxy, aryloxy, heterocyclyloxy, heteroaryloxy, siloxyl, silyl, or organophosphatyl; R.sup.5 and R.sup.6 are each independently alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl; R.sup.7 is ##STR00002## and R.sup.8, R.sup.9 and R.sup.10 are each independently alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl; provided that if the organophosphorus compound is of Formula IB, then at least one of R.sup.5, and R.sup.6 are other than hydrogen, alkyl, or alkenyl; and if the organophosphorus compound is of Formula IC, then the electrolyte solution does not include 4-methylene-1,3-dioxolan-2-one or 4,5-dimethylene-1,3-dioxolan-2-one.

  14. Anion receptor compounds for non-aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    2000-09-19

    A new family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  15. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  16. Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James; Sun, Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  17. Control Of Screening Of A Charged Particle In Electrolytic Aqueous Paul Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag S.

    2011-06-01

    Individual charged particles could be trapped and confined by the combined radio-frequency and DC quadrupole electric field of an aqueous Paul trap. Viscosity of water improves confinement and extends the range of the trap parameters which characterize the stability of the trap. Electrolyte, if present in aqueous solution, may screen the charged particle and thus partially or fully suppress electrophoretic interaction with the applied filed, possibly reducing it to a generally much weaker dielectrophoretic interaction with an induced dipole. Applying molecular dynamics simulation we show that the quadrupole field has a different effect at the electrolyte ions and at much heavier charged particle, effectively eliminating the screening by electrolyte ions and reinstating the electrophoretic confinement.

  18. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dong, Jian; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2016-07-12

    A electrolyte for a lithium battery includes a silane/siloxane compound represented by SiR.sub.4-x-yR'.sub.xR''.sub.y, by Formula II, or Formula III: ##STR00001## where each R is individually an alkenyl, alkynyl, alk(poly)enyl, alk(poly)ynyl, aryl; each R' is represented by; ##STR00002## each R'' is represented by Formula I-B; ##STR00003## R.sup.1 is an organic spacer; R.sup.2 is a bond or an organic spacer; R.sup.3 is alkyl or aryl; k is 1-15; m is 1-15; n is 1 or 2; p is 1-3; x' is 1-2; and y' is 0-2.

  19. Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped lixmnyoz

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Voigt, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A method for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li.sub.x Mn.sub.y O.sub.z precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder.

  20. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiegel, Ella F.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  1. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  2. Simulation of Osmotic Pressure in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Simulation of Osmotic Pressure in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions Authors: Luo, Y., Roux, B. Accurate force fields are critical for meaningful simulation studies of highly concentrated electrolytes. The ion models that are widely used in biomolecular simulations do not necessarily reproduce the correct behavior at finite concentrations. In principle, the osmotic pressure is a key thermodynamic property that could be used to test and refine force

  3. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beederman, M.; Vogler, S.; Hyman, H.H.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from a rathenium containing aqueous solution is described. The separation is accomplished by adding sodium nitrite, silver nitrate and ozone to the ruthenium containing aqueous solution to form ruthenium tetroxide and ihen volatilizing off the ruthenium tetroxide.

  4. Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery electrolyte solutions. Specifically, this invention is directed to boron-containing electrolyte solvents and boron-containing electrolyte solutions.

  5. RECOVERY OF TETRAVALENT CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-05-01

    The recovery of plutonium, zirconium, and tetravalent cerium values from aqueous solutions is described. It consists of adding an alkyl phosphate to a nnineral acid aqueous solution containing the metal to be recovered, whereby a precipitate forms with the tetravalent values, and separating the precipitate from the solution. All alkyl phosphates, if water-soluble, are suitable for the process; however, monobutyl phosphate has been found best.

  6. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte. Inventors: Chen, Zonghai ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2015-11-12 ...

  7. Calculation of chemical equilibrium between aqueous solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    natural water compositions; EQ6 uses the results of EQ3 to predict the consequences of heating and cooling aqueous solutions and of irreversible reaction in rock--water systems. ...

  8. Interactions of Spores with Planar Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interactions of Spores with Planar Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interactions of Spores with Planar Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions ...

  9. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callis, C.F.; Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    >The separation of ruthenium from aqueous solutions containing uranium plutonium, ruthenium, and fission products is described. The separation is accomplished by providing a nitric acid solution of plutonium, uranium, ruthenium, and fission products, oxidizing plutonium to the hexavalent state with sodium dichromate, contacting the solution with a water-immiscible organic solvent, such as hexone, to extract plutonyl, uranyl, ruthenium, and fission products, reducing with sodium ferrite the plutonyl in the solvent phase to trivalent plutonium, reextracting from the solvent phase the trivalent plutonium, ruthenium, and some fission products with an aqueous solution containing a salting out agent, introducing ozone into the aqueous acid solution to oxidize plutonium to the hexavalent state and ruthenium to ruthenium tetraoxide, and volatizing off the ruthenium tetraoxide.

  10. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L.; Googin, John M.; Griffith, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocarbon and surfactants are contacted with a solution of alcohol and water to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon-surfactant mixture.

  11. ADSORPTION OF CERIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, F.P.

    1963-08-13

    Cerium can be removed from aqueous nitric acid (2 to 13 M) solutions by passing the latter over a PbO/sub 2/-containing anion exchange resin. The cerium is taken up by the resin, while any lanthanides, yttrium, and strontium present remain in the solution. (AEC)

  12. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress Tests for PGM Electrocatalyst/Support Durability Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rotating disk-electrode aqueous electrolyte accelerated stress test protocols developed by the DOE Durability Working Group for platinum group metal (PGM) electrocatalyst/support durability evaluation, October 4, 2011.

  13. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  14. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge andmore » discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.« less

  15. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  16. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard; Seltzer, Steven F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  17. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  18. High voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries having a non-aqueous electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E.; Hwang, Jaehee

    2016-03-22

    A rechargable magnesium battery having an non-aqueous electrolyte is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  19. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  20. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  1. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, E.J.

    1959-09-01

    A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  2. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peppard, D.F.; Nachtman, E.S.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to a process for the separation of scandium from yttrium, thorium, and trivalent rare earths and with their separation from each other. It has been found that scandium and yttrium can be separated from trivalent rare earths in acidic solution, for example, a solution 6 M in HCl, by contacting with tributyl phosphate, whereupon the scandum is preferentially extracted into the organic phase, leaving the yttrium and trivalent rare earths in the aqueous phase.

  3. Toward the understanding of hydration phenomena in aqueous electrolytes from the interplay of theory, molecular simulation, and experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Vlcek, Lukas

    2015-05-22

    We confront the microstructural analysis of aqueous electrolytes and present a detailed account of the fundamentals underlying the neutron scattering with isotopic substitution (NDIS) approach for the experimental determination of ion coordination numbers in systems involving both halides anions and oxyanions. We place particular emphasis on the frequently overlooked ion-pairing phenomenon, identify its microstructural signature in the neutron-weighted distribution functions, and suggest novel techniques to deal with either the estimation of the ion-pairing magnitude or the correction of its effects on the experimentally measured coordination numbers. We illustrate the underlying ideas by applying these new developments to the interpretation ofmore » four NDIS test-cases via molecular simulation, as convenient dry runs for the actual scattering experiments, for representative aqueous electrolyte solutions at ambient conditions involving metal halides and nitrates.« less

  4. Toward the understanding of hydration phenomena in aqueous electrolytes from the interplay of theory, molecular simulation, and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Vlcek, Lukas

    2015-05-22

    We confront the microstructural analysis of aqueous electrolytes and present a detailed account of the fundamentals underlying the neutron scattering with isotopic substitution (NDIS) approach for the experimental determination of ion coordination numbers in systems involving both halides anions and oxyanions. We place particular emphasis on the frequently overlooked ion-pairing phenomenon, identify its microstructural signature in the neutron-weighted distribution functions, and suggest novel techniques to deal with either the estimation of the ion-pairing magnitude or the correction of its effects on the experimentally measured coordination numbers. We illustrate the underlying ideas by applying these new developments to the interpretation of four NDIS test-cases via molecular simulation, as convenient dry runs for the actual scattering experiments, for representative aqueous electrolyte solutions at ambient conditions involving metal halides and nitrates.

  5. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen; Wu, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  6. Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; VISCOSITY; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; CHLORIDES; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; DISPERSIONS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; MIXTURES; SODIUM COMPOUNDS; SOLUTIONS; ...

  7. ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.

  8. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  9. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, “Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development”. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with a Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.

  10. RECOVERY OF ACTINIDES FROM AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ader, M.

    1963-11-19

    A process of recovering actinides is presented. Tetravalent actinides are extracted from rare earths in an aqueous nitric acid solution with a ketone and back-extracted from the ketone into an aqueous medium. The aqueous actinide solution thus obtained, prior to concentration by boiling, is sparged with steam to reduce its ketone to a maximum content of 3 grams per liter. (AEC)

  11. Electrical pulse fabrication of graphene nanopores in electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuan, Aaron T.; Szalay, Tamas; Lu, Bo; Xie, Ping; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2015-05-18

    Nanopores in graphene membranes can potentially offer unprecedented spatial resolution for single molecule sensing, but their fabrication has thus far been difficult, poorly scalable, and prone to contamination. We demonstrate an in-situ fabrication method that nucleates and controllably enlarges nanopores in electrolyte solution by applying ultra-short, high-voltage pulses across the graphene membrane. This method can be used to rapidly produce graphene nanopores with subnanometer size accuracy in an apparatus free of nanoscale beams or tips.

  12. Aqueous solutions database to high temperatures and pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Aqueous solutions database to high temperatures and pressures: NaCl solutions A survey is made of available experimental data on sodium chloride solutions which are used in ...

  13. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  14. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  15. Excitation Energies of Zinc Porphyrin in Aqueous Solution Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Excitation Energies of Zinc Porphyrin in Aqueous Solution Using Long-Range Corrected Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory ...

  16. Direct observation of contact ion-pairing in aqueous solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; ION PAIRS; ...

  17. Uranyl-Peroxide Nanocapsules in Aqueous Solution: Force Field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranyl-Peroxide Nanocapsules in Aqueous Solution: Force Field Development and First Applications Previous Next List Pere Mir, Bess Vlaisavljevich, Allison L. Dzubak, Shuxian Hu,...

  18. A Comparative Study of Anodized Titania Nanotube Architectures in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, Matthew R; Lai, Peng; Hu, Michael Z.

    2011-01-01

    The unique and highly utilized properties of TiO2 nanotubes are a direct result of nanotube architecture. In order to create different engineered architectures, the effects of electrolyte solution, time, and temperature on the anodization of titanium foil were studied along with the resultant anodized titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube architectures encompassing nanotube length, pore diameter, wall thickness, smoothness, and ordered array structure. Titanium foil was anodized in three different electrolyte solutions: one aqueous (consisting of NH4F and (NH4)2SO4)) and two nonaqueous (glycerin or ethylene glycol, both containing NH4F) at varying temperatures and anodization times. Variation in anodization applied voltage, initial current, and effect of F- ion concentration on ATO nanotube architecture were also studied. Anodization in the aqueous electrolyte produced short, rough nanotube arrays, whereas anodization in organic electrolytes produced long, smooth nanotube arrays greater than 10 m in length. Anodization in glycerin at elevated temperatures for several hours presents the possibility of producing freely dispersed individual nanotubes.

  19. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  20. Hydroxyl radical production in plasma electrolysis with KOH electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saksono, Nelson; Febiyanti, Irine Ayu Utami, Nissa; Ibrahim

    2015-12-29

    Plasma electrolysis is an effective technology for producing hydroxyl radical (•OH). This method can be used for waste degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the plasma electrolysis system for producing hydroxyl radical. The materials of anode and cathode, respectively, were made from tungsten and stainless steel. KOH solution was used as the solution. Determination of hydroxyl radical production was done by measuring H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount formed in plasma system using an iodometric titration method, while the electrical energy consumed was obtained by measuring the electrical current throughout the process. The highest hydroxyl radical production was 3.51 mmol reached with 237 kJ energy consumption in the power supply voltage 600 V, 0.02 M KOH, and 0.5 cm depth of anode.

  1. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ION-EXCHANGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schubert, J.

    1958-06-01

    A process is described for the separation of plutonium from an aqueous solution of a plutonium salt, which comprises adding to the solution an acid of the group consisting of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and oxalic acid, and mixtures thereof to provide an acid concentration between 0.0001 and 1 M, contacting the resultant solution with a synthetic organic anion exchange resin, and separating the aqueous phase and the resin which contains the plutonium.

  2. Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte upon Reversible Li+H+ Exchange in Aqueous Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Excellent ...

  3. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  4. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  5. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  7. REMOVAL OF CESIUM BY SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ames, L.L.

    1962-01-16

    ABS>A process is given for selectively removing cesium from acid aqueous solutions containing cesium in microquantities and other cations in macroquantities by absorption on clinoptilolite. The cesium can be eluted from the clinoptilolite with a solution of ammonia, potassium hydroxide, or rubidium hydroxide. (AEC)

  8. SEPARATION OF TECHNETIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY COPRECIPITATION WITH MAGNETITE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rimshaw, S.J.

    1961-10-24

    A method of separating technetium in the 4+ oxidation state from an aqueous basic solution containing products of uranium fission is described. The method consists of contacting the solution with finely divided magnetite and recovering a technetium-bearing precipitate. (AEC)

  9. An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Gordon; Kirby, Brent W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-13

    Aiming to explore low-cost redox flow battery systems, a novel iron-polysulfide (Fe/S) flow battery has been demonstrated in a laboratory cell. This system employs alkali metal ferri/ferrocyanide and alkali metal polysulfides as the redox electrolytes. When proper electrodes, such as pretreated graphite felts, are used, 78% energy efficiency and 99% columbic efficiency are achieved. The remarkable advantages of this system over current state-of-the-art redox flow batteries include: 1) less corrosive and relatively environmentally benign redox solutions used; 2) excellent energy and utilization efficiencies; 3) low cost for redox electrolytes and cell components. These attributes can lead to significantly reduced capital cost and make the Fe/S flow battery system a promising low-cost energy storage technology. The major drawbacks of the present cell design are relatively low power density and possible sulfur species crossover. Further work is underway to address these concerns.

  10. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  11. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  12. Dissolution of lead paint in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, G.L.; Davis, A.P.

    1996-07-01

    An analysis of the rate and extent of lead leaching from a lead-based paint was completed. At low-solution pH, dissolution was rapid and approached 80% of the total lead. Residual lead can be estimated based on the predicted solubility of lead carbonate and basic lead carbonate. Release of lead from the paint was slower than that from pure basic lead carbonate due to inhibition by the paint matrix. Although the dissolved concentration of lead in solution at neutral/high pH was low, the paint binder was apparently destroyed at these pH values, releasing colloidal lead pigment particles. The presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) enhanced both the rate and degree of lead dissolution, while benzoic acid had a minimal effect.

  13. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS PHOSPHATE-CONTAINING SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Igelsrud, I.; Stephen, E.F.

    1959-08-11

    ABS>A method is presented for recovering hexavalent uranium from an acidic phosphaie solution. A high molecular weight amine, such as a mixture of cccoanut oil amines, is added to the solution in such amount as to give a ratio of about 2000 parts by weight of amine to 1 part by weight of uranium. The uranium is precipitated with the amines and the whole filtered from the solution. The uranium is leached from the amine mass by washing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution; and the amine mixture is available for reuse.

  14. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoll, K.C.

    1963-07-16

    A process of removing microquantities of cesium from aqueous solutions also containing macroquantities of other ions by adsorption on clinoptilolite is described. The invention resides in the pretreatment of the clinoptilolite by heating at 400 deg C and cooling prior to use. (AEC)

  15. RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  16. Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising candidate for energy storage component in designing resilient grid scale power supply due to the advantage of the separation of power and energy. However, poorly understood chemical and thermal stability issues of electrolytes currently limit the performance of RFB. Designing of high performance stable electrolytes requires comprehensive knowledge about the molecular level solvation structure and dynamics of their redox active species. The molecular level understanding of detrimental V2O5 precipitation process led to successful designing of mixed acid based electrolytes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB). The higher stability of mixed acid based electrolytes is attributed to the choice of hydrochloric acid as optimal co-solvent, which provides chloride anions for ligand exchange process in vanadium solvation structure. The role of chloride counter anion on solvation structure and dynamics of vanadium species were studied using combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and DFT based theoretical methods. Finally, the solvation phenomenon of multiple vanadium species and their impact on VRFB electrolyte chemical stability were discussed.

  17. Ewald Summation Approach to Potential Models of Aqueous Electrolytes Involving Gaussian Charges and Induced Dipoles: Formal and Simulation Results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Vlcek, Lukas

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the complete set of expressions required for the implementation of an Ewald summation approach to handle the long-range electrostatic interactions of polar and ionic model systems involving Gaussian charges and induced dipole moments with a particular application to the isobaricisothermal molecular dynamics simulation of our Gaussian Charge Polarizable (GCP) water model and its extension to aqueous electrolytes solutions. The set comprises the individual components of the potential energy, electrostatic potential, electrostatic field and gradient, the electrostatic force and the corresponding virial. Moreover, we show how the derived expressions converge to known point-based electrostatic counterpartsmore » when the parameters, defining the Gaussian charge and induced-dipole distributions, are extrapolated to their limiting point values. Finally, we illustrate the Ewald implementation against the current reaction field approach by isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics of ambient GCP water for which we compared the outcomes of the thermodynamic, microstructural, and polarization behavior.« less

  18. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  19. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  20. Adsorption analysis of ammonia in an aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arman, B.; Panchal, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    An analysis is carried out to determine the effects of the diffusional resistance on the rate of the adsorption of ammonia in an aqueous solution. A performance prediction model is developed to calculate the local rate of heat and mass transfer, including physical and thermodynamic property calculations of the mixture. An algorithm is developed for calculating the interfacial conditions. The local heat- and mass-transfer calculation is then incorporated into the performance prediction method for adsorption for a given geometry.

  1. Preparation of thin ceramic films via an aqueous solution route

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    A new chemical method of forming thin ceramic films has been developed. An aqueous solution of metal nitrates or other soluble metal salts and a low molecular weight amino acid is coated onto a substrate and pyrolyzed. The amino acid serves to prevent precipitation of individual solution components, forming a very viscous, glass-like material as excess water is evaporated. Using metal nitrates and glycine, the method has been demonstrated for zirconia with various levels of yttria stabilization, for lanthanum-strontium chromites, and for yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductors on various substrates.

  2. Non-aqueous solution preparation of doped and undoped Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, T.J.; Voigt, J.A.

    1997-05-20

    A method is described for generation of phase-pure doped and undoped Li{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} precursors. The method of this invention uses organic solutions instead of aqueous solutions or nonsolution ball milling of dry powders to produce phase-pure precursors. These precursors can be used as cathodes for lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries. Dopants may be homogeneously incorporated to alter the characteristics of the powder. 1 fig.

  3. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because of simultaneous rise in the solution surface tension, which increases the ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; ...

  4. Process for disposal of aqueous solutions containing radioactive isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Peter; Neilson, Jr., Robert M.; Becker, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for disposing of radioactive aqueous waste solutions whereby the waste solution is utilized as the water of hydration to hydrate densified powdered portland cement in a leakproof container; said waste solution being dispersed without mechanical inter-mixing in situ in said bulk cement, thereafter the hydrated cement body is impregnated with a mixture of a monomer and polymerization catalyst to form polymer throughout the cement body. The entire process being carried out while maintaining the temperature of the components during the process at a temperature below 99.degree. C. The container containing the solid polymer-impregnated body is thereafter stored at a radioactive waste storage dump such as an underground storage dump.

  5. X-ray studies of concentrated aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Warburton, W.K.; Fontaine, A.

    1987-07-01

    Concentrated aqueous solutions of three transition metal bromides (ZnBr/sub 2/, CuBr/sub 2/, and NiBr/sub 2/) and an alkali bromide (RbBr) have been studied with differential anomalous scattering (DAS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The aq-ZnBr/sub 2/ solutions exhibit considerable inner-shell ion complexing with the formation of tetrahedral complexes about the Zn/sup 2 +/. In aq-CuBr/sub 2/, the Cu/sup 2 +/ has an octahedral coordination shell. Most of the anions are bound directly to the cations in both solutions. In contrast, there are only a few Ni--Br nearest neighbors in aq-NiBr/sub 2/. Instead, cations and anions share hydrating water molecules. Preliminary data show that any ion complexing in aq-RbBr must be weak. These results are in good agreement with published thermodynamic studies.

  6. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  7. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemţanu, Monica R. Braşoveanu, Mirela Iacob, Nicuşor

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ΔE{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  8. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  9. Origin of electrochemical, structural and transport properties in non-aqueous zinc electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Sang -Don; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Qu, Xiaohui; Pan, Baofei; He, Meinan; Ferrandon, Magali S.; Liao, Chen; Persson, Kristin A.; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2016-01-14

    Through coupled experimental analysis and computational techniques, we uncover the origin of anodic stability for a range of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes. By examination of electrochemical, structural, and transport properties of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes with varying concentrations, it is demonstrated that the acetonitrile Zn(TFSI)2, acetonitrile Zn(CF3SO3)2, and propylene carbonate Zn(TFSI)2 electrolytes can not only support highly reversible Zn deposition behavior on a Zn metal anode (≥99% of Coulombic efficiency), but also provide high anodic stability (up to ~3.8 V). The predicted anodic stability from DFT calculations is well in accordance with experimental results, and elucidates that the solvents play an importantmore » role in anodic stability of most electrolytes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to understand the solvation structure (e.g., ion solvation and ionic association) and its effect on dynamics and transport properties (e.g., diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity) of the electrolytes. Lastly, the combination of these techniques provides unprecedented insight into the origin of the electrochemical, structural, and transport properties in nonaqueous zinc electrolytes« less

  10. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & Evaluate ...

  11. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  12. Study on the photophysical characteristics of R6G-. beta. cyclodextrin aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xingkang Zhang; Jianxin Chen; Guangzhi Xu

    1987-02-01

    Photophysical characteristics of R6G-..beta.. cyclodextrin system in aqueous solution have been studied by examining the steady and time-resolved fluorescence. Results are discussed.

  13. Enantiopure, Octadentate Ligands as Sensitizers for Europium andTerbium Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Michael; Moore, Evan G.; Ingram, Andrew J.; Muller,Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-09

    Tb and Eu complexes of enantiopure ligands with a new modular design show strong overall luminescence and CPL activity in aqueous solution.

  14. A Pentafluorophenylboron Oxalate Additive in Non-aqueous Electrolytes 3 for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X.Q.; Li, L.F.; Lee, H.S.; Li, H.; Huang, X.J.

    2009-12-01

    A novel compound named pentafluorophenylboron oxalate (PFPBO) has been synthesized. PFPBO has a unique molecular structure containing a boron atom center with electron deficiency and an oxalate group. It is found that when PFPBO is used as additive, the solubility of lithium fluoride (LiF) or lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents can be increased dramatically. The new electrolytes show high ionic conductivity, high lithium ion transference number and good compatibility with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode and MCMB anode. PFPBO was synthesized with the designed structure to act as a bi-functional additive: boron-based anion receptor (BBAR) additive and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation additive in PC-based electrolytes. The results show it does possess these two desired functionalities.

  15. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  16. Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte upon Reversible Li+H+ Exchange in Aqueous Solutions Title: Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid ...

  17. Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan Molecular Structure in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franca, Eduardo D.; Lins, Roberto D.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Straatsma, t. P.

    2008-11-08

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterize the structure of chitin and chitosan fibers in aqueous solutions. Chitin fibers, whether isolated or in the form of a β-chitin nanoparticle, adopt the so-called 2-fold helix with Φ and φ values similar to its crystalline state. In solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond HO3(n)•••O5(n+1) responsible for the 2-fold helical motif is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with water molecules in a well-defined orientation. On the other hand, chitosan can adopt five distinct helical motifs and its conformational equilibrium is highly dependent on pH. The hydrogen bond pattern and solvation around the O3 atom of insoluble chitosan (basic pH) are nearly identical to these quantities in chitin. Our findings suggest that the solubility and conformation of these polysaccharides are related to the stability of the intrachain HO3(n)•••O5(n+1) hydrogen bond, which is affect by the water exchange around the O3-HO3 hydroxyl group.

  18. Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Deyu; Hu, Dehong; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the nature of the limited cycle life and poor energy efficiency associated with the secondary Li-O2 batteries the discharge products of primary Li-O2 cells at different depth of discharge (DOD) are systematically analyzed in this work. It is revealed that if discharged to 2.0 V a small amount of Li2O2 coexist with Li2CO3 and RO-(C=O)-OLi) in alkyl carbonate-based electrolyte. Further discharging the air electrodes to below 2.0 V the amount of Li2CO3 and LiRCO3 increases significantly due to the severe electrolyte decomposition. There is no Li2O detected in this alkyl carbonate electrolyte regardless of DOD. It is also found that the alkyl carbonate based electrolyte begins to decompose at 4.0 V during charging under the combined influences from the high surface area carbon, the nickel metal current collector and the oxygen atmosphere. Accordingly the impedance of the Li-O2 cell continues to increase after each discharge and recharge process indicating a repeated plating of insoluble lithium salts on the carbon surface. Therefore the whole carbon electrode becomes completely insulated only after a few cycles and loses the function of providing active tri-phase regions for the Li-oxygen batteries.

  19. Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Robin; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bond, Andrew H.

    1998-01-01

    A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution.

  20. Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1998-01-13

    A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution. 7 figs.

  1. Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, X.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J.; Choi, L.S.

    1998-12-31

    A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CF{sub 3}COOLi and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions of LiCl are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions. The electrochemical stability of lithium salts and one of the boron compounds in deferent solvents was studied. For the first time, LiF has been successfully used as conducting salt in a novel electrolyte with this boron compound as an additive in DME. A rechargeable Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell using this electrolyte was successfully cycled 51 times. However, the capacity fades with cycling due to decomposition of the solvent. The cycling performance of the battery was greatly improved by replacing DME with PC-EC-DMC as the solvent.

  2. Structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, Manish; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2014-04-24

    The present work describes a molecular dynamics simulation study of structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions in water. Structural properties of the system in terms of radial distribution functions and dynamical characteristics as obtained through velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacements have been analyzed. The results for radial distribution functions show the oxygen of water to form the first solvation shell at 2.4 around the uranium atom, whereas the hydrogen atoms of water are distributed around the uranium atom with the major peak at around 3.0 . Analyses of transport behaviors of ions and water through MSD indicates that the diffusion of the uranyl ion is much less as compared to that of the water molecules. It is also observed that the dynamical behavior of water molecules gets modified due to the presence of uranyl ion. The effect of increase in concentration of uranyl ions on the structure and dynamics of water molecules is also studied.

  3. Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols In Aqueous Solution By Ultraviolet Excilamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matafonova, Galina; Philippova, Natalya; Batoev, Valeriy

    2011-08-25

    The direct photolysis of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in model aqueous solution was studied using UV XeBr (282 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excilamps. The highest pseudo-first order rate constants and quantum yields were found for molecular form of 4-CP (at pH 2 and 5.7) and anionic forms of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP (at pH 11) when irradiated by XeBr excilamp. The maximum removal efficiency of molecular form of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP with the lowest UV dose of absorbed energy was observed using KrCl excilamp. On the contrary, the XeBr excilamp required the lowest dose ({approx}2 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2}) for complete degradation of molecular 4-CP and anionic 2-CP. The highest removal efficiency of anionic form of 4-CP (65%) was achieved when using KrCl excilamp.

  4. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate ...

  5. Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping in Inorganic Non-Aqueous Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canepa, Pieremanuele; Gautam, Gopalakrishnan Sai; Malik, Rahul; Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Rong, Ziqin; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-04-08

    Multivalent (MV) battery architectures based on pairing a Mg metal anode with a high-voltage (~3 V) intercalation cathode offer a realistic design pathway toward significantly surpassing the energy storage performance of traditional Li-ion-based batteries, but there are currently only few electrolyte systems that support reversible Mg deposition. Using both static first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics, we perform a comprehensive adsorption study of several salt and solvent species at the interface of Mg metal with an electrolyte of Mg2+ and Cldissolved in liquid tetrahydrofuran (THF). Our findings not only provide a picture of the stable species at the interface but also explain how this system can support reversible Mg deposition, and as such, we provide insights in how to design other electrolytes for Mg plating and stripping. Furthermore, the active depositing species are identified to be (MgCl)+ monomers coordinated by THF, which exhibit preferential adsorption on Mg compared to possible passivating species (such as THF solvent or neutral MgCl2 complexes). We found that upon deposition, the energy to desolvate these adsorbed complexes and facilitate charge transfer is shown to be small (~6146.2 kJ mol1 to remove three THF from the strongest adsorbing complex), and the stable orientations of the adsorbed but desolvated (MgCl)+ complexes appear to be favorable for charge transfer. Finally, observations of MgCl dissociation at the Mg surface at very low THF coordinations (0 and 1) suggest that deleterious Cl incorporation in the anode may occur upon plating. In the stripping process, this is beneficial by further facilitating the Mg removal reaction.

  6. Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping in Inorganic Non-Aqueous Electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canepa, Pieremanuele; Gautam, Gopalakrishnan Sai; Malik, Rahul; Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Rong, Ziqin; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-04-08

    Multivalent (MV) battery architectures based on pairing a Mg metal anode with a high-voltage (~3 V) intercalation cathode offer a realistic design pathway toward significantly surpassing the energy storage performance of traditional Li-ion-based batteries, but there are currently only few electrolyte systems that support reversible Mg deposition. Using both static first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics, we perform a comprehensive adsorption study of several salt and solvent species at the interface of Mg metal with an electrolyte of Mg2+ and Cl–dissolved in liquid tetrahydrofuran (THF). Our findings not only provide a picture of the stable species at the interfacemore » but also explain how this system can support reversible Mg deposition, and as such, we provide insights in how to design other electrolytes for Mg plating and stripping. Furthermore, the active depositing species are identified to be (MgCl)+ monomers coordinated by THF, which exhibit preferential adsorption on Mg compared to possible passivating species (such as THF solvent or neutral MgCl2 complexes). We found that upon deposition, the energy to desolvate these adsorbed complexes and facilitate charge transfer is shown to be small (~61–46.2 kJ mol–1 to remove three THF from the strongest adsorbing complex), and the stable orientations of the adsorbed but desolvated (MgCl)+ complexes appear to be favorable for charge transfer. Finally, observations of Mg–Cl dissociation at the Mg surface at very low THF coordinations (0 and 1) suggest that deleterious Cl incorporation in the anode may occur upon plating. In the stripping process, this is beneficial by further facilitating the Mg removal reaction.« less

  7. Aqueous Binary Lanthanide(III) Nitrate Ln(NO3)3 Electrolytes Revisited: Extended Pitzer and Bromley Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Campbell, Emily L.; Neiner, Doinita; Pence, Natasha; Robinson, Troy; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2015-09-11

    To date, only limited thermodynamic models describing activity coefficients of the aqueous solutions of lanthanide ions are available. This work expands the existing experimental osmotic coefficient data obtained by classical isopiestic technique for the aqueous binary trivalent lanthanide nitrate Ln(NO3)3 solutions using a combination of water activity and vapor pressure osmometry measurements. The combined osmotic coefficient database for each aqueous lanthanide nitrate at 25°C, consisting of literature available data as well as data obtained in this work, was used to test the validity of Pitzer and Bromley thermodynamic models for the accurate prediction of mean molal activity coefficients of the Ln(NO3)3 solutions in wide concentration ranges. The new and improved Pitzer and Bromley parameters were calculated. It was established that the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients in the solutions with ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 can be estimated by both Pitzer and single-parameter Bromley models, even though the latter provides for more accurate prediction, particularly in the lower ionic strength regime (up to 6 mol kg-1). On the other hand for the concentrated solutions, the extended three-parameter Bromley model can be employed to predict the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients with remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of the extended Bromley model in predicting the activity coefficients was greater than ~95% and ~90% for all solutions with the ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 and and 20 mol kg-1, respectively. This is the first time that the activity coefficients for concentrated lanthanide solutions have been predicted with such a remarkable accuracy.

  8. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng; Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the OD stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the OD stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of OD vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing OD stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the OD stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the OD stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the OD stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating OD stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the OD stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the OD stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the OD stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We anticipate that this

  9. Fe sub 3 Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  10. Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G.

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  11. Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Robin; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bond, Andrew H.

    1999-01-01

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture.

  12. Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1999-03-30

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

  13. ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lofthouse, E.

    1954-08-31

    This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

  14. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS ACID SOLUTIONS BY 2($beta$-ETHYLBUTOXY) ETHANOL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-15

    A process of extracting tetnavalent plutonium from aqueous inonganic acid solutions (acidity between 1 N and pH of 2.5) with 2( beta -ethylbutoxy) ethanol is described. (AEC)

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  16. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  17. Dynamics of Magnesite Formation at Low-Temperature and High pCO2 in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Dixon, David A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bowden, Mark E.; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2015-09-17

    Like many metal carbonate minerals, despite conditions of supersaturation, precipitation of magnesite from aqueous solution is kinetically hindered at low temperatures, for reasons that remain poorly understood. The present study examines precipitation products from reaction of Mg(OH)2 in aqueous solutions saturated with supercritical CO2 at high pressures (90 atm and 110 atm) and low temperatures (35 C and 50 C). Traditional bulk characterization (X-ray diffraction) of the initial solid formed indicated the presence of hydrated magnesium carbonates (hydromagnesite and nesquehonite), thermodynamically metastable phases that were found to slowly react during ageing to the more stable anhydrous form, magnesite, at temperatures as low as 35 C (135-140 days) and at a faster rate at 50 C (56 days). Undetected by bulk measurements, detailed examination of the precipitates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that magnesite is present as a minor component at relatively early reaction times (7 days) at 50 C. In addition to magnesite dominating the solid phases over time, we find that mangesite nucleation and growth occurs more quickly with increasing partial pressure of CO2, and in electrolyte solutions with high bicarbonate content. Furthermore, formation of magnesite was found to be enhanced in sulfate-rich solutions, compared to chloride-rich solutions. We speculate that much of this behavior is possibly due to sulfate serving as sink of protons generated during carbonation reactions. These results support the importance of integrating magnesite as an equilibrium phase in reactive transport calculations of the effects of carbon dioxide sequestration on subsurface formations at long time scales.

  18. Electrolytic dissolver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Fox, R.D.

    1975-08-26

    This patent related to an electrolytic dissolver wherein dissolution occurs by solution contact including a vessel of electrically insulative material, a fixed first electrode, a movable second electrode, means for insulating the electrodes from the material to be dissolved while permitting a free flow of electrolyte therebetween, means for passing a direct current between the electrodes and means for circulating electrolyte through the dissolver. (auth)

  19. RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, G.D.

    1958-06-10

    >A process is described for the recovery of uranium and thorium from monazite sand, which is frequently processed by treating it with a hot sodium hydroxide solution whereby a precipitate forms consisting mainly of oxides or hydroxides of the rare earths, thorium and uranium. The precipitate is dissolved in mineral acid, and the acid solution is then neutralized to a pH value of between 5.2 and 6.2 whereby both the uranium and thorium precipitate as the hydroxides, while substantially all the rare earth metal values present remain in the solution. The uranium and thoriunn can then be separated by dissolving the precipitate in a solution containing a mixture of alkali carbonate and alkali bicarbonate: and contacting the carbonate solution with a strong-base anion exchange resin whereby the uranium values are adsorbed on the resin while the thorium remains in solution.

  20. SEPARATION OF POLONIUM, PROTACTINIUM OR MIXTURES THEREOF IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION FROM BISMUTH, LEAD, ZIRCONIUM AND/OR COLUMBIUM VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Winkle, Q.; Kraus, K.A.

    1959-10-27

    A process is presented for separating polonium, protactinium, or mixtures thereof in aqueous solution from bismuth, zirconium, lead, and niobium values contained in the solution. The method comprises providing hydrochloric acid in the solution in a concentration of at least 5N. contacting the aqueous solution with a substantially waterimmiscible organic solvent such as diisopropyl ketone, and separating the aqueous phase containing the bismuth, zirconium, lead, and niobium from the organic extract phase containing the polonium, protactinium, or mixture thereof.

  1. Menu Driven Program Determining Properties of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-09

    LIMENU is a menu driven program written to compute seven physical properties of a lithium bromide-water solution and three physical properties of water, and to display two plots.

  2. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moucka, Filip; Bratko, Dusan Luzar, Alenka

    2015-03-28

    Using a newly developed grand canonical Monte Carlo approach based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules, we studied equilibrium partitioning of both components between laterally extended apolar confinements and surrounding electrolyte solution. Accurate calculations of the Hamiltonian and tensorial pressure components at anisotropic conditions in the pore required the development of a novel algorithm for a self-consistent correction of nonelectrostatic cut-off effects. At pore widths above the kinetic threshold to capillary evaporation, the molality of the salt inside the confinement grows in parallel with that of the bulk phase, but presents a nonuniform width-dependence, being depleted at some and elevated at other separations. The presence of the salt enhances the layered structure in the slit and lengthens the range of inter-wall pressure exerted by the metastable liquid. Solvation pressure becomes increasingly repulsive with growing salt molality in the surrounding bath. Depending on the sign of the excess molality in the pore, the wetting free energy of pore walls is either increased or decreased by the presence of the salt. Because of simultaneous rise in the solution surface tension, which increases the free-energy cost of vapor nucleation, the rise in the apparent hydrophobicity of the walls has not been shown to enhance the volatility of the metastable liquid in the pores.

  3. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM OTHER METAL VALUES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SELECTIVE COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaton, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating tri- or tetravalent plutonium from fission products in an aqueous solution by complexing the fission products with oxalate, tannate, citrate, or tartrate anions at a pH value of at least 2.4 (preferably between 2.4 and 4), and contacting a cation exchange resin with the solution whereby the plutonium is adsorbed while the complexed fission products remain in solution.

  4. RECOVERY OF THORIUM AND URANIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, G.D.

    1958-02-18

    This patent deals with the separation and recovery of uranium from monazite sand. After initial treatment of the sand with sodium hydroxide, a precipitate is obtuined which contains the uranium, thorium, rare earths and some phosphorus. This precipitate is then dissolved in nitric acid. The bulk of the rare earths are removed from thls soiution by adding aa excess of alkali carbonate, causing precipitation of the rare earths together with part of the thorium present. The solution still contains a considerable amount of thorium, some rare earths, and practically all of the uranium originally present. Thorium and rare earth values are readily precipitated from such solution, and the uranium values thus isolated, by the addition of an excess hydrogen peroxide. The pH value of the solution is preferably adjusted to at least 9 prior to the addition of the peroxide.

  5. Process for recovering pertechnetate ions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Robin; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bond, Andrew H.

    1997-01-01

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of TcO.sub.4.sup.-1 ions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups; whereas the aqueous solution from which the TcO.sub.4.sup.-1 ions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt. A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound TcO.sub.4.sup.-1 ions in such an aqueous solution that is free from MoO.sub.4.sup.-2 ions is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture.

  6. Process for recovering pertechnetate ions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-02-18

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups; whereas the aqueous solution from which the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt. A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions in such an aqueous solution that is free from MoO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} ions is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 15 figs.

  7. PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM, NIOBIUM, AND RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, A.S.

    1958-08-12

    An improvement on the"head end process" for decontaminating dissolver solutions of their Zr, Ni. and Ru values. The process consists in adding a water soluble symmetrical dialkyl ketone. e.g. acetone, before the formation of the manganese dioxide precipitate. The effect is that upon digestion, the ruthenium oxide does not volatilize, but is carried on the manganese dioxide precipitate.

  8. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS NaCl SOLUTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... to 25C or 50C for 30 minutes. solution was measured by a differential thermocouple. ... Equations ( 4 ) and ( 5 ) were used i n this work t o reproduce and i n t e r p o l a t e ...

  9. Time-resolved fluorometric determination of terbium in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmilae, I.

    1985-07-01

    The fluorescent properties of water-soluble binary and ternary complexes of terbium(III) were studied and their applications in time-resolved fluorometric analysis were tested. Solutions composed of different ..beta..-diketones, tri-n-octylphosphine oxide as the synergistic agent, and Triton X-100 as the detergent were optimized to maximize fluorescence emission in Tb measurement. The results were then compared with seven published methods which included the use of the following respective solutions, ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis((o-hydroxy-phenyl)acetic acid), dipicolinic acid, iminodiacetic acid with Tiron, EDTA with Tiron, EDTA with 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, EDTA with sulfosalicylic acid, and EDTA with salicylate. Fluorinated aliphatic ..beta..-diketones showed the most promising properties in acidic solution. They were especially suitable for use in time-resolved fluorometric analyses where Tb was used as the label after being conjugated to the analyte via bifunctional complexones. An acidic pH is required for Tb release before conversion into a fluorescent chelate. The applicability of the developed measurement solutions to the measurement of Eu was also tested. 22 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Photochemical method for generating superoxide radicals (O.sub.2.sup.-) in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holroyd, Richard A.; Bielski, Benon H. J.

    1980-01-01

    A photochemical method and apparatus for generating superoxide radicals (ub.2.sup.-) in an aqueous solution by means of a vacuum-ultraviolet lamp of simple design. The lamp is a microwave powered rare gas device that emits far-ultraviolet light. The lamp includes an inner loop of high purity quartz tubing through which flows an oxygen-saturated sodium formate solution. The inner loop is designed so that the solution is subjected to an intense flux of far-ultraviolet light. This causes the solution to photodecompose and form the product radical (O.sub.2.sup.-).

  11. Sorption of metal ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions by activated carbons produced from waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Goba, V.E.; Kovtun, M.F.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Boiko, A.N.

    2008-08-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermal treatment of a mixture of sunflower husks, low-grade coal, and refinery waste were studied as adsorbents of transition ion metals from aqueous solutions of various compositions. The optimal conditions and the mechanism of sorption, as well as the structure of the sorbents, were studied.

  12. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse ...

  13. The chemistry of plutonium(VI) in aqueous carbonate solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, B.E.; Choppin, G.R. . Dept. of Chemistry); Sullivan, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of carbonate ion as a ligand that interacts with the hexavalent actinyl ions of U, Np, and Pu has been examined by {sup 13}C NMR. The first order rate parameter that describes the exchange between bulk solution and bound carbonate decreases with increasing pH. At a pH of 10.0, 25{degree}C, the respective values of k for the U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) complexes are 27.1 {plus minus} 0.3, 64.7 {plus minus} 3.3 and 706 {plus minus} 29. The variation of k with temperature was used to calculate the values of {Delta}H{sup +} = 53 and 42 kJ/M; and {Delta}S{sup +} = {minus}40 and {minus}71 J/M-K for the uranyl and neptunyl systems, respectively. A plausible reaction scheme for the exchange reaction is considered. The influence of these slow carbonate exchange reactions on selected electron transfer reactions is noted. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-01-01

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  15. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  16. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bartsch, Richard A.; Barrans, Jr., Richard E.; Rausch, David

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  17. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  18. METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

  19. Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.W.

    1980-06-01

    The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 313/sup 0/K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 298/sup 0/K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

  20. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  1. Effect of temperature on the complexation of Uranium(VI) with fluoride in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-05-18

    Complexation of U(VI) with fluoride at elevated temperatures in aqueous solutions was studied by spectrophotometry. Four successive complexes, UO{sub 2}F{sup +}, UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(aq), UO{sub 2}F{sub 3}{sup -}, and UO{sub 2}F{sub 4}{sup 2-}, were identified, and the stability constants at 25, 40, 55, and 70 C were calculated. The stability of the complexes increased as the temperature was elevated. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the complexation of U(VI) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at 25 to 70 C is slightly endothermic and entropy-driven. The Specific Ion Interaction (SIT) approach was used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of complexation at infinite dilution. Structural information on the U(VI)/fluoride complexes was obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  2. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less

  3. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  4. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  5. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. )

    1999-01-01

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  6. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F.

    1999-11-01

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  7. Role of pH in metal adsorption from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, F.C.; Tseng, R.L.; Juang, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The role of pH in adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan was emphasized. Four chelating agents including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, tartaric acid, and sodium gluconate were used. It was shown that the adsorption ability of Cu(II) on chitosan from its chelated solutions varied significantly with pH variations. The competition between coordination of Cu(II) with unprotonated chitosan and electrostatic interaction of the Cu(II) chelates with protonated chitosan took place because of the change in solution pH during adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained within each optimal pH range determined from titration curves of the chelated solutions. Coordination of Cu(II) with the unprotonated chitosan was found to dominate at pH below such an optimal pH value.

  8. Compatibility of Lithium Salts with Solvent of the Non-Aqueous Electrolyte in LiO2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Peng; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Luo, Xiangyi; Bareno, Javier; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Curtiss, Larry A.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-20

    The stability of lithium salts, especially in the presence of reduced oxygen species, O2 and H2O (even in a small amount), plays an important role in the cyclability and capacity of LiO2 cells. This combined experimental and computational study provides evidence that the stability of the electrolyte used in LiO2 cells strongly depends on the compatibility of lithium salts with solvent. In the case of the LiPF61NM3 electrolyte, the decomposition of LiPF6 occurs in the cell as evidenced by in situ XRD, FT-IR and XPS analysis, which triggers the decomposition of 1NM3 solvent due to formation of HF from the decomposition of LiPF6. These reactions lead to degradation of the electrolyte and cause poor cyclability of the cell. The same reactions are not observed when LiTFSI and LiCF3SO3 are used as the lithium salts in 1NM3 solvent, or LiPF6 is used in TEGDME solvent.

  9. Solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.; Han, B.; Yan, H.; Liu, R.

    1995-10-01

    The solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were measured at 313.15 K and at pressures up to 3 MPa. The molalities of SDS (m{sub SDS}) in the aqueous solution were 0.0000, 0.0020, 0.0040, 0.0060, 0.0070, 0.0080, 0.0090, 0.0100, 0.0126, 0.0150, 0.0200, and 0.0300. The effect of SDS on the gas solubility in both concentration regions below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) was studied. The existence of the micelles of SDS in the solution is favorable to the dissolution of ethane due to the hydrocarbon-like interior of the micelles. The solubilities of ethane in each micelle at different pressures were evaluated based on some assumptions. It was found that the intramicellar solubility of ethane is less than that of the gas in n-dodecane. It was also found that the solubility of ethane in the micelles increases linearly with the partial pressure of ethane. The cmc of SDS was evaluated based on the solubility vs m{sub SDS} curves and the effect of dissolved ethane on the cmc was studied. It was observed that the cmc shifts toward a higher value with the increase in dissolved ethane.

  10. Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions by Selective Crystallization of Alkali Metal Coordination Capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajbanshi, Arbin; Moyer, Bruce A; Custelcean, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly of a tris(urea) anion receptor with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} yields crystalline capsules held together by coordinating Na{sup +} or K{sup +} cations and hydrogen-bonding water bridges, with the sulfate anions encapsulated inside urea-lined cavities. The sodium-based capsules can be selectively crystallized in excellent yield from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions ({approx}6 M Na{sup +}, pH 14), thereby providing for the first time a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  11. Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Stephen Frederic; DeFilippi, Irene; Gaita, Romulus; Clearfield, Abraham; Bortun, Lyudmila; Bortun, Anatoly

    2000-09-05

    A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

  12. Testing of stripping columns for the removal of benzene from aqueous radioactive salt solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Taylor, G.A.; Gaughan, T.P.

    1995-06-27

    Radioactive high level wastes (HLW) generated from production of special nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are held in interim storage in 51 underground, million gallon tanks. Radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) is segregated by evaporation of aqueous waste solution for interim storage in a salt matrix comprised of Na and K salts or in concentrated salt solution. The saltcake will be dissolved and {sup 137}Cs will be separated from the nonradioactive salts in solution in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Process. The cesium will be combined with other radioactive species and glass formers to be melted and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The salt solution remaining after decontamination in the ITP process will be incorporated into grout for disposal at the site`s Saltstone facility. In the ITP facility, sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) will be added to precipitate the cesium. Potassium in the waste solution also reacts with STPB and precipitates. Due to radiolytic and chemical degradation of the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitate, benzene is generated. The benzene dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into water (WW) used to {open_quotes}wash{close_quotes} the precipitate to lower the soluble salt content of the slurry. Safety and processing requirements for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW dictate that the benzene concentration be reduced.

  13. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zheng, Doug; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Liair batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1,more0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.less

  14. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants aremore » 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  15. Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tani, Atsushi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ono, Yusuke; Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi

    2012-06-18

    To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) and superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

  16. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  17. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Magnetic separation of Dy(III) ions from homogeneous aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulko, B. Yang, X.; Lei, Z.; Odenbach, S.; Eckert, K.

    2014-12-08

    The possibility to enrich paramagnetic dysprosium(III) ions in a magnetic field gradient is proved by means of interferometry, which may open the route for a magnetic separation of rare earth ions from aqueous solutions. The separation dynamics are studied for three different concentrations of DyCl{sub 3} and compared with those found recently in a sulphate solution of the 3d ion Mn(II). In view of the similar-sized hydration spheres for Dy(III) and Mn(II), the slower separation dynamics in DyCl{sub 3} is attributed to both a higher densification coefficient and the strong impact of Brownian motion due to the absence of ion-pair clusters.

  19. Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides with different phases in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristl, Matjaž; Hojnik, Nuša; Gyergyek, Sašo; Drofenik, Miha

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides in aqueous solutions is reported. ► CuS and Cu{sub 2}S nanoparticles with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm were obtained. ► Crystallite size can be changed using different complexing agents. ► Thermal behavior was studied by TG and XRD measurements. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in the synthesis of nanostructured copper sulfides due to their ability to form compounds with various stoichiometries. We report a sonochemical route for the preparation of copper sulfides with different compositions in aqueous solutions, using different, general and convenient copper sources such as copper acetate, copper hydroxide or basic copper carbonate and thiourea or thioacetamide as sulfur precursors under ambient air. Phase analysis, purity and morphology of the products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that nanoparticles of covellite, CuS, with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm can be obtained by using different precursors and complexing agents and that chalcocite, Cu{sub 2}S, can also be prepared sonochemically.

  20. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J. (Hampton, NJ); Kantner, Edward (E. Brunswick, NJ)

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  1. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Liair batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Liair batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  2. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zheng, Doug; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Liair batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  3. Note: A novel technique for analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusak, D. A.; Bell, Z. T.; Anthony, T. P.

    2015-11-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates typically consist of gold or silver nanoparticles deposited on a non-conductive substrate. In Raman spectroscopy, the nanoparticles produce an enhancement of the electromagnetic field which, in turn, leads to greater electronic excitation of molecules in the local environment. Here, we show that these same surfaces can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio obtained in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aqueous solutions. In this case, the SERS substrates not only lower breakdown thresholds and lead to more efficient plasma initiation but also provide an appropriately wettable surface for the deposition of the liquid. We refer to this technique as surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  4. Oxidative processes occurring when pulsed high voltage discharges degrade phenol in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, B.; Sato, Masayuki; Clements, J.S.

    2000-02-01

    In this investigation, results obtained using a pulsed discharge for organic compound removal are presented. The degradation of phenol by a streamer corona discharge and spark discharge, the effects of hydrogen peroxide additive on removal efficiency, and photochemical oxidation by ultraviolet light from the discharge plasma channel were investigated. The intermediate products and final byproducts formed by the spark discharge were also studied. A preliminary study of the degradation mechanism inside and outside the plasma channel was carried out. It was found that the removal efficiency of organic contaminants in the aqueous solution was higher for the spark discharge than for the streamer corona discharge and was greatly influenced by the discharge type and additive. The energy efficiency was the highest for the case with hydrogen peroxide injection and spark discharge. The main intermediate products produced by the spark discharge during the treatment process were hydroquinone, pyrocatechol, and p-benzoquinone. These intermediate products disappeared when the treatment time was increased.

  5. Rate-based process modeling study of CO{sub 2} capture with aqueous monoethanolamine solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.; Chen, C.C.; Plaza, J.M.; Dugas, R.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2009-10-15

    Rate-based process modeling technology has matured and is increasingly gaining acceptance over traditional equilibrium-stage modeling approaches. Recently comprehensive pilot plant data for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solution have become available from the University of Texas at Austin. The pilot plant data cover key process variables including CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas stream, CO{sub 2} loading in lean MEA solution, liquid to gas ratio, and packing type. In this study, we model the pilot plant operation with Aspen RateSep, a second generation rate-based multistage separation unit operation model in Aspen Plus. After a brief review of rate-based modeling, thermodynamic and kinetic models for CO{sub 2} absorption with the MEA solution, and transport property models, we show excellent match of the rate-based model predictions against the comprehensive pilot plant data and we validate the superiority of the rate-based models over the traditional equilibrium-stage models. We further examine the impacts of key rate-based modeling options, i.e., film discretization options and flow model options. The rate-based model provides excellent predictive capability, and it should be very useful for design and scale-up of CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  6. Crystallization Temperature of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions at Low Evaporation Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisari, Padmaja; Wang, Kai; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2010-01-01

    Water- aqueous Lithium Bromide (LiBr) solutions have shown superior performance as working fluid pairs for absorption refrigeration cycles. Most of the available literature (e.g. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, etc.) provide crystallization behavior down to only 10 C. The typical evaporating temperature for an absorption chiller system is usually lower than 10 C. Hence, it is essential to have an accurate prediction of the crystallization temperature in this range in order to avoid crystallization during the design phase. We have therefore conducted a systematic study to explore the crystallization temperatures of LiBr/Water solutions that fall below an evaporating temperature of 10 C. Our preliminary studies revealed that the rate of cooling of the sample solution influences the crystallization temperature; therefore we have performed a quasi steady test where the sample was cooled gradually by reducing the sample temperature in small steps. Results from this study are reported in this paper and can be used to extend the data available in open literature.

  7. Novel, electrolyte solutions comprising fully inorganic salts with high anodic stability for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doe, RE; Han, R; Hwang, J; Gmitter, AJ; Shterenberg, I; Yoo, HD; Pour, N; Aurbach, D

    2014-01-01

    Herein the first inorganic magnesium salt solution capable of highly reversible magnesium electrodeposition is presented. Synthesized by acid-base reaction of MgCl2 and Lewis acidic compounds such as AlCl3, this salt class demonstrates upwards of 99% Coulombic efficiency, deposition overpotential of <200 mV, and anodic stability of 3.1 V.

  8. ELECTROLYTIC MEMBRANE DIALYSIS FOR TREATING WASTEWATER STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe

    2000-04-01

    This project will determine whether electrolytic dialysis has promise in the separation of charged particles in an aqueous solution. The ability to selectively move ions from one aqueous solution to another through a semipermeable membrane will be studied as a function of emf, amperage, and particle electrical charge. The ions selected for the study are Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. These ions are of particular interest because of their electrical conduction properties in aqueous solution resulting with their association with the corrosive action of metals. The studies will be performed with commercial membranes on solutions prepared in the laboratory from reagent salts. pH adjustments will be made with dilute reagent acid and base. Specific objectives of the project include testing a selected membrane currently available for electrolytic dialysis, membrane resistance to extreme pH conditions, the effectiveness of separating a mixture of two ions selected on the basis of size, the efficiency of the membranes in separating chloride (Cl{sup 1-}) from sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and separation efficiency as a function of electromotive force (emf).

  9. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Influencing factors, mechanisms and models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; Rebak, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    A detailed critical review of the multiple variables affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of in high temperature (deaerated) aqueous solutions is given. Most of the data in the literature deals with the cracking susceptibility in the primary side; however, it is clear that similar factors and to a similar extent influence the SCC susceptibility in both primary and secondary sides. Some factors such as alkalinity of the solution or presence of lead (Pb) may be more in the secondary side and others such as partial pressure of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the primary side. Even though the effect of the variables on SCC susceptibility is more or less established, in models, in most of the cases there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved. The different mechanisms and models proposed to explain the SCC of alloy 600 are briefly reviewed and their validity to explain the influence of the variables and to predict the crack growth rate (CGR), is assessed. It is concluded that several of the proposed models seem to give a fair estimate of the CGR values under certain conditions; however, it appears that a single mechanism cannot explain in detail the complex case of alloy 600 SCC. 113 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Solubilities and other physical parameters of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions as determined by headspace analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, M.A.H.

    1991-12-31

    The solubility, Henry`s law constant, aqueous-vapor partition coefficients, and oil-aqueous distribution coefficients of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene,m-xylene and p-xylene were determined in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions at 25C. Values are in agreement with using gas chromatography of headspace literature. The salting-out effect of sodium chloride on the solute properties measured was illustrated using the empirical relationship deduced by Setschenow (1889). The empirical relationship predicts that the logarithm of solubility will be a function of ionic strength. The solubility data obtained in this work obeys this relationship. It was also found that the logarithm of the Henry`s law constant, partition coefficient, and distribution coefficient are linear functions of ionic strength. 10 tabs, 6 figs.

  12. Materials for Use with Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Materials for Use with Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries The invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated

  13. Device of dispensing micro doses of aqueous solutions of substances onto a carrier and device for carrying out said method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershow, Gennady Moiseevich; Kirillov, Evgenii Vladislavovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    A device for dispensing microdoses of aqueous solutions are provided, whereby the substance is transferred by the free surface end of a rodlike transferring element; the temperature of the transferring element is maintained at essentially the dew point of the ambient air during the transfer. The device may comprise a plate-like base to which are affixed a plurality of rods; the unfixed butt ends of the rods are coplanar. The device further comprises a means for maintaining the temperature of the unfixed butt ends of the rods essentially equal to the dew point of the ambient air during transfer of the aqueous substance.

  14. Electrophoretic Study of the SnO2/Aqueous Solution Interface up to 260 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Santiago, V; Fedkin, Mark V.; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-07-01

    An electrophoresis cell developed in our laboratory was utilized to determine the zeta potential at the SnO{sub 2} (cassiterite)/aqueous solution (10{sup -3} mol kg{sup -1} NaCl) interface over the temperature range from 25 to 260 C. Experimental techniques and methods for the calculation of zeta potential at elevated temperature are described. From the obtained zeta potential data as a function of pH, the isoelectric points (IEPs) of SnO{sub 2} were obtained for the first time. From these IEP values, the standard thermodynamic functions were calculated for the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium at the SnO{sub 2} surface, using the 1-pK surface complexation model. It was found that the IEP values for SnO{sub 2} decrease with increasing temperature, and this behavior is compared to the predicted values by the multisite complexation (MUSIC) model and other semitheoretical treatments, and were found to be in excellent agreement.

  15. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  16. Efficient frequency conversion by stimulated Raman scattering in a sodium nitrate aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganot, Yuval E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il; Bar, Ilana E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il

    2015-09-28

    Frequency conversion of laser beams, based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is an appealing technique for generating radiation at new wavelengths. Here, we investigated experimentally the SRS due to a single pass of a collimated frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) through a saturated aqueous solution of sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}), filling a 50 cm long cell. These experiments resulted in simultaneous generation of 1st (564 nm) and 2nd (599 nm) Stokes beams, corresponding to the symmetric stretching mode of the nitrate ion, ν{sub 1}(NO{sub 3}{sup −}), with 40 and 12 mJ/pulse maximal converted energies, equivalent to 12% and 4% efficiencies, respectively, for a 340 mJ/pulse pump energy. The results indicate that the pump and SRS beams were thermally defocused and that four-wave mixing was responsible for the second order Stokes process onset.

  17. New porous titanium–niobium oxide for photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaleshtori, Maryam Zarei; Hosseini, Mahsa; Edalatpour, Roya; Masud, S.M. Sarif; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic activity of different porous titanium–niobium oxides was evaluated toward degradation of bromocresol green (BG) under UV light. A better catalytic activity was observed for all samples at lower pH. Catalysts have a stronger ability for degradation of BG in acid media than in alkaline media. - Highlights: • Different highly structured titanium–niobium oxides have been prepared using improved methods of synthesis. • Photo-degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) with nanostructure titanium–niobium oxide catalysts was carried out under UV light. • The photo-catalytic activity of all catalysts was higher in lower pH. • Titanium–niobium oxide catalysts are considerably stable and reusable. - Abstract: In this study, high surface area semiconductors, non porous and porous titanium–niobium oxides derived from KTiNbO{sub 5} were synthesized, characterized and developed for their utility as photocatalysts for decontamination with sunlight. These materials were then used in the photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) in aqueous solution using UV light and their catalytic activities were evaluated at various pHs. For all catalysts, the photocatalytic degradation of BG was most efficient in acidic solutions. Results show that the new porous oxides have large porous and high surface areas and high catalytic activity. A topotactic dehydration treatment greatly improves catalyst performance at various pHs. Stability and long term activity of porous materials (topo and non-topo) in photocatalysis reactions was also tested. These results suggest that the new materials can be used to efficiently purify contaminated water.

  18. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  19. Mechanistic studies of hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution catalyzed by a tertpyridine-amine cobalt complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Baine, Teera; Zhao, Xuan; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko; Poyansky, Dmitry E.

    2015-04-22

    The ability of cobalt-based transition metal complexes to catalyze electrochemical proton reduction to produce molecular hydrogen has resulted in a large number of mechanistic studies involving various cobalt complexes. In addition, while the basic mechanism of proton reduction promoted by cobalt species is well understood, the reactivity of certain reaction intermediates, such as CoI and CoIII–H, is still relatively unknown owing to their transient nature, especially in aqueous media. In this work we investigate the properties of intermediates produced during catalytic proton reduction in aqueous solutions promoted by the [(DPA-Bpy)Co(OH₂)]n+ (DPA-Bpy = N,N-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-2,20-bipyridine-6-methanamine) complex ([Co(L)(OH₂)]n+ where L is the pentadentatemore » DPA-Bpy ligand or [Co(OH₂)]n+ as a shorthand). Experimental results based on transient pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis methods, together with electrochemical studies and supported by DFT calculations indicate that, while the water ligand is strongly coordinated to the metal center in the oxidation state 3+, one-electron reduction of the complex to form a CoII species results in weakening the Co–O bond. The further reduction to a CoI species leads to the loss of the aqua ligand and the formation of [CoI–VS)]⁺ (VS = vacant site). Interestingly, DFT calculations also predict the existence of a [CoI(κ⁴-L)(OH₂)]⁺ species at least transiently, and its formation is consistent with the experimental Pourbaix diagram. Both electrochemical and kinetics results indicate that the CoI species must undergo some structural change prior to accepting the proton, and this transformation represents the rate-determining step (RDS) in the overall formation of [CoIII–H]⁺. We propose that this RDS may originate from the slow removal of a solvent ligand in the intermediate [CoI(κ⁴-L)(OH₂)]⁺ in addition to the significant structural reorganization of the metal complex and

  20. Mechanistic studies of hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution catalyzed by a tertpyridine-amine cobalt complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Baine, Teera; Zhao, Xuan; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko; Poyansky, Dmitry E.

    2015-04-22

    The ability of cobalt-based transition metal complexes to catalyze electrochemical proton reduction to produce molecular hydrogen has resulted in a large number of mechanistic studies involving various cobalt complexes. In addition, while the basic mechanism of proton reduction promoted by cobalt species is well understood, the reactivity of certain reaction intermediates, such as CoI and CoIIIH, is still relatively unknown owing to their transient nature, especially in aqueous media. In this work we investigate the properties of intermediates produced during catalytic proton reduction in aqueous solutions promoted by the [(DPA-Bpy)Co(OH?)]n+ (DPA-Bpy = N,N-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-2,20-bipyridine-6-methanamine) complex ([Co(L)(OH?)]n+ where L is the pentadentate DPA-Bpy ligand or [Co(OH?)]n+ as a shorthand). Experimental results based on transient pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis methods, together with electrochemical studies and supported by DFT calculations indicate that, while the water ligand is strongly coordinated to the metal center in the oxidation state 3+, one-electron reduction of the complex to form a CoII species results in weakening the CoO bond. The further reduction to a CoI species leads to the loss of the aqua ligand and the formation of [CoIVS)]? (VS = vacant site). Interestingly, DFT calculations also predict the existence of a [CoI(??-L)(OH?)]? species at least transiently, and its formation is consistent with the experimental Pourbaix diagram. Both electrochemical and kinetics results indicate that the CoI species must undergo some structural change prior to accepting the proton, and this transformation represents the rate-determining step (RDS) in the overall formation of [CoIIIH]?. We propose that this RDS may originate from the slow removal of a solvent ligand in the intermediate [Co

  1. Zinc-bromine batteries with improved electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantner, E.

    1985-01-01

    The coulombic efficiency of aqueous zinc bromine batteries can be increased if, in addition to the bromide ions required to be present in the electrolyte to charge the cell to rated capacity, chloride ions are added to the electrolyte in amounts sufficient to reduce the amount of free bromine present in the electrolyte during operation of the cell.

  2. Surface kinetic model for isotopic and trace element fractionation during precipitation of calcite from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaolo, D.

    2010-10-15

    A surface reaction kinetic model is developed for predicting Ca isotope fractionation and metal/Ca ratios of calcite as a function of rate of precipitation from aqueous solution. The model is based on the requirements for dynamic equilibrium; i.e. proximity to equilibrium conditions is determined by the ratio of the net precipitation rate (R{sub p}) to the gross forward precipitation rate (R{sub f}), for conditions where ionic transport to the growing crystal surface is not rate-limiting. The value of R{sub p} has been experimentally measured under varying conditions, but the magnitude of R{sub f} is not generally known, and may depend on several factors. It is posited that, for systems with no trace constituents that alter the surface chemistry, R{sub f} can be estimated from the bulk far-from-equilibrium dissolution rate of calcite (R{sub b} or k{sub b}), since at equilibrium R{sub f} = R{sub b}, and R{sub p} = 0. Hence it can be inferred that R{sub f} {approx} R{sub p} + R{sub b}. The dissolution rate of pure calcite is measureable and is known to be a function of temperature and pH. At given temperature and pH, equilibrium precipitation is approached when R{sub p} (= R{sub f} - R{sub b}) << R{sub b}. For precipitation rates high enough that R{sub p} >> R{sub b}, both isotopic and trace element partitioning are controlled by the kinetics of ion attachment to the mineral surface, which tend to favor more rapid incorporation of the light isotopes of Ca and discriminate weakly between trace metals and Ca. With varying precipitation rate, a transition region between equilibrium and kinetic control occurs near R{sub p} {approx} R{sub b} for Ca isotopic fractionation. According to this model, Ca isotopic data can be used to estimate R{sub f} for calcite precipitation. Mechanistic models for calcite precipitation indicate that the molecular exchange rate is not constant at constant T and pH, but rather is dependent also on solution saturation state and hence R{sub p

  3. Preparation and lithium intercalation behavior of TiO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yunjiao, E-mail: yunjiaoli6601@hotmail.com; Li, Lin; Chen, Lingpeng; Wang, Xuanyu; Xu, Cang

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: The poor crystalline anatase phase or amorphous TiO{sub 2} was prepared by TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis under different pH conditions. Phase transition behavior and lithium intercalation ability of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were found to be related to TiO{sub 2} property. The results indicate that TiO{sub 2} products obtained from TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis at lower pH are favorable for lithium intercalation. - Abstract: The low crystalline or amorphous TiO{sub 2} was prepared by TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis in aqueous solutions under different pH conditions at 45 C. The products obtained at lower pH (1.233.10) appear to be nano-sized particles with poor crystalline anatase structure and an uniform particle size distribution, while the product prepared at pH 4.10 presents in a poor crystalline anatase structure and the regular morphology starts to disappear, and the products obtained at higher pH (>6.00) are amorphous and irregular morphology. The hydrolysis products obtained at pH 2.60 and 8.80 were heat-treated at 300, 400, 600, 700 and 800 C for 3 h, respectively, to figure out the phase transition. The differences in phase transition process were observed, which verified the properties difference. The lithium intercalation abilities of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were studied. The results indicated that the TiO{sub 2} obtained at lower pH are more favorable for lithium intercalation and are better precursors.

  4. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Mehdi, Beata L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Gu, Meng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Yaohui; Arslan, Ilke; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-21

    One of the goals in the development of new battery technologies is to find new electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability. In-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using an electrochemical fluid cell provides the ability to rapidly and directly characterize electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions under battery relevant electrochemical conditions. Furthermore, as the electron beam itself causes a localized electrochemical reaction when it interacts with the electrolyte, the breakdown products that occur during the first stages of battery operation can potentially be simulated and characterized using a straightforward in-situ liquid stage (without electrochemical biasing capabilities). In this paper, we have studied the breakdown of a range of inorganic/salt complexes that are used in state-of-the-art Li-ion battery systems. The results of the in-situ (S)TEM experiments matches with previous stability tests performed during battery operation and the breakdown products and mechanisms are also consistent with known mechanisms. This analysis indicates that in-situ liquid stage (S)TEM observations can be used to directly test new electrolyte designs and provide structural insights into the origin of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation mechanism.

  5. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  6. Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and ...

  7. Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.

    2011-03-01

    }. Cations diffusing in aqueous solutions display a similar relationship between isotopic separation efficiency and D{sub cation} =D{sub H 2 O} , although the efficiencies are smaller than in silicate liquids. Our empirical relationship provides a tool for predicting the magnitude of diffusive isotopic effects in many geologic environments and a basis for a more comprehensive theory of isotope separation in liquid solutions. We present a conceptual model for the relationship between diffusivity and liquid structure that is consistent with available data.

  8. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-02-08

    This invention relates in general to a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery and, in particular, to an electrolyte additive for such a battery that provides overcharge protection. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are being developed to provide low-cost, high-energy-density power sources for communication, night vision and various other Army applications. Typically, a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery includes a lithium anode, a cathode including compounds such as titanium disulfide, molybdenum oxide, molybdenum sulfide, vanadium oxide, vanadium sulfide, chromium oxide, etc an electrolyte solution including an inorganic lithium salt such as lithium hexafluoroarsenate, lithium perchlorate, etc.

  9. Electrolyte optimization for cathodic growth of zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaki, Masanobu; Omi, Takashi

    1996-03-01

    Zinc oxide is of considerable interest to the optical and electronic industries, because of its electrical, optical, and acoustic characteristics. ZnO films can be prepared by several techniques, such as radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy. Preparation of oxide films by electrodeposition from aqueous solutions has several potential advantages over the other techniques. However, the formation of oxide films through electrochemical reactions have been demonstrated only on thallic oxide by Switzer and zirconium oxide by Gal-Or. In this work, the authors have prepared transparent ZnO films with optical bandgap energy of 3.3 eV by electrodeposition from an aqueous, 0.1 mol/liter zinc nitrate electrolyte. The deposition technology is still being developed. This paper reports the effects of the electrolyte concentration on the electrodeposition and properties of the ZnO films.

  10. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  11. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  12. 2012 WATER & AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (GRC) AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (GRS), AUG 10-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz, PI

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the fundamental principles governing the structure and dynamics of water - and particularly how water mediates chemical interactions and processes - continues to pose formidable challenges and yield abundant surprises. The focus of this Gordon Research Conference is on identifying key questions, describing emerging understandings, and unveiling surprising discoveries related to water and aqueous solutions. The talks and posters at this meeting will describe studies of water and its interactions with objects such as interfaces, channels, electrons, oils, ions, and proteins; probed using optical, electrical, and particle experiments, and described using classical, quantum, and multi-scale theories.

  13. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Oyenekan, Babatunde A.

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  14. Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xia-Oing; McBreen, James; Xiang, Caili

    2000-02-08

    Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  15. Solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutins were determined at 25/sup 0/C. The protosurfactants studied are sodium salts of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonic acid, and 3,5-diisopropyisalicylic acid. Each of them has six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and does not form micelles in water. The two micelle-forming surfactants used are sodium n-hexanoate with six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and sodium n-octanoate with eight alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =8). In three-component systems of toluene or n-octane with water and organic salt (either protosurfactant or surfactant), the solubility of the hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase increases as the number of alkyl carbons of the organic salt and as the aqueous concentration of the organic salt increases. However, in this study we found that sodium 3,5-diisopropyisalicylate causes much more pronounced increases in hydrocarbon solubility than these two surfactants. Sodium 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonate, although not as effective in solubilization as the salicylate, has much stronger hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than either of these two surfactants. Sodium cyclohexanoate, with a compact arrangement of the six alkyl carbons, shows a higher hydrotropic effect than sodium n-hexanoate.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of the electrical double layer on smectite surfaces contacting concentrated mixed electrolyte (NaCl-CaCl?) solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

    2011-01-01

    We report new molecular dynamics results elucidating the structure of the electrical double layer (EDL) on smectite surfaces contacting mixed NaClCaCl2 electrolyte solutions in the range of concentrations relevant to pore waters in geologic repositories for CO2 or high-level radioactive waste (0.341.83 molc dm-3). Our results confirm the existence of three distinct ion adsorption planes (0-, ?-, and d-planes), often assumed in EDL models, but with two important qualifications: (1) the location of the ?- and d-planes are independent of ionic strength or ion type and (2) indifferent electrolyte ions can occupy all three planes. Charge inversion occurred in the diffuse ion swarm because of the affinity of the clay surface for CaCl+ ion pairs. Therefore, at concentrations {>=0.34 molc dm-3}, properties arising from long-range electrostatics at interfaces (electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, co-ion exclusion, colloidal aggregation) will not be correctly predicted by most EDL models. Co-ion exclusion, typically neglected by surface speciation models, balanced a large part of the clay mineral structural charge in the more concentrated solutions. Water molecules and ions diffused relatively rapidly even in the first statistical water monolayer, contradicting reports of rigid ice-like structures for water on clay mineral surfaces.

  17. Nitrogen K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure of pyrimidine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki Minami, Hirotake; Okuizumi, Naoto; Sakuma, Ichiro; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Yuji

    2015-05-07

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was measured at energies around the N K-edge of the pyrimidine-containing nucleotides, cytidine 5′-monophosphate (CMP), 2′-deoxythymidine 5′-monophosphate (dTMP), and uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP), in aqueous solutions and in dried films under various pH conditions. The features of resonant excitations below the N K-edge in the XANES spectra for CMP, dTMP, and UMP changed depending on the pH of the solutions. The spectral change thus observed is systematically explained by the chemical shift of the core-levels of N atoms in the nucleobase moieties caused by structural changes due to protonation or deprotonation at different proton concentrations. This interpretation is supported by the results of theoretical calculations using density functional theory for the corresponding nucleobases in the neutral and protonated or deprotonated forms.

  18. Polymorph selection and nanocrystallite rearrangement of calcium carbonate in carboxymethyl chitosan aqueous solution: Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Donghui; Zhu, Yingchun; Li, Fang; Ruan, Qichao; Zhang, Shengmao; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Fangfang

    2010-01-15

    In this article, the polymorph selection of calcium carbonate has been successfully achieved in water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan aqueous solution at different temperatures (25-95 {sup o}C). Vaterite is formed in carboxymethyl chitosan solution 25 {sup o}C accompanied with trace of calcite, whereas pure aragonite is obtained at 95 {sup o}C. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the products are formed from the recrystallization of nanometer crystallites. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses reveal that the polymorph of calcium carbonate is controlled and selected by kinetics in various temperatures. As a heterogeneous nucleator and stabilizing agent, carboxymethyl chitosan changes the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate from thermodynamic into kinetic control. Under kinetic limitation, the reaction rate of aragonite increases along with the elevating of temperature and surpasses the rate of vaterite above 327 K.

  19. Quantitative extraction and concentration of synthetic water-soluble acid dyes from aqueous media using a quinine-chloroform solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, F.; Ozawa, N.; Hanai, J.; Isobe, M.; Watabe, T.

    1986-12-01

    Twenty-one water-soluble acid dyes, including eleven azo, five triphenylmethane four xanthene, one naphthol derivatives, used at practical concentrations for food coloration, were quantitatively extracted from water and various carbonated beverages into a 0.1 M quinine-chloroform solution in the presence of 0.5 M boric acid by brief shaking. Quantitative extraction of these dyes was also accomplished by the 0.1 M quinine-chloroform solution made conveniently from chloroform, quinine hydrochloride, and sodium hydroxide added successively to water or beverages containing boric acid. Quinine acted as a countercation on the dyes having sulfonic and/or carboxylic acid group(s) to form chloroform-soluble ion-pair complexes. The diacidic base alkaloid interacted with each acid group of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasulfonic acid dyes approximately in the ratio 0.8-0.9 to 1. The dyes in the chloroform solution were quantitatively concentrated into a small volume of sodium hydroxide solution also by brief shaking. The convenient quinine-chloroform method was applicable to the quantitative extraction of a mixture of 12 dyes from carbonated beverages, which are all currently used for food coloration. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method is also presented for the systematic separation and determination of these 12 dyes following their concentration into the aqueous alkaline solution. The chromatogram was monitored by double-wavelength absorptiometry in the visible and ultraviolet ray regions.

  20. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S.C.

    1982-08-01

    Improvements in the performance of zinc-bromine batteries have been observed with electrolytes containing a quaternary ammonium salt that complexes the bromine to reduce the concentration of free bromine in solution. A variety of quaternary ammonium salts that complex bromine to form a so-called polybromide oil have been considered. Various papers have discussed measurements of the physicochemical properties of the two-component system of bromine-quaternary ammonium bromide in an aqueous medium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interfacial tension of polybromide oils on the electrolytes for zinc-bromine batteries by reporting a study of the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops in which the sessile drop method is used. The interfacial tensions for the polybromide phases are found to be considerably lower than the values commonly reported for two-phase systems containing organic and aqueous phases. However, several two-phase systems, such as benzyl alcohol/water, furfural/water, and ethyl acetate/water have low interfacial tension comparable to that of the polybromide/electrolyte system. The low interfacial tension of the polybromide oil phase has important practical implications for the zinc-bromine battery. A stable emulsion can be produced very readily; small drops of the polybromide-oil phase can thus be stabilized with the electrolyte phase and can be expected to enhance the mass transfer of bromine from the polybromide to the electrode.

  1. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES IN AN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH FORMALDEHYDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.M.

    1959-06-01

    A method is given for reducing Pu to the tetravalent state and lowering the high acidity of dissolver solutions containing U and Pu. Formaldehyde is added to the HNO/sub 3/ solution of U and Pu to effect a formaldehyde to HNO/sub 3/ molar ratio of 0.375:1 to 1.5:1. The Pu can then be removed from the solution by carrier precipitation using BiPO/sub 4/ or by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  2. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  3. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop, Frederick V.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-04

    We measured the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over themore » equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. Moreover, this corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.« less

  4. Solubility Measurements of Crystalline NiO in Aqueous Solution as a Function of Temperature and pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, Donald; Benezeth, Pascale; Xiao, Caibin {nmn}; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Results of solubility experiments involving crystalline nickel oxide (bunsenite) in aqueous solutions are reported as functions of temperature (0 to 350 C) and pH at pressures slightly exceeding (with one exception) saturation vapor pressure. These experiments were carried out in either flow-through reactors or a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell for mildly acidic to near neutral pH solutions. The results were treated successfully with a thermodynamic model incorporating only the unhydrolyzed aqueous nickel species (viz., Ni2+ ) and the neutrally charged hydrolyzed species (viz., Ni(OH)02 ). The thermodynamic quantities obtained at 25 C and infinite dilution are, with 2 uncertainties: log10Ko s0 = (12.40 0.29), rGo m = (70.8 1.7) kJ mol 1; rHo m = (105.6 1.3) kJ mol 1; rSo m = (116.6 3.2) J K 1 mol 1; rCo p,m = (0 13) J K 1 mol 1; and log10Ko s2 = (8.76 0.15); rGo m = (50.0 1.7) kJ mol 1; rHo m = (17.7 1.7) kJ mol 1; rSo m = (108 7) J K 1 mol 1; rCo p,m = (108 3) J K 1 mol 1. These results are internally consistent, but the latter set differs from those gleaned from previous studies recorded in the literature. The corresponding thermodynamic quantities for the formation of Ni2+ and Ni(OH)02 are also estimated. Moreover, the Ni(OH) 3 anion was never observed, even in relatively strong basic solutions (mOH = 0.1 mol kg 1), contrary to the conclusions drawn from all but one previous study.

  5. The Influence of Pre-oxidation on the Corrosion of Copper Nuclear Waste Canisters in Aqueous Anoxic Sulphide Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.M.; Qin, Z.; Wren, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2007-07-01

    Scandinavian/Canadian high-level nuclear waste repository conditions are expected to evolve from initially warm and oxic to eventually cool and anoxic. During the warm, oxic period corrosion products will accumulate on the container surface. These deposits could impede the reaction of Cu with aqueous sulphide, the only reaction that could lead to the significant accumulation of additional corrosion damage under the long-term anoxic conditions. The kinetics of the reaction of Cu with aqueous sulphide solutions have been studied using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. Corrosion potential measurements were used to follow the evolution of the surface as oxides/hydroxides were converted to sulphides in the sulphide concentration range 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} mol/L. Changes in composition were followed by in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Of critical importance is whether or not a period of pre-oxidation of a Cu container surface can prevent subsequent reaction of the surface with remotely produced sulphide. (authors)

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS FOR THE REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF CHLORIDES AND NITRATES FROM AQUEOUS NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savolainen, J.E.

    1963-01-29

    A method is described for reducing the chloride content of a solution derived from the dissolution of a stainless steel clad nuclear fuel element with an aqua regia dissolution medium. The solutlon is adjusted to a nitric acid concentration in the range 5 to 10 M and is countercurrently contacted at room temperature with a gaseous oxide of nitrogen selected from NO, NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ O/sub 3/, and N/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Chlo ride is recovered from the contacted solution as nitrosyl chloride. After reduction of the chloride content, the solution is then contacted with gaseous NO to reduce the nitric acid molarity to a desired level. (AEC)

  7. A XANES and EXAFS Study of Hydration and Ion Pairing in Ambient Aqueous MnBr[subscript 2] Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Fulton, John L.; Partenheimer, Walter

    2008-09-25

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies were used to probe the first-shell coordination structure of Mn(II) in aqueous MnBr{sub 2} solutions at ambient conditions from very dilute to the near saturation limit. The Mn K-edge EXAFS spectra for 0.05 and 0.2 m solutions showed that there was no Br(-I) in the first shell, and that the Mn(II) was fully hydrated with six water molecules in an octahedral arrangement. In contrast, for 6 m solution, the coordination number of water was reduced to about 5, and an average of about one bromine atom was present in the first shell as a contact ion pair. The 1s {yields} 4p transition at 6545.5 eV confirmed the observation of Mn-Br contact ion pairs at high concentrations and the 1s {yields} 3d transition at 6539.5 eV showed that the first shell coordination symmetry remained octahedral even in the presence of Mn-Br ion pairs.

  8. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  9. Extraction equilibria of acetic and propionic acids from dilute aqueous solution by several solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahim, M.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Extraction equilibria of acetic acid and propionic acid with hexane solutions of trioctyl amine, trioctyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate were studied. The species formed in the systems were estimated, and the distribution coefficients and the equilibrium constants for these species were evaluated.s

  10. Tunable Encapsulation Structure of Block Copolymer Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Aqueous Solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Youngkyu; Ahn, Suk-Kyun; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory Scott; Do, Changwoo

    2015-01-01

    The nano-sized and shape-tunable molecular building blocks can provide great opportunities for the fabrication of precisely controlled nanostructures. In this work, we have fabricated a molecular building block of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) coated by PPO-PEO-PPO block copolymers whose encapsulation structure can be controlled via temperature or addition of small molecules. The structure and optical properties of SWNT-block copolymers have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The structure of the hydrated block copolymer layer surrounding SWNT can be controlled reversibly by varying temperature as well asmore » by irreversibly adding 5-methylsalicylic acid (5MS). Increasing hydrophobicity of the polymers with temperature and strong tendency of 5MS to interact with both block copolymers and orbitals of the SWNTs are likely to be responsible for the significant structural change of the block copolymer encapsulation layer, from loose corona shell to tightly encapsulating compact shell. These result shows an efficient and simple way to fabricate and manipulate carbon-based nano building blocks in aqueous systems with tunable structure.« less

  11. Coagulation of quartz particles in aqueous solutions of copper(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, I.; Pugh, R.J.

    1998-12-15

    The colloidal stability of quartz suspension was determined over a wide range of pH in aqueous copper nitrate where the state of Cu(II) is changed from mainly aqua ions and monohydroxyl complexes in the acid and neutral pH to polynuclear hydroxo complexes and colloidal precipitated copper hydroxide at higher pH. Two regions of instability were observed and in both cases the particles were shown to have low electrophoretic mobility. In the neutral pH region, the uptake of Cu(II) was sufficient to reduce the mobility of the particles to zero, while in the high-pH region evidence suggested coagulation between precipitated Cu(OH){sub 2} and the quartz particles. It was shown that in all cases the coagulation was reversible and that the uptake of Cu(II) was dependent on the uncharged surface hydroxyl density. Studies of the coagulation kinetics showed that extended time scales were involved (several minutes in the neutral pH region to tens of minutes at high pH).

  12. Cesium cobaltdicarbollide-solubility, precipitation, and reactivity in basic aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.J.; Fanning, J.C.; Hugg, L.A.; Smith, W.A.; Terrell, A.S.; Yasinsac, L.; Todd, L.J.; Jasper, S.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The title compound, Cs{sup +}[Co((3)-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}]{sup {minus}}(CsCDC), was precipitated with a NaCDC solution from solutions containing CsCl. The reaction was followed by measuring loss of light intensity as the precipitate formed. The [Cs{sup +}] and [CDC{sup {minus}}] at the point of precipitation were estimated and approximate values of the K{sub sp} for CsCDC determined at room temperature: 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (water), 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (1 M NaOH), and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (5M NaCl/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH). In some cases, NaCDC precipitated from solution when added to the latter salt solution. For the medium, 5 M NaNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH a four-fold excess of NaCDC was added to a 10mM Cs{sup +} solution at 40{degrees}C and the [CDC{sup {minus}}] measured spectrophotometrically. Only CsCDC precipitated, and a K{sub sp} of 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} was determined. The solubilities of CsCDC were measured in NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl solutions at 30{sub C} as a function of the Na salt concentration. Reaction of the CDC{sup {minus}} with OH{sup {minus}} slowly produces B(OH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}, and CoO(OH). Reaction of 22 {mu}M CsCDC with 1M NaOH has a first order rate constant at 56{degrees}C of 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1}, while that for 14 mM NaCDC is 7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s {sup {minus}1}. Activation energy for the reaction is 110 kJ.

  13. Flat band potential measurements of naked and viologen-modified n-WS[sub 2] electrodes in aqueous iodide and triiodide solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1994-09-15

    The flat band potentials, E[sub FB], of naked n-WS[sub 2] electrodes and cationic viologen polymer-modified n-WS[sub 2] electrodes have been determined in KI and KI[sub 3] solutions by differential capacitance measurements. The E[sub FB] values for naked n-WS[sub 2] electrodes are shifted negatively in electrolyte media containing I[sup [minus

  14. Measurement of free ammonia produced by X irradiation of glycylglycine in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, H.; Bolch, W.E.; Jacobson, K.B.; Turner, J.E. )

    1990-03-01

    This research was initiated to test the validity of predictions based on Monte Carlo calculations of the effect of ionizing radiation on a simple dipeptide. The mechanism for the formation of ammonia, proposed by Garrison, Sokol, and Bennett-Corniea, was reevaluated by measuring the yields under deoxygenated and oxygenated conditions. Although free ammonia was formed under both conditions, the yields were different, depending on the concentrations of solute and molecular oxygen. The reaction probabilities of the specific interactions of free radicals formed in pure water with solute and oxygen are discussed to account for the observed difference. Our results obtained after low-dose-rate X irradiation are compared with those obtained by Garrison et al. after high-dose-rate 60Co gamma irradiation.

  15. Use of differential pulse polarography to study corrosion of galvanized steel in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V.; Guinon, J.L. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. )

    1994-02-01

    Static and dynamic corrosion of galvanized steel in 4.6 M lithium bromide (LiBr) solution at 20 C and at 70 C was studied using a new polarographic method for the determination of zinc (Zn) in LiBr solution. Static and dynamic corrosion of galvanize steel at 20 C and 70 C followed a linear tendency with exposure time. However, a change in the slope of dynamic corrosion was observed at 20 C. The corrosion product was studied using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) and x-ray diffractometry and was considered to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)[sub 2] and oxides. The corrosion product morphology was amorphous and gelatinous at 20 C and crystalline at 70 C.

  16. Speciation of aqueous palladium(II) chloride solutions using optical spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Rogers, P.S.Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of palladium(II) chloride solutions have been performed under ambient to elevated temperature conditions with systematic changes in pH and (Cl{sup {minus}}). Spectral signatures from electronic absorption spectra (Uv/Vis) and Raman vibrational spectra were determined, and these were subsequently used to systematically map out species along several paths of the predominance diagram. The species PdCl{sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4{minus}x}{sup 2{minus}x} (x = 2, 3, or 4) and Pd(OH){sub 2} were observed, along with a precipitation product formed from > 10 {mu}M (Pd{sup 2+}) solutions under near-neutral conditions. The elemental composition of the precipitation product was examined with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and was found to contain chloride as well as palladium. While sub-stoichiometric amounts of available OH{sup {minus}} ligand produced UV/Vis solution spectra likely to be from mixed Pd-Cl-OH species, the pH field of these species would be vanishingly small at low, geologically relevant palladium ion concentrations where (OH{sup {minus}}) is no longer the limiting reagent in the transformation. In mildly acidic media, where chloropalladium(II) species predominate, elevated temperatures (up to 90C) cause lower charged palladium-chloride species to be favored, consistent with the lowered dielectric constant of water at higher temperatures.

  17. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopic titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.

  18. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopicmore » titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.« less

  19. CNEEC - Electrolyte Gating by David Goldhaber-Gordon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte Gating

  20. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  2. Oxygen-17 NMR Shifts Caused by Cr{Sup ++} in Aqueous Solutions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Jackson, J. A.; Lemons, J. F.; Taube, H.

    1962-01-01

    Cr{sup ++} in solution produces a paramagnetic shift in the NMR absorption of O{sup 17} in ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, as well as the expected paramagnetic shift for O{sup 17} in H{sub 2}O. As the concentration of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} increases, the shift in the H{sub 2}O{sup 17} absorption is diminished, and eventually changes sign. The effects are ascribed to preferential replacement by ClO{sub 4}{sup -} of water molecules from the axial positions in the first coordination sphere about Cr{sup ++}.

  3. Strong Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Highly Emissive Terbium Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, Amanda; Lunkley, Jamie; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-03-15

    Two luminescent terbium(III) complexes have been prepared from chiral ligands containing 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophores and their non-polarized and circularly-polarized luminescence properties have been studied. These tetradentate ligands, which form 2:1 ligand/Tb{sup III} complexes, utilize diaminocyclohexane (cyLI) and diphenylethylenediamine (dpenLI) backbones, which we reasoned would impart conformational rigidity and result in Tb{sup III} complexes that display both large luminescence quantum yield ({phi}) values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activities. Both Tb{sup III} complexes are highly emissive, with {phi} values of 0.32 (dpenLI-Tb) and 0.60 (cyLI-Tb). Luminescence lifetime measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O indicate that while cyLI-Tb exists as a single species in solution, dpenLI-Tb exists as two species: a monohydrate complex with one H{sub 2}O molecule directly bound to the Tb{sup III} ion and a complex with no water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Both cyLI-Tb and dpenLI-Tb display increased CPL activity compared to previously reported Tb{sup III} complexes made with chiral IAM ligands. The CPL measurements also provide additional confirmation of the presence of a single emissive species in solution in the case of cyLI-Tb, and multiple emissive species in the case of dpenLI-Tb.

  4. Coordination Chemistry in Magnesium Battery Electrolytes: How...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Coordination Chemistry in Magnesium Battery Electrolytes: How Ligands Affect Their Performance (Top) Schematic illustration of the solution ...

  5. Interaction Between Like-Charged Colloidal Spheres in Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ELECTROLYTES; SOLUTIONS; CHEMISTRY; LAWRENCE BERKELEY ...

  6. Adsorption of Ions on Zirconium Oxide Surfaces from Aqueous Solutions at High Temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, Donald; Machesky, Michael L.; Benezeth, Pascale; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-07-01

    Surface titrations were carried out on suspensions of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} from 25 to 290 C slightly above saturation vapor pressure at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.1 and 1.0 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}(NaCl). A typical increase in surface charge was observed with increasing temperature. There was no correlation between the radius of the cations, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}N{sup +}, and the magnitude of their association with the surface. The combined results were treated with a 1-pK{sub a} MUSIC model, which yielded association constants for the cations (and chloride ion at low pH) at each temperature. The pH of zero-point-charge, pH{sub zpc}, decreased with increasing temperature as found for other metal oxides, reaching an apparent minimum value of 4.1 by 250 C. Batch experiments were performed to monitor the concentration of LiOH in solutions containing suspended ZrO{sub 2} particles from 200 to 360 C. At 350 and 360 C, Li{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions were almost totally adsorbed when the pressure was lowered to near saturation vapor pressure. This reversible trend has implications not only to pressure-water reactor, PWR, operations, but is also of general scientific and other applied interest. Additional experiments probed the feasibility that boric acid/borate ions adsorb reversibly onto ZrO{sub 2} surfaces at near-neutral pH conditions as indicated in earlier publications.

  7. Bio sorption of strontium from aqueous solution by New Strain Bacillus sp. GTG-83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, P.; Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, S.; Ghafourian, H.

    2007-07-01

    Attempt was made to isolate bacterial strains capable of removing Sr biologically. In this study we collected ten different water samples from naturally radioactive spring Neydasht in Iran and bacterial strains samples isolated. Initial screening of a total of 50 bacterial isolates resulted in selection of one strain. The strain showed maximum adsorption capacity with 55 mg Sr/g dry wt. It was tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. according to morphological and biochemical properties and called strain GTG-83. Studies indicated that Bacillus sp. GTG-83 was able to grow aerobically in the presence of 50 mM SrCl{sub 2} but showed severe growth inhibition at levels above that concentration. The bio-sorption capacity of Bacillus sp. GTG-83 strongly depends on solution pH, and the maximum Sr sorption capacity of Bacillus sp. GTG-83 were obtained at pH 10 independent of the absence or the presence of increasing concentrations of salt (MgCl{sub 2}). Sr-salt bio-sorption studies were also performed at this pH values. Equilibrium uptakes of Sr increased with increasing Sr concentrations up to 250 mg/l for Bacillus sp. GTG-83. Maximum bio-sorption of Sr was obtained at temperatures in the range of 30-35 deg. C. Bacillus sp. GTG-83 bio-sorbed 97 mg Sr/g dry wt at 100 mg/l initial Sr concentration without salt medium (MgCl{sub 2}). When salt concentration (MgCl{sub 2}) increased to 15% (w/v), these values dropped to 23.6 mg Sr/g dry wt at the same conditions. Uptake of Sr within 5 min of incubation was relatively rapid and the absorption continued slowly thereafter. (authors)

  8. Method Of Dispensing Microdoses Of A Aqueous Solutions Of S Ubstances Onto A Carrier And A Device For Carrying Out Said Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Kirillov, Eugenii Vladislavovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1999-10-05

    A method and a device for dispensing microdoses of aqueous solutions are provided, whereby the substance is transferred by the free surface end of a rodlike transferring element; the temperature of the transferring element is maintained at essentially the dew point of the ambient air during the transfer. The device may comprise a plate-like base to which are affixed a plurality of rods; the unfixed butt ends of the rods are coplanar. The device further comprises a means for maintaining the temperature of the unfixed butt ends of the rods essentially equal to the dew point of the ambient air during transfer of the aqueous substance

  9. Radiolytic preparation of ultrafine colloidal gold particles in aqueous solution: Optical spectrum, controlled growth, and some chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henglein, A.

    1999-09-28

    Orange- or yellow-orange-colored aqueous dispersions of ultrafine gold particles ({approximately}2 nm) result from the {gamma}-irradiation of deaerated solutions containing hydrolyzed AuCl{sup {minus}}{sub 4} and poly(vinyl alcohol) or poly-(vinylpyrrolidone), respectively. The particles have a weak and very broad plasmon absorption band with maximum in the 490 to 500 nm range, i.e., at substantially shorter wavelengths than expected from classical Mie theory using bulk dielectric data; moreover, the specific UV adsorption increases as the particles become smaller. The particles are used as seeds in the radiolytic reduction of added Au(CN){sup {minus}}{sub 2} to yield larger particles of any desired size and improved monodispersity. The particles partially react with oxygen. Chemisorption of 3-mercapto propionic acid strongly affects the electronics of the particles, as indicated by the changes in optical absorption. The early stages of AuCl{sup {minus}}{sub 4} reduction are also investigated. The reduction occurs essentially in two steps: (1) formation, and (2) reduction of Au{sup +}. A203-nm absorption band is tentatively attributed to Au{sup +}. Without further irradiation, Au{sup +} disappears thermally within hours to yield larger particles (20--70 nm).

  10. Synthesis and utilization of a novel carbon nanotubes supported nanocables for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-15

    Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) as mechanical support and glucose as carbon resource, a hydrothermal carbonization route was designed for the synthesis of MWCNTs@carbon nanocables with tunable diameter and length. MWCNTs are firstly used as templates for the formation of carbon-rich composite nanocables, and the diameter of the nanocables could be tailored through adjusting the hydrothermal time or the ratio of MWCNTs and glucose. Owing to abundant superficial oxygen-containing functional groups, porous surface and remarkable reactivity, the as-synthesized nanocables are capable of efficiently adsorbing cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). Furthermore, the optimum adsorption conditions, kinetics, adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics of dyes were studied systematically. Additionally, the maximum adsorption capacities calculated from data analysis (298.5 mg/g for MB and 228.3 mg/g for CV) are significant higher than those of raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents reported previously, which provides strong evidence for using MWCNTs@carbon nanocables as adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solutions. - Graphical abstract: MWCNTs@carbon nanocables has been successfully fabricated by a hydrothermal carbonization method. The as-synthesized novel samples were used as adsorbents and exhibited high adsorption capacity on MB and CV. - Highlights: • A simple, cost-effective and “green” method for the synthesis of the material. • The diameter and length of the material are relatively easy to control. • The surface has large oxygen-containing groups and preferable chemical reactivity. • Compared with raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents, the adsorption capacity is much high.

  11. NO3- Coordination in Aqueous Solutions by 15N/14N and 18O/natO Isotopic Substitution: What Can We Learn from Molecular Simulation?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Vlcek, Lukas

    2014-12-16

    We explore the deconvolution of the water-nitrate correlations by the first-order difference approach involving neutron diffraction of heavy- and null-aqueous solutions of KNO3 under 14N 15N and natON 18ON substitutions to achieve a full characterization of the first water coordination around the nitrate ion. For that purpose we performed isobaric-isothermal simulations of 3.5m KNO3 aqueous solutions at ambient conditions to generate the relevant radial distribution functions (RDF) required in the analysis (a) to identify the individual partial contributions to the total neutron weighted distribution function, (b) to isolate and assess the contribution of NO3 -!K+ pair formation, (c) to testmore » the accuracy of the NDIS-based coordination calculations and XRDbased assumptions, and (d) to describe the water coordination around both the nitrogen and oxygen sites of the nitrate ion.« less

  12. The structure and stability of aqueous rare-earth elements in hydrothermal fluids: New results on neodymium(III) aqua and chloroaqua complexes in aqueous solutions to 500 °C and 520 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayanovic, R.A.; Anderson, A.J.; Bassett, W.A.; Chou, I.-M.

    2009-02-04

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were made at the Nd L{sub 3}-edge on neodymium(III) aqua and chloroaqua complexes in low pH aqueous solutions from 25 to 500 C and up to 520 MPa. Analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure of the XAS spectra measured from a 0.07 m Nd/0.16 m HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution reveals a contraction of the Nd-O distance of the Nd{sup 3+} aqua ion at a uniform rate of {approx} 0.013 {angstrom}/100 C and a uniform reduction of the number of coordinated H{sub 2}O molecules from 10.0 {+-} 0.9 to 7.4 {+-} 0.9 over the range from 25 to 500 C and up to 370 MPa. The rate of reduction of the first-shell water molecules with temperature for Nd{sup 3+} (26%) is intermediate between the rate for the Gd{sup 3+} aqua ion (22% from 25 to 500 C) and the rates for the Eu{sup 3+} (29% from 25 to 400 C) and the Yb{sup 3+} aqua ions (42% from 25 to 500 C) indicating an intermediate stability of the Nd{sup 3+} aqua ion consistent with the tetrad effect. Nd L{sub 3}-edge XAS measurements of 0.05 m NdCl{sub 3} aqueous solution at 25 to 500 C and up to 520 MPa show that stepwise inner-sphere complexes most likely of the type Nd(H{sub 2}O){sub {delta}-n}Cl{sub n}{sup +3-n} occur in the solution at elevated temperatures, where {delta} {approx} 9 at 150 C decreasing to {approx} 6 at 500 C and the number of chloride ions (n) of the chloroaqua complexes increases uniformly with temperature from 1.2 {+-} 0.2 to 2.0 {+-} 0.2 in the solution upon increase of temperature from 150 to 500 C. Conversely, the number of H{sub 2}O ligands of Nd(H{sub 2}O){sub {delta}-n}Cl{sub n}{sup +3-n} complexes is uniformly reduced with temperature from 7.5 {+-} 0.8 to 3.7 {+-} 0.3 in the aqueous solution, in the same temperature range. These data show greater stability of neodymium(III) than gadolinium(III) and ytterbium(III) chloride complexes in low pH aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. Our data suggest a greater stability of aqueous light REE than

  13. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  14. Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications 2009 DOE Hydrogen ... More Documents & Publications Novel Electrolytes and Additives Novel Electrolytes and ...

  15. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  16. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  17. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  18. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  19. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  20. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  1. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  2. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  3. Laser Raman spectroscopy study of the zinc and bromide ion complex equilibrium in zinc/bromine battery electrolytes. [2M ZnBr/sub 2/ and 1M KBr solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.G.; Larrabee, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to study the zinc and bromide ion complex equilibrium in zinc bromine battery model electrolytes. Solutions of zinc bromide with added KBr, HBr and N-methyl, N-ethyl morpholinium (MEM) bromide were examined and compared. Solutions studied ranged from 1 to 3 molar in zinc and from 2.5 to 8 molar in bromide. A typical Raman spectrum of a zinc bromide solution is shown in Figure 1. Each of the zinc species is identified, Zn/sup + +/ (aq), ZnBr/sup +/, ZnBr/sub 2/ (aq), ZnBr/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/. By the use of peak heights or deconvolution/integration along with published Raman cross sections, the amount of each zinc species could be quantitatively determined. The addition of bromide ions to the zinc bromide solutions will shift the equilibrium toward higher bromide complexes. The added cations will influence the shifts. It has been noted that the conductivity of the electrolyte decreases when the quaternary ammonium ions are present compared to cations such as potassium or hydrogen. Significantly more free zinc is present in zinc bromide solutions with added KBr than with either MEMBr or HBr. Shifts are also noted with the other zinc ion containing species. It appears that the quaternary ammonium ions and possibly the pH could have a stabilizing effect on zinc bromide complex ion formation. 2 figs.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF A NEW FAMILY OF FLUORINATED BORONATE COMPOUNDS AS ANION RECEPTORS AND STUDIES OF THEIR USE AS ADDITIVES IN LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCBREEN,J.; LEE,H.S.; YANG,X.Q.

    2001-06-08

    Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduce ion pairing in non-aqueous electrolytes has been considered as an approach to improve the properties of electrolytes. Although both cation and anion receptors enhance the dissociation of ion pairs and increase the conductivity of electrolytes, the use of anion receptors is more attractive for a lithium battery electrolyte because anion receptors increase the lithium transference number in the electrolyte. However, most available neutral anion receptors complex with anions through hydrogen binding and cannot be used in lithium batteries. Recently, we have reported on synthesis of a series of new neutral boron compounds as anion receptors based on the idea that electron-deficient boron would complex the anion of the ion pair. The anion complexation effect of these boron compounds was further enhanced by attaching electron-withdrawing groups. Here we report synthesis of another new family of boronate compounds. The effect of these new compounds on conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solution was studied. The molecular weights of these new boronate compounds are lower than our previously reported boron compounds. Therefore, their effects on conductivity enhancement are superior. They also display high electrochemical stability up to 5 V.

  5. X-ray Studies of the Interface Between Two Polar Liquids: Neat and with Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, G.; Malkova, S.; Pingali, S.V.; Schultz, D.; Lin, B.; Meron, M.; Graber, T.; Gebhardt, J.; Vanysek, P.; Schlossman, M.L.

    2010-11-30

    We demonstrate the use of X-ray reflectivity to probe the electron density profile normal to the interface between two polar liquids. Measurements of the interfacial width at the neat nitrobenzene/water and the neat water/2-heptanone interfaces are presented. These widths are consistent with predictions from capillary wave theory that describe thermal interfacial fluctuations determined by the tension and bending rigidity of the interface. Variation of the temperature of the water/nitrobenzene interface from 25 C to 55 C indicates that the role of the bending rigidity decreases with increasing temperature. X-ray reflectivity measurements of the electrified interface between an aqueous solution of BaCl{sub 2} and a nitrobenzene solution of TBATPB demonstrate the sensitivity of these measurements to the electrolyte distribution at the interface. A preliminary analysis of these data illustrates the inadequacy of the simplest, classical Gouy-Chapman theory of the electrolyte distribution.

  6. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, Jai (3849 NW. 65th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32653); Thackeray, Michael M. (1763 Cliffside Ct., Naperville, IL 60565); Dees, Dennis W. (6224 Middaugh Ave., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Myles, Kevin M. (1231 60th Pl., Downers Grove, IL 60516-1856)

    1998-01-01

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  7. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  8. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prakash, Jai; Thackeray, Michael M.; Dees, Dennis W.; Vissers, Donald R.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1998-01-01

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and O

  9. Me-3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Efficient Sensitization of Yb(III) and Nd(III) in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Dodani, Sheel; Jocher, Christoph; D'Aleo, Anthony; Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth

    2009-11-10

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, solution stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes of Yb(III) and Nd(III) using both tetradentate and octadentate ligand design strategies and incorporating the 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (Me-3,2-HOPO) chelate group are reported. Both the Yb(III) and Nd(III) complexes have emission bands in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region, and this luminescence is retained in aqueous solution ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Yb} {approx} 0.09-0.22%). Furthermore, the complexes demonstrate very high stability (pYb {approx} 18.8-21.9) in aqueous solution, making them good candidates for further development as probes for NIR imaging. Analysis of the low temperature (77 K) photophysical measurements for a model Gd(III) complex were used to gain an insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree well with corresponding TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G{sup ++}(d,p) level of theory for a simplified model monovalent sodium complex.

  10. In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Borondics, Ferenc; Glans, Per-Anders; West, Mark W.; Chang, Ching-Lin; Salmeron, Miquel; Guo, Jinghua

    2010-03-31

    A novel electrochemical setup has been developed for soft x-ray absorption studies of the electronic structure of electrode materials during electrochemical cycling. In this communication we illustrate the operation of the cell with a study of the corrosion behavior of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution via the electrochemically induced changes of its electronic structure. This development opens the way for in situ investigations of electrochemical processes, photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells, water splitting, corrosion, electrodeposition, and a variety of important biological processes.

  11. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With assistance from AMO, OLI Systems, Inc., developed the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, a comprehensive physical property package that can predict the properties of electrolyte systems ranging...

  12. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, Gene H.; Roche, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  13. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  14. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  15. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, Sivaraman; Wong, Chi F.; Buckley, Leo P.

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  16. The H2O2+OH ? HO2+H2O reaction in aqueous solution from a charge-dependent continuum model of solvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel

    2008-07-07

    We applied our recently developed protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation to describe the title reaction in aqueous solution. The model has the unique feature of the molecular cavity being dependent on the atomic charges in the solute, and can be extended naturally to transition states and reaction pathways. It was used to calculate the reaction energetics and reaction rate in solution for the title reaction. The rate of reaction calculated using canonical variational transition state theory CVT in the context of the equilibrium solvation path (ESP) approximation, and including correction for tunneling through the small curvature approximation (SCT) was found to be 3.6 106 M-1 s-1, in very good agreement with experiment, These results suggest that the present protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation with the charge-dependent cavity definition captures accurately the solvation effects at transition states and allows for quantitative estimates of reaction rates in solutions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  17. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J.; Callahan, Michael; Bailey, John; Look, David; Efstathiadis, Harry

    2015-06-01

    Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T) of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  18. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-03-29

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3{sup -}}. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells.

  19. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  20. True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

  1. Structure And Dynamics of the Hydrated Palladium(II) Ion in Aqueous Solution a QMCF MD Simulation And EXAFS Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofer, T.S.; Randolf, B.R.; Shah, S.Adnan Ali; Rode, B.M.; Persson, I.

    2009-06-01

    The pharmacologically and industrially important palladium(II) ion is usually characterised as square-planar structure in aqueous solution, similar to the platinum(II) ion. Our investigations by means of the most modern experimental and theoretical methods give clear indications, however, that the hydrated palladium(II) ion is hexa-coordinated, with four ligands arranged in a plane at 2.0 {angstrom} plus two additional ligands in axial positions showing an elongated bond distance of 2.7-2.8 A. The second shell consists in average of 8.0 ligands at a mean distance of 4.4 {angstrom}. This structure provides a new basis for the interpretation of the kinetic properties of palladium(II) complexes.

  2. Salt-Induced Universal Slowing Down of the Short-Time Self-Diffusion of a Globular Protein in Aqueous Solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grimaldo, Marco; Roosen-Runge, Felix; Hennig, Marcus; Zanini, Fabio; Zhang, Fajun; Zamponi, Michaela; Jalarvo, Niina; Schreiber, Frank; Seydel, Tilo

    2015-06-17

    The short-time self-diffusion D of the globular model protein bovine serum albumin in aqueous (D2O) solutions has been measured comprehensively as a function of the protein and trivalent salt (YCl3) concentration, noted cp and cs, respectively. We observe that D follows a universal master curve D(cs,cp) = D(cs = 0,cp) g(cs/cp), where D(cs= 0,cp) is the diffusion coefficient in the absence of salt and g(cs/cp) is a scalar function solely depending on the ratio of the salt and protein concentration. This observation is consistent with a universal scaling of the bonding probability in a picture of cluster formation of patchymore » particles. In conclusion, the finding corroborates the predictive power of the description of proteins as colloids with distinct attractive ion-activated surface patches.« less

  3. Fuel cell having electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell having an electrolyte control volume includes a pair of porous opposed electrodes. A maxtrix is positioned between the pair of electrodes for containing an electrolyte. A first layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to one of the electrodes. A portion of the paper is substantially previous to the acceptance of the electrolyte so as to absorb electrolyte when there is an excess in the matrix and to desorb electrolyte when there is a shortage in the matrix. A second layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to the first layer of paper and is substantially impervious to the acceptance of electrolyte.

  4. Aggregation behavior of hexaoxyethyleneglycol myristate and hexaoxyethyleneglycol mono (1-methyltridecane) ether and dynamics of their micelles in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alami, E.; Zana, R. ); Van Os, N.M.; Jong, B. de; Kerkhof, F.J.M. ); Rupert, L.A.M. )

    1993-10-01

    The title surfactants have similar critical micelle concentrations and cloud temperatures. Their micellar solutions have been investigated by time resolved fluorescence quenching in the range 2--25 c. The micelle aggregation numbers of both surfactants do not differ much, and increase with temperature. Aggregation numbers are large, suggesting anisotropic micelles, and the results show that the micelles are polydisperse. Fast intermicellar exchange of material becomes detectable on the fluorescence timescale ([approximately]1 [mu]s) above T [approx] 10 C, i.e., some 35--40 C below the cloud temperature of the solution. This exchange probably occurs via micelle collisions with temporary merging. Overall the behavior of these two surfactants is very similar to that of the other ethoxylated nonionic surfactants previously examined.

  5. Raman spectral studies of aqueous zinc bromide solutions to 300/sup 0/C at pressures of 9 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.; Crerar, D.A.; Irish, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    A Raman spectral study of 14 solutions of varying bromide to zinc ratios was conducted up to 300/sup 0/C and 9 MPa. The tetra-, tri-, di- as well as the mono-bromozinc complexes were identified. The signal from the ZnBr/sup +/ complex increased in intensity as temperature increased, for solutions of low bromide- to-zinc ratios. The ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/ species was favored at higher Br/Zn ratios, and higher temperatures favored the formation of the species ZnBr/sub 2/ and ZnBr/sup +/ at the expense of ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and ZnBr/sub 3//sup -/. Although solvated water is probably present in these zinc-bromo complexes, they found no evidence of O-Zn vibrations other than for Zn(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/. However, spectra of successive dilutions of solutions with high bromide to zinc ratios show a relative change in species populations thereby suggesting that water activity plays a decisive role in complex formation. For the first time trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (HTFMS) has been used as an internal standard in Raman spectroscopy. This permitted quantitative measurement of stepwise stability constants.

  6. Electromarking solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  7. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  9. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  10. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  11. The radiation induced chemistry of uranyl cation in aqueous carbonate bicarbonate solutions as followed by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Cho, Herman M.; Friese, Judah I.

    2006-05-01

    Alpha radiation induced formation of hydrogen peroxide in carbonate ?bicarbonate media was followed by 13C NMR using dissolved [233UO2(13CO3)3]4- as the alpha source (Dalpha= 12.1 Gy/hr). Between the pH region between 5.9 and 11.6 hydrogen peroxide causes a varied speciation of the uranyl carbonates that is a function of the uranium, carbonate and the hydrogen peroxide concentrations. It is shown that the speciation of the peroxy carbonates (or other species) formed in solution by titration with hydrogen peroxide are common to those formed by hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis. The radiolysis experiment was carried out above pH = 9.96 to minimize the loss of 13CO2 over a 2800 hr period. Radiolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide was followed by formation of a uranyl peroxy carbonate complex and complex formation accelerated for about 1200 hours. Complex formation was observed to terminate at a concentration between 1x10-4 and 5x10-4 M. It is assumed that either a steady state H2O2 production rate was established in solution or that some limiting feature of the experiment was responsible for slowing the yield of product.

  12. Nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of purine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Taishi; Minami, Hirotake; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Yuji

    2014-08-07

    The N K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the purine-containing nucleotide, guanosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate (GMP), in aqueous solution are measured under various pH conditions. The spectra show characteristic peaks, which originate from resonant excitations of N 1s electrons to π* orbitals inside the guanine moiety of GMP. The relative intensities of these peaks depend on the pH values of the solution. The pH dependence is explained by the core-level shift of N atoms at specific sites caused by protonation and deprotonation. The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical spectra calculated by using density functional theory for GMP and the other purine-containing nucleotides, adenosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate, and adenosine 5{sup ′}-triphosphate. The N K-edge XANES spectra for all of these nucleotides are classified by the numbers of N atoms with particular chemical bonding characteristics in the purine moiety.

  13. On the Dissociation of Methyl Orange: Spectrophotometric Investigation in Aqueous Solutions from 10 to 90ºC and Theoretical Evidence for Intramolecular Dihydrogen Bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boily, Jean F.; Seward, Terry M.

    2005-12-01

    The dissociation of methyl orange was investigated by spectrophotometry in aqueous solutions from 10 to 90°C and by quantum chemical calculations. Combined chemometric and thermodynamic analyses of the spectrophotometric data were used to simultaneously extract the thermodynamic stabilities and the spectrophotometric attributes of the dominant methyl orange species in solutions containing less than 20.00 mmol kg-1 perchloric acid and submicromolal concentrations of methyl orange. The analyses revealed the presence of only one monomeric deprotonated and one monomeric protonated species. The spectra did not reveal any evidence for the presence of tautomeric equilibria between the protonated azo and ammonium species in the experimental range studied. Thermodynamic analyses of the temperature dependent dissociation constants showed the reactions to be endothermic and enthalpy driven reaction with increasing acidity and increasing temperature. All molar absorption coefficients in the 275-375 nm range can be adequately reproduced in the 10-90°C range with a set of Gauss-Lorentz parameters and used to predict the absorption spectra for any desired condition. The dominant features of the spectrophotometric attributes of the methyl orange species could also be retrieved in Time Dependent-Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations. Topological analyses of the electron density also revealed the formation of a dihydrogen bond between the azo proton and an adjacent phenyl ring hydridic hydrogen which increases the stability of the azo molecules relative to the ammonium molecule.

  14. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  15. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  17. Trivalent chromium electrolyte and process employing reducing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomaszewski, T.W.

    1984-10-16

    An aqueous acidic trivalent chromium electrolyte and process for electrodepositing chromium platings comprising an electrolyte containing trivalent chromium ions, a complexing agent, halide ions, ammonium ions and a reducing agent comprising an ion selected from the group consisting of scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, molybdenum, arsenic, selenium, tellurium, cerium, uranium, and tin present in an amount effective to maintain the concentration of hexavalent chromium ions formed in the bath at a level at which satisfactory chromium electrodeposits are obtained.

  18. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Jan Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Sakai, Victoria Garcia

    2014-12-07

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H{sub 2}O (or D{sub 2}O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0–90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  19. Morphological and phase evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals prepared from peroxotitanate complex aqueous solution: Influence of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan; Seok, Sang Il

    2009-04-15

    Nanosized anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} having different shape, phase and size have been prepared from aqueous solutions of peroxo titanium complex starting from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in water/isopropanol media by a facile sol-gel process. The TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The influence of pH and the sequence of addition of reaction contents on the phase and morphology of TiO{sub 2} are studied. The reasons for the observation of only anatase and/or mixture of anatase and rutile are given. - Graphical abstract: The morphology of TiO{sub 2} depends on the sequence of addition of AcOH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from the system of titanium isopropoxide and acetic acid (AcOH) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  20. Growth kinetics for the precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from aqueous zirconium and tin bearing solutions by the addition of ammonium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleson, T.E.; Chipman, N.A.

    1989-09-11

    The precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluorozirconate occurs rapidly upon addition of ammonium hydroxide. Experimental data indicate growth and nucleation rates between 0.06 and 0.28 microns/minute and around 10 {times} 107 number/L-min, respectively. Experiments with a mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer for concentrations of reactants of about 0.05 M ammonium hexafluorozirconate precipitating with 0.002 M ammonium hydroxide showed apparent nonlinear growth rates in some cases but not others. Batch studies indicated that growth rate dispersion is probably not present. When the AFL nonlinear model was used to fit the data, the power coefficient obtained was greater than 1, in disagreement with theory. In addition, for some of the data ``S`` shaped curves of the logarithm of the cumulative number greater than versus size were obtained. These curves can not be fit by the AFL model. A program developed at the University of Arizona was used to simulate the crystallization runs. The program results indicated that some of the nonlinear behavior may be attributed to transient conditions. Experimental data also illustrated this behavior. The effect of trace amounts of tin fluoride (0.008 M) on the nucleation and growth kinetics was also evaluated. For some residence times, the presence of tin resulted in reduced median particle diameters, higher growth rates, and lower number counts.

  1. Salt-Induced Universal Slowing Down of the Short-Time Self-Diffusion of a Globular Protein in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimaldo, Marco; Roosen-Runge, Felix; Hennig, Marcus; Zanini, Fabio; Zhang, Fajun; Zamponi, Michaela; Jalarvo, Niina; Schreiber, Frank; Seydel, Tilo

    2015-06-17

    The short-time self-diffusion D of the globular model protein bovine serum albumin in aqueous (D2O) solutions has been measured comprehensively as a function of the protein and trivalent salt (YCl3) concentration, noted cp and cs, respectively. We observe that D follows a universal master curve D(cs,cp) = D(cs = 0,cp) g(cs/cp), where D(cs= 0,cp) is the diffusion coefficient in the absence of salt and g(cs/cp) is a scalar function solely depending on the ratio of the salt and protein concentration. This observation is consistent with a universal scaling of the bonding probability in a picture of cluster formation of patchy particles. In conclusion, the finding corroborates the predictive power of the description of proteins as colloids with distinct attractive ion-activated surface patches.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution by visible light sensitive N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindan, Kadarkarai; Murugesan, Sepperumal; Maruthamuthu, Pitchai

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for the visible light photocatalytic process of N and F codoped TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: ? Visible light sensitive N-F-codoped TiO{sub 2}. ? Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol. ? Effect of oxidants on photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol. ? PMS is a more efficient oxidant for the photodegradation of PCP. - Abstract: In this present study, N-F-codoped titanium dioxide nanocatalyst (NFTO) has been synthesized by simple solgel assisted solvothermal method for the effective utilization of visible light in photocatalytic reactions. Structural characterization of the photocatalyst is analyzed by XRD, UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), SEM and TEM. Moreover the chemical statuses of NFTO are gathered by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that a high surface area with photoactive anatase phase crystalline is obtained. In addition, nitrogen and fluorine atoms are doped into TiO{sub 2} crystal lattice to extend the visible light absorption and higher photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution is examined under visible light irradiation, the addition of oxidants such as PMS, PDS and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is analyzed in detail. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol is obtained in the following order: PMS > PDS > H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  3. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 12 m and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  4. Synthesis of kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron and its degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black G in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zhengxian; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Zuliang

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: UV–visible spectra of DFBG solution using K-nZVI (1:1) nanoparticles. (a) Before reaction; (b) during reaction; (c) after reaction. - Highlights: • Kaolin-supported Fe{sup 0} nanoparticle (K-nZVI) was synthesized. • Degradation of Direct Fast Black by K-nZVI was studied. • K-nZVI was characterized by SEM, XRD, UV and FIIR. • Degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black was proposed. - Abstract: Calcinated kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (K-nZVI) was synthesized and used for the removal of tetrad azo-group dye-Direct Fast Black G (DFBG) from aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that after reacting for 10 min with an initial concentration of DFBG 100 mg L{sup −1} (pH 9.49), 78.60% of DFBG was removed using K-nZVI, while only 41.39% and 12.56% of DFBG were removed using nZVI and kaolin, respectively. K-nZVI with a mass ratio of nZVI nanoparticles versus kaolin at 1:1 was found to have a high degree of reactivity. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that nZVI was better dispersed when kaolin was present. XRD patterns indicated that iron oxides were formed after reaction. Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR) and UV–visible demonstrated that the peak in the visible light region of DFBG was degraded and new bands were observed. Kinetics studies showed that the degradation of DFBG fitted well to the pseudo first-order model. The degradation of DFBG by K-nZVI was based on its adsorption onto kaolin and iron oxides, and subsequently reduction using nZVI was proposed. A significant outcome emerged in that 99.84% of DFBG in wastewater was removed using K-nZVI after reacting for 60 min.

  5. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  6. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  7. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Solid State Lett. 2011, 14, A161- A164. Methylene Ethylene Carbonate: Novel Additive to ... Electrolytes, Brandon Knight, Daniel Seo, and Brett F. Fucht Manuscript in Preparation. ...

  8. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  9. Zinc deposition in acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

    1981-01-01

    In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, several problems related to the zinc electrode have yet to be solved. These are related to the growth of dendritic zinc and a maldistribution of the zinc deposit that can occur during cycling. Both problems are exacerbated by recharge of the battery after partial discharge of the zinc deposit. A survey of the literature indicates that a more desireable zinc morphology can be achieved by use of inorganic additives, fluorinated surfactants, and A-C modulation of the charging current. In this investigation, the deposition of zinc from zinc bromide and zinc chloride electrolytes was investigated under conditions that precluded dendrite growth. The techniques used were cyclic voltammetry, the potential step technique and scanning electron microscopy. The variables investigated were the substrate (zinc and dense graphite), electrolyte pH, inorganic additives (Pb/sup + +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/) and A-V modulation of the charging potential by superimposed square waves.

  10. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ashok V.; Balagopal, Shekar; Pendelton, Justin

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  11. Methods and electrolytes for electrodeposition of smooth films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Shao, Yuyan

    2015-03-17

    Electrodeposition involving an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and/or film surface. For electrodeposition of a first conductive material (C1) on a substrate from one or more reactants in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second conductive material (C2), wherein cations of C2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the reactants.

  12. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  13. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  14. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1985-01-01

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte wherein an assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of interfacial confinement effects of aqueous NaCl brines in nanoporous carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, M. C. F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2010-12-09

    In this paper, studies of aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with a family of porous carbon geometries using classical molecular dynamics simulations are presented. These simulations provide an atomic scale depiction of ion transport dynamics in different environments to elucidate power of aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The electrolyte contains alkali metal and halide ions, which allow for the examination of size trends within specific geometries as well as trends in concentration. The electrode pores are modeled as planar graphite sheets and carbon nanotubes with interstices ranging from one to four nanometers. Ordered layers form parallel to the carbon surface, which facilitates focused ion motion under slightly confining conditions. As a result, the ions diffusivities are enhanced in the direction of the slit or pore. Further confining the system leads to decreased ion diffusivities. The ions are fully hydrated in all but the smallest slits and pores with those sizes showing increased ion pairing. There is strong evidence of charge separation perpendicular to the surface at all size scales, concentrations, and ion types, providing a useful baseline for examining differential capacitance behavior and future studies on energy storage. These systems show promise as high-power electrical energy storage devices.

  16. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, Gary J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Weesner, Forrest J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  17. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  18. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, H. Russell; Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  19. Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Electrolytes - ...

  20. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1999-01-05

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes. 16 figs.

  1. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

  2. First Principles Simulation of the Bonding, Vibrational, and Electronic Properties of the Hydration Shells of the High-Spin Fe 3+ Ion in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogatko, Stuart A.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.

    2010-02-11

    Results of parameter-free first principles simulations of a spin up 3d5 Fe3+ ion hydrated in an aqueous solution (64 waters, 30 ps, 300 K) are reported. The first hydration shell associated with the first maximum of the radial distribution function, gFeO(r), at d(Fe-OI) = 2.11-2.15 Å, contains 6 waters with average d(OH) = 0.99 Å, in good agreement with observations. A second shell with average coordination number 13.3 can be identified with average shell radius of d(Fe-OII) = 4.21-4.32 Å. The waters in this hydration shell are coordinated to the first shell via a trigonal H-bond network with d(OI-OII) = 2.7-2.9 Å, also in agreement with experimental measurements. The first shell tilt angle average is 33.4° as compared to the reported value of 41°. Wannier-Boys orbitals (WBO) show an interaction between the unoccupied 3d orbitals of the Fe3+ valence (spin up, 3d5) and the occupied spin down lone pair orbitals of first shell waters. The effect of the spin ordering of the Fe3+ ion on the WBO is not observed beyond the first shell. From this local bond analysis and consistent with other observations, the electronic structure of waters in the second shell is similar to that of a bulk water even in this strongly interacting system. H-bond decomposition shows significant bulk-like structure within the second shell for Fe3+. The vibrational density of states shows a first shell red shift of 230 cm-1 for the v1,2v2,v3 overtone, in reasonable agreement with experimental estimates for trivalent cations (300 cm-1). No exchanges between first and second shell were observed. Waters in the second shell exchanged with bulk waters via dissociative and associative mechanisms. Results are compared with an AIMD study of Al3+ and 64 waters. For Fe3+ the average first shell tilt angle is larger and the tilt angle distribution wider. H-bond decomposition shows that second shell to second shell H-bonding is enhanced in Fe3+ suggesting an earlier onset of bulk

  3. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+,Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

  4. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1997-04-22

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  5. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect

  6. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion

  7. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Brett L. Lucht Department of Chemistry University of Rhode Island 51 Lower College Rd. Kingston, RI 02881 Tel (401)874-5071 Fax (401) ...

  8. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  9. Performance of composite electrolyte SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Milliken, C.; Guruswamy, S.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to minimize the ohmic losses in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), especially at lower operating temperatures around 800 C, an alternate electrolyte material such as ceria is often adopted. However, ceria based electrolytes develop mixed conduction, which lowers faradaic efficiency. To alleviate this effect, ceria electrolytes were coated with a thin layer zirconia using high temperature magnetron sputter deposition. This paper discusses the characterization of electrolytes and performance of single cells fabricated from these composite electrolytes.

  10. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2010-11-16

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  11. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  12. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Tung, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

  13. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Title: Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium ...

  14. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  15. Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sim, James W.; Kinoshita, Kimio

    1981-01-01

    A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

  16. Electrolytes at Solid-Water Interfaces: Theoretical Studies for Practical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striolo, Alberto

    2013-09-23

    The goal of this research program was to determine how a solid substrate affects structure and dynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions. From fundamental observations, we seek to improve practical applications. Of particular interest at the project inset were carbon nanotube separation, electric double layer capacitors, and water desalination. As time progresses, we became interested in sub-surface water transport and fate, and in hydraulic fracturing. We employed an arsenal of techniques based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We validated our methods using experimental data, to propose practical improvements. Some experiments were conducted in house. We established valuable collaborations with experienced scientists at National Laboratories to provide information not attainable with our in-house resources.

  17. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Thomas F; Dooley, James H

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  18. Aqueous Zinc Bromide Waste Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A.

    2002-07-23

    The goal of this study was to select one or more commercially available aqueous sorbents to solidify the zinc bromide solution stored in C-Area, identify the polymer to zinc bromide solution ratio (waste loading) for the selected sorbents, and identify processing issues that require further testing in pilot-scale testing.

  19. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  20. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  1. Electrolytic production of praseodymium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghandehari, M.H.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described for preparing praseodymium metal by electrolyzing praseodymium oxide in a molten electrolyte comprising lithium fluoride and praseodymium fluoride, wherein an initial weight ratio of lithium fluoride to praseodymium fluoride is about 0.1 to about 0.4 and collecting the praseodymium metal at temperatures at or above the melting point of the metal.

  2. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  3. Method of preparing electrolyte for use in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kimio; Ackerman, John P.

    1978-01-01

    An electrolyte compact for fuel cells includes a particulate support material of lithium aluminate that contains a mixture of alkali metal compounds, such as carbonates or hydroxides, as the active electrolyte material. The porous lithium aluminate support structure is formed by mixing alumina particles with a solution of lithium hydroxide and another alkali metal hydroxide, evaporating the solvent from the solution and heating to a temperature sufficient to react the lithium hydroxide with alumina to form lithium aluminate. Carbonates are formed by reacting the alkali metal hydroxides with carbon dioxide gas in an exothermic reaction which may proceed simultaneously with the formation with the lithium aluminate. The mixture of lithium aluminate and alkali metal in an electrolyte active material is pressed or otherwise processed to form the electrolyte structure for assembly into a fuel cell.

  4. NO3- Coordination in Aqueous Solutions by 15N/14N and 18O/natO Isotopic Substitution: What Can We Learn from Molecular Simulation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Vlcek, Lukas

    2014-12-16

    We explore the deconvolution of the water-nitrate correlations by the first-order difference approach involving neutron diffraction of heavy- and null-aqueous solutions of KNO3 under 14N 15N and natON 18ON substitutions to achieve a full characterization of the first water coordination around the nitrate ion. For that purpose we performed isobaric-isothermal simulations of 3.5m KNO3 aqueous solutions at ambient conditions to generate the relevant radial distribution functions (RDF) required in the analysis (a) to identify the individual partial contributions to the total neutron weighted distribution function, (b) to isolate and assess the contribution of NO3 -!K+ pair formation, (c) to test the accuracy of the NDIS-based coordination calculations and XRDbased assumptions, and (d) to describe the water coordination around both the nitrogen and oxygen sites of the nitrate ion.

  5. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  6. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  7. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  8. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda; Kane, Marie; Au, Ming

    2010-10-01

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

  9. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  10. Accelerating Electrolyte Discovery for Energy Storage with High Throughput

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Screening - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 26, 2014, Research Highlights Accelerating Electrolyte Discovery for Energy Storage with High Throughput Screening A screening scheme has been developed to down-select molecule candidates based on successive property evaluations obtained from high-throughput computations. Here we show the down-select results for ~1400 candidates for non-aqueous redox flow battery application. Scientific Achievement We have developed a strategy to

  11. A Universal Model for Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors Applicable to Diverse Pore Regimes, Carbons, and Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications requiring high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm) where pores are large enough so that the pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, showing the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbons. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal to carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials including activated carbons, template carbons, and novel carbide-derived carbons, and with diverse electrolytes including organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4), tetraethylammonium methyl-sulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H2SO4 and KOH electrolytes, and even ionic liquid electrolyte such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium bis(trifluromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend a support for the systematic optimization of the

  12. Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

    1985-05-07

    A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

  13. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  14. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  15. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  16. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  17. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  18. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  19. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  20. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore » identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  1. Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... If no such parameters are available they may be regressed from experimental data. If more flexibility is needed, the user may enter Fortran code into the simulation input file. ...

  2. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technique DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes Development of Novel Non Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications

  3. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Multimetallic AuFePt3 nanoparticles as highly durable electrocatalyst. Nano Lett 11, ... surface area (ECA) of Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbon ...

  4. Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The Dielectric Constant of Water and Debye-Huckel limiting Law Slopes, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. ... Dissolved gases are modeled using Henry's Law. Chemical reaction equilibrium is modeled ...

  5. Photo-induced valence change of the sulfur atom in an L-cysteine thin film grown on a silver metal substrate in a saliva-emulated aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujibayashi, Toru; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2015-04-27

    A thin film of L-cysteine (HSCH{sub 2}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH) is grown on a silver substrate in saliva-emulated aqueous solution. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements have revealed that the sulfur atom shows valence change under IR laser irradiation at 825?nm. The valence change maintains for about a minute at room temperature and more than an hour between 110 and 250?K after stopping the laser irradiation. It is not observed at all at temperatures lower than 110?K. This temperature-dependent behavior indicates that the photo-excited electronic change should be accompanied by a conformational change in the L-cysteine molecule. It is strongly suggested that the reversible valence change of the sulfur atom is applicable to a memory used around room temperature.

  6. Electrolytic oxide reduction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Berger, John F

    2015-04-28

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies, a plurality of cathode assemblies, and a lift system configured to engage the anode and cathode assemblies. The cathode assemblies may be alternately arranged with the anode assemblies such that each cathode assembly is flanked by two anode assemblies. The lift system may be configured to selectively engage the anode and cathode assemblies so as to allow the simultaneous lifting of any combination of the anode and cathode assemblies (whether adjacent or non-adjacent).

  7. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian; Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  8. Reorientation of the free OH group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called free O-H group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the free O-H group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the free O-H changes from about 35.3 degrees 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

  9. Electrolytes - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meutzner, Falk; Urea de Vivanco, Mateo

    2014-06-16

    Safety, lifetime, energy density, and costs are the key factors for battery development. This generates the need for improved cell chemistries and new, advanced battery materials. The components of an electrolyte are the solvent, in which a conducting salt and additives are dissolved. Each of them plays a specific role in the overall mechanism of a cell: the solvent provides the host medium for ionic conductivity, which originates in the conductive salt. Furthermore, additives can be used to optimize safety, performance, and cyclability. By understanding the tasks of the individual components and their optimum conditions of operation, the functionality of cells can be improved from a holistic point of view. This paper will present the most important technological features and requirements for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The state-of-the-art chemistry of each component is presented, as well as different approaches for their modification. Finally, a comparison of Li-cells with lithium-based technologies currently under development is conducted.

  10. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei

    2015-11-12

    Electrodeposition and energy storage devices utilizing an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and anode surface. For electrodeposition of a first metal (M1) on a substrate or anode from one or more cations of M1 in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second metal (M2), wherein cations of M2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the cations of M1.

  11. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    1993-01-01

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  12. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  13. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  14. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  15. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  16. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A.; Burger, Leland L.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  17. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  18. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  19. Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition on Li-ion Battery MnO ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte ...

  20. Matrix effect of sodium compounds on the determination of metal ions in aqueous solutions by underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goueguel, Christian; McIntyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Carson, Cantwell

    2015-06-30

    A significant portion of the carbon sequestration research being performed in the United States involves the risk assessment of injecting large quantities of carbon dioxide into deep saline aquifers. Leakage of CO2 has the potential to affect the quality of groundwater supplies in case contaminants migrate through underlying conduits. New remote sensing and near-surface monitoring technologies are needed to ensure that injection, abandoned, and monitoring wells are structurally sound, and that CO2 remains within the geologic storage reservoir. In this paper, we propose underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (underwater LIBS) as an analytical method for monitoring naturally occurring elements that canmore » act as tracers to detect a CO2 leak from storage sites. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to measure Sr2+, Ca2+, K+, and Li+ in bulk solutions to ascertain the analytical performance of underwater LIBS. We compared the effect of NaCl, Na2CO3, and Na2SO4 on the analytes calibration curves to determine underwater LIBS’ ability to analyze samples of sodium compounds. In all cases, the calibration curves showed a good linearity within 2 orders of magnitude. The limit of detections (LODs) obtained for K+ (30±1 ppb) and Li+ (60±2 ppb) were in ppb range, while higher LODs were observed for Ca2+ (0.94±0.14 ppm) and Sr2+ (2.89±0.11 ppm). Evaluation of the calibration curves for the analytes in mixed solutions showed dependence of the lines’ intensity with the sodium compounds. The intensities increased respectively in the presence of dissolved NaCl and Na2SO4, whereas the intensities slightly decreased in the presence of Na2CO3. Lastly, the capabilities of underwater LIBS to detect certain elements in the ppb or in the low ppm range make it particularly appealing for in situ monitoring of a CO2 leak.« less

  1. Radio-frequency capacitive discharge with non-flow-type and droplet-jet electrolytic electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaisin, A. F.; Abdullin, I. Sh.; Basyrov, R. Sh.; Khaziev, R. M.; Samitova, G. T.; Shakirova, E. F.

    2014-12-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the shape, structure, and spectral characteristics of an RF capacitive discharge operating between a droplet-jet electrolytic electrode and an electrolytic cell in air at pressures of P = 10{sup 3}10{sup 5} Pa, as well as of a discharge burning between a copper rod and the surface of non-flow electrolyte at atmospheric pressure. It is found that, at voltages of U ? 3500 V, the multichannel discharge burning between the rod and the electrolyte (saturated solution of NaCl in technical water) surface transforms into a torch discharge. Specific features of the burning of a discharge with a droplet electrolytic electrode are investigated. Different forms of discharges burning on the surface of a copper tube and an electrolyte jet are revealed.

  2. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrance J.; Pearson, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  3. Matrix effect of sodium compounds on the determination of metal ions in aqueous solutions by underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goueguel, Christian; McIntyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Carson, Cantwell

    2015-06-30

    A significant portion of the carbon sequestration research being performed in the United States involves the risk assessment of injecting large quantities of carbon dioxide into deep saline aquifers. Leakage of CO2 has the potential to affect the quality of groundwater supplies in case contaminants migrate through underlying conduits. New remote sensing and near-surface monitoring technologies are needed to ensure that injection, abandoned, and monitoring wells are structurally sound, and that CO2 remains within the geologic storage reservoir. In this paper, we propose underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (underwater LIBS) as an analytical method for monitoring naturally occurring elements that can act as tracers to detect a CO2 leak from storage sites. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to measure Sr2+, Ca2+, K+, and Li+ in bulk solutions to ascertain the analytical performance of underwater LIBS. We compared the effect of NaCl, Na2CO3, and Na2SO4 on the analytes calibration curves to determine underwater LIBS’ ability to analyze samples of sodium compounds. In all cases, the calibration curves showed a good linearity within 2 orders of magnitude. The limit of detections (LODs) obtained for K+ (30±1 ppb) and Li+ (60±2 ppb) were in ppb range, while higher LODs were observed for Ca2+ (0.94±0.14 ppm) and Sr2+ (2.89±0.11 ppm). Evaluation of the calibration curves for the analytes in mixed solutions showed dependence of the lines’ intensity with the sodium compounds. The intensities increased respectively in the presence of dissolved NaCl and Na2SO4, whereas the intensities slightly decreased in the presence of Na2CO3. Lastly, the capabilities of underwater LIBS to detect certain elements in the ppb or in the low ppm range make it

  4. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  5. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  6. Electrolyte composition for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vissers, Donald R.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Anderson, Karl E.; Roche, Michael F.

    1979-01-01

    A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that employs FeS as the positive electrode reactant and lithium or lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant includes an improved electrolyte composition. The electrolyte comprises about 60-70 mole percent LiCl and 30-40 percent mole percent KCl which includes LiCl in excess of the eutectic composition. The use of this electrolyte suppresses formation of the J phase and thereby improves the utilization of positive electrode active material during cell cycling.

  7. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; Kang, Kisuk; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  8. Electrolyte Genome Reveals New Instability Mechanism in Mg Electrolytes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 10, 2015, Research Highlights Electrolyte Genome Reveals New Instability Mechanism in Mg Electrolytes (Top) The Mg salt and solvent combinations simulated for solvation shell structures and dynamics (Bottom) The TFSI- decomposition mechanism triggered by partial reduction of Mg2+ ->Mg+. This mechanism consumes anion, disrupts the deposition of Mg0 on the anode and may deposit anion fragments on the anode. Scientific Achievement Simulations

  9. Studies on the effect of acid treated TiO{sub 2} on the electrical and tensile properties of hexanoyl chitosan-polystyrene-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} composite polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, Nur Shazlinda Muhammad; Shahril, Nur Syuhada Mohd; Azmar, Amisha; Winie, Tan

    2015-08-28

    Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) comprised of hexanoyl chitosan:polystyrene (90:10) blend, lithium triflouromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt and titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) filler were prepared by solution casting technique. The TiO{sub 2} fillers were treated with 2% sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) aqueous solution. The effect of acid treated TiO{sub 2} on the electrical and tensile properties of the electrolytes were investigated. Acid treated TiO{sub 2} decreased the electrolyte conductivity. Both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with increasing frequency and increases with increasing temperature. Relaxation times for ionic carriers were extracted from the loss tangent maximum peak at various temperatures. A distribution of relaxation time implied the non-Debye response. At all frequencies, ac conductivity increases with increasing temperature. An enhancement in the Young’s modulus was observed with the addition of TiO{sub 2}. The Young’s modulus increases with increasing TiO{sub 2} content. This is discussed using the percolation concept.

  10. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  11. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  12. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  13. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  14. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  15. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  16. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  19. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  20. The effect of hydroxide ion on Cd-chalcogenide/aqueous polysulfide photoelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, S.; Manassen, J.

    1985-05-01

    Alkali hydroxide, added to the aqueous polysulfide electrolyte in n-Cd chalcogenide/S /SUB r/ photoelectrochemical solar cells (PEC's), is is shown to be detrimental to cell performance. It is demonstrated that the added hydroxide increases visible light absorption in the polysulfide solution and decreases the solution lifetime. Even after compensation for the decrease in light tranmission by the electrolyte, added hydroxide is shown to decrease the PEC photocurrent, photovoltage, and optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency. In a cell of 1 cm path length, the transmittance at 580 nm, for solutions containing 2m K/sub 2/S, 3m sulfur, and 0, 2, 6, or 12m KOH, was, respectively, 66, 55, 44, and 37.5%. Analysis of the distribution of ionic species reveals a shift from S/sub 4/ to S/sub 3/ with increasing hydroxide. Compared to S/sub 4/, the peak absorbance of S/sub 3/ is shifted 50 nm toward the vible, causing the variation in solution spectra response with hydroxide. K/sup +/ activty measrements were interpreted as indicative of increasing ion pairing with increased added hydroxide which may adversely effect charge-transfer kinetics. A measured negative shift in polysulfide redox potential with increasing hydroxide is evidently not paralleled by a comparable shift in Cd(SeTe) flatband potential resulting in the observed decrease in open-ciruit voltage. Relative conversion efficiency for an electroplated thin film CdSe /SUB 0.65/ Te /SUB 0.35/ electrode was 36% less in polysulfide with 12m KOH compared to the PEC without added KOH. The electrode immersed in 2/2/2, 2/2/3, or 0/1,3/2 (molality KOH/K/sub 2/S/S) exhibited conversion efficiencies of 4.72, 4.80, 5.24, and 5.44, respectively, at 100mW/cm/sup 2/ tungsten-halogen lamp illumination.

  1. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Wesley

    2014-08-29

    The research objective of this proposal was to provide a detailed analysis of how solvent and anion structure govern the solvation state of Li+ cations in solvent-LiX mixtures and how this, in turn, dictates the electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties which govern (in part) battery performance. Lithium battery electrolytes remain a poorly understood and hardly studied topic relative to the research devoted to battery electrodes. This is due to the fact that it is the electrodes which determine the energy (capacity) of the battery. The electrolyte, however, plays a crucial role in the practical energy density, power, low and/or high temperature performance, lifetime, safety, etc. which is achievable. The development within this project of a "looking glass" into the molecular interactions (i.e., solution structure) in bulk electrolytes through a synergistic experimental approach involving three research thrusts complements work by other researchers to optimize multi-solvent electrolytes and efforts to understand/control the electrode-electrolyte interfaces, thereby enabling the rational design of electrolytes for a wide variety of battery chemistries and applications (electrolytes-on-demand). The three research thrusts pursued include: (1) conduction of an in-depth analysis of the thermal phase behavior of diverse solvent-LiX mixtures, (2) exploration of the ionic association/solvate formation behavior of select LiX salts with a wide variety of solvents, and (3) linking structure to properties-determination of electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties for comparison with the ionic association and phase behavior.

  2. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  3. Water-soluble polymers for recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A process of selectively separating a target metal contained in an aqueous solution by contacting the aqueous solution containing a target metal with an aqueous solution including a water-soluble polymer capable of binding with the target metal for sufficient time whereby a water-soluble polymer-target metal complex is formed, and, separating the solution including the water-soluble polymer-target metal complex from the solution is disclosed.

  4. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Title: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Functional electrolyte solvents include ...

  5. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ...

  6. Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer The Materials Project screens molecules to accelerate electrolyte discovery April ...

  7. Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrolytes - Interfacial and Bulk Properties and Stability Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of ...

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces

  9. Calculation of chemical equilibrium between aqueous solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SALTON SEA; SEAWATER; WATER; CALIFORNIA; COMPUTERS; DISPERSIONS; FELDSPARS; FLUIDS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; IMPERIAL VALLEY; ITERATIVE METHODS; KINETICS; MANAGEMENT; MIXTURES; NORTH...

  10. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  11. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  12. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  13. Density of sodium chloride solutions at high temperatures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SEAWATER; DENSITY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CORRELATIONS; EQUATIONS; HIGH ...

  14. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  15. Raman and far ir spectroscopic study of quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases for zinc bromine circulating electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larrabee, J.A.; Graf, K.R.; Grimes, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The circulating electrolyte zinc bromine battery is an attractive advanced battery system. The electrolyte is a solution of zinc bromide, quaternary ammonium bromides for bromine complexation and added salts to enhance properties. Laser Raman spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the liquid quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases.

  16. Water as a promoter and catalyst for dioxygen electrochemistry in aqueous and organic media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staszak-Jirkovsky, Jakub; Subbaraman, Ram; Strmcnik, Dusan; Harrison, Katherine L.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Assary, Rajeev; Frank, Otakar; Kobr, Lukas; Wiberg, Gustav K.H; Genorio, Bostjan; Connell, Justin G.; Lopes, Pietro P.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Curtiss, Larry; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2015-11-01

    Water and oxygen electrochemistry lies at the heart of interfacial processes controlling energy transformations in fuel cells, electrolyzers, and batteries. Here, by comparing results for the ORR obtained in alkaline aqueous media to those obtained in ultradry organic electrolytes with known amounts of H2O added intentionally, we propose a new rationale in which water itself plays an important role in determining the reaction kinetics. This effect derives from the formation of HOad center dot center dot center dot H2O (aqueous solutions) and LiO2 center dot center dot center dot H2O (organic solvents) complexes that place water in a configurationally favorable position for proton transfer to weakly adsorbed intermediates. We also find that, even at low concentrations (<10 ppm), water acts simultaneously as a promoter and as a catalyst in the production of Li2O2, regenerating itself through a sequence of steps that include the formation and recombination of H+ and OH-. We conclude that, although the binding energy between metal surfaces and oxygen intermediates is an important descriptor in electrocatalysis, understanding the role of water as a proton-donor reactant may explain many anomalous features in electrocatalysis at metal-liquid interfaces.

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  18. ELECTROLYTIC SEPARATION PROCESS AND APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLain, M.E. Jr.; Roberts, M.W.

    1962-03-01

    A method is given for dissolving stainless steel-c lad fuel elements in dilute acids such as half normal sulfuric acid. The fuel element is made the anode in a Y-shaped electrolytic cell which has a flowing mercury cathode; the stainless steel elements are entrained in the mercury and stripped therefrom by a continuous process. (AEC)

  19. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  20. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  1. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Potential Impacts to Utilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Potential Impacts to Utilities Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop February 28, 2014 Frank Novachek Director, Corporate Planning 2 Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Potential Impacts - Electric System * Reliability * Capacity * Regulation * Generation Resources * On/Off Peak * Dispatchability Renewables Integration System Operations Electric Load Hydrogen Production * Ramp Control * Reserves * Plant Cycling 3 Unique Opportunities - Electric  Increased

  2. Method of making chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Cao, Dianxue

    2010-12-14

    A method of making an electrode catalyst material using aqueous solutions. The electrode catalyst material includes a support comprising at least one transition metal and at least one chalcogen disposed on a surface of the transition metal. The method includes reducing a metal powder, mixing the metal powder with an aqueous solution containing at least one inorganic compound of the chalcogen to form a mixture, and providing a reducing agent to the mixture to form nanoparticles of the electrode catalyst. The electrode catalyst may be used in a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell.

  3. Formulation of ionic liquid electrolyte to expand the voltage window of supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Aken, Katherine L.; Beidaghi, Majid; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-18

    We report an effective method to expand the operating potential window (OPW) of electrochemical capacitors based on formulating the ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes. Moreover, using model electrochemical cells based on two identical onion like carbon (OLC) electrodes and two different IL electrolytes and their mixtures, it was shown that the asymmetric behavior of the electrolyte’s cation and anion toward the two electrodes limits the OPW of the cell and therefore its energy density. Additionally, a general solution to this problem is proposed by formulating the IL electrolyte mixtures to balance the capacitance of electrodes in a symmetric supercapacitor.

  4. Observations of solute effects on bubble formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

  5. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Kevin R.; Scribner, Louie L.

    2010-01-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  6. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, G.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-07-01

    A new type of highly conductive Li{sup +} polymer electrolyte, referred to as the Innovision polymer electrolyte, is completely amorphous at room temperature and has an ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. This report discusses the electrochemical characteristics (lithium oxidation and reduction), conductivity, and physical properties of Innovision electrolytes containing various dissolved salts. These electrolytes are particularly interesting since they appear to have some of the highest room-temperature lithium ion conductivities yet observed among polymer electrolytes. 13 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fuel cell with electrolyte feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Highland Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell having a pair of electrodes at the sites of electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen and a phosphoric acid electrolyte provided with an electrolyte supporting structure in the form of a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes. The matrix assembly is formed of a central layer disposed between two outer layers, each being permeable to the flow of the electrolyte. The central layer is provided with relatively large pores while the outer layers are provided with relatively small pores. An external reservoir supplies electrolyte via a feed means to the central layer to compensate for changes in electrolyte volume in the matrix assembly during the operation of fuel cell.

  8. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  9. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  10. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Walter, Eric D.; Lawrence, Chad W.; Vijayakumar, M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-20

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries hold the promise to achieve higher energy density ascribed to the broader voltage window than their aqueous counterparts, but their current performance is limited by low redox material concentration, poor cell efficiency, and inferior cycling stability. We report a new nonaqueous total-organic flow battery based on high concentrations of 9-fluorenone as negative and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1-methoxy-4-[2’-methoxyethoxy]benzene as positive redox materials. The supporting electrolytes are found to greatly affect the cycling stability of flow cells through varying chemical stabilities of the charged radical species, especially the 9-fluorenone radical anions, as confirmed by electron spin resonance. Such an electrolyte optimization sheds light on mechanistic understandings of capacity fading in flow batteries employing organic radical-based redox materials and demonstrates that rational design of supporting electrolyte is vital for stable cyclability.

  11. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  12. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  13. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  14. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  15. Geochemical Modeling Of Aqueous Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-09-07

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This description pertains to version 7.2b. It addresses aqueous speciation, thermodynamic equilibrium, disequilibrium, and chemical kinetics. The major components of the package are EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code, and EQ6 a reaction path code. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of equilibrium or disequilibrium. It also initializes EQ6 calculations. EQ6 models themore » consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a specified set of reactants (e.g., minerals or waste forms). It can also model fluid mixing and the effects of changes in temperature. Each of five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer''s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25 degrees C only to 0-300 degrees C.« less

  16. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  17. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced ...

  18. Metal-gas cell with electrolyte reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, L.E.; Carr, D.D.

    1984-10-16

    A metal-gas electrochemical cell is disclosed wherein electrolyte is progressively supplied from a reservoir into the electrode or cell stack as needed, so as to maintain each stack component with adequate electrolyte, as the plates ''grow'' and absorb electrolyte with repeated cycling. The reservoir preferably is a compressible bladder positioned between on end of the plate stack and a retaining plate. As the plate stack ''grows'' with repeated cycling, the bladder is slowly compressed, forcing electrolyte from the bladder through an electrolyte distribution tube located within the plate stack. One end of the electrolyte distribution tube is fixed to an end plate of the plate stack and the second end of the distribution tube may be connected to a Belleville washer or other spring which acts through the distribution tube to compress the plate stack. The elasticity of the spring permits the stack to expand as the electrodes grow.

  19. Characterization of ?-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ?-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ?-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ?-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ?-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ?-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ?-carrageenan which 4.87 10{sup ?6} S cm{sup ?1} and 2.19 10{sup ?8} S cm{sup ?1}, respectively.

  20. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  1. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton | Department of Energy by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton" held on May 23, 2011. Water Electrolysis

  2. Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.

    1984-09-14

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  3. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) held the Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop on February 27-28, 2014, at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, to discuss and share information on the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs for enabling low-cost, effective hydrogen

  4. Polymeric electrolytes based on hydrosilyation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, John Borland; Wang, Shanger; Hou, Jun; Sloop, Steven Edward; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao

    2006-09-05

    New polymer electrolytes were prepared by in situ cross-linking of allyl functional polymers based on hydrosilation reaction using a multifunctional silane cross-linker and an organoplatinum catalyst. The new cross-linked electrolytes are insoluble in organic solvent and show much better mechanical strength. In addition, the processability of the polymer electrolyte is maintained since the casting is finished well before the gel formation.

  5. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D.; Hash, Mark C.; Krumpelt, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  6. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  7. Solvent and Process for Recovery of Hydroxide from Aqueous Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    1999-09-13

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  8. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  9. Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixtures provides detailed insight into the coordination interactions of the FSI- anions and the wide variability noted in the electrolyte transport property (i.e., viscosity ...

  10. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  11. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton," originally held on May 23, ...

  12. Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Ion Conducting ... electrolytes which combine lithium salts with high molecular weight anionic polymers. ...

  13. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1986-04-17

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  14. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1987-04-21

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

  15. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A.; Bloom, Ira D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  16. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Randy Petri, Versa Power Systems PDF icon Renewables and Grid Integration, Kevin Harrison, NREL PDF icon Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Potential Impacts to Utilities, ...

  17. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ...

  18. Electrolytic fabrication of atomic clock cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, F.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Jensen, K.; Happer, W.

    2006-07-15

    We describe an electrolytic method to release controlled amounts of free alkali metal into miniature cells in a silicon wafer with anodically bonded glass windows.

  19. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  20. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  1. Additive agent for zinc alloy electrolyte and process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bammel, B.D.

    1986-07-01

    An aqueous acidic electrolyte is described suitable for electrodepositing zinc alloys on a substrate comprising zinc ions and at least one additional metal ion selected from the group consisting nickel, cobalt, iron and mixtures thereof present in an amount sufficient to electrodeposit a zinc alloy, and, for providing improved grain-refinement and enhancing the codeposition of the alloying metals in the zinc alloy deposit. An effective amount of an additive agent consists of a bath-soluble anionic carboxylated polyoxyalkylene compound derived from the carboxylation of: (a) the polymerization of alkylene oxides selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, glycidol, butylene oxide and mixtures thereof; and (b) the alkoxylation of mono and polyhydroxy compounds selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl containing alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, as well as mixtures thereof.

  2. PROCESS OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION WITH GROUP IVB METAL PHOSPHO-SILICATE COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1957-10-29

    A process for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions which contain the plutonium in minute concentrations is described. These values can be removed from an aqueous solution by taking an aqueous solution containing a salt of zirconium, titanium, hafnium or thorium, adding an aqueous solution of silicate and phosphoric acid anions to the metal salt solution, and separating, washing and drying the precipitate which forms when the two solutions are mixed. The aqueous plutonium containing solution is then acidified and passed over the above described precipi-tate causing the plutonium values to be adsorbed by the precipitate.

  3. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  4. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  5. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  6. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  7. Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. VI. Acetonitrile-Lithium Salt Mixtures. Highly Associated Salts Revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodin, Oleg; Han, Sang D.; Daubert, James S.; Seo, D. M.; Yun, Sung-Hyun; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2015-01-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of acetonitrile (AN) mixtures with LiBF4, LiCF3SO3 and LiCF3CO2 provide extensive details about the molecular- and mesoscale-level solution interactions and thus explanations as to why these electrolytes have very different thermal phase behavior and electrochemical/physicochemical properties. The simulation results are in full accord with a previous experimental study of these (AN)n-LiX electrolytes. This computational study reveals how the structure of the anions strongly influences the ionic association tendency of the ions, the manner in which the aggregate solvates assemble in solution and the length of time in which the anions remain coordinated to the Li+ cations in the solvates which result in dramatic variations in the transport properties of the electrolytes.

  8. Toward Cost-Effective Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Toward Cost-Effective Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Toward Cost-Effective Polymer Electrolyte Fuel ... finding the next generation of fuel cell technology that is low cost, long ...

  9. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  10. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein Title: Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein For ...

  11. Sichuan Minjiang Electrolyte Management Hydro Power Co Ltd |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electrolyte Management Hydro Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sichuan Minjiang Electrolyte Management Hydro Power Co., Ltd. Place: Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China...

  12. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation ...

  13. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High TemperatureLow Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids High TemperatureLow Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids Presentation on High ...

  14. Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications A ...

  15. Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    drop between electrode and electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte ...

  16. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion ...

  17. Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary ...

  18. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for ...

  19. Process of making electrolyte structure for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, R.H.; Curran, M.J.

    1980-08-05

    An electrolyte structure is produced by forming matrix material powder into a blank at room temperature and impregnating the resulting matrix blank with molten electrolyte.

  20. Degradation Mechanisms in Li-Ion Battery Electrolytes Uncovered...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation Mechanisms in Li-Ion Battery Electrolytes Uncovered by In-Situ Scanning ... to evaluate stability and degradation in battery electrolytes Developed a rapid method ...

  1. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes ...

  2. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and ...

  3. Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials Process Development and Scale up of Advanced ... More Documents & Publications Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte ...

  4. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives Title: Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having ...

  5. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  6. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  7. Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a ... electrolyte material for use in lithium ion batteries that exhibits better ion ...

  8. Key Issues Regarding Electrolytes at Interfacial Regions (subtask...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte ...

  9. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  10. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  11. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-01-28

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  12. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  13. Electrolytes For Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liqu Ids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P.; Tonazzi, Juan C. L.; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2005-02-08

    Electrolyte solutions of soluble bifunctional redox dyes in molten salt solvent may be used to prepare electrooptic devices with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 CF.sub.2 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-).

  14. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  15. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  16. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  17. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  18. Solvation Phenomena in Dilute Solutions: Formal, Experimental Evidence, and Modeling Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A

    2013-01-01

    We review the fundamentals underlying a general molecular-based formalism for the microscopic interpretation of the solvation phenomena involving sparingly soluble solutes in compressible media, an approach that hinges around the unambiguous splitting of the species correlation function integrals into short-(finite) and long-ranged (diverging) contributions at infinite dilution, where this condition is taken as the reference system for the derivation of composition expansions. Then, we invoke the formalism (a) to illustrate the well-behaved nature of the solvation contributions to the mechanical partial molecular properties of solutes at infinite dilution, (b) to guide the development of, and provide molecular-based support to, the macroscopic modeling of high-temperature dilute aqueous-electrolyte solutions, (c) to study solvation effects on the kinetic rate constants of reactions in near-critical solvents in an attempt to understand from a microscopic perspective the macroscopic evidence regarding the thermodynamic pressure effects, and (d) to interpret the microscopic mechanism behind synergistic solvation effects involving either co-solutes or co-solvents, and provide a molecular argument on the unsuitability of the van der Waals one-fluid (vdW-1f) mixing rules for the 2 description of weakly attractive solutes in compressible solvents. Finally, we develop thermodynamically consistent perturbation expansions, around the infinite dilution reference, for the species residual properties in binary and ternary mixtures, and discuss the theoretical and modeling implications behind ad hoc first-order truncated expansions.

  19. Viscosity of NaCl and other solutions up to 350{sup 0}C and 50...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental values for the viscosity of sodium chloride solutions are critically reviewed ... AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; EVALUATED DATA; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; HIGH PRESSURE; HIGH TEMPERATURE; ...

  20. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  1. Apparatus for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01

    Improved electrolytic cells for producing metals by the electrolytic reduction of a compound dissolved in a molten electrolyte are disclosed. In the improved cells, at least one electrode includes a protective layer comprising an oxide of the cell product metal formed upon an alloy of the cell product metal and a more noble metal. In the case of an aluminum reduction cell, the electrode can comprise an alloy of aluminum with copper, nickel, iron, or combinations thereof, upon which is formed an aluminum oxide protective layer.

  2. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. The Electrolyte Genome Project - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte Genome Project Traditional chemistry relies on intuition and experience to select a few materials that might work well for new electrolytes. The Electrolyte Genome streamlines this process by evaluating thousands of materials by simulation on the computer and choosing the most promising few for synthesis in the laboratory. Download Electrolyte Genome

  4. Intermediate Temperature SOFC Operation Using Lanthanum Gallate Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.; Balagopal, S. Hartvigsen, J.; Tipmer, M.; Larsen, D.

    2005-01-27

    This presentation discusses intermediate temperature SOFC operation using lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

  5. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  6. Code System to Model Aqueous Geochemical Equilibria.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-23

    Version: 00 MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution ofsolid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite massmore » for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and each compositionally and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase.« less

  7. Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2003-04-08

    This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

  8. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher ...

  9. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J.; Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2009-04-14

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  10. Surfactant addition to phosphoric acid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Kunkle, Richard P. (Irwin, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell having an improved electrolyte comprising concentrated H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and at least 0.5 wt. percent lauryl dimethyl amine.

  11. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a ...

  12. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  13. Electrolyte for zinc bromine storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Y.; Ochiai, T.

    1985-04-09

    A negative electrolyte for electrolyte circulation-type storage batteries has a composition basically comprising zinc bromide as an active material and this active material is mixed with specified amounts of quaternary ammonium bromides of heterocyclic compounds such as morpholine, pyridine and pyrrolidine or ammonia as a bromine complexing agent and a dendrite inhibitor with or without specified amounts of Sn/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/.

  14. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  15. A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for

  16. Understanding and Manipulating Solution Chemistry of Polysulfides for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Sulfur Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research April 27, 2015, Research Highlights Understanding and Manipulating Solution Chemistry of Polysulfides for Lithium Sulfur Batteries (Top)Fundamental details regarding the solution chemistry of polysulfides in organic electrolytes have been carefully investigated to unlock more electrolyte/additive with tunable solubility of polysulfides. (Bottom) A successful demonstration of a liquid-phase Li-S redox flow with an extremely

  17. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  18. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-09-20

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

  19. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  20. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1993-02-03

    This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.